Beautiful ornamental shrub - barberry - will give your garden plot a magical and unique look from spring, when its yellow flowers bloom with a delicate aroma, and until late autumn, when brushes of bright red fruits are amazingly combined with orange leaves. And if you add to this also high medicinal properties, then the planting of a bush of barberry is a question solved. Caring for this plant is simple, and the hedge turns out just gorgeous.
The name of this original ornamental bush comes from the Arabic beriberi, which means - sink. Flower petals really remind her. Differs in branching, prickles and bark of light-brown color the barberry plant. The size of the bush can reach a height of 3.5 m. The rhizomes are woody, creeping. Shoots with edges - straight, yellow, later they will be painted in gray-white. On shorter buds from buds, leaves up to 4 cm long appear, thin, elliptical or obovate. On longer shoots develop from three to five spines up to 2 cm long.
In spring, in late April and early May, fragrant brushes of yellow flowers appear on the plant. Their number can reach up to 25 pieces. By the end of September, fruiting bright red or purple fruits of oblong-shaped bush. The barberry has seeds with a length of up to 7 mm, narrowed and flattened at its upper part.
Distribution and ecology
Previously, the barberry could be found only in Europe, Transcaucasia and Western Asia. He preferred the forest-steppe zone with sufficient lighting and dry soil. You could meet him in the mountains, at an altitude of up to 2 km. What does a barberry bush grow in the wild? The plant has a rather unsightly appearance. Today, due to the fact that a huge number of varieties have been developed, the ornamental bush of a barberry cannot be found except in the Arctic or Antarctic.
In addition to ripe berries, all other parts of the plant contain berberine alkaloid. There are also other alkaloids in the roots: oxyacanthin, iatroricin, palmatin, columbamine. There are a lot of tannins and aromatic resins in the bark, vitamin K in the leaves. The ripened fruits contain carotenoids - lutein, flavoxanthin, xanthophyll, etc., as well as sugars, malic acid, pectins.
Back in Ancient Russia, roots, branches and bark insisted on alcohol to stop the flow of blood from wounds and relieve inflammation. Barberry is an ideal antibiotic donated by nature, which was used to treat various cold diseases. Infusion of the fruit strengthened the immune system, supported the liver. And in ancient Rome, it was believed that the barberry brings happiness and good luck, so it was protected in every possible way.
In modern official medicine, tincture of leaf alcohol is used in gynecology to stop uterine bleeding and inhibit inflammatory processes. Berberin treats major liver and gall bladder problems. Water infusion of fruits facilitate attacks of malaria, due to the strong diaphoretic properties. With rheumatism, it relieves pain.
The most widely used berries found in cooking: juices and fruit drinks, jams and jelly. And add the powder of dried berries in the sauce to the meat, and your family for the ears can not be dragged from the plate. In Central Asia, pilau is not cooked without barberry, and the peoples of the Caucasus add it to horseradish.
Due to the sour taste, barberry is able to replace vinegar. And unripe pickled fruit can perfectly replace capers. Tincture and decoction in veterinary medicine is used as a styptic for various wounds in animals.
Barberry and pregnancy
Unfortunately, in an interesting situation, it is necessary to completely abandon the use of both the berries and various tinctures. Due to the alkaloids contained in the plant, miscarriage is possible. Also, in pregnant women, fetuses may trigger the formation of blood clots.
However, a small amount of sauce for meat with barberry content does not bring harm, so if you really want, then eat on health. Just do not forget that everything should be in moderation.
How and where to plant barberry
Planting barberry bush begins with the choice of location. This plant prefers open areas, well lit by the sun. And for species that belong to Central Asia, you need to select a place so that there are no drafts. The requirements for the soil bush barberry imposes the following: loam or well-dried soils, because the plant does not like too wet.
Barberry bush planting on the place allotted for growth is held in the spring, before buds start to bloom, but planting is possible in the fall, when the leaves begin to crumble. Before planting in a hole, add a mixture of humus, earth, and sand (in equal proportions). Depth should be 25-30 cm for 2-3-year-old saplings and 40-50 - for 5-7-year-olds. If you plan to make a hedge, then you need to plant bushes in a trench. If the soil in your area is acidic, such as peat, then 200 g of wood ash, lime or dolomite flour - 300-400 g should be added to the bushes. From fertilizers only 100 g of superphosphate will be needed.
How to care for barberry bush
If you planted barberry bushes, care for them will be simple. If the site for planting is initially chosen correctly, and the soil was provided with good aeration, the roots will be healthy and able to breathe. Just sometimes you need to loosen the soil and remove the weeds.
In the spring, at the beginning of the season or immediately after flowering, you need to cut the barberries. The bush is trimmed annually. This action is directed to the formation of lush crown and the removal of weak and diseased shoots. And do not forget during the care of the sharp thorns of barberry. The next year after planting in the spring, be sure to feed your barberry with nitrogen fertilizer. The size of the bush and its lush flowering will be grateful to you for such care. You need to repeat feeding once every three years.
The main methods of breeding barberry
There are four main ways to propagate the barberries in their area: dividing the bush, planting layers, summer cuttings and seeds.
- Seeds to sow the area to fall. Squeeze out freshly picked fruit, rinse with running water and dry. They need to be placed at a depth of no more than one centimeter. At the same time, the soil should be loose, and the landing place should be well heated by the sun. By the summer the plant will give you a friendly shoots. But it is better to transplant barberry bush in a year.
- The plant is easily propagated by summer cuttings. Just put them in the required amount in the soil in June, and after a couple of years you will have enough material for planting.
- Shrub dividing is another breeding method. In this case, the main shrub is carefully dug out so as not to damage the root system, and cut into several pieces. If the roots are very thick, they are simply cut lengthwise and the parts obtained are transplanted into new holes, moistening them abundantly before planting.
- Layers are made in spring from young and healthy branches. Grooves dig around the bush, into which the selected branches are laid. There they are fixed and sprinkled with earth so that only one tip is left outside. The entire season is well watered, and in the fall you will have bushes ready for planting.
Pests and diseases
Although the ornamental shrub of the barberry is fairly resistant to both fungal diseases and pests, but it is also susceptible to them. Of fungal lesions, anthracnose and powdery mildew are most common. In the first case, the disease manifests itself as round brown spots on the leaves, in the second - white, as if sprinkled with flour, bloom on branches, leaves and flowers. Fungus infestation is the first sign of excess water. Fungicides are used for treatment, and pruning of affected parts is performed, which must be burned.
Barberry - a plant that is the intermediate owner of the scourge of agriculture, as a rust fungus that affects cereal crops. That is why its cultivation near the fields of rye and wheat is unacceptable. The only exception is Thunberg barberry, which is not susceptible to rust. With the disease on the leaves are visible orange spots with pads on the underside, in which spores ripen in large numbers. They spread to cereals, both wild and cultural, with the help of the wind.
Another disease causes the fungus of the genus Fusarium. Infection occurs through the roots, which rot, and the fungus rises along the branches along the branches, causing the bush to wilt. If you cut the branch, you can see the rings of vessels of brown.
Of the insects, the most common pest is barberry aphid. Its presence can be seen on the shriveled and dried leaves. You can get rid of aphids with a solution of household soap (300 g per bucket of water). The moth caterpillar eats berries. In case of their appearance, treat the barberry with Chlorofos or Decis.
The most common types of barberry
Very unpretentious care Berberis vulgaris, or an ordinary barberry, whose height can reach two or more meters. The leaves are colored dark green, and the flowers are shiny yellow. The fruits are quite edible, juicy, with a sour taste, painted in bright red color.
If your region has severe frosts, then this species is for you. It is well tolerated by frosts and drought well. You can multiply it by seed, dividing the bush and cuttings. Need a hedge so that no one passes? Barberry ordinary help in this. However, protect your bushes from excess moisture, this type is very susceptible to diseases caused by fungi.
The plant has many varieties:
- Atropurpurea - barberry bush, a photo of which is presented below, with red leaves.
- Aureomarginata is a plant bordered by a golden line.
- Albovariyegata with variegated leaves.
When breeding original varieties, it should be borne in mind that when planting seeds, only part of the plants will retain their varietal characteristics.
Berberis canadensis, or Canadian barberries, as the name implies, came from North America. Differs from European counterpart more spreading. Resistant to frost and drought. Mainly used for landscaping in the Americas, so in Russia it is extremely rare.
Berberis thunbergii, or Thunberg barberry, originally from China and Japan. This is a small shrub up to a meter in height, but can be one and a half meters in diameter. Shoots are covered with small spines very thick. Flowers of a reddish-yellow color are collected in 2-4 pieces in small inflorescences. But the berries are unsuitable for food because of their bitter taste, although the birds eat them with great pleasure.
Unlike the European and American counterparts, Thunberg barberry practically does not suffer from fungal diseases, including rust. It is easy to propagate it both by seed and by dividing a bush, and cutting is also easy. This species has more than 50 varieties that differ in the original color of the leaves, their shape and size. If you meet an unusually colored bush of barberry, the photo of which will interest you, most likely, this is Thunberg.
Berberis x ottawiensis, or the Ottawa barberry, is a hybrid obtained by crossing the red barberry and Thunberg. The main difference is the dark purple leaves of obovate form. When autumn comes, they are painted in rich red. Beautiful brushes of yellow with a reddish shade of flowers, which are collected on 8-10 pieces, bloom in late May. From their "parents" the plant has acquired all the best - the beauty of color, simplicity and immunity to fungal diseases.
Berberis koreana, or Korean barberry, whose height reaches two meters, has large, obovate leaves, leathery to the touch. In autumn they turn purple-red. The plant is originally from the Korean Peninsula. Flowers are collected in long brushes of 15-20 pieces, and the smell is very strong. The barberry is very unpretentious in leaving and is steady against frosts. Only in windy, cold winters can its top freeze. But he will not like thaws, during this period the humidity for him is very high, and this plant, as is well known, is very susceptible to rust.
Berberis integerrima, or the whole barberry, has come to our homestead lands from Central Asia, where it grows at an altitude of up to 2500 meters above sea level. The height of the shrub can reach two and a half meters. The spines are small, one and a half centimeters long, and the leaves with a solid edge are painted in a grayish-green tone. In the inflorescence can be collected up to 20 flowers of yellow color, and the fruits are maroon with a touch of gray color. Does not like the acidic soil of the entire bush barberry. Planting and care are quite simple. Adult plants are well experienced even the most severe winter, but the young can frost up, but easily tolerate pruning and grow back quickly.
Berberis sphaerocarpa, or barberry sharoplodny (also known as a multi-blade barb), came to our homestead lands from the mountains of Central Asia. Shrub can reach 2.5 meters in height, very sprawling, with melkopilchatymi along the edge of the leaves of gray-green color. Collected 5-10 flowers inflorescences very fragrant. The fruit with a bluish bloom is colored dark blue.
The population of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan constantly use berries in cooking, add to the sauce for barbecue and shurpa. The fruits are an excellent means of dealing with scurvy, as they are very rich in ascorbic acid.
This species is very unpretentious in the care, tolerates even extreme heat and a long drought. It tolerates frosty winters, but young shoots may suffer, so it is better to cover them. But excessive moisture can lead to the disease of the barberry fruit, it is especially susceptible to rust. Plant it in a place that is not blown through by winds, and the soil is dry and not acidic, and you will enjoy tasty fruits and beautiful appearance. Propagated best cuttings and seeds.
Berberis nummularia, or barberry monetchaty, came to us from the steppes of Central and North Asia. Shrub highly branched up to 2 meters. The reddish branches are covered with very large spines up to 3 cm long. The leaves of bluish-green color are very tough, entire, oblong-elliptical in shape. Large flowers of bright yellow color are collected in brushes. The oval-shaped berries are ripe bright red in color. Up to 3-4 years of age, the barberry is susceptible to frostbite, after which it is restored for a long time. He does not like the highly moist soil, as it is very susceptible to fungal diseases. But drought, even strong and long, is not afraid. The soil he needs is light, not acidic.
Amur barberry comes from the Far East. In the wild, he prefers to settle on the river coast and forest edges. Outwardly, Amur barberry differs little from an ordinary one, its height can reach 3.5 m. Large toothed leaves of a glossy green color become either yellow or purple in autumn.
Such a shrub can be evergreen, deciduous and semi-evergreen. There are thorns on it, as well as leathery or simple alternate leaf plates. The spines are modified leaves, with only the central vein remaining from them. The development of short stems occurs in the axils of the spines, because of this the leaf plates are collected in the form of bunches. On the stems of this year, the leaf plates are arranged singly in a spiral. Small fragrant flowers of golden yellow or orange color with red blotches. As a rule, the flowers are part of the inflorescences of a cyst-shaped or corymbose form, but in some cases they are also solitary. Each petal has a pair of nectaries. During the flowering of the barberry, bees flock to the scent of flowers, such a plant is considered a good honey plant. Depending on the type and variety of fruit can have a different shape and color. This plant grows well in the city, as it is characterized by its unpretentiousness, drought tolerance. And the barberry grows excellently and develops in any soil. This plant is excellent for creating hedges.
What time to plant
As a rule, barberry seedlings are planted in springtime after the ground is completely thawed. However, the landing should have time to make before the buds unfold. However, in some cases, landing can be made in the autumn. Or rather, at the time when there is a massive leaf fall. Such an undemanding plant can be grown in a semi-shaded place, as well as in an open area, as wind gusts and drafts are not bad. It should be remembered that species and varieties with purple-colored leaf plates look much more impressive if they grow in a sunny area. Наиболее подходящий грунт — нейтральный, но барбарис вполне нормально растет и развивается в почве с рН менее 7. В том случае, если грунт чрезмерно кислый, то в него нужно будет внести известь.You can make the necessary fertilizers a few months before planting the seedling, and immediately before planting. So, 100 grams of superphosphate, 200 grams of wood ash, 400 grams of slaked lime and from 8 to 10 kilograms of garden soil mixed with compost or humus should be added to the hole.
If you plant bushes singly, then between them you should maintain a distance of 150 to 200 centimeters. In that case, if such a shrub is used to create a hedge, then no more than 2 bushes are planted for 1 running meter. Planting pits must be prepared 14–20 days before planting. The size of such a pit should be 40x40 centimeters, while the depth of the trench for a hedge is 0.4 meters. To improve the aeration of the root system, you should fill the bottom of the pit or trench with a layer of sand. In the event that the soil is neutral or slightly acidic, then before planting the barberry, it should be fertilized with the fertilizers indicated above, but at the same time, it is not necessary to pour in the ash and lime. After the hole has been prepared, a sapling is placed in it and the necessary amount of soil is poured in, which is then tamped down. After that, the plant should be poured with a large amount of water, and the surface of the trunk circle should be sprinkled with a layer of mulch (compost or peat). After the barberry is planted, it is necessary to cut off the part that is located above the ground surface. However, it should be noted that in the remaining part there should be from 3 to 5 well-developed kidneys.
Even a person who is a beginner in gardening can grow a barberry. The fact is that it is extremely unpretentious and undemanding to care, while you need to care for all species and varieties in exactly the same way. So, for example, care for the barberry of Thunberg, which is most often grown as an ornamental shrub, is completely identical to what is used in growing varieties with edible fruits. In this regard, it is enough just to thoroughly study how to grow such a shrub properly, and then it will be possible to grow its various types and varieties.
Caring for the barberry is watering, pruning, loosening the soil, removing weeds and timely feeding. If the summer period is characterized by long dry periods, then during them watering should be carried out 1 time in 7 days, while using cool water, which should be poured directly under the root, making sure that the liquid does not appear on the surface of the sheet plates. If in the summer there is enough rain, then watering this shrub is not necessary. Newly planted plants should be watered the same way once a week, until they pereboleut and will not touch the growth. If the summer was excessively rainy and damp, then this may cause rotting of the root system of the barberry, as it reacts extremely negatively to the accumulation of fluid in the soil. Do not forget to timely pull up all weed grass, as well as young growth that grows around the bush in large quantities. Also, be sure to loosen the surface of the soil. To reduce the amount of weed, soil loosening and irrigation, it is necessary to sprinkle the soil surface with a layer of mulch (sawdust, peat or nutshell).
The amount of fertilizer that is applied to the soil during planting, it lasts for about 12 months. With the onset of the next spring period, the barberry should be fed with nitrogen-containing fertilizer, so, for this purpose, a solution of urea is used (for 10 liters of water from 20 to 30 grams of the substance). In subsequent years, it will be necessary to feed the barberry with nitrogen-containing fertilizer at intervals of 1 time in 3 or 4 years. However, if this shrub is grown to produce fruits, then when flowering is over and at the end of the season, potassium and phosphorus will need to be added to the soil (15 gram of superphosphate and 10 gram of potassium fertilizer are taken per bush). For top dressing you can use such complex fertilizer as Kemira-Universal. It is necessary to apply such fertilizer to the soil in the first days of July, while 15 grams of the substance is taken for 10 liters of water.
During pruning, it will be necessary to cut off those shoots that are affected by any disease or pests, as well as weakened, dried, and even those that contribute to thickening. If the look is decorative, then the first time it needs to be cut off in the spring time when it reaches one year old. In this case, it is necessary to cut 1/3 or 2/3 of the escape. In subsequent years, the bush is pruned twice a year, namely, in the first days of June and in the beginning of August. Such pruning is both sanitary and formative. Those species and varieties that are undersized, you can not expose the trimming procedure.
Diseases and harmful insects
Pests such as the barberry sawfly, barberry aphid or the flower moth can harm this shrub. In the case of an infested bush, the leaf plates start to shrink and dry. The moth represents a great danger to those species that have edible fruits because it feeds on them. For the extermination of aphids use a solution of household soap (300 grams of substance per bucket of water). To destroy the sawfly caterpillars, as well as the moth, it is necessary to process the bush with a 1-3% solution of chlorophos.
In most cases, these shrubs are infected with fungal diseases, such as rust, leaf spot, powdery mildew, bacteriosis or wilt. In the bush with powdery mildew, a whitish powdery deposit appears on the surface of the leaf plates, berries and stems. Toward the autumn, cleistothecia appears in the areas of the plant that are affected by the disease, and the fungus will tolerate wintering in them. In order to get rid of this disease, treatment with a solution of colloidal sulfur (1%) should be performed. Those stems that are very badly affected should be cut and destroyed. As a rule, rust appears on those bushes that grow near grass plants. On the infected specimen, specks of orange color appear on the front side of the leaves, while on the seamy side red convex pads are formed. In case of severe contamination, the sheet plates dry out and fall off. It is possible to get rid of this disease by treatment with a special solution, which is carried out 3 times. To do this, use a solution of Bordeaux liquids or colloidal sulfur (1%). The first treatment is carried out immediately after all the buds have been opened and the leaflets have grown, and the next - with a break of 20 days.
When infected with spotting, specks of various shapes appear on the leaf plates, due to which the plant loses its decorative appearance. A solution of copper oxychloride is used to get rid of the disease (for a bucket of water from 30 to 40 grams). Processing should be carried out before the barberry blooms, and after flowering. In a bush infected with wilting, the leaves and stems become sluggish and dry up. At the same time wilting begins from one side, and then gradually spreads throughout the plant. To prevent the disease from hitting the entire bush, it is necessary to cut infected stems in a timely manner. Also at the initial stage of the development of wilting, copper oxychloride or bordeaux liquid will help get rid of it. As a preventive measure in the spring bushes need to spray Bordeaux liquid. When infected with bacteriosis (bacterial carcinoma), tumors and cracks appear on the bush, and it begins to grow. In the event that bacteriosis has struck only the upper part of the stem, then it must be cut, while grabbing healthy tissue. However, if the cancer appeared on the lower part of the stem, which is located next to the trunk, then the whole bush will be infected. Infected areas should be cut off and destroyed, then the entire bush should be treated with Bordeaux mixture or other means containing copper.
Reproduction barberry cuttings
Preparation of cuttings produced in mid-June, with this procedure should be carried out early in the morning. Sheet plates, located at the bottom of the cuttings, must be removed, and those that are at the top - shortened by ½ part. Then, prepared cuttings should be immersed in a solution of a root growth stimulating agent (heteroauxin, epine, or root), where they should spend several hours. After that, they should be thoroughly rinsed with clean water and planted in a greenhouse in a wet ground mixture consisting of fertile soil, humus, peat and sand (2: 2: 2: 1). For the greenhouse you will need to make a removable dome, which must be transparent. In the greenhouse, the plants will be about half a month. The dome must be systematically removed, so that the cuttings can be ventilated. When their full rooting occurs, the shelter should be removed for good. The cuttings are planted on the training bed, where they should be grown for about 2 years, then they can be planted in a permanent place.
Barbaris reproduction by layering
In the springtime, on a bush among the lower branches, it is necessary to choose a fairly strong one-year stem. Then it should be pressed to the surface of the soil and put in a shallow (about 20 centimeters) groove, which should be done in advance. Fix the stem, then fill the groove with soil, while on the surface of the soil should remain only the upper part of the shoot. In the autumn, ready-rooted cuttings should be separated from the parent plant and transplanted for growing.
Reproduction of barberry by dividing the bush
This breeding method is excellent for undersized barberry species, while the plant must be at least 3–5 years old, and its root collar must be at a depth of at least 10 centimeters. In springtime, the bush must be dug, and then it is divided into several delenok, which should be approximately the same in size. In order to divide the root itself, you may need not only a pruner, but also a garden saw. Act extremely carefully, trying to cause the plant as little damage as possible. When the bush is divided, it is necessary to smear all the cuts with crushed charcoal, after which the delenki are planted in open ground. In the case when the stalks of the specimen begin to branch above the soil surface, this method of reproduction is not used.
Young specimens that have not yet turned 5 years old should be covered with spruce leaves for winter, especially if the species is evergreen. In the case when the copy is rather large, it should be covered for the winter in the same way as hydrangea or garden rose. To do this, the twine (rope) must be tightly pulled off the branches, after which a similarity of a cylinder of metal mesh is constructed around the bush, while its height should exceed the bush by 10 centimeters. Existing voids inside the constructed structure must be filled with dry fallen leaves, and then the cylinder itself must be wrapped with a covering material.
Types and varieties of barberry with photos and names
There are a large number of species and varieties of barberry, and sometimes it is not so easy for a gardener to make a choice. Choosing a particular type or variety, you need to know exactly what goal you are pursuing, and focus on it. In that case, if you are going to grow barberries to get berries, then for this you should opt for special types. If you need to decorate your garden or create a hedge, then this will suit other varieties and types. However, it should be remembered that there are such species that can not only become a wonderful decoration of the garden, but also give a rich harvest of tasty fruits.
Berberis vulgaris (Berberis vulgaris)
This species is the main in this genus. The height of such a shrub can reach 300 centimeters. The stems are brownish-gray, with three-part spines of two centimeters long on them. The webbed, thin leaf plates of elliptical shape have a ciliated-serrate edge. Their front side is painted in dark green, and the purl - in pale greenish-gray. The length of the racemose inflorescences reaches 6 centimeters, they consist of fragrant glossy flowers of yellow color. Flowering lasts 14–20 days. There are many rich red berries, which are about 15 mm in length. This species has many varieties: albo-variegata - leafy plates of white and variegated color, aureo-marginate - the foliage has a golden edging, atropurpureya - dark purple or red leaves. In the seedless form of barberry ordinary asperma, fruit is very easy to process.
There are several species that have certain similarities with the common barberry, for example: Provencal barberries (hybrid of ordinary barberry and Siberian barberry), spinous - view from the Himalayas, Canadian, Zimbold barberry, James barberry and Diels barberry.
Barberry Thunberg (Berberis thunbergii)
This is the most spectacular view among the deciduous barberries, which stands out for its decorative effect. This bush can vary in height from half a meter to a meter. There are horizontal branches. Saturated red or light yellow young stalks are arcuately deflected, and they branch strongly. Over time, they become brownish-purple or brown. Elastic thin spines are centimeter long. Graceful leaves have an obovoid or oblong shape, in length they reach no more than 30 mm. Their front side has a rich green color, and the reverse side is bluish, and in autumn they change their color to rich red. Flowers can be single or gathered in bunches. The inner surface of the petals is yellow, and the outer is red. Flowering lasts 7-14 days. Centimeter glossy elliptical berries have a coral-red color. They ripen in the first autumn days and become the main decoration of the shrub for several months. The fruit contains a large number of alkaloids, and therefore they have a bitter aftertaste, but on winter days they are happy to eat the birds. Plant and grow such a look is very simple. This shrub will be an excellent decoration for your garden plot. This species has many decorative forms: many-flowered (pluriflora), dark purple (atropurpurea), silver-edged (argenteo-marginata), etc.
The most popular varieties such as:
- Golden Ring - reaches a height of 300 centimeters, has a rounded crown. The length of the egg-shaped leaf plates is about 4 centimeters, they have a dark red-purple color, and a yellow border. In autumn, they change color to rich red. Centimeter flowers are collected in bunches (from 2 to 5 pieces), the outer surface of them is red, and the inner one is yellow. Ripening of glossy red coral fruits occurs in October.
- Red Pilar - columnar shape. In height, the bush reaches 150 centimeters, and its crown is about 45 centimeters wide. The leaf plates are purple-red, and they become saturated scarlet in the autumn.
- Orange rocket - columnar shape. The height of the bush is not more than 1.2 meters, and the width is 0.6 meters. Smooth small leafy plates of ovoid shape on the stems of this year have an orange color with a yellow border, while on last year's shoots they are painted in purple-red color. Against the background of greenery such a bush looks very elegant. In autumn, leaves are painted in various shades of red.
- Kornik - The height of this deciduous plant is about 150 centimeters. On the surface of light green leaf plates there are randomly-located white-cream specks of various outlines. It seems that the leaves are splattered with paint. In autumn, the green leaves change to scarlet-red. This variety is recommended to be planted next to conifers, roses, or other varieties of barberry.
Barberry of Ottawa (Berberis x ottawensis)
Such a decorative hybrid was born as a result of the crossing of the barberry of Thunberg and the atropurpurea of the barberry ordinary. This species is among the most beautiful representatives of this kind. Bush height varies from 150 to 200 centimeters. Outwardly, such a bush resembles an enlarged barberry of Thunberg, but at the same time the color of the leaf plates is similar to the purple-leaved form of the barberry common. So, the leaves are painted in a dark purple-pink color, which looks almost black in the sun. In autumn, the leaves become purple in color, while they adorn the plant for a long time. This species is winter-resistant, unpretentious, and also applies to fast-growing plants.
The most popular varieties such as:
- Auricom - Bush in height reaches 250 centimeters. The rounded leaves of five-centimeter length are rich red in spring and summer, and orange in autumn. The length of the racemes are about 5 centimeters, they consist of yellow-red flowers with a centimeter diameter. Saturated red berries.
- Superba - Bush can reach a height of 400 centimeters. The length of the rounded leaves is 3-5 centimeters, they have a dark red color with a bluish bloom. В осеннее время они сменяют свой цвет на разные оттенки красного и оранжевого. Кистевидные соцветия состоят из красно-желтых цветков. Плоды красные.
- Силвер Майлз — такой сорт при рассмотрении вблизи не выглядит привлекательным, но если смотреть издали, то он очень эффектен. На поверхности пурпурных листочков имеются беспорядочно расположенные штрихи грязно-серого цвета. Если смотреть на куст издали, то кажется, что он окрашен в сиреневый цвет.
It is also quite popular such barberry, as: Juliana, Beana, Tishler, Morrison, Wilson, greenish, willow, polyanthous, oriental, Iberian, setchatolistny similar, bluish-white, samshitolistny, notched or neokaymlenny, krupnokolyuchkovy, provincial, spring, Ili, Monetchaty, Korean, Tibetan, Siberian, transparent, krugopilchaty, twisted, Amur, Turkmen, entire, oblong, round-fruited, Asian, etc.
Drugs prepared using barberry should not be used to treat children under 12 years of age, people with individual intolerance, as well as people suffering from a complex form of hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver and gallstone disease. And during pregnancy, with postpartum or menopausal bleeding. Remember that the immature fruit contains poison!
The barberry ordinary is unpretentious, drought-resistant, frost-resistant and durable bush
The barberry ordinary is unpretentious, drought-resistant, frost-resistant and durable bush. With straight and very thorny branches, thorns in some varieties reach a centimeter. While the plant is young, and the branches are still thin - the bush is rather sprawling. But for a couple of years it grows so much that it becomes a dense, impassable barrier. It is this quality that makes barberry one of the best shrubs for green hedges. The adult barberry reaches three meters, but there are also dwarf varieties, literally 30 centimeters in height.
In landscape design and at the cottages, the barberry of Thunberg is used in separate plantings, in groups and as a hedge. Barberry is easy to cut, which makes it one of the best shrubs for topiary art.Barberry Care Video
Barberry love landscape designers not only for responsiveness to a haircut, but also an extraordinary decorative effect at any time of the year. With proper fit and care, the barberry is beautiful from spring to spring. In May, the bushes are literally covered with small yellow flowers gathered in clusters. During the summer months the bush is pleasing to the eye with bright green glossy foliage, and some ornamental varieties of motley, yellow and burgundy. Autumn is the time of the purple, in which the barberry bushes are painted. Bright red clusters of berries remain on the branches until the next spring.
How to plant a barberry
When choosing a barberry planting place, you should know one thing, but a very important rule. With all the simplicity, the barberry does not tolerate nearby groundwater and flooding. Therefore, you should not plant this plant in the valley. It is also worth considering that in the shade the foliage of ornamental varieties loses its unusual color and practically ceases to bear fruit.
With all the simplicity, barberry does not tolerate nearby groundwater and flooding
A landing pit, as for any plant, is prepared in advance. Dig a hole 40x40x40 centimeters, and add 200 grams of superphosphate, 100 grams of potassium sulfate and trace elements for berry crops. If the soil is too heavy, increase the planting pit and add humus. Give the soil a few days to stand in order for the earth to settle. And only then proceed to landing. Bushes are planted without deepening the root neck. After planting, watering and mulching the tree trunk is very abundant. When planting a hedge, the plants are planted in a staggered manner according to the scheme 25x25 centimeters.
The time of planting barberry depends on what seedling. Saplings with an open root system are planted in early spring, even before bud break. If this rule is observed, the plant takes root easily, and most importantly, it does not get sick later. The barberry planting is carried out in autumn in September, manually removing foliage. When planting at such times, the bush will have time to settle down in a new place. For plants purchased in a container, planting time does not matter much. The main thing is not to land on hot days. And after planting the first days to cover the plant from the bright sun.
The barberry ordinary is very unpretentious and after the correct landing it can do without our care altogether. But if we want to get the most decorative and regularly fruit-bearing plant, care is still needed.
The barberry ordinary is very unpretentious and after the correct landing it can do without our care
In the second year after planting, spring dressing is carried out with nitrogen and potash fertilizers, and at the end of August with superphosphate.
Barberry is a very fast growing shrub. An adult plant gives up to 30 centimeters of growth, and after a few years it will require regular pruning. The central skeletal branches thickening the bush should be removed. The barberry is cold-resistant, but in a harsh winter and it can be damaged, which will require spring pruning. The first two years in the winter young plants harbor burlap.
In the event of disease and pest damage, appropriate treatment is necessary. If the bush is damaged badly, it is better to cut the diseased branches and burn them. Even after a radical pruning, the barberry is quickly restored.Video about the care and cultivation of ornamental shrubs
In conclusion, a few more recommendations for the care of the barberry Thunberg
- If you have collectible varieties of barberry, if possible, cover the bushes for the winter.
- Barberry, like any honey, has a very strong aroma. For this reason, it is not necessary to arrange his massive landing close to home.
- All work with the plant should be carried out in very durable gloves.
Choosing a place for barberry
For planting barberry should be prepared on the garden plot unshadowed area without drafts. It is necessary to take into account the variety of plants, if a small area is required for a decorative barberry, then for a normal one, a more extensive territory will be required. In addition, it should be noted that the barberry does not tolerate stagnant moisture and groundwater proximitytherefore it is best to plant it on a small hill or on a slope.
If the selected barberry variety has motley leaves (with decorative spots), the plant is better. put on a sunny place. Since the brightness of such leaves will depend on the amount of sunlight falling on their surface. However, a sunny place is also better suited for an ordinary barberry, since it is under this condition that it will give the best yield.
Barberry feels good, adjacent to other cultures. But it is necessary to provide its root system with sufficient spaces, keeping the interval between it and another plant at least 150 cm. Otherwise, the bush will not be able to develop normally and will grow disproportionately.
For planting barberry need loose, light, non-acidic soilIf there is excessive acidity, limestone or dolomite flour should be added to the soil. If the site is chernozem or loamy soil, then before planting, it is necessary to add lime powder or peat to it and ensure good drainage. And in the peat soil need to add wood ash and spend liming.
Planting of seedlings produced in the spring, when the snow only thawed, before the buds of the plant bloom. Less landing occurs in the fall.
The holes for planting the plants are prepared in advance, 2-3 weeks before planting. For young seedlings (up to three years old) there is enough hole diameter and depth of 25 cm. Saplings of 4-7 years old will need a fossa 2 times more. To create a hedge, shrubs are planted in a trench 40-50 cm wide, 40 cm deep.
When the pits are ready, they need to make humus with sand or loose garden soil mixed with compost. In addition, wood ash can be added to the hole, which will subsequently protect the plant from fungus and pests. The seedling is neatly placed in a hole, sprinkled with soil (the ground should be slightly compacted on top). After that, the planted shrub needs to be watered abundantly, compounded with compost or peat along the trunk circle.
Shrub barberry, planting and care for that will be able to master and beginner gardener, does not require any difficult conditions of cultivation. Moreover, the care of conventional varieties and decorative almost the same. Therefore, having once grown one plant variety, you can safely plant other varieties, without fear that you will have to learn new rules of care.
Care for the barberry will be as follows:
- soil loosening
- fertilizer application
The plant is not very afraid of drying out the soil, but afraid of stagnant water. Therefore, only young seedlings should be watered (once a week). Adult plants are watered only during prolonged drought and no more than once a week. Watering should be done under the root, trying not to pour water on the leaves. Water for irrigation should not be cold.
For better growth, the soil near the barberry should be regularly loosened and weeds removed from the territory of the root circle. To facilitate the care of shrubs, the area next to it can be mulch sawdust or peat.
As for fertilizers, after planting the shrub needs to be fed with nitrogen fertilizer only a year later (before that time it will be enough fertilizer applied to the pit before planting). A subsequent feeding should be done even less often - 1 time in 3 years. If the plant is grown not only for beauty, but also for berry picking, then after flowering and after harvest, the barberry can be additionally fed with fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium.
High barberry varieties require pruning. The first is produced in the spring on a 1-year-old plant, removing half the length of the shoots. Then the shrub is pruned 2 times a year (at the beginning of June and at the end of August), removing dry and weak shoots, and also forming a neat crown.
Diseases and pests of barberry
Full-scale care for the shrub should also include an examination of the culture for the onset of symptoms of diseases that can affect the barberry. These include:
- powdery mildew,
- bacteriosis (bacterial cancer).
Powdery mildew, which is a fungal disease, can be recognized by education on the leaves, shoots and berries of white friable plaque. To get rid of this disease, the affected parts of the shrub must be removed and burned. After that, the plant should be treated with a one-percent solution of colloidal sulfur.
Rust most often the bushes growing near cereal crops. Recognize the infection can be on the characteristic bright red spots on the leaves. To rid the barberry from this disease, it should be treated with one-percent solutions of Bordeaux liquids or colloidal sulfur. Moreover, the treatment must be done 3 times, after waiting for each repeated procedure for 3 weeks. If time does not take action, the leaves of the shrub may begin to shrink and fall off.
Bacteriosis or otherwise bacterial cancer, is manifested by the appearance of tumors, cracks and growths on the plant. The affected parts of the plant must be cut and must be burned. After that, the barberry should be treated with a preparation containing copper (for example, Bordeaux mixture).
Good care should also include inspecting the plant for pests. Barberries are dangerous:
- barberry aphid
- peppered moth,
- barberry sawfly.
Shriveled, dried leaves will tell about the appearance of barberry aphid on the plant. You can fight it with a solution of household soap, which is prepared from 10 liters of water and 300 g of soap. Peppered moth dangerous to the usual barberry, because this pest is dangerous to the berries. It is possible to get rid of the moth and caterpillars of barberry sawfly with the help of chlorophos solution (1-3%).
Barberry, the cultivation and care of which even a novice gardener can carry out, can perfectly complement any plot. A variety of its varieties and types ensures its wide use as a fruit plant, and as a separate ornamental shrub, and as a shrub for hedges.