The exotic beauty and sophistication of orchids amazes people even far from floriculture. Is it difficult to tame a tropical beauty, and how to care for an orchid, so that it pleased both with lush greens and luxurious inflorescences?
Many fans of indoor floriculture, who have not grown these unusual plants before, can get the wrong idea of caring for an orchid as being too laborious and laborious. But getting to know the flowers closer, it turns out that it’s not so difficult to keep an orchid in the room of one of the common species.
How to care for an orchid at home, what conditions are required for an exotic culture that has fallen into the indoor pot?
Orchid maintenance conditions
Properly organized care involves the creation of conditions close to natural. An orchid will preserve health and decorativeness for a long time if:
- All flower needs for nutrition, lighting and watering are taken into account and provided
- The plant is satisfied with the temperature and humidity conditions, the composition of the soil and applied fertilizing.
When choosing a flower for home cultivation, you need to remember that orchids have many varieties that differ in their appearance, conditions of natural growth, and needs.
Without disregarding this fact, it is possible to significantly simplify the care of orchids for beginners and for flower growers who already know a lot about the content of this culture.
Most of the plants found in the interiors are epiphytes from the tropics. They are easily recognizable by the juicy air rhizomes, which not only provide the flower with moisture and nutrition, but also take part in the process of photosynthesis. There are orchids that are used to living on stones, where the soil layer, as well as on trees, is extremely small.
For such plants, air humidity and substrate looseness are important. Soil species, in addition to the usual orchid care, also need nourishing soil.
In the tropics, where the vast majority of indoor species come from, orchids grow in conditions of long daylight and moderately bright, diffused illumination. The same conditions are recreated in the situation when the orchid is looked after at home.
The optimal length of daylight hours for actively growing and blooming orchids is 13–15 hours, practically not decreasing in winter. Therefore, extra backlight will not be superfluous when caring for an orchid.
It is not necessary to set up pots on the south windows without pre-designed shading. Bright sunlight can leave brown or yellow marks on the foliage, and the buds will fall off under direct hot rays. The best place is the east or west side. On the north windows, lighting is required even in the summer.
If the place for a plant is chosen incorrectly, even with proper care at home, orchids, as in the photo, turn yellow, their leaves lose elasticity, dry, flowering becomes rare or does not occur at all.
Moisture in the air: the key to the success of orchid care at home
Increased humidity is essential for the successful cultivation of a tropical plant. And if in the summer it is quite possible to achieve the desired 60–70%, then in winter the grower will have to try.
How to properly care for an orchid when working heaters, mercilessly drying the air in the room? To maintain this humidity, electric humidifiers and household appliances are used.
The container in which the flowers are grown can be placed on wet moss placed in a shallow pan. If there is no sphagnum on hand, which retains moisture for a long time, expanded clay is used in the same way. The plant feels best in a florarium or room greenhouse, separated from the rest of the room by plastic or glass.
When the florist in the care applies a spraying of leaves, it should be done regularly and carefully, trying not to fall on the flowers. It is highly undesirable to allow the cooling of a still wet orchid, since this will lead to the development of a fungus on succulent leaves and aerial roots.
In the first half of the day, the flower should be irrigated with room temperature water, until the foliage is dry, the pot is strongly protected from cold air and drafts.
Watering while caring for orchid in a pot
Studying information on how to care for an orchid at home, a novice florist should not overlook the question of watering these people from the tropics.
Already one appearance of a plant can tell a lot about its preferences and requests. Powerful air and underground rhizomes are designed for the extraction and storage of moisture. In addition, a certain amount of nutrients and water can be saved in the leaves, which in some species are noticeably thickened.
All orchids are moisture-loving and require abundant watering, in which the soil clod or loose loose coarse-grained substrate poured into the pot is completely wet.
But how to care for an orchid in different periods of the year? Does the frequency of watering change, and how to find out about the “thirst” of a flower that is in a mixture of bark, expanded clay, pieces of foam and other materials that have little resemblance to traditional soil?
The irrigation schedule, as well as other orchid care procedures, are necessarily adjusted when the season changes. In the warm season, potted orchid gets water more often than in winter. But it is better to underfill the plant than pour.
Thick leaves and roots will help the orchid survive a short-term drought, but an excess of moisture, and especially its stagnation, is a sure step to the decay of the roots.
Tropical guests at home are planted in transparent plastic pots or containers with special slots. This makes it possible to monitor the state of the root system, the rhizomes themselves take part in photosynthesis and more easily consume nutrients and moisture. But how to care for an orchid in a pot of such an unusual design?
There are no peculiarities of orchid care here, except that it is necessary to water the flower in a solid container from above, and it is convenient to immerse pots with slots for 4–6 minutes in prepared water. During this time, the substrate is saturated with moisture, and the excess will flow freely.
In the summer, the substrate is moistened 2-3 times a week, when the surface of the soil feels dry to the touch. In the cold season, the frequency of watering sharply reduced.
About need for water learn on the lost elasticity, slightly shriveled rhizomes and the drooping leaves. A healthy plant after soil moistening is quickly restored.
But sluggish foliage in regularly watered orchids should alert the florist. Perhaps the roots were once flooded and are now in need of rehabilitation.
Top dressing indoor orchids
Like other indoor crops, forced to grow in a limited amount of substrate, orchids need regular fertilizing. But fertilize these plants should not be too often. It is optimal if specialized liquid formulations are applied no more than twice a month and only during the period of active growth and flowering.
Increased salt content in the soil adversely affects the condition of the plant. How to care for an orchid, if the surface of the filler in the pot showed signs of salinization? It is better not to fight this phenomenon, but to prevent its occurrence. Therefore, alternate feeding with washing the root system, for which the pot is immersed in warm soft water for a few minutes.
If the top dressing included in orchid care is excessive, the flower tolerates a change in temperature worse and is also more often affected by pests and fungi.
Orchid care after flowering
The wilting of flowers on the orchid is a sure sign that the plant is preparing for a rest period. It will not lose foliage, but it will be much less developed and fed before the future appearance of buds. How to care for an orchid at this time?
First of all, it is worth paying attention to the peduncle left without bright corolla. As long as it retains green color and juiciness, it is left.
In some cases, on the same peduncle, buds are re-formed, and daughter plants, tiny rosettes are formed, which, when they form their own roots, are cut and planted in a separate pot, into a loose substrate for orchids. But signs of decaying peduncle suggest that it is time to cut it.
If a room orchid has blossomed for a long time and abundantly, it is not correct to allow the re-emergence of buds, as is the case on individual plant varieties. This will only further weaken the flower.
In order for the culture to quickly and well recuperate, in the care of the orchid after flowering include fertilizing or transplanting a flower. However, the latter procedure can be stressful for the plant, since the roots not only tightly encircle the substrate, but also penetrate the holes and extend beyond the limits of the pot.
A video about caring for an orchid at home will explain all the subtleties of handling a spectacular tropical flower. With the observance of simple rules even for a beginner, the room collection will be replenished with an amazingly beautiful plant that, feeling caring, will respond with long bright blooms.
Tip 1. Choose wisely, or start small
If you are just starting to get involved in orchids and, despite the fascination with the beauty of the inflorescences, you are afraid to have such beauty because of the difficult care, start with the most unkindly representatives of the family. Acquaintance with orchids is better to start with disease-resistant and standard for their requirements varieties and species. Phalaenopsis are best suited to beginners in growing orchids. Malay flowers or butterfly orchids are distinguished not only by their amazing long blooms. These orchids are really easy to care for and it is best to learn how to handle all the representatives of these amazing plants.
Orchid phalaenopsis pink hybrid. © Maja Dumat
Tip 2. Soft light - a pledge of beauty orchids
Choose the right light for your orchid. These tropical flowers in room conditions belong to the light-loving cultures, but they do not tolerate direct sunlight. On flowers and leaves of orchids, and even more so on transparent pots, if orchids are grown in special containers and belong to species capable of photosynthesis, the sun's rays should not fall. Orchids should be placed in those windows that face west or east. The most shade-tolerant of all orchids are the phalaenopsis, which can come to terms with the windows of the north orientation.
Tip 3. Smart watering orchids
The moisture-loving nature of orchids and their tropical origins should not mislead you. In most cases it is enough to water the orchids about once a week. It is better to water the orchid by immersing in water or by the method of soul mating, with the first method being much simpler and more reliable. In a container with rain or other soft water immersed pot with orchid so that the substrate is well soaked with moisture (no more than 20-30 minutes). If you are lucky enough and your tap water is not tough and is suitable for the care of indoor plants, then you can substitute the plants under the faucet or soak the earth with a shower, but remember that in no case should the water be cold. Once the water is completely saturated with the substrate, carefully remove the container on a stand or tray and let all excess water drain (it should not stand around the roots of the orchids and remain in the tray).
Orchid phalaenopsis Hybride weiß gefleckt. © Maja Dumat
Tip 4. Nutrition = growth
Without exception, all orchids need a sufficiently high concentration of fertilizers in the soil. For these crops, only special fertilizer intended for orchids can be used and they need to be applied only with water for irrigation. For phalaenopsis and other disease-resistant and unpretentious orchids, it is enough to carry out top dressing 1 time per month or every 3 weeks in a standard dose or 2 times a month with half the amount of fertilizer. Top dressing bring not all year, but in months of active development.
Orchid Phalaenopsis yellow. © Maja Dumat
Tip 5. Careful, but scrupulous transplant
Orchids need to be repotted on average every 2 years. These plants need to be handled very carefully, because the roots are easily injured and break off. Substrate replace completely. Orchids need special soil mixtures for these plant species, consisting of coarse parts of bark, moss and other useful components. Before planting, you need to carefully inspect the plant and remove all soft, damaged, dry areas, treating the sections with charcoal. Orchids are not buried, they are carefully placed on a rolled hillock at the bottom of the pot, and then they fill the free space with the substrate. If you are afraid of damaging the rhizome of an orchid during transplantation, for the first procedure, ask your colleague, a grower who already knows how to handle orchids, to perform the first procedure. After the procedure, do not water the plant for at least 3 days, and resume fertilizing only after a month.
Phalaenopsis rider. © Maja Dumat
Tip 6. Without temperature control orchids do not achieve flowering
In order for orchids to bloom, they need cool conditions, in particular, the temperature at night during the period of preparation for flowering should drop to at least 15-18, and ideally to 12-15 degrees. On the specific time of transfer to the resting stage and the indices required by your orchid, it is necessary to clarify the information when buying, because each variety has its own specific features and “habits”. But just providing cool conditions for orchids will be scarce. Between day and night temperatures a contrast must be observed: at night, the air temperature in the room where the orchid stands should drop by an average of 4-5 degrees compared to the day time.
Orchid phalaenopsis mariae. © Maja Dumat
Tip 7. Cropping is not like everyone else.
If you choose phalaenopsis for acquaintance with orchids, then correctly cut the faded inflorescences on the plant. In Phalaenopsis new flower stalks will develop not only at the base of the stem, but also from the eye of a sleeping bud on the shoot. Therefore, wilted inflorescences are not completely removed, but approximately half, above the second or even the third eye. If you are afraid to make a mistake, it is better to leave the shoots completely after flowering: you can cut off the tops after new shoots appear or as they dry out, removing only the dried tops.
Orchid in nature. Key environmental parameters
Let's take a closer look at what kind of care for orchids in a pot at home is necessary. The natural conditions for the plant are warm tropicswhere:
- Daytime temperature +23 degrees,
- And night decreases to +18.
When growing orchids at home, it needs to create favorable conditions.
At the same time, the air almost always remains humid, as the flower grows as an epiphyte at a small height under the huge crowns of trees. Therefore, the lighting for orchids should be lightbut with diffused sunshine. Direct sun can burn leaves.
Sometimes orchids grow in the same pot. But care in this situation does not change.
What conditions can we create at home? Possible problems
What are the necessary conditions for orchids and how to care for her at home? To flower caught in the house, it is necessary create conditions for her:
- Diffused lighting
- Watering with warm soft water
- Top dressing with necessary fertilizers in the right amount,
- The required composition of the soil.
This is what is needed arrange when growing orchids.
All this is fixable, it costs only improve flower cultivation conditions.
Orchid care in the pot at home
Beginners ask a question - how to care for a home orchid? To flower well developed, he need certain conditionswhich will remind him of their homeland.
The orchid will not put up with spartan conditions, cold or poor quality water without supplements, and will die because of the wrong attitude to it. To prevent this from happening, you need to fulfill certain requirements for its care.
Many do not know how to care and water the orchid, as presented in the photo. Watering is one of the main points when growing plants. Since excessive moisture can lead to rotting of the root mass, and excessive dryness to the death of the roots due to overdrying.
Therefore, it is worth finding a middle ground. The soil should be permeable, ideally it should consist of a single crust in 1x1 cm fractions with a small addition of other components.
Orchid must be watered 2-3 times a month.
Also watering depends on the time of year:
- In hot weather, the orchid is watered depending on the drying of the soil and roots once a week,
- In winter, water should be watered about once a month, especially if the room where the flower is grown is cool, that is, the temperature drops below 20 degrees Celsius.
The main criteriaaffecting the intensity of irrigation:
- Ambient temperature
- The dimensions of the tank where the orchid is planted,
- Soil quality
In a pot, flower growers often make extra holes for the orchid to breathe.
How to get rid of excess moisture?
Excess moisture can be eliminated by увеличения интервала между поливами. Если вследствие перелива испортился грунт, то его меняют тут же, осуществляя полную пересадку цветка.
Кормить удобрениями цветок лучше до наступления формирования первого бутона. Это продлит цветение и сделает цветы выразительней.It is best to use fertilizers of a production nature, and not folk remedies.
Because, if it is the first orchid in a gardener, he may incorrectly calculate the dose of fertilizer, and the root system may burn from a large dose of concentrate. Therefore, liquid fertilizer purchased in the store is preferable. Among the popular dressings are leading:
- "Bona Forte" - prolongs the period of flowering and is easily diluted according to the instructions on the package
- “Doctor Foley - Orchid” - this vitamin cocktail can please the plant every day, sprinkling its leaves,
- "Mr. color" - well suited during the growing season of the flower and prepares it to bloom.
How to help the plant recover after flowering?
To the plant could recover after flowering, you need first get rid of the peduncle. It is cut off completely or until the first living kidney. The second is preferable, since later a new flower stalk will start growing from the living waiting buds.
When pruning over a living kidney, it is necessary to retreat about 2 cm. Do this with a sharp pruner to cause less damage to the plant. At this moment, if transplantation is necessary, then it is carried out according to all the rules, selecting the necessary pot and soil.
After flowering, orchids cut the peduncle.
You need to start fertilizing the flower one month after transplant or the moment he finds signs of awakening. This may be a growing young leaf or new roots will appear. Then proceed to double feeding a month fertilizer for orchids.
It is acquired in a specialty store, and you need to pay attention to the composition of nitrogen and other components. Nitrogen should be at the level of potassium and phosphorus, then the fertilizer will help:
- Build up roots
- And the leaves are flower,
- And prepare for further flowering.
As soon as new buds begin to form, feeding stop.
Orchid after shopping in the store
Few know how to care for a purchased orchid. Immediately after the flower is brought home, it is necessary quarantine itwhich lasts at least 2 weeks.
During this time, you can identify how damaged or infected orchid. At the same time, it remains in the purchased soil, which is often just peat.
Even if it is planted in the bark, then under its base is a peat tablet, in which the seedling originally grew. Therefore, with watering need to be extremely cautiousas the peat inside the pot dries out for a very long time.
Therefore, watering is very rare, better. spray foliage in the morning from a small spray. After quarantine is over, the flower should:
- Replant in specialized soil,
- And put in a warm and bright place without drafts.
The first watering after transplanting is better. spend 4 days later - this time is necessary in order for the wounds on the cuts to live well and not to start to rot.
The main care in the period of budding and flowering. How to extend the charm of the moment?
When the long-awaited moment of flowering comes, the grower, who sees it for the first time, has questions - what to do at this moment, not to harm the flower?
For orchids need to moisten the air.
First of all, it is necessary humidify the air more oftenwhere there is a flower and do it until the buds start to turn, turning into beautiful flowers. At full dissolution it is impossible to splash on the flowers, as they will be covered with ugly spots, spoiling the appearance of the flower.
Watering - after the beginning of flowering orchid change the mode of watering. Basic watering rules:
- Water 2 times a week, but not plentiful. The soil should not be completely dry, but it should not be swamped,
- Increased humidity in the room is good, but do not spray the plant.
During the flowering period, it is better not to transplant the plant, since this process can be a stressful situation in which the flower will stop its flowering.
Transplantation is done only if the root system rots after the bay. Or there are other visible reasons for a transplant.
Oddly enough, during the flowering period do not fertilize the flower, because everything that he needs for flowering, he received before the blooming of buds. You can feed once a month with liquid fertilizer, where Phosphorus and Potassium are in a greater proportion than Nitrogen or Nitrogen is not present as a part of the fertilizer.
Plant transplant - for what, when and how?
Not everyone knows how to care for a room orchid and how to replant it. Starting to transplant plants, you must buy in advance transparent plastic containerwhich should be a little more than the previous one. At hand should also be an appropriate primer for orchids.
Procedure with a flower transplant:
- Extract the plant from the tank and gently shake off the old soil. If any part of the bark is firmly embedded in the roots, then they do not need to be torn off,
- Dry or black roots are removed with a pruner or sharp scissors.
- To process all the slices on the roots with fungicides
- At the bottom of the tank put a large bark and put an orchid on it. After that, the rest of the place in the tank is filled with prepared soil,
- Bury a flower in the ground, it is necessary not to bury it much.
Frequent and almost the main problem when growing orchids is their bay. Because between waterings the root system should dry out.
Orchids are better not to pour than pour.
Experienced growers determine the irrigation time by the color of the roots and by the condensate on the tank from the inside. When condensation disappears and the roots become gray - it is time for watering.
The natural process is when gradually the bottommost sheet dies off, which fed the plant for more than one year. If the leaves turn yellow massively - it is a nutritional deficiency or pests are located on it. If the inspection for parasites is negative, it is worth reviewing:
- Watering mode
- And fertilization.
Root rotting or drying out
Due to these two factors - overdrying of soil or its overflow, flower loses its root system. Without it, he will not be able to live, which means it is necessary to reanimate the flower. This is a difficult and long process of restoring the roots, but it is possible, the main thing, to make it according to all the rules.
The orchid does not bloom
- The plant lacks light,
- There was not enough feeding during the growing season,
- The plant is damaged by pests or mechanical injuries,
- Is on resuscitation.
We must understand that a completely healthy flower be sure to bloom. If there is no bloom, it is necessary to reconsider the care organized for this plant. If the florist thinks that the plant is healthy, but the flowering does not occur, then it is necessary to stimulate the appearance of flower stalks with the help of hormonal paste.
Whatever insects are found on the flower, he is quarantined and treated with Actellic three times, so that the pests do not have a chance to survive.
If pests are found, the orchid must be quarantined.
The interval between treatments is 5-6 days.
Rot and fungi
To get rid of the rot and fungi that sometimes appear on the root system due to flower overflow, need to:
- Crop all black spots
- And process the cuts with a fungicide.
Caring for a beautiful exotic plant called orchid is not such a difficult thing. The main thing is to capture the moment when to water and give the plant the necessary soil, and then the flower will take care of the beautiful flowering.
Learn on the video how to care for an orchid in a pot at home:
Interesting facts on the video, what mistakes make when caring for an orchid:
Look at the video, how to water the orchid:
Find out in the video what pests and diseases of orchids are:
How is orchid transplanting done at home
If you just brought the indoor flower home, then you do not need to repot it. The plant will feel great in its own substrate for a couple of years. Replanting a plant is necessary only if it is in sphagnum moss.
Flower need gently pull out of the pot. During this operation, you should try not to damage the root system. Sometimes you even have to cut the pot.
Roots are released from the substrate, dried and rotted are removed. Then everything is washed with clean running water. Orchid placed in a new pot with the substrate, add soil, to fill the empty cavities between the roots.
It is forbidden to cover the top of the flower, it should always be on the surface. The soil is moistened, an orchid pot is placed in a dark place and kept for several days.
Gardeners believe that the plant is under stress after transplantation, so it needs to be treated with special flower "anti-stress». Orchids do not need it, she herself successfully copes with stress and easily adapts to new conditions, which is clearly seen in the photo.
It is not required to treat an orchid leaf with drugs that kill insects. You should not poison the plant that has just suffered a move.
What kind of lighting is required for an orchid
Looking at the photo of a colorful orchid, you always ask yourself how to create the necessary lighting at home for this plant. After all, the future of its flowering and growth largely depends on this.
Under normal lighting, the flower will delight the eye with beautiful flowers, and if it is not enough, the leaves will begin to acquire a light green color, begin to stretch, and begin to turn yellow.
To make the flower look like in a photo, need to create lightingaccording to certain rules:
- Indoor orchid grows well in diffused light. Direct sunlight has a negative effect on the orchid. This nuance must be taken into account when caring for an orchid at home.
- In the summer, the plant is desirable to put in a darker place. This is especially true of the location in which the hot rays of the sun hit the leaves.
- In the autumn period, the indoor orchid does not require darkening. The amount of sunlight decreases, orchids begin to mature shoots. She starts laying new flower shoots.
- For this plant is of great importance the duration of daylight. It should last at least 12 hours. When reducing daylight hours to 10 hours, the creation of artificial lighting is required. To this end, you can use fluorescent light bulbs shown in the photo.
Known three kinds heat-loving orchids, which require a certain temperature regime. These include the following names:
Since the native land of these plants is tropical forests, they must be maintained at a temperature not exceeding 32 degrees. At night, the temperature should not fall below 18 degrees. The temperature drop per day should not exceed five degrees.
These orchids are found in a subtropical climate, grow in the highlands and have the following names:
The plant grows well in summer at a temperature of 22 degrees, and in the winter no more than 15 degrees. Virtually any kind of orchids, grows well at homewhen the daytime temperature does not exceed 27 degrees, and the night temperature is 24 degrees.
How to water the orchids at home
In order for the plant to develop well and please the eye with beautiful flowers, as in the photo, it is very important to water it correctly. Under natural conditions, orchids do not grow in water, they cannot tolerate stagnant moisture for a long time.
Therefore, watering an orchid at home should be the same as in the real conditions of its residence. For example, the Phalaenopsis flower loves a slightly moist substrate, and for Oncidia it should be completely dry. In other words, for each type of orchid requires some watering.
In addition, the intensity of irrigation depends on other factors:
- pot dimensions,
- the composition of the substrate
- seasonal vegetation.
Since orchids belong to epiphytic plants, they are able to withstand a slight dryness of the soil.
However, if orchids stop watering, they will start to fade quickly, leaves become shriveled and unsightly. If there is an excess of moisture, the roots will begin to rot, the perimeter of the sheet will be covered in yellow. This is very clearly seen in the presented photo.
Orchid need soft water. The most suitable is considered to be well-settled in the summer, rainwater. In winter, you can organize watering with melt water.
If you water the flower with water from the tap, then it is necessary pre-boil. The water temperature should be three degrees above room temperature.
In the summer, watering is carried out several times a week, but not more than three. And only when the top layer of the substrate begins to dry.
In winter, it is enough to water the plant a couple of times a week, when the pseudobulb starts to wrinkle.
If the flower grows in a pot, it is watered from above, if in baskets, then they are simply immersed in water for five minutes. Excess water must be completely drained, it should not stagnate.
It is necessary to feed the plant only when its growth occurs. Fertilizer should be applied once a month. The most suitable are:
It is very important to add fertilizer according to the proportions indicated on the package. The plant does not tolerate large accumulations of mineral salts in the soil. Orchid can just fade.
That is why the substrate, before adding fertilizer need rinse with clean water. Washing and dressing should alternate every week.
Fertilizers intended for other types of flowers are not suitable for orchids. No need to feed the plant in winter and when it is at rest.
How is the reproduction of orchids
Reproduction "kids". By "kids" means small new plants, from which new types of orchids can appear. These side shoots most often appear in plants with a high nitrogen concentration.
When “babies” appear, it is advisable to spray the orchid more often. After the “kids” have grown up and given the roots, they can be separated, treated with charcoal and planted in a separate pot.
Type of reproduction by layering. For reproduction, we use rations that are found only in sympodial colors. For work, you will need to create a small greenhouse located directly above the bent part of the stem. Then you need to moisten the moss and wait until the awakening of the sleeping kidney begins.
If the shoot does not have foliage, it is located horizontally in the greenhouse, it must be constantly heated, and regular moistening is carried out. After approximately 30 days, the sleeping buds will wake up. There will be young plants, green leaf and roots.
When small plants take root well, they are carefully separated from the main shoot, treated and planted in a small pot. No need to immediately remove the plant from the greenhouse. Let it stand there for several days.
Vegetative breeding method
It is suitable for any kind of orchid. The roots of the flower are simply divided into several parts, each of which has two pseudobulbs. This method can only propagate large orchids.
The flower is removed from the pot. The roots are carefully separated from the ground. Rhizome cut into several piecesOn which there is some Bulben.
The cut is covered with charcoal. Landing of each fragment is done separately. New flowers need to be watered slightly and sprayed daily until the plant produces new shoots and leaves appear. This will be more proof that the orchid has begun to grow.
Orchid care at home after flowering
When the indoor flower is at rest, do not need to water it. It is enough to monitor its condition, the color of the leaves and other parts. It would be nice at this time to take a photo of the flower, then to compare its new state with the old one.
Such a kind of quarantine is necessary to detect flower pests, and further control them. It will take two weeks and the orchid can be put on the window, it should get used to the sun. You can start to lightly water the plant.
The end of flowering field, when the peduncle is completely dry and has become black in color, its pruned under the base and delete. When the flowering is complete, plant nutrition is much less. In winter, orchids are watered once every 30 days, the plant is sprayed several times a month.
I must say that if you need to transplant a flower, then in the future it starts to bloom, and its leaves turn green, you need to put the pot in another place.
In the case when, after flowering, the orchids began to shrivel and the leaves turned yellow, the peduncle completely ceased, the pot also need to rearrange. He will start blooming again.
To summarize, all of the above. If you properly care for your orchids at home, you can always enjoy the view of these beautiful flowers at home.
In order for the plant to develop well and grow the vegetative part, it needs to create comfortable conditions for it. It is necessary to observe a certain temperature in the room and the illumination should be such that the plant does not burn out. The cultivation parameters of orchids have already been defined for a long time, and we must remember them in order not to destroy the plant.
For favorable cultivation of the plant, the temperature should be in the range of 22-26 ° C. Deviations in any direction can be disastrous. So at a temperature of 18 ° C an orchid can get frostbite, and a temperature of 15-16 ° C is destructive, it dies.
If the temperature approaches 30 ° C, the orchid begins to experience severe overheating. В это время с ее листовых пластин очень сильно испаряется влага, а новая не успевает поступать и листья в этот момент теряют тургор и сморщиваются. Это приводит к их истощению.
Ideally, the humidity should be 80%, such as it is in the homeland of a tropical beauty.
But in our apartments in the summer or during the heating season, it is 50%.
Humidifiers or jars of water placed near the orchids will help.
Orchid prefers diffused sunlight. If the light is not enough, then the trunk is drawn out, and the leaves get a lighter shade.
If there is a lack of lighting, the flower arrow will not appear, and on the already formed branch the flowers will bloom small size. Even with a lack of light buds will fall off.
Excessive sunlight will cause burns. On the leaves and petals appear brown dry spots that are not treated. When the burn will occupy most of the sheet plate, it will die off.
When do you need support?
Some types of orchids grow to a height of 50 cm, and so that in these cases the stem does not break, it will need support.
Also, some species of orchids grow quite long meter flower stalks.
They also need support. You can buy them in garden centers and shops.
Choose a place to put
The place should be sufficiently lit with diffused sunlight, but not burning the plant.
If the house has a sunny south window sill, then it is great for cultivating orchids in the winter.
But already At the end of April, it is necessary to carefully monitor that the growing summer sun does not burn the leaves. Therefore, the flowers rearranged from the southern window-sill to the interior of the apartment. Because even on a windowsill a plant covered with white paper will get a strong overheating of all its organs.
The northern window is suitable in summer, but in winter, especially if there are trees outside the window, flowers will need lighting with special lamps for plants.
What does the interior look like?
Beautifully flower fits into those interiors that are made in oriental style.
These living rooms and bedrooms with orchids become airy, as the various clouds of flowers adorn the design, making it elegant.
It will also look good with a finish made in Chinese style.
The orchid itself can decorate any design with its appearance, as its silky tenderness enthralls a lady of any age.
Caring after purchase at home
Immediately after the acquisition, the flower should be put in a quarantine zone for 2 weeks to make sure that it is completely healthy.
Since the orchid is in the transport ground, the florist needs to know that there is something under the neck of the plant, something that retains moisture well:
These components dry out for a long time and during transportation they help to survive time without watering. But already standing in the store, an inexperienced seller can pour the plant. Experienced flower growers are advised to first transplant the orchid, donating flowering to the new bark or the necessary substrate, and only then quarantine. This is done to make sure:
- That the root system is healthy without rotting black places,
- Clean the peat cup,
- Inspect the roots for pests,
- Planted immediately in the right bark.
For an orchid to release a flower arrow, it needs to provide the necessary proper care. Flowering has a long period of 2 months to six months.
Therefore, in order for the orchid to bloom, certain conditions must be met:
- Need to know the age of the plant - too young a plant will not bloom, because it does not yet have internal forces to it. Different species begin their first flowering in different ways, for some it starts at 1.5 years for others at 3 years. Phalaenopsis should have 5-6 leaves, Wanda and similar orchids have 5-8 shoots, if there are fewer of them, and the peduncle has appeared, then the flower can hardly survive its restoration after flowering.
- Do not move the plant container. - since the move itself will already be a noticeable stress for the plant, and if at that moment it decided to grow a flower spike, then it could dry it. It should be noted that if the need arose to move the orchid you need to make a light mark. The other side that stands to the light is marked, for example, with a match, and then putting it in a new place, they put it with a match to the lighting.
- The roots - they need to pay attention. They are involved in the process of photosynthesis and must always be healthy in order to nourish the flower with useful minerals. If the roots are sick, then they will need to be resuscitated and naturally the orchid will not have time to bloom.
- Lighting - Should be sufficient to form a floral arrow. Light day plants is 10-12 hours a day. If not, then you need to take care of the backlight. This is especially true in winter.
- Temperature - it should be noted that for the emergence of the floral arrow it is necessary to organize the temperature difference between day and night temperatures. This difference is 5 degrees.
- Watering - it is made at the moment when the substrate dries out completely, as the dry bark allows the roots to breathe the oxygen necessary for the photosynthesis process.
- Feeding - they make only up to a certain point. When the first bud begins to be tied, it means the end of feeding. As fertilizers can reduce flowering time.
What to do after flowering?
After flowering, a period of rest, which on average lasts about a month. In principle, during this period, leaving remains the same. The only difference is that during the period of rest no fertilizer is applied, as the flower will not assimilate them.
During this period, you can transplant a flower that will not disturb his peace. When the period ends, the flower will need fertilizing specialized for this plant. This is indicated on the packaging, others can not be fed. And the fact that the rest period is over, will say a new growing sheet.
Orchid transplants should be carried out according to this recommendation:
- The flower is taken out of the container and wrung out, freeing it from the substrate,
- If the bark is rooted to the root, it is not peeled off, as it is possible to cut off the root,
- Orchid is soaked in a stimulator, it can be succinic acid. For this diluted 1t. in a liter of warm water until it is completely dissolved,
- The next stage is the removal of all that is rotted or dried. After cutting it is necessary to process all cuts with wood ash,
- Orchid is planted in a new bark with a fraction of 1x1 cm.,
- The first watering is carried out for 3-5 days, especially if there were a lot of rotting places on it.
In order to plant a young orchid pick up a container of transparent plastic of such a size that it is well included in the root system. Transparent walls will serve as a guarantee that the roots will be involved in the process of photosynthesis.
The soil is selected according to the type of orchid plants. Epiphytic orchids need one bark in the soil and not a lot of sphagnum moss. For those orchids that grow in the soil, purchased a ready-made substrate, consisting of the necessary components.
- Moss and bark are placed on the bottom and a flower is set
- Then they fall asleep with the substrate, filling the void between the roots,
- The neck of the plant should be at the level of the substrate surface.
Orchid plants can be propagated by various methods
- Dividing the bush
- Children, which are located on:
- the trunk
- the roots.
The latter method is not used by amateur growers, since it is rather difficult to germinate the seeds. It is necessary to have laboratory conditions for their growth.
But there are general breeding requirements:
- Only adult specimens are propagated,
- The plant must have many roots,
- Peduncle for breeding must be old,
- Lighting should last more than 12 hours a day.
Cut the plant completely is not necessary. Only faded flower stalks that have started to shrink are removed. Pruned to the height that is still alive and 2 cm above the waiting kidney. From this bud after the rest period a new peduncle or a baby may develop.
Rejuvenation is carried out in the event that the orchid has greatly outgrown its capacity and looks ugly, almost falling out of the pot. She must be at least 5 years old.
- We disinfect the pruner.
- Cut the top of the bush so that the trunk is at least 5 cm. And a lot of aerial roots.
- The lower part is left in the tank after a certain time, it will give on its remaining hemp kids.
- The top is planted by all the rules listed above in a new container.
You can water in any convenient way:
- Shedding substrate of watering can,
- By immersing the container in water.
The main thing in watering is properly selected composition of water. It should be soft and warm. Hard and cold water can shock the roots of the plant and they will start to rot. Therefore, we pour the prepared water into the watering can and pour the orchid in such a way that the water does not accumulate in the leaf axils.
When choosing the second method, a basin is selected in such a size that the plant pots with the plant are completely in height. Pour the prepared water into the basin and set an orchid for 20 minutes. After the expiration of time, we get and let it flow down completely.
Top dressing is carried out only at the time of vegetation of the plant. This will speak a growing young sheet. Feed only specialized fertilizers that can be purchased at flower shops.
It must be remembered that, applying the dressing, one should act strictly according to the instructions on the package and not increase the dose and frequency of application of the dressing. Since this can not only benefit the flower, it can also ruin it.
Dusting the flower at home is quite possible. To do this, a natural squirrel brush carries pollen from the stamens to the pistil, and after a while pollination occurs, and seeds are set.
After the pollination process, the flower fades and the seed box gradually begins to grow. This growth lasts 5 months. When the seed box turns brown, it will indicate that the seeds are ready for sowing.
Diseases and pests
With improperly created cultivation, the flower is affected by various diseases that damage the leaves and roots:
- Leaf spot,
- Different types of rot (brown, black, gray),
- Root rot,
- Mosaic leaves.
You can also detect various pests - the shield, various worms, thrips.
How to reanimate?
Depending on the problem, various types of resuscitation are performed. If, for any reason, the flower has lost its roots, then they need to be increased again and it is necessary to process the flower with special fungicides so that there is no recurrence.
If the problem is in the vegetative part, then the whole patient is cut with sterile scissors, the rest is treated with an antiseptic and another drug, depending on the damage that has occurred.
It must be remembered that not a great defeat is easier to heal than to save a completely affected flower without immunity.
The main mistake novice grower are not adjusted irrigation. First, the flower is poured, fearing that it lacks moisture, and then rush to the other extreme and begin to dry. It is important to find a middle ground and water when the plant needs it.
Not properly selected place. Very often the flower burns in direct sunlight and the leaves are not restored after that. It is necessary to rearrange the flower with the onset of heat away from the sun.
How to care for an orchid in a pot after purchase
After buying an orchid in the store, it is left alone for 1-2 weeks. They carry out preventive treatment of the plant with special preparations, observe quarantine.
Then the plant is transplanted into a special pot for orchids. The pot is picked up transparent, plastic, with holes in the bottom and side surface in order for the roots to breathe. The old substrate in which the plant was purchased is cleaned from the roots and discarded. If a sponge is attached to a plant in a flower shop, it must be cut off, otherwise the roots will start to rot.
The newly purchased orchid is set apart from other indoor pets. It is advisable to treat it with a mixture of insecticide and fungicide for the prevention of various diseases.
A few days, until the orchid gets used to the microclimate of the room and the new conditions of existence, it is not transplanted, watering is also not needed. Can be sprayed on the underside of the sheet with a spray, adding growth stimulants to the water.
Temperature and lighting
Orchid is placed on a well-lit window sill, where there is no direct sunlight. Lack of light can lead to plant disease, and direct sunlight can cause burns on the leaves.
Orchids do not like too hot and dry air, they can not be placed next to radiators.
To increase the humidity spend spraying, making sure that the water does not fall into the rosette of leaves. If this happens, the water is gently wetted with a dry cloth.
Watering, fertilizing and fertilizer
Most orchids are epiphytes, they do not need frequent watering and are not tied to the soil, they can be grown not only in a pot, but also on a tree block. Like cacti, these plants easily tolerate drought, storing moisture in thick roots and leaves, and gradually spending it. If the orchid grows in a pot, the substrate will dry out slowly; care must be taken to ensure that the roots do not rot.
In summer, the orchid needs more watering than in winter. Water the plant only after the substrate has dried completely. It can be watered by soaking in a container with water at room temperature, immersing a pot or a block with a plant in it for a quarter of an hour. It is necessary to observe quarantine when watering a newly purchased orchid. It can not be soaked in the same water with other colors.
Orchids are fed in the period of active growth with fertilizers for orchids or ordinary fertilizers for indoor plants, induced in a weaker concentration.
Orchid transplant at home
When transplanting orchids, it is carefully removed from the pot, clean the roots from the remnants of the old substrate. If there are rotten roots, they are cut with sharp scissors.
Sections are treated with dry cinnamon powder or charcoal. Fill a new flower pot with a substrate for orchids. Place the plant in the substrate, trying to distribute it between the roots.
You can plant orchids on the blocks that mimic the trunk of a tree. Epiphytic orchids feel comfortable when the roots can breathe freely. The block is boiled before planting, then dried. A layer of sphagnum is attached to it, an orchid is planted on top, hooking it with rubber bands or a thin fishing line.
Soil for flowers: the right composition, how to make yourself?
Orchids grow in a special soil consisting of bark and sphagnum moss. The stores sold ready-made substrate.
You can make it yourself from bottle caps. For this, corks are cut into large pieces of 1.5 by 2 cm. Pine bark from the forest is also suitable. Before use as planting soil, it must be boiled to kill harmful microorganisms and insects. The bark is boiled for 30 minutes, drained and put to boil for the same time. Then the bark is dried and crushed into fragments from 1 to 3 cm.
How to care for orchid at home
Orchid roots are thick, they can store moisture in themselves. Their interesting feature is the ability to photosynthesis in the light and lack of need for soil. Therefore, the holes in the orchid pot should be made not only at the bottom of the pot, but also in its walls so that the roots breathe. Proper care of the flower should take into account its natural features.
The plant is watered with water at room temperature, separated and passed through a filter or spring.
Whether the plant really needs watering can be checked with a wooden skewer. Her neatly, in order not to injure the roots, stick a flowerpot with an orchid into the ground, and take out only an hour later. If the skewer is dry, the plant can be watered; if wet, it is better to postpone the watering.
Water is poured carefully so that it does not fall into the base of the leaves. In the summer, the plant needs active watering - about 1-2 times a week. In winter, the amount of watering is reduced to 1 time in 2 weeks.
You can water the orchids by soaking. Pot plant put in a container with water at room temperature for 15 minutes. Then take out, and placed on the grid to drain excess moisture. In winter, this procedure is carried out once every two weeks.
In winter and summer, the orchid is sprayed from a spray bottle with very small drops. A stream of water is directed not at the plant, but next to it, moistening the air or on the lower side of the leaves.
What fertilizer and fertilizer are suitable for flowers
There is a wide variety of special fertilizer for orchids. The best feeding is leaf. Orchids are sprayed every 2 or 3 weeks during the period of vigorous growth and flowering.
Top dressings are also carried out with complex mineral fertilizers. Conventional fertilizers suggest a concentration of 3 or 4 times less than recommended in the instructions for indoor plants. You can fertilize during irrigation by adding diluted fertilizer to irrigation water 1 time in 2 weeks.
Sit down and transplant
Orchids are repotted every 2 years or every year. The pot take a larger diameter and height than the previous one. It must be transparent so that the roots of the plant are visible through its walls. Healthy roots in orchids that are inside the pot, white or yellow. Если они получают много света, то могут быть зеленоватыми.
Пересаживать орхидею лучше весной. Перед пересадкой ее не поливают, во влажном состоянии у нее очень хрупкие корни. Грунт из коры деревьев и сфагнума также должен быть сухим.
Вместо дренажа, на дно горшка можно положить пенопласт, который просыхает очень быстро, и не даст корням загнить. Placing the roots in the planting container, the space between them is filled with large pieces of bark. The presence of voids is acceptable, so that the roots breathe better.
If the orchid does not bloom - what to do and how to make it bloom
If the orchid does not bloom for a long time, you can try to transplant it. And also to stimulate flowering, it is useful to carry the plant out at night on a cool balcony, where the air temperature is 16–18 ° C. When the difference between day and night temperature at the plant comes shock, and it begins to bloom.
An orchid in nature blooms during a period of drought. If she gets abundant watering at home, there will be no flowering.
Orchids need a bright, diffused light, with its lack of flowering also will not come. Excess fertilizer can interfere with flowering.
Stimulate flowering can, reducing watering. The plant is put on 2 or 3 weeks in a shaded place and not watered. Once again on the bright window-sill, the orchid begins to actively develop, growing roots, leaves, and releasing floral arrows.
When growing an orchid from seeds or small children, it must be remembered that it most often blooms only for 5–6 years from the moment of planting.
Fight against diseases and pests
Most often, orchids begin to ache with excessive watering. If the roots choke, the substrate in which the flower grows begins to rot. The plant is transplanted, cutting off all the rotted roots, treating the sections with charcoal and fungicide, do not water for some time. Poor illumination, low air humidity, temperature disturbance have a bad effect on orchid health.
32 known species of pests that affect orchids, and about a hundred disease-causing fungi, bacteria and viruses. Most often, the spider mite, thrips, shchitovki, aphids inhabit the flowers.
From spider mites, treatment with phytophormocea, aktophyte and vermitecum is effective. Conduct 3 treatments with an interval of 10 days. Fitoverm also helps in the fight against thrips, scutes and aphids.
With the appearance of various rots, pathogens, which are pathogenic fungi, plants, are treated with copper preparations, fungicides.
What to do with the arrow when the flower blooms
After the orchid blooms, the peduncle may turn yellow and dry. If this does not happen, and the peduncle remains green, it is simply shortened.
On the peduncle, as a rule, there are several live buds that can produce flowers. Trimming make 2 cm above the top living kidney. It is necessary to care for an orchid in a pot after flowering, reducing watering and the frequency of fertilizing. The plant must have a rest period.
How to propagate the orchid
There are orchid hybrids that breed very easily. They give basal rosettes. When transplanting the outlet can be separated, and put in a separate independent pot.
Under adverse conditions, an orchid on a flower stalk instead of a flower can grow a baby — a rosette of leaves will begin to grow. When 2 or 3 roots of 6 cm in size appear on the child, it is disconnected and planted in a separate pot.
Orchid can be propagated by cutting off one leaf and part of the rhizome. Such a plant in a year will release a few babies, and will become a full-fledged flower.
The nuances of care, depending on the orchid variety
Phalaenopsis orchids are most often grown in indoor conditions. Not less popular types of genera Cattleya and Dendrobium. The natural conditions of growth of various species are very different, it must be taken into account when taking care of plants.
The birthplace of Cattleya is the purple Amazon basin, where air humidity reaches 100% and is always warm. Varieties: Cattleya nobilior, Cattleya intermedia, Cattleya guttata grow in arid climate among cacti under direct rays of the sun, they normally tolerate air temperature up to 35 ° C heat.
Dendrobium, which is distinguished by its thin roots, requires rare watering, but it also does not tolerate complete drying of the substrate. Water for irrigation should not be hard. Some species have a long dormant period, which can last for 6 months. At this time, they are practically not watered.