Adenium, or the desert rose, is the name of this beautiful flower, which recently appeared on the Russian flower market and instantly became popular with most lovers of houseplants. The flower was imported from Africa and is one of the most unusual and most beautiful flowering plants.
Adeniums are succulents, have simple leaves, which are located on small cuttings. The flower stores nutrients and water at the bottom of the trunk, in a special thickening. Adenium plant has funnel-shaped flowers that are collected in inflorescences. They may be red, white or pink. And also it is possible to meet two-color, terry and tricolor flowers. In the wild, succulent grows to a height of ten meters. At home, the height of adenium is 35 cm. The flowering period depends on the variety and type. May bloom in spring, summer or early fall. Adeniums are common in Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and on the island of Socotra.
It is no coincidence that the flower is very popular with flower growers. This plant combines exotic with unpretentiousness. In the warm season, blooming Adeniums with lush green leaves will decorate your room, and in the winter, an original bonsai will appear with thick, strong roots that resemble intertwined snakes.
The appearance of adenium depends on its type:
- Obesum is quite popular in floriculture and is considered the most unpretentious of all adeniums. This species has a large stalk, which is wide at the base, and narrows towards the top. Green leaves with a glossy shine, with a rounded or pointed tip.
- Multiflorum is a shrub, but under suitable conditions it can grow to a small three-meter tree. It grows pretty fast. Stems are brown in color, flowers are light, with a dark red border around their edges.
- Arabicum has a broad base of the trunk, and the leaves reach 20 cm in length and 12 cm in width. Flowers pink color.
- Socotranum may have a stem base up to 2.5 m in diameter. It is the slowest growing variety of adenium. Branches grow exclusively on the top of the plant. The leaves are green, in the middle there is a vein of white shade. Pink flowers can reach 14 cm in diameter.
- Somalense is a small tree five meters high. The leaves are narrow and long, in the middle there is a white vein. The flowers are five centimeters in size with different colors from pink to maroon.
- Boehmianum - shrub up to three meters in height with long and thick stems. Heart-shaped leaves of a grayish-green color. Pink flowers resemble the shape of a circle.
- Oleifolium has green leaves with a bluish tint. Pink flowers with a yellow or snow-white middle.
- Swazicum no more than one meter in height. Light green leaves are often twisted along the longitudinal axis. Flowers are up to 7 cm in diameter from pink to purple color.
- Variegated adenium is represented by a large number of different specimens. For example, a plant may have golden or multi-colored motley leaves, and there may be dark red veins in the center of the leaf.
Adenium propagation by cuttings
As a rule, the plant is propagated by cuttings or seeds. The process of propagation by cuttings is considered more complex. To begin to choose the upper shoots of adenium, a little more than ten centimeters long. Then they are dried using charcoal. Then the cuttings are planted in a mixture of sand and coal. For the formation of roots it is necessary that the temperature in the room was twenty-five degrees and bright lighting. Mostly roots appear thirty days after planting.
Growing adenium from seeds
Even a beginner florist can grow adenium. Seeds are purchased in flower shops that sell exotic plants. In fresh seeds, germination reaches one hundred percent, but the more time passes, the worse they sprout, so it is better to plant immediately after buying seeds. If the seeds are not sown, they are placed in a sealed package and put in a refrigerator for better germination. The seeds look like small sticks.
When choosing adenium varieties, it is necessary to remember that there is a greater or lesser probability of deviation of a new plant from the selected variety. The percentage of compliance depends on the characteristics of the flower. White and pink varieties are most stable in the manifestation of the properties of the parents. Accurate repetition of the color and shape of the mother plant is achieved only during vegetative reproduction. Growing adenium from seeds is best done in spring or summer. Before planting seeds, flower growers are advised to process them for accelerated germination. Seeds can be put in warm water or in a damp cloth and put in a warm place for two to four hours. During soaking may use different growth promoters, as well as fungicides.
In practice, most gardeners do not soak the seeds and at the same time receive excellent seedlings. There is no unequivocal answer to this question, so everyone decides for himself whether to soak the seeds or not. If you grow adenium for the first time, then you can soak a part of the seeds, and plant another one without soaking. Growing adenium from seeds allows you to get a beautiful thickened root and a compact crown.
The soil for sowing should be loose and breathable. The substrate can be made independently, for this you need sand, peat, vermiculite and perlite. All components must be thoroughly mixed and moistened a little. Perfect ready mix soil for orchids or succulents. A drain is required in the tank. Before planting seeds, the soil is treated with potassium permanganate solution.
It is desirable to arrange the seeds horizontally and sprinkle with earth about half a centimeter. The distance between the seeds should be three centimeters. Next, pour the seeds with warm water and close the container with adenium with plastic wrap. A couple of times a day is required to open the film for thirty minutes for airing. The soil during seed germination should be wet, but not wet. In order to grow adenium, it is necessary to observe the temperature regime in the range of 24-35 degrees. You can use a 40 watt lamp to heat a plant pot. When growing adenium from seed, sprouts appear after ten days, but there are cases when and after twenty days. Approximately four days after germination, sprouts acquire a bottle shape. Young plants are best to put on the south window sill. As soon as four true leaves appear, the succulent swoops. The grown plant is transplanted into a large container. Adenium grown from seeds, blooms in the second year.
Adenium: home care
Caring for a plant at home is quite specific, but not complicated. Adenium belongs to succulents, so it needs heat and light. In spring and summer, the succulent requires five hours of sunlight every day, the temperature should be 23-28 degrees. The window sill on the south side is perfect for him, but the flower grows well in bright ambient light. In the autumn and winter, adenium (photo below) is at rest and is gaining strength for flowering. In October, it is necessary to move the pot with adenium to a bright, cool place with an air temperature of 13–15 degrees. In the period of dormancy at the plant shoots cease to grow, the foliage partially or completely falls off. At this time, the flower does not require watering and feeding. Care must be taken to avoid drafts. Subject to the above conditions, adenium will wake up in March. If the plant is watered and kept warm, the rest period will last another couple of weeks.
Soil and plant nutrition
For adenium, land without peat is preferable, and the presence of coarse sand in the mixture should be negligible. Florists recommend ordinary leaf soil for adenium. For an adult plant, 50% of fine expanded clay or brick chips should be added to the soil. During the growing season, the plant should be fed one to two times in thirty days. To do this, you can use fertilizer for cacti, previously diluted with water. In addition, the usual mineral supplements will do, but they should be in low concentration. In the opposite case, the excess minerals can harm the flower.
The young plant is transplanted in the spring every year. An adult adenium transplant is required as needed when the roots do not fit in the old container, about every three years. Container for an adult plant should be shallow, but wide. The transplanted adenium is watered when damaged roots dry up. Plant transfer rules:
- carefully remove the plant from the tank,
- gently clean the root system of the earth,
- cut the long roots and remove the sick,
- dry and process the slices with fungicide,
- plant the plant in a different container with a new substrate.
Adenium, which care during the summer period is a constant moisture, watered when the earth dries out. Excess water adversely affects adenium, for this reason it is better to skip watering than to over-wet the soil. During the winter period, when the plant is at rest, it is not necessary to water the adenium. When leaving hibernation, minimum moisture is required. The first serious watering of adenium should be made only fourteen days after the appearance of the kidneys. Adenium does not require spraying.
Pruning and plant appearance
The plant is possible to form for every taste. Florists recommend carrying out all operations during active growth. First you need to decide and decide what kind of plant you want, since the depth of pruning depends on it. Cauterization of the growth center makes it possible to get branching in the upper part of the trunk. Pruning a plant in the middle of a branch will show branching around the cut. Deep pruning will provide an opportunity to get abundantly branching from caudex (lower wide part of the trunk). It must be remembered that pruning should be done below the cotyledonary leaves. In addition, pruning adenium postpones the flowering period. The roots and branches of the plant can not be cut in winter. There are several pruning methods for producing unique adenium:
- Circumcision of any parts of the succulent.
- Splicing of several adeniums.
- Weaving roots and branches.
- Direction of branches with soft wire.
When working with a flower, you must take special care, because its juice is poisonous, so the use of gloves is mandatory. At the end of pruning, it is advisable to wash your hands with soap and water. The appearance of adenium (photo above) is completely dependent on your desires. You can make a plant with a thin trunk or in the form of a ball with a large number of branches, or vice versa. It all depends on imagination and courage. Some species do not require crown formation and branch on their own.
Diseases and pests
Diseases in plants in most cases occur due to improper watering. Basically, the root system is sick, as it is very sensitive to the wet and cold substrate. To eliminate these troubles, apply a drained, instantly drying soil mixture. The cause of the disease may be excess fertilizer. A significant part of the varieties of adenium grows well, so fertilizing should be used only to replenish nutrients that are absorbed fairly quickly into the soil.
Scaly insects and spider mites are considered major pests. Mites in most cases affect the upper parts of adenium, such as buds, tops of young shoots and leaflets. If you notice a change in the appearance of a flower or a new leaf, then, most likely, spider mites appeared in them. In order to avoid these troubles, it is necessary to carry out seasonal preventive treatments against pests.
Possible problems when growing plants
Adenium at home may not bloom. This is most likely due to incorrectly chosen soil, lack of pruning and dormancy in winter. The leaves turn yellow and fall off during drafts, hypothermia, diseases of the root system, as the rest period approaches. Being close to adenium with moisture-loving plants leads to fungal infections. With excess moisture in the plant may begin rotting stem.
Adeniums have won the hearts of most flower growers around the world. Despite the exotic appearance, the flower perfectly adapts to home conditions, not particularly fastidious in the care. Compliance with the rules of the content of the succulent in the rest period will reward with beautiful flowers.
Soil for sowing adenium seeds
The soil prepared for the germination of adenium seeds should be loose, nourishing, sterile and permeable to air and moisture. In no case can not use a dense soil, because it will interfere with growth and will contribute to the accumulation of excess moisture. The selection of the soil must be treated carefully, suitable neutral or slightly acidic soil.
Flower growers try to use ready-made soil, because it has the following advantages:
- special assignment,
- nutrient reserve
- the content of the main components
- content of additional components.
If you do not want to use the prepared soil, then prepare the soil from the following components:
- 50% coconut fiber,
- 25% of deciduous humus soil,
- 20% claydite to 3 millimeters,
- from 5% to 10% perlite.
The mixture used for sowing the seeds of adenium should consist half of the soil for succulents, which is suitable for cacti, or universal soil. The second half for the preparation of the correct soil should consist of the following leavening agents:
- vermiculite with perlite,
- large-sized river sand or brick dust,
- crushed charcoal, which is desirable to sterilize,
- crushed clay,
- Foam small balls made from a mashed piece of packaging from household appliances.
Capacity for landing adenium can be absolutely any. The main thing is the presence of a plurality of drainage holes, so that excess moisture is removed. The best option is the cultivation of adenium in a wide low capacity. A big advantage would be if the tank has a lid, then this tank will become a kind of miniature greenhouse.
At the bottom of the tank is laid drainage, consisting of foam, expanded clay, bricks and fragments of coal.
When planting several varieties at once, cassettes are well suited. When the flowers are still young, it is preferable to plant them in deep pots, it is better to plant adult specimens not in deep, but wide containers. When using plastic pots, as well as clay earthen mixture must be selected correctly, as the irrigation scheme.
How to prepare the seeds before planting
Seeds of adeniums are prepared for planting as follows. To start, take a container with warm water, in which you must soak the seeds of adenium. The water should not cool down in the soaking process, the temperature should be maintained, it is possible to put the tank near the heater. For a couple of hours, the seeds will be soaked.
Then, in solution with any fungicide, you can hold the seeds for half an hour. The best choice would be a weak solution of potassium permanganate, Fitosporin (10 drops per 200 milliliters) or Zircon (4 drops per liter of water). For proper growth "Energin" (2 drops per 100 grams of water) or "Epin" (4 drops per liter of water). After these treatments, the seeds are ready for sowing.
Sowing Adenium Seeds
Sowing seeds at home is carried out as follows:
- The bottom of the tank is filled with a drainage layer, which may consist of small pieces of foam, brick chips, expanded clay, pieces of charcoal, small pebbles,
- Then half of the planting mixture is laid out, which should remain loose, not compacted,
- Seeds from above do not need to be buried, they are simply laid out flat on top of the planting mixture at a distance of at least 3 centimeters from each other,
- Sprinkle with a centimeter layer of earth mixture,
- Watering the planted seeds is not necessary. It should only be moistened with warm water using a spray bottle. In extreme cases, you can pour with a teaspoon,
- Then the containers are covered with a lid, if any, or a plastic bag with polyethylene. You can cut off the top of a plastic bottle, but food film is best, because it will tightly cover containers and create a greenhouse effect,
- Mark planted varieties.
Conditions for germinating seeds
Если выполнить в точности все нижеописанные условия, то первые всходы можно будет уже заметить через 3 дня после посадки семян. В среднем на то, чтобы семена взошли, в домашних условиях понадобится около 2 недель, в некоторых случаях срок может быть продлён до месяца. Время появления всходов напрямую зависит и от посаженного сорта.
- Место, куда Вы поставите ёмкости, должно быть тёплым,
- In the morning and in the evening, such a small greenhouse is aired for half an hour,
- Illumination for the germination of seeds must be bright,
- The temperature at which the seeds germinate should be at least 25 degrees Celsius. The best place to use places with temperatures ranging from 30 to 35 degrees Celsius. If the temperature is below the set, the seeds will start to rot.
After all the seeds have sprouted, the lid or film is removed from the containers, otherwise the sprouts will rest against the film and grow into curves.
Care of Adenium seedlings
Adenium seedlings are very fond of sunlight, so maintaining proper lighting at home is very important. But it is also impossible to overdo it; sunlight should not fall on the adenium directly for more than five hours a day, otherwise sunburn will begin to appear on the plant. To avoid this, after the departure of the winter, start gradually planting the plant. In winter, these flowers do not require constant watering, it is better to water adenium infrequently and little.
During the spring period after the appearance of adenium buds, water the plant after a couple of weeks.
In the summer, adeniums should sometimes be taken out into the courtyard outside to take a bath. And be sure to put adeniums under an awning, otherwise during a sudden start of the rains you will not have time to protect them. Regular watering in the summer should be only after the ground is completely dry.
If the air temperature is below 15 degrees Celsius where the plant stands, then watering can be stopped completely or watered very rarely. Otherwise, the plant may die if the root system is supercooled.
Only in the period of rest, when not only the temperature regime, but also the lighting, the air temperature can be from 10 to 15 degrees Celsius.
When spraying be careful, use a small spray. When adeniums begin to bloom, watering should be such that water will never fall on the flowers.
Top-dressings of plants should be made no more than once a month in the spring, summer periods and in the beginning of autumn. Fertilizers are used, as for indoor plants. The concentration of the solution should not exceed 2%.
It is impossible to plant seeds in a large container right away, because it will not grow quickly and the roots will rot. Therefore, in any case, as they grow, adenium plants will have to dive into larger containers.
During the year, transplanting plants from one container to another will be three times. After the first leaves of the plant appear, the first pick is done at home. Then dive seedlings continues every 3 months. Other reasons for diving can be: diseases of the roots (due to waterlogging and hypothermia), with improper soil mixture, with cramping.
When picking up seedlings, the following procedures should be carried out:
- A few days before you plan a transplant, it is watered. The transplant should be carried out after the earth has dried,
- If the roots are damaged, sprinkle the wounds with powdered charcoal powder,
- If the plant is already quite adult, then the earthen clod does not move, otherwise the root system may be damaged. When picking young seedlings, it is desirable to get rid of an earthy coma,
- Watering after picking should be as follows: for young plants after 3 or 4 days, for adults after 2 or 3 days,
- After picking the plant is not sprayed,
- Used soil mixture should be loose. For example, you can use turf or leaf land, a small amount of charcoal or coarse sand,
- The bottom of the pot or other container should be covered with a good drainage layer.
After picking the plant must be properly cut. During the beginning of the growing season in spring, adeniums are pruned. This is not a mandatory procedure, but if you want to form a tree from a plant, then prune no more than one third of the side branches.
You will need and feeding, because adeniums are very fond of fertilizer. During flowering or during the growing season, top dressing is carried out no more than 2 times a month. Soluble fertilizers should be applied very slowly, but the solution of organo-mineral fertilizers should be fed constantly.
Phosphorus-potassium will help the plant to harden will affect favorably on flowering. You can use fertilizers for violets and streps for regular fertilizing up to three times a month. Fertilizers for succulents and cacti can be used at the beginning of flowering and during the growing season.
If in the first season the plant is transplanted three times, then for adult plants, frequent transplants are not needed. In the second and third year, the plant spikes twice a year. Then it is already possible to transplant an adult plant only after five years, when the roots become crowded and the plant growth may stop, but it’s best not to bring it up to that point.
It is not necessary to spray the foliage, as well as to water regularly. Even if you accidentally forget about the next watering, nothing terrible will happen, because adeniums are resistant to drought. They can grow in conditions where nothing grows anymore.
The main two factors in further care are compliance with the temperature and the presence of the necessary light.
Conditions and preparation of seeds for planting adenium
Adeniums are heat-loving plants, therefore, their germination requires a high temperature and humidity.
Experienced connoisseurs of this room culture recommend keeping the temperature around 30–35 ° C. In this case, the seeds quickly and amicably pecked.
If the air is cooled to 28–29 ° C and lower, the percentage of germination decreases, and seedlings that have already appeared may rot of the tender root system.
The second prerequisite for growing adenium from seeds is a properly selected soil that provides full access to the roots of moisture and oxygen. At the same time the substrate should not contain disease-causing fungi and pests.
Before sowing, adenium seeds are sometimes advised to soak in warm water. However, there are opponents of this method, who believe that moisture provokes the development of rot on seedlings. But it simultaneously activates the development of the embryo.
How to act, decides the florist. But if you use not just water, but fungicides and growth stimulants, you can get rid of the problem of growing adenium before planting, as in the photo above, a defect in the development of the root system.
Pre-sowing treatment will help to neutralize the spores of fungi deposited on the seed surface and support the growth of the future indoor flower.
To do this, the seeds for half an hour are immersed in a pink solution of potassium permanganate or are treated with an available complex fungicide, for example, with effective and plant-safe phytosporin. After that, for a couple of hours, planting material is immersed in a solution of growth hormone.
Soil preparation for growing adenium from seeds
The best substrates for adenium are easily permeable to moisture and air. They are perfectly structured and do not clog after several waterings. Dense soil prevents the growth of the plant, contributes to the accumulation of excess moisture. Therefore, during the preparation for sowing, it is necessary to carefully select the appropriate mixture.
Today flower growers willingly use ready-made soils, which differ:
- by appointment
- supply of nutrients
- a set of basic and additional components.
At home, it is convenient to use peat or coconut-based substrates for adenium seeds, but for greater lightness and airiness, it is useful to loosen them additionally.
The mixture for planting adenium should consist only half of the soil for succulents or universal soil. The second half is baking powder, for which you can take:
- perlite or vermiculite,
- large river sand,
- crushed charcoal,
- the smallest fraction of expanded clay,
- foam balls, which can be obtained by stretching a piece of packaging from household appliances.
Capacity for planting adenium seeds can be any. The main thing is that at its bottom there are many drainage holes that freely let in excess moisture.
Conveniently, if the container has a lid, then at the time of growing adenium at home, it turns into a miniature greenhouse. A drainage layer of expanded clay, fragments of coal, foam or brick is laid on the bottom. Over poured the substrate, which moderately moisturize. Now comes the turn of the seed.
The natural habitat of adenium is the stony desert areas of the African continent. For the extraordinary beauty of flowering here it is often called the "rose of the desert." In nature, there are 7 types of adenium, most of which are grown in a room.
Among fans, specimens with large thickenings of the base of the trunk, so-called “caudexes” or “bottles,” are especially valued. In them, the plant stores water and nutrients, and it is they who give the flower such an unusual look.
In nature, adeniums are capable of reaching a height of 2 m. Under room conditions, they are miniature trees. Flowers bloom on them before the leaves. Buds are white, red, pink and cream. Very often there is a combination of light and dark tones.
Attention! The plant is very poisonous, so it is recommended to work with it in gloves. For the same reason, in an apartment where there are small children, it is better not to start it.
Most often in the nurseries adeniums are propagated by cutting. With this method, all species characteristics are preserved, but one significant drawback is noted - caudex is growing very slowly. Therefore, lovers are trying to propagate their seeds.
How to grow a plant from seed
Purchase material for planting adenium in our time is not difficult. Offers can be found online or in stores. Suitable seeds are colored light brown and are tubular in shape. It should be borne in mind that six months after collection, their germination is greatly reduced.
The rules for growing are as follows:
- Sow better in spring or early summer.
- Seeds are recommended to prepare for sowing, soaking them for several hours in warm water. However, some lovers consider this technique superfluous.
- The substrate for sowing should be light, waterproof and breathable. You can buy ready-made, intended for succulents and add one or more baking powder there: sand, vermiculite, charcoal, small clay.
- For landing, you can use any capacity. The main thing is to make holes at its bottom to drain excess water.
- When sowing, seeds are not buried in the ground. They are simply laid out on the surface and slightly pressed.
- After the ground is sprayed from a spray bottle and cover the container with a film. Airing is arranged once a day.
- Both during preparation and after sowing it is very important to maintain the ambient temperature in the region of +30 .. + 35 ° C. At lower rates, seeds may not climb.
Tip You can use a heating pad or a shoe dryer to pre-heat the crop tank, having previously protected the instruments from moisture.
- The container with the plants sprouted in 4-5 days is moved to the light window-sill.
- After the formation of 2 leaves, they are seated in separate pots.
- Adeniums grown from seeds bloom in 1.5-2 years.
This way you can grow a lot of “desert roses” at a time. And from the financial side it will be quite inexpensive.
How to care for seedlings
Caring for adenium is not complicated and comes down to the following work:
- correct watering
- maintaining the right temperature and light.
Water the plants only with a noticeable drying of the soil. Adeniums are by nature desert dwellers and for them waterlogging is more terrible than drought.
From the general capacity, young plants are seated only when they begin to touch each other with leaves. As they grow, they are transplanted into larger pots. The room temperature should be above + 25 ° C. Already at + 20 ° C, the plant slows down growth and refuses to bloom. To light adeniums are also demanding, as well as to temperature. It is better to keep them on the south windows, and during the short daylight hours to illuminate with luminescent or special phyto-lamps.
How to form caudex
Caudex is a very interesting “detail” of adenium, giving the plant an unusual look. It is formed with age itself in the form of a bottle, but if desired, other forms can be obtained. To work will require:
- grown seedling with 3-4 leaves,
- landing tank
- small plastic circle
- garden pitch,
- sharp knife.
Form caudex as follows:
- Seedling carefully removed from the soil.
- Disinfected with a knife, pruned the taproot and the top of the plant with their subsequent treatment with garden pitch.
- The plant is set on a plastic circle. The roots are spread over it in the desired direction.
- Sprinkled with a small layer of earth and lightly rammed.
- Water the plant only a day after the procedure.
The formation process is rather lengthy. It may take several months or even years. But the result is worth it. Specialists are able to create real masterpieces in the form of figures of animals, birds, etc.
Adenium is no longer a rarity. It can be purchased at the store or ordered online. However, for true lovers to independently grow a miracle tree from seed is a matter of principle. And to make it quite simple, there would be a desire.
Before planting, adenium seeds can be soaked for 3-4 hours (optional).
Here you need to be careful - do not leave seeds longer than 4 hours.
Otherwise, negative consequences may occur: decay, germination rate decreases.
Water should be warm all the time, you can add potassium permanganate to it, growth stimulants (Epin, Ribav), fungicides - prevent rotting (Phytosporin).
You can plant seeds without prior preparation.
The soil should be loose and breathable.
Most of the, 50-60% is universal soil (Terra vita - one of the best brands).
Everything else is baking powder.
Better to use perlite, as it absorbs excess moisture when it is poured, and in case of a lack of moisture, on the contrary, it gives up accumulated water to flowers.
Vermiculite in large quantities is dangerous, as it helps to retain moisture in the pot for a long time.
You can use a little charcoal, brick chips, foam balls.
At the bottom of the landing tank put drainage (small clay, pieces of brick). Next, we fall asleep ground. Lay out the seeds flat, not sprinkling them, but slightly pressing down with your finger. Now sprinkle the soil with water from a spray bottle or pour a teaspoon.
Place the container in a bag or cover with a lid. Each adenium variety must be tagged. If there are several varieties in the same bowl, then we put toothpicks with the names of the varieties attached to them.
Care for small adenium
At the very beginning of growth, the seedlings are pulled up, and then begin to get fat.
For the normal development of them need a lot of light and heat. Still, these are plants from the desert.
The shells from the seeds of adenium can get stuck on the top of the plant, it should be soaked from a spray bottle and carefully removed with tweezers.
High temperatures are no longer needed, 20–25 ° C will suffice. In summer, the seedlings will have enough light on the windowsill (southern or eastern window), but in the winter they will need to illuminate the fitolamp.
Greenhouse should not be removed immediately, otherwise it may be difficult to moisten the soil.
Advantages and disadvantages of this method
The advantage of reproduction of adenium by sprouting from seeds is the rapid growth of caudex - a thickened stem of the plant, which is formed from the root system and, depending on the owner's imagination, can take a variety of forms. Adenium, grown from seed, immediately begins to branch extensively and quickly grows.
In addition, by showing imagination, from the first months of life, you can simulate an amazing form of a pet.
But, unfortunately, getting fresh seeds is very difficult! But it is the shelf life of the planting material that affects the germination of the plant.
Therefore, buying from an online store is not safe: you can not only purchase a variety and color that is different from the desired one, but also not get any result from your subsequent labor.
Packages on which the period of storage of seeds in several years is indicated, it is better not to take. Collected no earlier than a year - this is the only suitable option.
We also offer to learn how to propagate adenium cuttings, from this article.
The composition of the soil for sowing
Planting soil must be breathable and nutritious.. Acidity - weak or neutral. Peat, as too dense and preventing the germination of the root system, is not suitable. Ideal planting mix includes:
- Coconut fiber - 50%.
- Deciduous land - 25%.
- Inert baking powder (perlite or vermiculite) - 5-10%.
- Expanded clay of the smallest fraction (or broken brick) - 20% (up to 3 mm).
- A handful of shredded polystyrene chips.
Since the first component is not always found, it can be replaced with a primer for succulents. Специалисты рекомендуют смеси «Kekkila», «Morris Green» и «Greenworld Kakteenerde», имеющие сбалансированную кислотность и обеспечивающие отличную аэрацию корней.
В них добавляется измельченный древесный уголь и прокаленный на огне крупный речной песок.
Как выбрать и подготовить семенной материал?
Во избежание загнивания сеянцев обязательно нужна предпосевная обработка семян, которая поможет нейтрализовать закрепившиеся на поверхности споры болезнетворных грибов и поддержать будущий рост.
Seeds can be soaked in distilled warm water for a couple of hours, but a weak solution of potassium permanganate is best used (for 30–40 minutes) or suspended using crushed coal. This is followed by treatment with a biological or systemic fungicide (for example, phytosporin). It is useful to hold the seeds in a solution of growth stimulant (Energin, Epin) or zircon for 2-3 hours.
Below in the photo you can see how the seeds of adenium plant look.
How to sow and germinate?
When choosing between single and group sowing, it is important to remember the following:
- Sowing in one container is faster and allows the plants to grow roots alive, but it requires a lot of space both on the windowsill and under the artificial lighting of the beams.
- In the second version there are no many cups and containers, which saves space. However, such crowding leads to a weakening of sprouts: the strong begin to stretch in anticipation of the weak, and you can miss the moment of transplanting into separate pots (2-3 months after sowing).
Step-by-step landing instructions
Planting of adenium seeds is carried out in several stages.:
- A drainage layer is placed on the bottom of the selected container, on top of it - half of the moderately moistened substrate.
- The seeds are laid out flat, at a distance of 3 centimeters from each other, slightly deepen and sprinkled with the remaining part of the mixture 5-10 mm thick.
- The container is covered with a lid (you can use half a plastic bottle, a bag or food film) and put it in a well heated place. For example, to a central heating battery or heater. In the pan poured a few teaspoons of water.
- In the mornings and evenings, the lid is removed for half an hour airing. Every day the soil is sprayed from a spray bottle. Drafts should not be allowed, as well as direct sunlight.
- Seedlings appear during the first week, most often in 2-3 days. After sowing seeds, they need to be illuminated with a fluorescent lamp 24 hours a day and regularly pour water into the pan.
Gradually, the backlight is reduced to 18, then to 16, 14 and 12 hours a day. Bottom heating is maintained (you can use a heating pad, drying shoes, any other means at hand).
How else can you sow the seeds of adenium is described in this video:
Plant suitable southern or southeast window. The more light it receives, the more abundant and brighter the flowering will be. Adult leaves are not afraid of the most burning sun rays, but young need to pritenyat at noon.
Summer watering is abundant and frequent, when the topsoil dries out, about 2-3 times a week. In the winter - rare, only when all mix in a pot dries. Water is used filtered, warm. Temperature.
The higher the ambient temperature, the greater should be the humidity and vice versa. Optimum mode: 25-30 degrees in the summer, in the winter at 16-20 the plant sheds leaves and goes into hibernation. Top dressing.
Fertilizer is applied only during the period of active development. Organic fertilizers based on pigeon or chicken manure are used, as well as complex mineral fertilizers (Monophosphate, Kemira).
Young plants (up to 3 years) are fed with fertilizers with a large amount of nitrogen, age - with a small one.
If the plant is healthy and the conditions are optimal - mineral fertilizers are used once a week (1/4 of the recommended concentration), organic - once in 3-4 weeks (also 1/4).
In other cases, top-dressing - once a month in the same amounts. An hour before applying the plant is watered and sprayed. Fertilizer should not get on the ground parts of the plant. Foliar nutrition is rarely used, with a clear deficiency of trace elements. Pruning.
- Forming a beautiful crown.
- Activating plant growth. This procedure is especially necessary for plants older than 5 years.
For young plants, from 3 months to 3 years, it is better to pinch, i.e. remove 2-3 centimeters apex or branches on the side. Before pruning, adenium is washed in warm clear water, the cut is made at a distance of 1-1.5 cm from caudex.
The diseased parts of the plant are removed to healthy tissue, and the cutting tool is disinfected in alcohol. Abundant secretion of juice to stop after 1-2 days. The minimum cutting height is 10 centimeters above the ground. Very thin shoots, emerged after pruning, plucked.
It also removes curves, soft, rubbing stalks together. To stimulate growth can be removed and too thick. Hemp after pruning should not remain. The cut place is air-dried for several minutes and smeared with garden pitch, special balm or paste. The absence of putty is not critical, but may affect the healing of the cuts.
In order to avoid getting the juice in the eyes or mouth of pets and babies to the plant is not allowed.
Trimming and nipping during the rest period (winter and autumn) are not done. Suitable months are March-April, simultaneously with the transplant of a plant.
What to do if he refuses to give buds?
The lack of flowering in the fifth year of life of the plant suggests that the recommendations for the care were violated. Why does not the plant bloom? Possible reasons:
- Lack of light. The restriction applies only to weakened individuals and peaked seedlings.
- Low temperature.
- Incorrectly chosen planting pot (a large pot causes active root growth and there is not enough power to bloom).
- Shaped pruning not carried out.
- The plant overfeeds, as a result of which it grows excessive foliage and depletes the root system.
- Wrong watering or excessively cold water.
- In the pot was planted another plant. Adenium does not like neighbors nearby.
- Heredity - surprisingly it sounds, but in some plants it also has an effect. If the pollination was between the early bloomed “parents,” then their child, sprouted from the resulting seeds, will bloom too early.
Adenium is grown by seeds, cuttings, layering, grafting method on the basis of oleander or the same type of plant.
Basics of successful cultivation at home the young shoots of Adenium are:
- The ability to provide a comfortable temperature
- Sufficient lighting,
- Optimum daylight hours (12 hours),
- Strictly dosed watering,
- Air-permeable soil
- Presence of drainage layer
- Drainage holes in the pot.
Three options soil for adeniums:
- Peat from coconut (3 h.), Vermiculite (1 h.), Humus (1 h.), Foam plastic (2 h.), Peel from earthen nuts (1 h.), Small crushed stone (1 h.).
- Solid fractions of crushed stone or similar material (8 h.), Coconut peat (1 h.), Vegetable fiber (1 h.).
- Ready soil for cacti.
Types, size of flowerpots:
- Pot Material does not affect the development of adenium.
- Tanks should have drainage holes.
- Until the plants are three years old, each copy preferably transplanted annually, choosing small in diameter, moderately deep tanks.
- In parallel, you can engage in giving an interesting form, protruding above the soil roots.
- Mature plants can be kept in wide, small vases.
Temperature and watering
Temperatures comfortable for the plant and watering:
- Summer: at 23–38 С ° (irrigation of foliage on hot days, moderate systematic watering as soon as the soil dries out completely after the last wetting, daily moderate watering on days when it is hot and stuffy around the clock).
- Winter: at 13–18 С ° (poor watering when detecting a decrease in elasticity in the lower part of the trunk — caudex), at 10–13 ° C (watering should be reduced to a minimum, otherwise the root system will rot).
Cultivation from seed (sowing rules)
Adenium seeds have shorter service life - After purchasing the planting material, do not tighten it with germination. The optimal period of planting adenium seeds: from April to the end of August.
The effort required to grow seedlings of Adenium is paid off by obtaining specimens with high decorativeness caudex.
For Adenium, growing from seed at home begins with pre-prepared tank with soilconsisting of sand, crushed granules of charcoal and verimkulita.
It is permissible to replace the last component with small fraction gravel, pretreated with boiling water or 20 minutes later in a red-hot oven for disinfection.
Before placing the seeds in the ground capacity with him need keep at least 12 hours in a warm place, to achieve a good warm-up of the soil mixture.
Having distributed the seeds on the ground in the grooves or individual shallow excavations, sowing Adenium lightly sprayed, and then sprinkled with soil. But no thicker than 3-4 mm. Crib is covered with plastic wrap to create greenhouse conditions.
Seed containers should be kept warm around the clock.
It is highly desirable that the temperature around and inside the pot was not below 32 ° C.
More low rates (lower limit of 22 ° C) will increase the risk rot development inside seeds and their subsequent death, delayed the process of hatching survivors.
Under favorable conditions sprouts appear in 3–7 days. However, some seeds can germinate three times longer.
Young sprouts sprayed with warm water as the soil dries around them, air twice a day.
At the end of two months from the date of germination of seeds, young adenium is ready for transplantation. If there is enough space in the tank, and the seedlings are green, “cheerful”, they actively increase growth and gain volume in the “waist”, then can be kept in the manger longer.
Seeds Adenium, photo
Planted grown seedlings can be in a separate container with the same soil as in the greenhouse. Not terrible to the plant and the change of soil on the finished store soil for cacti.
Having transferred the seedling of Adenium together with a clod of earth to a slightly moist new place, the first meager irrigation is done no earlier than a week later.
Even transplanting by plant transfer stress.Therefore, you need to take care of the clock support for the optimum temperature near the pet, to eliminate the additional adverse load on him.
How do Adenium seeds germinate?
Healthy seeds can start souring. from the third day after sowing. First, a hook appears from the ground. A straightened sprout resembles a dense, light green carrot shape with a pair of tiny leaves on top.
When growing Adenium from seed, when will it bloom?
The color of flowers may differ from the characteristic of the buds of adenium-parent, as hereditary characteristics are not always transmitted to the seeds. The first buds appear on a two-, four-year plantif he is provided with proper care.
- An established stalk may please with flowering in the coming year.
- The plant will become a clone of the parent and keep the color and shape of flowers.
- Cuttings take root not always.
- In specimens grown from cuttings, sometimes difficult to form volumetric caudex increased decoration.
Material for grafting adenium cuttings receive after trimming the parent bush. It is more rational to take material from the plant at the beginning of summer, after installing a stable warm weather - sufficient lighting and a warm atmosphere increase the percentage of rooted plants.
Adenium cuttings can be of any length, but the easiest 12 - 15-centimeter “sticks” take root with a few leaves.
Not everyone Solutions for early rooting can be used for adeniums. Therefore, it is better to give the cutting to dry in air. 30 minutesand then gently stick it into the ground centimeters 5 deep, and then cover capacity from transparent polyethylene, a plastic half-liter glass, a jar of glass.
Important conditions of care rooting cuttings:
- Soil (2 parts of perlite with 1 part of vermiculite or 2 parts of pure sand, 2 parts of sphagnum, 1 part of perlite) should be steadily slightly wet, but not wet,
- The plant should be provided with heat (25–35 ° C) and light,
- Use with irrigation any solutions with stimulants. can't.
How to root Adenium? For rooting cuttings need from crescent to three. The root system of branches, separated from the bush and planted in the ground in warm weather.
If the procedure is carried out in early spring or late autumn, outside a special greenhouse, then under a pot with cuttings you need spread mat with heating function. Either place the container directly on the line of the heating system near the window.
Florist available two ways vaccinations:
It is possible that the first vaccination option more rational and less traumatic for the plant.
- no need to split the stock place on the parent bush,
- the graft itself has not two, but one cut (flat),
- cut cuttings tight to the stock.
In addition, the place of flat-grafting looks more aesthetic, with its help on one "stump" you can plant cuttings from different bushes.
For the classic V-shaped graft from the rootstock remove the apical part. The remaining stump is cleaved, and a previously prepared cutting is inserted into the resulting gap, the lower edge of which is cut symmetrically from two sides.
Mandatory conditions for a successful vaccination in any way:
- the rootstock and the scion must be healthy
- on the graft should be at least one live kidney,
- grafted shrub and plant, which gave the cutting, should be in growth,
- edge trimming needs to be done disinfected instrument,
- grafted plant need to contain in comfortable conditions,
- the junction must remain motionless.
For a flat graft:
- Vetka stock should be larger diameterthan graft (or the same).
- Connect the ends of the plant should have straight cut.
- After connecting the formed branch neatly wrapped with polyethylene, and then securely inoculate, using adhesive tape, electrical tape.
When do they start blooming after vaccination?
Flowering varietal adeniums and vaccinations comes after a few months.
Adenium is a very “grateful” plant. For a simple care and warmth, both soulful and very real, he will definitely thank for his exuberant flowering. And experienced growers experimenters will allow buds of different color on one branched bush.
When adenium from seed blooms
Flowering can happen no earlier than 8 months after germination. On average, after 2 years, sometimes after 3-4 years. Much depends on the type and variety.
Flowering depends on the conditions of. The necessary heat and sun, a small pot and the right ground.
Crown formation: step by step instructions
Adenium with one crown grows strictly upwards and is not very attractive. Branching and density of the crown can be achieved in several ways. Consider them:
- Pinching and trimming. Approximately in the third month of adenium life, during transplantation we cut off the top of the plant, by 0.5-1 cm. Also we trim the main root. This will lead to the emergence of lateral branches of the crown and the growth of lateral roots.
- Weaving. Suitable for cuttings, as they usually grow tall and thin. Place several copies together and braid in the form of a pigtail. Usually three plants. All this fasten for a while plumbing tape.
- Garden. Suitable for cuttings, because they have no caudex. From 4 to 8 plants of different varieties of adenium must be planted in one pot, this will give the composition density. The flowering of such a garden will be bright, variegated and diverse.
Vaccination for adenium is more of a breeding method. Since the seeds do not always preserve the variety, and when grafting it is guaranteed. It also saves space when 3-4 varieties can be grafted onto one caudex.
The point is not very simple and is suitable only for experienced flower growers. Here is how it is executed:
This section contains a list of the difficulties that can be encountered in growing adenium:
- Excessive watering, brown spots appear on leaves, they fall, caudex may rot. Reduce watering. When rot only cuttings.
- Underfill. Caudex wrinkles. We must not forget about watering.
- Pest Control: spider mite, mealybug, etc. treatment with acaricides and insecticides will help (Fitoverm, Sunmite, Aktara, etc.).
- It grows poorly or drawn out. Unsuitable conditions of detention. Lack of light and heat, poor soil.
- Does not bloom. Most likely, not yet time. Correct the conditions of detention, do not forget to feed in the summer.
Growing a desert rose at home is not at all difficult. Under the conditions of detention, this exotic plant will delight households with an unusual appearance and bright colors.