Monochrome fir: planting and care


If you make a beauty contest among coniferous perennials, the pine fir could quite take first place on it. Dressed in a fluffy fur coat of needles, with vertically standing candlesticks of cones, fir will ennoble any magnificent country plot with its magnificent persona.

Coniferous beauty is famous for its resinous and astringent aroma that has healing properties. Her smell kills pathogenic microbes - it is just a storehouse of phytoncides, which perfectly disinfect the air. It is believed that the smell of fir is able to warm the suffering soul, instill optimism, relieve depression. No wonder many northern peoples still consider fir to be a sacred tree. Want to add yourself a little health and peace of mind? Plant a fir in the garden. She loves the shade, so you can choose the shaded areas of your garden for planting.

Fir has more than 50 varieties: from ornamental shrubs no higher than 50 cm to tall (20-40 m) trees. Almost all types of coniferous beauties have a pyramidal crown structure, wide-spreading branches with fluffy needles, on which oval cones of brown-brown, violet-blue, purple or yellow comfortably perched. Having penetrated with the healing properties of fir, its decorative charm, frost resistance and unpretentiousness, I decided to plant several fir trees at my dacha, the benefit of which is territory.

How I planted fir

I was very lucky: I have a girlfriend Lenka with considerable experience in gardening.
- Buy fir seedlings older than 4 years, and they should be planted in May or in September. Be sure to guess the landing of the fir under the rain - she taught me.
- Len, and this is why, under the rain? Wet because ...
“This is wet for you,” the girlfriend laughs, and the fir loves moisture and shade, for her cloudy rainy days is just a buzz. Just look do not overdo it, the earth should not be very moist. Fir will not forgive you for this - will wither in the bud ...

So May has come. I came to the nursery and my eyes fled, I really liked two kinds of fir: Korean and balsamic, both species adapted to the Siberian climate - and bought them. And I don’t know how to plant ... I call my friend.

- Oh, Lenka ... I guess I can not cope, come, eh? Let's plant together.
- Okay, wait. By the way, what is your soil at the dacha?
- Loamy.
- Very good. Fir likes clay soils, only dig holes in advance.
- But as?
- Make a plot of the plot in a staggered manner: 2x2 m, and dig holes in the squares: 60x60 cm and the same depth. In general, be able to "turn on the head", calculate the distance, based on the size of the tree in adulthood - Lenka twittered cleverly and helpfully, having already entered the taste of planting fir. - The holes are half filled with soil mixture: clay - 2 parts, 3 parts of humus and add 1 part of sand and peat. Do not forget the bottom of each hole for 5-6 cm to fall asleep with pebbles or rubble. Fir drainage likes. And sawdust needed, mix them with the soil mixture.
- How many sawdust do you need?
- 10 kg for each hole, a friend ...

What should I do? My husband went to the nearest state farm for sawdust, and I ordered him to buy fertilizer, in each planting hole 200-250 g of nitroammofoski (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer) should be filled, it turns out. My faithful came along with sawdust and a friend, they met on the way)) Business-like Lena immediately got down to business, lamenting that it had not rained for a long time.

- Nothing, - laughs - drag a hose (good, there is a water supply system at my dacha).

We poured approximately 30 liters of water into each hole, dug the bottom of each hole a half-shovel, showered pebbles. On top of the pebbles poured the soil mixture, mixed with sawdust and fertilizer, after which a friend started planting fir. She carefully placed each seedling in the hole, trying not to damage the clod of earth with the roots, and I carefully poured the soil mixture so that the root neck of the seedling was exactly at the level of the soil. How good, after all, that I have Lenka, who literally “charged” me with her reverent, kind attitude towards plants.

Of course, fir can be propagated with seed from cones, and annual cuttings, but this is quite problematic. Fir seedlings and very young saplings can “freak out” and not settle down in a new place, but 4-5-year-old saplings from the nursery are perfectly adapted in the garden.

Fir care

While my pets were gaining strength, I just shook them. Every day she looked: do they have enough moisture? Do not have planted twigs? The mulch circle was made with a diameter of 50 cm (later expanded to 1 m), and every September, freeing the base of the trees from weeds, sprinkled the near-barking circle with sawdust (it can be peat). The roots of the fir grow horizontally, so for the first 2 years after planting I covered the mulching circle with a spruce in the winter (for 3 years after planting, the fir no longer needs shelter for the winter).

I watered on especially dry days, remembering that oh, how the fir does not like overwetting. Fertilizing seedlings for 2 years after planting is not necessary. But from the 3rd year you need to apply 200 g of universal fertilizer for each tree, I applied Kemira station wagon 2 once a season. By the way, the lower branches of fir trees are perfectly rooted themselves, but you can “help” them a little - sprinkle them with humus. Fir can not be called a sissy, but you can’t call it quite easy to take care of. She loves consistency and is able to live 200-300 years in one place. It practically doesn’t need pruning, but if you still consider it necessary to trim the branches that are out of the overall composition, use ordinary garden shears and cut the branches by no more than 1/3.

Fir care gave me an incomparable pleasure, I liked being with my pets, breathing in their resinous scent with their whole breasts. And really - it became easy and pleasant to the soul. But there is probably no barrel of honey in our life without even letting in a small spoonful of tar. The fir is very fond of beauty by the harmful Hermes aphid. To protect the trees from such a scourge, I sprayed the branches with insecticides and colloidal sulfur several times a season.

Korean fir

Korean fir reaches a height of 15 m, has a broad cone-shaped crown and short succulent pine needles. Its branches grow in layers, and the cones look like small purple cylinders (4-7 cm). Korean fir - the most winter-hardy variety and perfectly adapted to cultivation in the northern regions of Russia, has several subspecies, which differ from each other in size and shape of the crown.

Balsam fir

Balsam fir in favorable conditions can grow up to 20 m in height. Crohn dense, low letting, hides long-growing branches-branches. Decorative cones, purple-violet. The needles are green above and below they have a white tint. It is cold-resistant and famous for its healing properties.

Fir monochrome

Fir monochrome - a magnificent tree, reaching 15 m in height, with a thick crown of pyramidal shape and branches growing parallel to the ground. Its most beautiful decorative variety: blue Violacea, which has a silver color needles. It is to the blue Violacea gardeners, aesthetes and landscape designers are not indifferent. Fir monochrome frost-resistant and more resistant to pests than other types of fir.

From the needles of fir trees produce the famous fir oil, which is used in medicine, cosmetology and phototherapy, and the bark of fir trees accumulates healing resins from which camphor is made. Well, how? I convinced you that the fir simply need to have on your suburban area? And if the area of ​​the site does not allow to plant tall fir trees, it is possible to limit the dwarf varieties.

Description of monochrome fir

The plant tolerates frost well, thanks to which it is gaining popularity in the regions of Russia. Fir abies can grow to 65 meters, and the color will be uniform, from which the name of the fir is the same color. The branches of abies cóncolor are fluffy, horizontally in relation to the ground. Fir has reproductive and vegetative shoots. On the vegetative shoots the needles are rounded off, and on the reproductive ones - pointed.

The smell of needles in fir abies concolor, slightly different from other species, you can clearly hear the aroma of lemon. Another distinctive feature of this plant is that the buds appear only in the 60th year of life. Female cones of crimson color, with a violet shade, and are located on the top of the fir. Male cones of dark color, located on last year's shoots. Because of its deep root system, fir monochrome can survive in the driest periods and endure strong winds.

Popular abies concolor fir varieties

In developing plans for the design of landscape designs, experts use several varieties of single-color fir. The choice of planting material is based on the external characteristics of the plant and acclimatization in this area. Here are a few types of popular in landscape design:

  1. Violacea. This plant can grow up to 10 meters in height and in diameter up to 6-7 meters. It grows very slowly. The color of the needles is silver-blue, the needles are up to 6 cm long. A place to land should be chosen sunny, with 15% of the shadow hit. The soil is necessary loosened, so that water can get to the root system.
  2. Compact. This is a compact variety with a lush growing crown. Fir compact compared to other species, rather small, the maximum height of the compacts reaches 70-80 cm. The needles have a beautiful bluish-blue color, with a silvery sheen. Needles are small, no more than 2-3 cm. Like other subspecies, it is resistant to severe frosts. Place for planting should be with 80% sunlight. The soil should be loose.
  3. Aurea. This plant grows fast. The needles are white with a silvery shade. In the first stages of life the plant does not tolerate cold. A place to land must choose the sun.
  4. Wintergold translated winter gold. Refers to the number of fast-growing. The shape has a cone. Can grow up to 18-20 meters in height. WinterGold needles are the longest of all subspecies, a long needle up to 7-8 cm. The color is monophonic, golden-green. Groundwater can damage the plant.
  5. Konica. It has medium size. Needles grow to 4 cm. It has a clear conical shape. Choose a landing site in the shade, with little sunlight. Groundwater can damage the plant.
  6. Extra. The plant can grow up to 16 meters in height and up to 5 meters in width. The color of the needles is blue with a silvery shade. The soil is best suited with sand and on the lighted side. Does not tolerate overmoistening of the soil.
  7. Glauka. This is a small plant, cone-shaped. The needles are thick and non-barbed in appearance, grows up to 2 cm long. Place for landing must be chosen with 85% of sunlight. The soil must be hydrated. Characteristic difference Glauki, intolerance of a frost. It is recommended to land in warm regions of the country.

Care and landing

With planting a young seedling, it is necessary to dig a deep hole with dimensions 80x80 cm, since the root system can go deep down. After a hole has been dug, a drainage layer should be made of fine crushed stone 18–20 cm high. After drainage, a layer of minerals should be made for fertilizer. The mixture can be prepared independently at home. To do this, you need clay, humus, sand in a ratio of 2: 3: 1. All this can be mixed with sawdust and add 200-300 grams of mineral fertilizer.

When planting the root neck should be flush with the ground, trampling is undesirable. In the first week of life, seedlings must be watered thoroughly for several weeks. Under the root should be poured up to 10 liters of water. After that, watering should be carried out only on hot days. Spraying the branches in the summer period several times a month will be useful.

Feed plants abies cóncolor plants must be made three years after planting. Before feeding, the ground is cleared of weeds and loosened for effect. In the spring, you can trim the old dried branches to give a better view of the plant.

The plant tolerates winter well except the fir glauka. As everyone knows, frosts are severe in Russia, and not every plant can survive the winter. Only young seedlings need to be sheltered from the cold at the beginning of life, so that later the plant could please the owner and residents of the city.

Where and when to plant fir

The most suitable time for planting is spring, or rather, mid-April.

You can also plant in the fall, but it is better in the spring, as when planting in the spring the plant will have time to settle down and more chances to spend the winter.

It is necessary to consider the nuances when planting columns, alleys or fences. The distance between the plants should be at least 2-3 meters for the landing of the alleys.

Fir as if specially created to decorate parks, gardens, buildings and structures. This plant gives an aristocratic look to any place wherever it grows:

  1. Parks
  2. Gardens
  3. Building.
  4. Urban massive structures.
  5. Houses.
  6. Cottages.
  7. Artificial planting.

Need to be able to choose the right seat. Dwarf fir varieties can fit into any interior.

In the winter months, when all the trees are bald and covered with snow, there is little that pleases and uplifting. A well-arranged park in combination with silver-emerald fir is attracting attention and uplifting with its appearance. This evergreen tree can decorate areas all year round and be the center of attention.

In the US states, fir is considered not only a plant that adorns parks and gardens, but is also considered a real object for profit. The country's economy depends on some part of the production of pulp, paper and wood and sawmill materials in some regions. Growing monochrome fir in the US states occurs in industrial quantities. There are special artificial planting, intended for further felling of the tree.

Plant description

Under natural conditions, single-colored, or single-flowered, fir grows up to 60 m in height. Its distinctive feature is the needles, painted on the upper and lower parts in one color. Actually, that is why the mind was given such a name. This plant is considered one of the most light-loving species of its kind. A characteristic feature of it is increased resistance to unfavorable growing conditions. Single-flowered fir easily withstands frost and successfully develops on sandy soils.

The crown of monochrome fir is cone-shaped, flat and dense. The branches are mostly horizontal, evenly covered with needles of spirit types: peaked on reproductive shoots and rounded on vegetative ones. Many representatives of the species needles are spirally located on the branches. Monochrome fir differs from its relatives and by smell: its needles smell like lemon.

Cones on monochrome fir appear at 60-65 years of tree life, in some varieties, especially dwarf ones, a little earlier. The shape of the fruit formations is ovoid or cylindrical; the male ones are located at the end of last year's shoots and are painted in dull colors. Female cones of violet-red color are located in the upper segment of the crown at the ends of last year's growth. They break up in the first year, and the rods hold on for a long time on the branches.

Most popular varieties

Designers, making out landscapes of clients, use for compilation of simple and complex compositions different varieties of fir monochrome. When choosing something concrete, it is important to know the external characteristics of the variety and the basic requirements for the soil for planting, as well as for daylight illumination.

Fir Violacea (violacea) grows very slowly (the maximum height is only eleven meters, the diameter of the crown is from two to six meters), its needles have a bluish-blue color, the size of the needles is 6 mm. It is best to plant Violacea on the sunny side, where the water does not stagnate in the depth, but rather seeps through all layers of the soil.

Compacta variety (compact) - dwarf tree. His maximum height is only eighty centimeters. The needles are shaped like a sickle, and a beautiful blue color with a silver tint. Each needle is two centimeters long. Compacta variety demonstrates high winter-resistance, it is best to plant where there is a high degree of illumination, but it is possible to slightly dim it. The direct rays of the scorching sun often burn the plant, so it dries quickly. Compacta grade fir should not be planted in soils with high density and high humidity threshold.

If you need to plant a plant that can ensure rapid growth, you should choose fir Aurea varieties. It has almost white needles with a silvery sheen, its crown has the shape of a cone, it is very dense in texture. This variety feels good on loams.

A young plant does not tolerate cold (when freezing it almost always drops needles), but when it grows up, it will make its owners happy in the winter with a beautiful fluffy look. To plant a tree is best in well-lit places.

Wintergold - Another fast-growing variety with a symmetrical shape, similar to a flat cone. Максимальная высота растения – восемнадцать метров. Пихта WinterGold имеет самую длинную хвою (иголки вырастают до шести сантиметров) и однотонный изумрудный цвет. Такая пихта одноцветная хорошо растет только на суглинистой почве с большим содержанием гумуса. Застой воды и переувлажнение убивает растение.

Еще одни распространенные виды

Fir conica grows in partial shade, it feels great only on drained loams, on fertile soils from which water does not linger. Externally, Conica is very beautiful, it has a small compact size, fluffy thick needles, the length of which does not exceed four centimeters. The choice of Conica is justified when it is necessary to plant dwarf trees on the site that have a clear geometric shape.

Sort Extra - it is, on the contrary, a large-sized conifer of bright blue color. The tree grows to a height of fifteen meters in height, the diameter of the crown in the widest compartment is five meters. To plant a plant is necessary in the sandy belt, where there is a rich supply of mineral substances. Extra, like any other fir monochrome, loves good lighting and does not tolerate waterlogging.

Fir glauca (Glauka) - dwarf tree, prostrate shape. It has a thick and non-stalked needles, the length of which does not exceed two and a half centimeters. The tree loves the sun, moderate moisture. Glauka is incredibly beautiful, but it does not tolerate cold, so it can only be planted in the southern regions, where the place is reliably protected from any wind.

How to plant and care for fir?

When describing abies concolor varieties, the most important planting conditions were listed: requirements for illumination and soil composition. After the landing point is determined, you can begin to work. The algorithm of action is as follows:

  1. Since the roots of the tree go deep into the depths, it is necessary to dig a very deep planting hole measuring 80x80 cm.
  2. A drainage system is formed at the depth of the pit: crushed stone is twenty centimeters high.
  3. Then necessarily comes a layer of mineral fertilizers. Nutrient mixture is easy to do yourself. To do this, take two parts of clay, three parts of humus, one part of peat and sand. All mix, add sawdust (ten kilograms per hole) and any mineral fertilizer (300 grams).
  4. The root neck of the seedling is not necessary to sink into the pit, it should be flush with the ground.
  5. It is necessary to water the tree only in the first weeks (ten liters in one watering right under the root) after planting, then it is necessary to water the one-color fir when there is a dry heat outside, when there is no precipitation for two weeks or more. Instead of watering, a large tree is simply sprayed on top once every two weeks.
  6. When it takes three years after planting, it is important to complete the first feeding of the plant. Before you give fertilizer to the roots, you need to weed and loosen the soil around the fir, fluff the soil to a depth of twenty centimeters. At the moment of loosening, any mixture is added to feed the conifer branches, or any other universal fertilizer. After the feeding procedure, it is important to mulch all the soil around the tree by sprinkling a chip.. Such care will help prevent the occurrence of unwanted insects.
  7. It is not necessary to give the plant its own shape, the monochrome fir, during natural growth, acquires a fairly regular conical shape. If necessary, it is possible in early spring, before the roots awaken, to prune dried branches.

Where better to plant?

In the winter to cover the plant is also not necessary. Almost all varieties perfectly tolerate cold weather, which can boast the harsh Russian climate. But young seedlings better cover spice leaves. Otherwise, the characteristic blue color will change and turn red.

Planting seedlings is best in the spring (early April) or autumn (early September). When planting an alley, the distance between two trees should be at least two and a half meters. Ideally take root saplings, which are five years old.

The described plant seemed to have been specially created for gardens, decorated in the aristocratic style. But planting trees is necessary correctly. Low-growing varieties, dwarf trees ideally fit into any landscape. Especially beautiful are blue firs, richly covered with cones. Around them is easier than simple to build complex compositions that become the best decoration of the entire site. Tall large trees - the ability to properly zone the site without the use of additional buildings and partitions. Any fir monochrome - a pattern of grandness, pomp. Such an effect is formed due to the possibility of keeping the lowest layer of branches in pomp for a long time. White birch trees, maples, and various shrubs look great next to monochrome fir.

As you can see, monochrome fir - the plant is unpretentious, but it almost always decorates any area, becomes the center of landscape design. This must be taken into account when buying seedlings of a similar tree.

Planting and maintenance of fir (in short)

  • Landing: planting four-year seedlings in the ground - at the end of August or at the beginning of September, but it is also possible in April.
  • Bloom: grown as a decorative leafy plant.
  • Lighting: shade or penumbra, preferably near a reservoir.
  • The soil: moist, well drained, rich, best loamy.
  • Mulching: spring with a layer of peat, wood chips or sawdust 5-6 cm thick.
  • Watering: moisture-loving species are watered 2-3 times per season during the dry season, spending 15-20 liters of water for each plant. Other types of fir do not need artificial watering.
  • Top dressing: mineral complexes, in the spring, from the third or fourth year after landing in the ground.
  • Trimming: mainly for sanitary purposes in early spring, before the start of sap flow.
  • Reproduction: Species fir can be propagated by seeds, and cultivars - only by cuttings, because the seed method does not preserve the varietal characteristics of the parent plant.
  • Pests: spruce-fir hermes (a kind of aphids), spider mites, click beetles, fir-barbs, crunches.
  • Diseases: rust, root rot.

Fir tree - description

Fir plant monoecious, evergreen, thermophilic and shade tolerant. Its root system is powerful, pivotal, deeply receding into the earth. The bark of fir in young years is thin and smooth, with age it becomes thick and cracked. The cone-shaped crown, starting right at the base of the trunk, is what distinguishes fir from other coniferous trees. The branches of fir are arranged horizontally horizontally, the leaves of fir are flat, one-sided soft needles, narrowed at the base into a short petiole. Fir needles do not acquire a muddy shade in winter, as is the case with many other conifers, with two white stripes adorning each needle of a fir. On the reproductive branches, the needles are pointed, on the vegetative shoots - with a weakly notched or rounded tip. Male flowers look like cones of earrings, and female ones are ovoid, cylindrical or ovate-cylindrical, cones sticking upward (another difference of fir from other conifers, whose cones usually hang). Female fir cones consist of a rod on which the covering scales sit, inside of which there are fruit scales bearing two ovules. Fir polished by wind. When the fir seeds ripen, the scales on the cones become woody and fall off, freeing the winged seeds and leaving only the rods on the tree. In a culture in one place, the fir can live up to three hundred years.

  • When to plant fir.

    For planting in the ground will need saplings of fir not younger than four years. They should be planted in April, and even better in late August or early September, and it is advisable to choose a rainy or overcast day for planting. The place for fir is chosen in the shade or in the penumbra in areas with moist, rich, well-drained soil, ideally it should be loam. It is great if there is a reservoir not far from the place where the fir will grow.

    How to plant fir.

    Two weeks before planting the fir, dig a hole about 60x60x60 in size, although the dimensions of the hole depend on the size of the seedling's root system. Pour 2-3 buckets of water into the pit, and when it is absorbed, dig up the bottom half a shovel and place a layer of crushed stone or broken brick 5-6 cm thick in the pit. Then fill the pit to half with thoroughly mixed soil of this composition: 3 parts of humus, 2 parts of clay, 1 part of peat and sand, 10 kg of sawdust and 200-300 g of nitrophoska. After two weeks, when the soil in the pit settles, lower the seedling roots into it in such a way that the root neck is flush with the surface of the plot - it is most convenient to install the seedling on a mound of soil mixture. Straighten the roots of the seedling, fill the hole to the top with the nutrient soil of the composition described above and carefully seal it. After landing, water the fir. If you decide to grow fir alley, place the seedlings at a distance of 4-5 m from each other. Group planting of fir suggests a distance between seedlings of 3-3.5 m for loose groups and 2.5 m for dense ones.

    How to grow fir.

    When caring for seedlings, loosen the soil to a depth of 10-12 cm after watering and remove weeds. Pristvolny circle of young plants, it is desirable to mulch in a diameter of 50 cm with chips, sawdust or peat, a layer of mulch - 5-8 cm, watch only that the mulch does not lie close to the root neck of the fir. After the planting, it will be necessary to feed the fir only after 2-3 years, adding 100-125 g of Kemira-wagon to the tree trunk in the spring. You will have to water the fir only if you grow a moisture-loving look, for example, balsam fir, which requires watering 2-3 times per season during dry periods. The amount of water for one irrigation - 15-20 liters. Other types of artificial watering is not needed - fir does not like waterlogging, they have enough natural rainfall.

    As for pruning, in the spring, before the start of sap flow, remove dry and damaged branches, and also form a crown of fir, if there is a need. Trimming is done with garden shears. In one cut, shoots are shortened to no more than a third the length. In general, the fir has a natural neat crown, which does not require formation.

    Fir Transplant.

    Compared to other plants, conifers adapt fairly easily after transplanting. If you decide to transplant a young plant, pierce the ground with a sharp shovel 30-40 cm from the stem around the circumference, then pry this marked circle at a depth of the bayonet with a shovel, remove it together with the roots and the earthy lump, transport it to the pit and carefully move it into her. An older tree needs to be prepared for transplanting: it is necessary to pierce the earth in a circle a year before transplanting, and the diameter of the circle in this case should be larger. For the year, the fir will grow new young roots within the designated circle and due to this it will stand the test of the transplant more easily. Only it will be hard for one person to remove the fir from the ground, to transport and plant to a new place, so look for an assistant for yourself. The main thing in this process is not to let the earthy one fall apart.

    Pests and diseases of fir.

    As you could see, planting and caring for fir are simple, and the plant will not require any special skills or effort from you. Fir is also fairly stable against such troubles as diseases and pests, however, there are cases when fir loses its decorative effect due to spruce-fir hermes, a kind of aphid, from which the fir turns yellow. To combat hermes, use the Rogor or Antio preparations: in early spring, when the overwintering female aphids wake up, process the fir with a solution of one of these preparations at the rate of 20 g per 10 liters of water. These insecticides will save your tree from other harmful insects - the fir sprout moth and the fir cone leafworm.

    Sometimes at the beauty of the fir, the needles begin to turn yellow, and rusty pillows form on the shoots, and the cause of this is fungal rust disease. The affected branches are cut and burned together with fallen needles, the cuts are treated with garden pitch, and the crown is sprayed with a 2% solution of bordeaux liquid. And carefully inspect the site: there should be no such plants as splinters or stars; where conifers grow.

    Reproduction of fir cuttings.

    Cuttings for rooting, 5–8 cm long, should be taken only from young trees, and this should be annual shoots with one (not two - this is important) apical bud and always with a heel. If you want to get a stalk with a heel, then it is better not to cut it, but to tear it off with a sharp movement with fragments of bark and wood from an older shoot. It is necessary to harvest cuttings in the spring, before the start of sap flow, on a cloudy morning from the middle part of the crown on its north side. Before landing, the burrs are carefully removed from the heel. Make sure the heel bark does not flake off the wood. In order to avoid the further development of fungal diseases, the cuttings are incubated for 6 hours in a two percent solution of foundationol, captan, or in a solution of dark pink manganese. Then the cuttings are planted in a mixture of sand, humus and leaf earth in equal parts and covered with a transparent cap. In order for the cuttings to take root faster, it is advisable to arrange a lower heating of the substrate by 2-3ºC above room temperature. Keep the cuttings in a bright, but not sunny place, arranging a daily ventilation. For the winter, the container with the cuttings can be moved to the basement, and in the spring it can already be brought to fresh air. The cuttings will take root for a long time - the fir has first increased callus, and only in the second year roots will appear.

    Growing fir from seeds.

    It is not easy to collect the seeds of fir, because the cones in mature trees ripen highly, and as soon as they mature, the winged seeds of them immediately fly away. But if you are lucky to get a slightly unripe cone, dry it, remove the seeds and store them before sowing in the refrigerator or in the basement with high humidity - before planting, the fir seeds need stratification. In April, the seeds are sown in a bed to a depth of 2 cm in the soil of sand and sod and cover with a film without irrigation in order to avoid the formation of a crust on the soil surface and to accelerate the emergence of shoots. When the sprouts sprout after 3-4 weeks, start watering, loosening and weeding the beds. In the first winter, seedlings are covered with spruce leaves. The following year, you can plant a seedling at a permanent place. Fir from seeds initially grows very slowly: in four years it reaches a height of 30-40 cm, since it develops mainly the root system. But then growth noticeably accelerates.

    Fir autumn.

    The firs recommended for planting in the middle lane tolerate our winters well, however, young plants should be covered with spruce leaves, and the tree trunk should be mulched with peat or dry leaves with a layer of 10-12 cm.

    Caucasian fir, or Nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana)

    is endemic to the Caucasus, as it grows in nature only in the Caucasus Mountains. This tree is up to 60 m in height and has a trunk thickness of up to 2 m, with a dense, branchy, low-lettered crown of narrowly conical shape with a sharp tip, which in adulthood is not so pronounced. The bark is smooth and shiny, but from the age of eighty it begins to appear deep cracks. Kidney ovoid, almost without resin. The needles are up to 40 mm long, up to 2.5 mm wide, dark green from the top, from the bottom with two white stripes, on the vegetative shoots of the apex with a notch, on the cone-like gently pointed. Cones, up to 20 cm long and with a diameter of up to 5 cm, are green at a young age and dark brown, resinous in mature. This fast-growing species lives up to 500 years. Such forms of Caucasian fir are known: upright, weeping, golden, golden-pointed, white-skinned and gray.

    Siberian Fir (Abies sibirica)

    grows in the north-east of the Russian Federation on highlands and river valleys. This shade-tolerant winter-hardy species is protected by the state. Siberian fir is the most famous representative of the genus. This tree is up to 30 m high with a narrow cone-shaped crown. Smooth, almost along the entire length of the trunk, the gray bark in the lower part cracks. The needles are narrow, soft, shiny, up to 3 cm long, dark green above and with two white stripes below. Cones are erect, light brown when ripe. Types: blue, white, variegated, elegant and others.

    In addition to those described by us in culture, there are subalpine fir, frasera, whole-leaved, equal-scalloped, Semenova, Sakhalin, myra, graceful, kefallin or Greek, high, Vicha, white-blooded or pochschuy, white or European and Arizon.

    Fir properties

    Fir plant is special even among conifers. Its wood does not contain resinous substances, so musical instruments are made from it and ships are built. The fir bark is the raw material for the valuable balm, and the needles and branches are for the fir oil. From the needles and bark they prepare a decoction that lowers the acidity of the stomach, increases the efficiency and immunity, relieves toothache.

    Fir resin is a good antiseptic used in traditional medicine to lubricate wounds, cuts, abrasions and ulcers. Early migrants to America and its natives widely used fir resin, having a pleasant taste, for medicinal purposes: it treated bronchitis, cough, sore throat and even tuberculosis, as well as cancer, dysentery, otitis, inflammation of the mucous membranes, some urogenital diseases (for example , gonorrhea and vaginal infections), scurvy, rheumatism, muscle and joint pain.

    Медицинские препараты с содержанием экстракта, в основе которого клеточный сок пихты, используют при лечении ревматизма, воспалительных процессов, инфекционных заболеваний, хронической и острой сердечной недостаточности. Употребление клеточного сока пихты:

    • – стимулирует кроветворение,
    • – укрепляет иммунитет, восстанавливает защитную функцию организма,
    • – оказывает противовоспалительное действие при лечении легочных болезней,
    • – служит профилактикой онкологических и сердечнососудистых заболеваний,
    • – препятствует развитию гипертонии,
    • - improves the work of the excretory organs,
    • - normalizes the work of the stomach and intestines,
    • - compensates for the lack of vitamins, micro and macronutrients in the body,
    • - protects against the effects of radiation,
    • - relieves stress, has an antioxidant effect and increases the body's resistance to adverse environmental factors.

    Fir juice comes on sale in the form of phyto-cocktails, which are already ready for use, and in their natural form - this liquid can be consumed inside only in diluted form.

    Essential oil of fir helps even in cases in which various chemotherapeutic drugs are powerless, for example, it slows down and even stops the growth of cancer cells. The oil immediately enters the bloodstream and is collected in the focus of the disease, bypassing the digestive organs, and therefore does not decompose. Its combat component is camphor. Fir oil is a universal medicine that has a bactericidal, antiseptic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, tonic, sedative and tonic effect. It is widely used not only in medicine, but also in cosmetology for the treatment of acne, herpes, furunculosis, removal of edema, smoothing wrinkles, eliminating sagging skin, warts and other skin problems.

    The use of fir and medicines from it requires adherence to certain rules: during treatment it is necessary to abandon the use of alcoholic beverages, even weak ones, since alcohol levels the effect of the drugs. Refuse to take drugs from fir, if you find them intolerant to your body. You cannot be treated with fir patients with epilepsy, gastritis or gastric ulcer with kidney pathology. It is contraindicated in pregnant and lactating women, as well as children. Improper use of drugs or violation of the dosage can cause an allergic reaction. If you have an itch, swelling and red spots on the skin, it is better to stop taking the drug. If you do not know how the organism will react to fir, do a test: put 10-15 drops of oil or juice on the back of your hand or foot and carefully rub it into the skin. If the allergy does not manifest itself in the next two or three days, you can take the drug, but be sure to consult your doctor about the dosage.

    Growing monochrome fir: planting and care

    When growing monochrome fir, remember that these plants are shade-tolerant, but develop better with full coverage, requiring partial shade in the first years of life. Windproof. All kinds of demanding wealth, moisture and drainage of the soil.

    The distance between the plants is 4-5 m in alley plantings, 3-3.5 m in loose groups, up to 2.5 m in dense ones. Planting time: in spring - April, in autumn - end of August - September. It is better to take root seedlings aged 5 to 10 years. Planting depth: 60-80 cm and depends on the clod of earth around the roots of the seedling. Landing pit dimensions: 50 x 50 or 60 x 60 cm. The root neck should remain at ground level. The composition of the soil: clay, leaf soil or humus, peat, sand (2: 3: 1: 1). When caring for monochrome fir, drainage is mandatory on heavy soils: 20 cm of gravel or broken brick is poured into the bottom of the pit, a full mineral fertilizer (nitroammofoska) is added at the rate of 250-300 g and up to 10 kg of sawdust per well.

    Cannot be attributed to sissies, but they cannot be called a completely light culture. For them it is important to be planted once and for all, without transplants, trimming and haircuts. They like high humidity of air and soil, but without stagnation of water and clean air. 2-3 years after planting, when taking care of monochrome fir, it is advisable to apply fertilizer in the spring. Fir soil does not tolerate excessive waterlogging. Loosening and mulching is mandatory in young plantings at a depth of 25-30 cm, simultaneously with the removal of weeds. Mulch with sawdust, wood chips or peat layer of 5-8 cm near the trunks of young plants. In the spring, dry branches are removed. Crown molding only in case of need is carried out in early spring before sap flow.

    Many species and their ornamental forms, grown in Europe and the temperate zone of Russia, are hardy and not damaged in severe winters. However, in the first year after planting, young plants should be covered with spruce leaves in order to save them from late spring frosts (common fir, whose needles turn red). With age, winter hardiness, like other conifers, increases and the need to cover the trunks of a dry leaf or peat disappears.

    Propagation by seeds that are harvested at the beginning of ripening cones. Sowing is done in the autumn, or in the spring after a 30-40 day stratification or snowing. Can be propagated by annual cuttings with apical bud. The crown is formed naturally. The first decade grow slowly, then growth accelerates and continues to a great old age.

    They are garden aristocrats, demanding, but very attractive. The use of species of plants due to its large size is possible only in large gardens and parks. Compact cultivars are applicable everywhere subject to agrotechnology. Blue, giving plenty of cones, undersized and completely dwarf varieties are especially appreciated. The slender, mostly narrow, well-defined cone of the crown and the dark, brilliant green of the needles with white stripes of stomata on the underside of the needles, give the appearance of fir silverness and pomp. These qualities are further enhanced by the ability to preserve the lower branches for a long time.

    It has long been used in landscape construction. However, in the city, with the exception of some species, suffer from air pollution. Perfectly look in group and aleyny plantings in combination with white-trout birches, maples and various bushes. Good for creating live walls without a haircut. Thanks to its long non-falling needles, the branches are widely used in floristics. However, they are not suitable as a winter shelter for other plants, because in the spring there are so many needles on the branches that neither the light nor the air reach the plants through it. It is well combined with other large trees (spruce, pine, larch, pseudo-hemlock). Low-growing varieties are planted with other low conifer and ground-cover perennials.

    Where and how to use fir?

    One-color fir (from the Latin Abies concolor) is an evergreen tree from the Pine family. Due to its needles, which are painted in a bluish-green color on both sides, it received the specific name “monochrome”. The natural habitat of this luxurious tree are the western and northern regions of America.

    It can be found in many European countries, in Australia, Africa, and also in the Far East and the Caucasus. Winter hardiness, unpretentiousness in cultivation and resistance to the conditions of the metropolis, as well as the diversity of varieties made fir a popular plant in many regions of Russia.

    Breeding methods

    Under natural conditions, fir is propagated by seeds. Her ripe buds open and the seeds are spread by the wind for a fairly wide distance. But when self-planting its seeds should be sown heavily: 10 seeds in one hole. Spring shoots, as a rule, do not exceed 50% of the planted seeds. Seedlings can not replant a long time - from 2 to 4 years.

    Fir seeds are not so easy to collect. Cones in adult trees are very high and when ripe, the seeds immediately fly apart. But it is possible to use an unripe cone, for this it needs to be dried a little, it will be easier to get seeds of seeds. You need to keep them before planting in a cool place and at high humidity; a refrigerator or basement will do for this.

    Before planting, the seeds must be stratified.

    Seed stratification occurs at an optimum temperature of + 1C for about a month, but it is believed that in the light seeds germinate rather quickly. Autumn planting of freshly picked seeds reaches germination from 60 to 80%, and spring - about 30%.

    1. first, the seeds are soaked overnight so that they collect moisture, then they are disinfected for 20 minutes in medium diluted potassium permanganate, then washed several times in clean water
    2. a glass of sand is taken and thoroughly warmed in the oven (to eliminate germs)
    3. after cooling, the sand and the seeds are mixed at a ratio of 1: 5 (one is the seeds)
    4. This mixture should be poured into a jar and moisten well.
    5. jar must be put in a cool place
    6. shake the contents of the jar for 15 days and moisturize if necessary

    If the seeds of the fir have slipped ahead of schedule, then they can be planted in pots for seedlings and planted in the planned period in the ground, like any other seedlings. Species of fir can be propagated using seeds harvested at the beginning of the ripening of the cones.

    Decorative species reproduce by cuttings:

    • Cuttings are taken exclusively from young annual shoots with one apical bud and heel. To do this, you can not cut the stalk, and tear it together with a piece of bark. The stalk is taken early in spring in wet weather from the north side of the middle of the crown, its length should be about 8 centimeters.
    • After collecting the cuttings, they are processed for several hours in a weak solution of potassium permanganate (to avoid fungus), and only then they are planted in a soil mixture of humus, sand and peat (in equal proportions).
    • Pots with cuttings covered with transparent bags or plastic flasks and put in a bright place. Every day, the cuttings need to be aired.

    Rooting cuttings long enough, first callus appears, and only then, only after a year, the root system will begin to develop. After sufficient development of the root of the stalk, or rather, the seedling, you can plant in the ground at a permanent place. In case of mass planting, the density of fir planting should not exceed from 800 to 3000 trees per hectare.

    Planting seedlings: terms and rules

    For the planting of this species of fir in the ground need seedlings of at least four years of age. Spring planting can be carried out in April and in autumn in September. To do this, it is better to choose a cloudy or even rainy day.

    The place for it is to choose a spacious, well lit with moderately wet, drained soil, loam would be the best option. Planting monochrome fir is carried out directly with the earthy clod, in which the root grows. Incorrect root pruning will greatly reduce the chance of a tree quickly rooting in a permanent place.

    • To plant the fir, you need to dig a hole in advance, which will correspond to the root of the seedling, an average of 70x70x70.
    • You need to pour 2 buckets of water into the pit, when it is completely absorbed into the well, you need to pour a small (up to 6 cm) layer of rubble.
    • Only now you can half fill the pit with soil consisting of humus, clay, sand and peat, sawdust and nitrophoska are added to the same place. The ratio should be adjusted depending on the state of the main soil of the site.
    • After a couple of weeks, the soil should settle. Now in this pit you can lower the seedling together with a lump, its root neck should be at the level of the surface of the plot.
    • Then the pit is filled with the remaining soil and compacted (with the formation of a small hole for irrigation) and watered.

    If the seedlings sit in a row, the distance between them should not be less than 4-5 meters. When grouped, the distance may be less - about 3 meters.

    Cultivation of fir

    This type of fir is unpretentious to many types of soil, it adapts to different structures, any acidity and nutritional value. However, wood does not tolerate excessive moisture. Fir grows well on loose, moderately acidic drained soil, as well as on soil-forming rocks from andesite, pumice, slate or sandstone.

    The monochrome fir is considered the most drought-resistant among all the other varieties that are cultivated in Russia, it perfectly tolerates cold winters and winds.

    Her late blooming buds are not at risk of frost. The plant loves light, but can grow in a shaded place, very quickly adapts to the conditions of the city and to various specific environmental factors.

    Japanese scientists, on the basis of their research, claim that the maximum frost resistance of fir winter shoots can correspond to –35 ° C, and the upper buds and needles tolerate higher frosts. In Russia, fir is cultivated everywhere, but it is best of all fruiting in its western part and in the Caucasus.

    How to care for fir?

    Coniferous beauty rightfully earned popularity among gardeners lovers. Her tender green needle leaves and amazing coniferous scent will not leave anyone indifferent who has ever seen this miracle.

    Care Tips:

    • Planted plants need to moisten the soil, once every 15 days will be enough. Later it is necessary to water fir only during the drought period. She does not need artificial watering, she will have enough rain.
    • Planted young and still fragile tree needs protection from gusty wind, therefore it needs to be tied up to a support.
    • Excessive direct rays can also harm the plant, so the partial shade will be the best place for a seedling.
    • When the plant is rooted, it can be fertilized. It is better to fertilize a tree after winter or autumn with specially developed means for this, for example, Kemira Universal.
    • Early in the spring you need to carry out prevention of the treatment of fir compounds from possible pests. For this purpose, pesticides and fungicides with a wide spectrum of action are used.
    • Crop of this type of fir is made in the spring, before the start of sap flow. It is necessary to remove dry, damaged and diseased branches, to eliminate the required thickening and, if necessary, to form a crown. Pruning is carried out with the help of garden shears. When trimming shoots need to be shortened by no more than a third of the length.
    • As for wintering, single-colored fir easily tolerates winter and its frosts. For young plants, especially autumn seedlings, of course, you need to care for. The pristvolny circles are better to be mulched with peat and dry foliage, and the tree itself can be covered with spruce branches. Mature trees do not require winter shelter, and they can be protected from the bright spring sun with a special non-woven fabric.

    Fir is an unpretentious tree, it easily tolerates cold and drought, and is resistant to many diseases and pests. But sometimes the crown of a tree can lose a rich decorative appearance because of the aphid (in this case - spruce-fir hermes).

    If a star or a sprout grow near the fir, they should be removed.

    Yellowed fir branches can be treated with Antio or Rogor preparations. This should be done in early spring in order to neutralize overwintered females of aphids. Insecticides will also destroy other insects - a sprout mole or a cone moth. With the defeat of the needles with fungi or rust, the diseased branches should be cut and burned, and the sections covered with garden pitch. The crown can be sprayed with diluted Bordeaux liquid.