Many tourists, returning from hot countries, bringing with them tropical fruits, such as mangoes, for example, ask themselves: what will happen if they plant their bones? Growing mango at home is rather decorative, as this southern tree blossoms and bears fruit only in conditions close to the native climate. In nature, mango grows in the countries of Southeast Asia and India. About 10 years are necessary for a tree that it began to fructify.
Stages of bone preparation for planting:
- Selection of fruit. To begin with, choose the most ripe, soft fruit.
- Cleaning up Then, the bone is separated from the pulp, washed, and the excess villi are gently peeled off with a knife.
- Maceration Purified bone is placed in water for several days. You can add a few drops of zircon to the water, it is a root-forming agent that stimulates the growth of plants. Water needs to be changed every 12 hours.
- Peel off. After a few days, the bone is separated from the shell to allow the sprouts to break through faster. Seed without peel resembles a large bean. Before planting in the soil it is desirable to disinfect it in a solution of potassium permanganate.
The soil for mango should not be heavy. The ideal option is to choose a primer for succulents. The pot is selected first small, later the plant is transplanted. On the bottom of the pot you need to lay expanded clay stones (drainage). Planting seed must be spine down, lightly sprinkled with earth. You can make the so-called greenhouse effect - cover the seedling with a cut plastic bottle or cover with polyethylene. After planting a bone, the pot is cleaned in a warm, well-lit place. Watering should be done regularly, but the main thing is not to overdo it. If you do it right, a sprout will appear in about two weeks.
Aftercare for a young tree
Once the seedling is stronger, you can remove the "cap" from a plastic bottle. Mango is growing rapidly in a warm and humid environment, so it is better to immediately transplant it into a larger pot, so as not to disturb the root system of the plant once again. One month after the sprout comes up, it is advisable to fertilize the soil with biohumus. It is very important to maintain sufficient humidity by regularly sprinkling the plant. Mango does not like drought, but excessive waterlogging should be avoided. This tropical tree loves a lot of light, so it’s better to put the pot with it on the lighted place in the apartment. In winter, lighting can be supplemented with lamps. It must be remembered that mango does not like cold. Exposing it on the balcony is not worth it.
After the appearance of the eighth sheet, it is recommended to pinch a sapling in order to give the plant a more attractive look. To form the crown of the tree must be annually in late February - early March. Mango tolerates this procedure. As a rule, the five strongest branches are left so that the tree in its growth takes the form of a so-called bowl. Mango pot is better not to place in the corner. This plant does not like cramp. Do not worry if the leaves become a shade of red. For young seedlings is a normal phenomenon. After some time they change their color to dark green. A healthy mango tree has dense leathery leaves, and comes down wavy at the edges.
Despite the fact that in the conditions of the Russian climate, mango is unlikely to bear fruit, this overseas spectacular plant, resembling a palm tree in its appearance, will add a touch of novelty and comfort to your home.
Growing mango indoors
The bone should be planted almost immediately after it is removed from the fetus. Mango while it is necessary to choose ripe. Check whether the fruit is suitable for the degree of maturity is very easy. So, in a suitable mango, the bone can be separated from the pulp very easily. Wash it thoroughly first, and then remove the remaining pulp using a sharp knife. After that, the prepared bone is gently split, thereby accelerating the germination process:
- In the event that the bone cracks without problems, it should remove the shell, while carefully taking out the inside, which is very similar to the string bean. After that, it should be treated with fungicides - agents that can resist the development of fungus and harmful spores. In the event that there will be not one but several embryos inside, then it is necessary to choose only the greenest and smoothest of them, since its chances of germination are greater than those of the others.
- In that case, if it is very difficult to split the shell, then you do not need to apply force, otherwise you can damage the inside. Mango bone should be put in a container, which must be transparent and pour water at room temperature into it. For the bone, you should choose the lighted place on the windowsill. So, it should lie for several weeks. But at the same time we must not forget that every couple of days to change the water, otherwise it will turn sour.
Then you need to choose a suitable pot. Due to the fact that a mango tree in nature can reach a height of 10–45 meters, the capacity for planting should immediately be taken large enough. In this case, transplant the plant, and therefore, injure the root system, you will be less. Without fail, at the bottom of the tank, make good drainage; for this, use special granules or fine gravel. The drainage layer is able to prevent stagnation of fluid in the soil, and hence the appearance of rot on the roots. For planting, you can use the purchased universal soil, but it should be noted that it must be neutral in acidity.
In order to measure the acidity of the soil, you can use a specially designed device for this, which is called a soil pH meter or PH meter. It can be replaced with disposable indicators made of paper. They change their color shade after contact with acidic soil (this occurs within 1–15 minutes, and the time depends entirely on the manufacturer of the indicator).
Plant in two ways:
- placing sideways - in the event that you do not know exactly where the bottom, and where the upper part,
- arranged horizontally - if there is already a small sprout.
It is not necessary to completely cover the bone with soil; its fourth part should rise above the surface. After planting, spill the soil well, and if it settles hard enough, you will need to finish it a little to the required level.
To create the most appropriate conditions for germination, it is necessary to close the container on top with glass, transparent film or ½ of a plastic bottle. Do not forget to ventilate the mango; for this, raise the edges of the shelter 1 time in 2 or 3 days. This you will be able to avoid bone rot.
The window sill of the south orientation is perfect for placing the pot, as the plant requires the greatest possible amount of light. After 2-3 weeks, a sprout appears, as a rule, and the mango begins to grow. After that, you need to remove the shelter from the tank.
In the event that you put a mango in a not very big pot, then you should not rush to transplant it. This procedure is recommended only after the plant becomes stronger and grows a little. Transplantation in a permanent pot should be made for plants of one year old. You do not need to repot the plant very often, as the mango reacts extremely negatively to this procedure, and as a result it can lose all the leaves or even die.
In order for a plant to grow and develop normally, it needs conditions as close as possible to natural ones. It reacts negatively to drying out the soil, as well as to low air humidity. In this regard, he needs to ensure systematic watering, and it is also necessary that the room has a constantly high humidity (about 70–80 percent). Moisten the leaves of the sprayer too often not worth it, as this can provoke the appearance of mold and fungi. And they are rapidly developing, they can even destroy the mango.
Fertilizer for mango, which was grown from seedlings or from pits under room conditions, can be biohumus and mixtures containing nitrogen, which are used in the cultivation of citrus fruits, as well as persimmon. In the event that your mango grows in the open field, organic fertilizers should be applied as a top dressing to the tree trunk a couple of times a year. So, 4 or 5 liters of water can be insisted on rotten foliage or manure.
The plant needs good sunlight. In this regard, the lightest window sill is chosen for its placement. In the winter period, recommended lighting, which can be done with fluorescent lamps.
This tree is quite well tolerated pruning procedure, so you can shape the crown as you like. In the event that the mango grows constantly in the room, and you are not going to plant it in the open ground, it will definitely need systematic pruning. When it grows to a meter height, it is necessary to begin to nip the upper pairs of leaves, and they should be removed along with the buds.
Getting fruits in the indoor environment
Even if you strictly follow the above instructions for growing mango from a stone, this plant will only decorate the room with its spectacular foliage, outwardly resembling a palm tree. Flowering and fruiting is available only grafted plants. Already grafted mangoes are quite possible to purchase in a nursery or botanical garden, and you can also plant a plant by budding yourself, and you will need a kidney from a fruiting specimen.
For this procedure, you will need a sharp sterile knife. They need to carefully cut the kidney with a piece of wood and bark. On the tree intended for grafting, it is necessary to make a not very large incision resembling the letter T. Then carefully bend the edges of the bark and insert the cut kidney. The incision site should be carefully wrapped with soft tape, and it can be removed after the kidney grows.
The first bloom after vaccination, as a rule, comes after a couple of years. After 100 days (3 months) after the appearance of flowers, you can enjoy juicy fragrant fruits. A tree that has been grafted needs systematic feedings (watering should be done only with feedings and mixtures containing nitrogen). Especially mango needs fertilizer during flowering and fruit ripening.
Such a beautiful tree can become a real decoration of any room, but only if it is properly looked after and provided with the necessary conditions of detention. And to get sweet fruits, you will need to plant the plant and systematically fertilize it after that.
Mango is an evergreen and beautiful tree. India is considered its birthplace, however, now mango trees have been grown in other countries and continents:
- South and Central America,
- tropical part of Africa.
Under natural conditions, the tree grows to a height of 15-20 meters and above. The plant is also different large leaf size. They have a dark green color and reach a length of 10-20 cm. In mature trees, the color of the leaves is more saturated and dark in color, and in young trees the leaves are yellow-green.
Ripe fruits on trees, depending on the variety, can be very large, reaching a weight of 2 kg. They are 10-15 cm in size with a dense, but not hard skinned and pleasant aroma. The taste of the fruit will depend on the type of fruit. In all the mango fruits there is an oblong bone of a large size.
The pulp of a tropical fruit has a juicy, pleasant and sweet taste. The color of the fruit can be inside a light green or orange shades, depending on the variety. The flowering period of the tree falls on February-March. Fruits ripen in about 3 months after flowering. Some varieties ripen in 6 months.
The tree is characterized by strong stems that can withstand a large weight of fruits. In nature, there are about 50 varieties of mango, and according to some sources, up to 1,000 varieties. They all differ:
For growing on industrial plantations prefer dwarf varieties. These varieties are recommended to grow at home if desired.
How to plant a mango?
We find mango seeds is almost impossible. However, for planting at home you can use the bones of the fruit of the mango tree. To do this, select only the ripe fruit. There are certain difficulties, because the beautiful skin of red-orange color does not mean that the fruit is ripe. If the fruit is ripe enoughIt is distinguished by aroma and soft to the touch. It is advisable to buy a few pieces of mango and then at home to choose the most ripe. In the ripe fruit bone is separated easily.
If you can, you can buy a sprout in a specialized nursery. With normal care, he gets accustomed pretty well. However, such a plant requires increased attention. It does not turn out to grow a wild tree. How to grow mangoes at home and what conditions are necessary for growing a tropical plant?
A bone taken out of the fetus should be washed, after separating the remaining pulp with a knife. After this, the bone is chopped to speed up the process of germination. The shell should be removed and left only the inside, similar to the beans. If it is difficult to split a bone, then it is necessary to place it in a transparent container with water at room temperature. In this state, it will lie for several weeks. All this time we must not forget to change the water so that the bone is not lost. You can use a container with wet sawdust instead of water.
The separated germ is necessarily treated with fungicides to avoid the development of fungus and harmful spores. There are several germs in the bone., but it is best to choose the most even and green in color. Such an embryo will have more chances to germinate faster and later turn into a mango tree.
How to grow mango from bone?
The best result can be obtained if you plant a seed and take it out immediately from the fruit. Particular attention during planting should be given to the soil mixture. The quality of the soil will depend on the further development of planting material. It is best to immediately purchase a soil substrate in a flower shop. In the tank for planting stones add 1/3 of drainage and then the soil. The fetus cannot be completely cover with earth, should be left on the surface of 1/4 of the grain. After that you should pour plenty of soil and then cover with glass or transparent film.
The first shoots usually appear about 2-3 months after planting. It is advisable to plant a bone in the summer. Be sure to ventilate the tank once every 2-3 days, lifting a little edge of the shelter. If you do notthen the bone may rot.
Tropical plants need the maximum amount of light, so it is better to choose a window on the south side and put a pot there. As soon as a sprout appears, the shelter can be removed. Usually the appendix appears 2-3 weeks after planting the seed.
How to grow mango: the subtleties of care
Since mango is a tropical plant, it needs warmth and high humidity. This plant will react painfully to dry soil and air. The optimum level of humidity should be in the range of 70-80:%.
At the very beginning of cultivation A small capacity will do. Within 1 year it will develop and strengthen. After that, the young seedling can be transplanted into a more spacious pot. He should not be bothered with transplants too often, because for such a plant such manipulations are stressful. It reacts painfully, starts to hurt and may even die.
This plant must be provided with a long light day with bright light. Even in the most sunny weather, the tree can not pritenyat, because it is not afraid of sunburn. If the tree has already grown strongly and it is close to it on the windowsill it can be placed on a stand close to the window. In winter, the plant need additional lighting in the form of a fluorescent lamp. Duration of daylight should be at least 12 hours a day.
The temperature in the room should be at a certain level without sudden changes. The optimum temperature for growing is 21-26 o C. Mango poorly tolerates drafts and temperature drops, cool wind. It is dangerous to take it out to the veranda or balcony even on the hottest summer days.
Mango tree description where it grows
This tropical evergreen tree, reaches a height of 40 meters. The diameter of the crown grows to 10 meters. At home, the tree reaches 1.5-2 meters in height, and the size of the crown depends on pruning.
The root of the tree rod. Under natural conditions, it goes down to 6 meters or more.
The leaves on the tree are leathery, lanceolate, slightly wavy at the edges. В молодом возрасте розовые или светло-зелёные, слегка желтоватые, взрослея, они становятся тёмно-зелёными. Их длина достигает 30 сантиметров, а ширина – 5 сантиметров.
Плодоношение дерева начинается с 6-10 летнего возраста. Цветёт дерево с декабря по апрель.
Плоды появляются на конце вытянутого нитевидного стебля через 100 и более дней. Вес одного фрукта колеблется от 200 грамм до 2 килограмм. Кожица на плодах тонкая. Their color depends on the variety and can be green, yellow, red or orange. The flesh is orange, yellow or white, soft and fibrous. The taste of the fruit is a bit like apricot, strawberry and pineapple. The fragrance has subtle notes of lemon and roses.
More than 300 varieties of mango are grown in different countries. Mango (lat. Mangifera indica) is home to Burma and the tropical forests of Myanmar, Assam state in India. Fruits are also grown in China, Indonesia, Vietnam, Africa, Australia, Mexico, USA. In Europe, the plant is cultivated in Spain (Canary Islands).
Is it possible to grow mango from a stone at home, what conditions does he need
The best time for planting mango bones is summer. In order for the plant to grow and develop, it needs to create suitable conditions, and summer is ideal for this. A plant at any time of the year requires a lot of heat, light and space.
In summer, the tree is located on the southern windowsill, balcony or terrace. If possible, it can be taken out. In winter, an additional light source is installed near the plant, for example, a fluorescent lamp. A light day for good mango growth should be 14-16 hours.
The capacity for planting the plant is taken spacious enough so that the roots can freely develop and grow. If necessary, the tree is transplanted.
The soil in the tank must always be hydrated. Do not overdry it. Watering the tree is carried out regularly. In the summer, the leaves of the tree are additionally sprayed from the spray.
Mango seed should be planted immediately after removing it from the fruit core. The survival rate in this case will be higher.
There are 2 ways to prepare stones for planting in the ground.
The bone from the ripe fruit is separated quite simply by breaking up the flesh. The remains of the pulp are removed with a knife. Purified bone is washed with water. If there is a crack in it, then the inner part (seed) is carefully removed from the shell.
A stone (if there is no crack in it) or the extracted seed is placed in a jar of soft water. Water changes every other day. After 15-20 days, the roots germinate and the bone (seed) is ready for planting.
If there was an undisclosed bone in the water, then the bone opens with a knife and the seed is taken out of it. The shell by this time will soften and easily open.
With another method of preparation of the bone, it is laid out on a bright place after cleaning from the pulp and washing and dried for 1-2 days. As soon as one side dries, the bone turns to the other.
Then the seed is removed from the seed. She neatly with a round tip is opened with a blunt knife. The shell is broken by hand. The seed is separated from the shell. Peel from the seed is not removed. Next, the seed is wrapped in a piece of paper towel and slightly moistened. The material should not be wet, otherwise the seed will rot.
The wrapped seed is laid out in a plastic bag with a zip-fastener and tightly closed. The package is retracted in a plastic container and sent to a dark place. The condition of the seed is checked daily. After germination, the seed is ready for planting.
For planting the seed (seed) is taken large capacity. Mango roots take up a lot of space, and a bulky pot avoids frequent transplants.
Soil for planting mango purchased in the store. It should be light and ph-neutral. Any universal soil with the addition of sand in the ratio of 2: 1. You can also use a soil mixture for succulents, supplemented with small stones.
Experienced growers prepare the soil at home. The simplest option is a mixture of peat chips, fertile garden soil and large river sand or perlite, coconut fiber (1: 2: 1).
At the bottom of the pot poured 5 cm layer of drainage of expanded clay, fine gravel, broken bricks. On top, 2/3 of the pot volume is filled with soil. The earth is watered. After dripping moisture, you can start landing.
Seed planting can be done in several ways: horizontally, if a sprout has spiked or sideways, if there is no germ yet. It is powdered with soil. On the surface of the earth should remain of the seed. The soil is abundantly watered with settled water. If the ground has subsided after watering, it is filled to the desired height.
The pot is covered with a transparent film or glass, cut off with a plastic bottle and set in a bright place. Every 2-3 days, the edges of the shelter are raised for airing. Sprouts appear in 15-30 days. Shelter is removed gradually, the sprout must get used to the environment.
Mango plant care
Plant care is not complicated, but they can not be neglected, since the absence of one or another care measure or its incorrect implementation can weaken the mango or lead to its death.
Watering the mango is carried out as soon as the topsoil in the tank dries out, about twice a week. In hot weather, watering is carried out daily.
In summer, plants are additionally irrigated from a spray bottle. In the winter period, with overdried air, a humidifier or a container with water is installed in the room.
Every 2 weeks the plant is watered with a 2-3% solution of urea, ammonium nitrate or ammonium sulfate. Top dressing alternates with Epin, potassium humate and biohumus.
As organics taken infusion of bird droppings, manure, dandelion leaves or nettle. It is prepared within 3-5 days. Before use, the infusion is diluted with water in the ratio of 1:10 or 1:15 (if it is litter). In mid-autumn, feeding is stopped.
2-3 times per season, the mangifera leaves are sprayed with a solution of boric acid, copper sulfate, zinc sulfate (2 grams of substance per liter of water).
When using organic matter, twice a year, plants are fertilized with humus. To do this, a small groove along the edge of the pot is made, humus is poured and ordinary soil is sprinkled on top. This allows the mango to be supplied with the necessary nutrients for good growth.
The plant responds well to formative pruning and actively restores the crown. Formation is carried out 1-2 times a year to regulate the size of the plant and maintain a beautiful shape. The procedure is carried out when the tree reaches 1.5 meters in height.
When pruning cut all the branches, thickening crown. The central branch is shortened to the desired length. Crown can be formed in the form of a ball, pyramid, spreading bush. Places pruned treated garden pitch.
If from the beginning, a small capacity was taken for planting the mango bones, then with the further transplanting of the plant it is necessary to wait. The optimal time for this is the period when the plant grows a little, will get stronger. The final transplantation of a tree into a constant capacity is carried out no earlier than 1 year. If necessary, the tree is transplanted annually, but not more than 1 time during this period.
For transplantation of mango, a large, spacious container, drainage and similar soil, which was used during the first planting, are taken. The plant is removed from the tank, along with an earthy ball. This is easier to do if half an hour before that pour it abundantly.
The plant is installed in a prepared container with drainage and a thin layer of earth and sprinkled with fresh earth. Planted tree watered and placed on a darkened place for 3-5 days to adapt. Then it can be carried out and put on the former, well lit place.
Mango diseases and pests
Mango, in violation of the arrangements for the care or in the vicinity of the affected plants can be affected by diseases and pests. Manigife is treated the same way as other indoor flowers.
Mealy dew - A disease that develops with high humidity and sharp fluctuations in temperature. With the defeat on the leaves appears white shapeless plaque. Shoots are deformed, thickened.
For prophylaxis, once every 2-3 weeks the plant is sprayed with a solution of a biological product (Planriz, Fitosporin-M, Alirina-B) or an infusion of wood ash, a solution of soda ash.
When fighting an ailment, the plant is treated with fungicide solutions, for example, Topsin-M, Topaz, Tiovit-Jett, Fundazol, Byleton, up to 4 times every 7 days.
Bacteriosis - Bacterial disease, penetrating through damage to the leaves or appearing with an excess of fertilizer or stagnant moisture. When the disease softens and destroys certain sections of the leaves and stems. On a cut of escapes dark brown rings appear. The plant begins to rot, there is an unpleasant smell.
To eliminate the problem, the damaged parts of the plant are cut off, grabbing 5-7 centimeters of healthy-looking tissue. Sections are disinfected with a 2% solution of copper sulphate. The tree is transplanted into a new soil, sprayed with Bordeaux mixture or copper sulphate.
Water for irrigation for a month is replaced by a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate. Alirin-B and Trikhodermin granules are introduced into the soil.
Anthracnose - A fungal disease that spreads through damaged leaves or affected soil. Brown or yellowish spots appear on the leaves.
To remove the disease, the affected leaves are pruned. The plant is washed with warm water and transplanted into a new land. The tree is treated with a solution of Fitosporin, Kuprozan, Oxyhom, Previkur, Skor, Acrobat-MC. Enough 2-3 treatments with an interval of 14-18 days.
As a disease prevention, Fitosporin-M, Gamair, Trichodermine is added to the water once a month in water. The soil is powdered with crushed chalk or activated charcoal.
Among the pests for mangifers, the spider mite, thrips, scutes and aphids are dangerous.
Spider mite determined by a thin cobweb on the bottom of the leaves. These tiny pests feed on plant sap.
Thrips are small pests that cause great damage to plants. These insects and their larvae, as well as mites, suck the sap of plants.
Methods of dealing with spider mites and thrips are the same. The plant and all surfaces around it are washed with a soap-alcohol solution. The affected areas of the tree are removed. The plant is treated with protective drugs (Akarinom, Apollo, Kleschevit, Neoron, Fitoverm, Vertimekom). It will take 3-4 treatments, with the replacement of funds. Intervals between treatments 5-12 days.
Shchitovka feeds on plant sap. In those places where the pests have settled over time, brown spots appear. When the first signs of a lesion are detected, the pests are removed manually, after having previously smeared their shells with kerosene, lube oil, and turpentine. Then the tree gets a shower and processing Actellic, Fufanon, Fosbecid.
For the prevention of leaves once a week, wipe with a soft cloth moistened with alcohol or sprayed with infusion of onion, hot red pepper, garlic.
Aphid settles on the lower part of the leaves of the plant and multiplies rapidly, forming whole colonies of small pests. They suck the sap of plants and infect it with various diseases.
To prevent infection, plants are regularly sprayed with soap and water.
Aphids with mango are removed with infusions of any herbs with a pungent smell, for example, wormwood, tansy, tops of tomatoes and potatoes, calendula, lavender, as well as onions, garlic, lemon peel, tobacco. In the absence of effect, Inta-Vir, Tanrek, Mospilan, Iskra-Bio and Konfidor-Maxi insecticides are used.
Can I get fruit at home?
With proper care, an unvaccinated tree may bloom in 6 years or more. The grafted plant blooms for 2 years, most often in early spring.
Fruits ripen in 3-3.5 months, and sometimes 6 months after the flowers wither. The taste qualities of the parent tree may not be transmitted, since at home it is very difficult to provide the plant with the desired microclimate.
It is carried out in the second year of the tree when the trunk of a mango reaches the diameter of a pencil. The best time for vaccination is mid-end summer.
To do this, take a kidney from a fruiting mango, which is cut with a sterile knife along with a piece of bark and wood. On a tree grown from a bone in the lower part of the trunk, a T-shaped incision is made, the bark is bent and a kidney is placed there. The vaccination site is wrapped with tape or tape.
The grafted tree is covered with a bag, having made holes for ventilation in it, and is transferred to a bright and warm place.
Leaves and shoots below the grafting site are removed when it becomes clear that the grafting was successful.
It is also possible to inoculate a mangifera with a handle. In this case, the top of the tree and the base of the cutting are cut at the same angle, the cuts are combined and fixed with tape, tape or grafting tape. Also, the cutting can be inserted into the cleft.
What does a mango tree look like?
Many of us know the perennial tropical culture of the cashew family - mango. The tree is at home also known as mangifera. Its shoots are long and very strong, they grow a huge number of ripe fruits. The weight of one ripe fruit can reach 2 kg. A tree that grows in the tropics never sheds leaves. It remains evergreen.
How does it grow in nature?
Admire how mango grows in nature can be on the territory of a number of tropical countries. There, this culture together with other trees forms dense forests. When a mango grows in natural conditions, the tree looks like this:
- height of 25–30 meters and more,
- crown diameter 7–8 meters
- Lanceolate leaf plates, up to 40 cm long,
- young leaves grow first maroon, and then acquire their characteristic green color.
When a mango grows in nature, it blooms in February or March. Its small yellow flowers are collected in rather large pyramidal inflorescences. Their length can be 40 centimeters or more. The smell of the flowers of this tree is similar to the scent of lilies. A large number of insects and bats fly to it. After tying the fruit grows within 3 months.
Mango is a long-liver. It can grow over several centuries. There are trees, at the age of 300 years, that are still actively growing and bearing fruit.
Mango root is pivotal, it goes to a depth of over 6 meters. But even with such an impressive size, he is not able to hold the tree. Therefore, mango additionally develops a wide and strongly branched root system. The tree grows unevenly throughout the year. He has several periods of intensive development. But despite this, mangoes bear only once. Under the conditions of cultural cultivation, agronomists manage to get two waves of fruiting.
Is it possible to grow at home?
How does mango grow at home? - you ask. Indeed, in nature, this is a huge tree with a wide spreading crown. So, for growing in the house mainly used dwarf varieties and grafted plants. They grow in the form of small compact trees with a height from 70 cm to 1.5 meters. When growing graft plants, seedlings grown from seed play the role of rootstock.
If there is no vaccination, or there is no possibility to purchase a special dwarf variety, they are limited to constant formative trimming. For this purpose, 4–5 main branches are left on the tree, and the rest are cut. Mango grows quite intensively, so its crown is trimmed several times a year.
How to grow from the stone in the pot?
Many gardeners are very interested in the question of how to grow mango from a stone? So, it is completely easy to do. The main thing - stock up on seed from a well-ripened fruit. You can determine it by the following features:
- The skin is reddish or yellowish.
- Soft pulp.
- Easily separable bone.
How to germinate?
Growing mango at home should start with sprouting. For this, the seed is first thoroughly cleaned. If this stage is neglected, a mold will appear in the process, which will destroy it.
Purified bone is placed in a container with warm boiled water. Once a day the water should be changed. After she starts to grow it can be planted.
And how to grow a mango bone in another way? There is another option for germination. The seed is simply wrapped in a wet towel and placed in a warm place. At the same time it is necessary to ensure that the towel is constantly wet. As soon as the seed begins to grow it can be planted. So, how to plant a mango bone?
How to plant?
After germination in front of the florist another question arises: how to plant a mango bone at home? So, for this you need:
- a pot with a diameter of 10–12 cm
- universal soil,
- small amount of claydite.
The process of planting itself is very simple, first a drainage hole is made in the bottom of the pot. Then the universal soil is mixed with expanded clay. The resulting soil mixture is poured into the pot.
Also be sure to pay attention to how to plant the mango seed. If it is already growing, plant horizontally. In other cases, landing is carried out sideways. Whichever method of planting is chosen, it cannot be completely buried with earth. Above the soil surface must be at least a quarter of it.
After the planting, the care of the planted seed is as follows:
- The pot is watered abundantly with warm water.
- Над местом посадки сооружается импровизированная тепличка из отрезанного верха полиэтиленовой бутылки. С целью проветривания пробку на нем иногда нужно откручивать.
- До того, как семя начнет расти, его содержат в теплом, светлом месте.
- Также постоянно нужно следить за уровнем влажности почвы и при необходимости осуществлять полив.
В среднем на прорастание уходит от одного до двух месяцев. If there are no sprouts for a long time, you can try to apply growth promoters. For example, it stimulates Epin growth processes well. His solution watered landing site.
From one seed usually appears several shoots at once. One of them is always growing more actively. It should be left and the rest carefully removed. At first, the sprout grows very, very slowly, but gradually its development accelerates significantly.
Care for a young immature plant should be very thorough:
- The first time it should be regularly and abundantly watered. In this case, the main thing is to prevent the Gulf. In order for excessive moisture to flow freely, drainage holes should be punched in the bottom of the pot.
- Also, from the first month of life, the sprout can be fed. For this purpose, mineral complexes for ornamental leafy plants are used. Breed them should be in strict accordance with the attached annotation.
After we learned how to plant a mango and how a seedling grows, it would not hurt to get acquainted with the rules of care.
It looks like a mango sprout
Mango care at home is a snap. The main thing is to create the following growing conditions:
- Lighting. The mango plant grows best with intense light. Therefore, the pot with him is best placed on the window, oriented to the south. In order for the mango to grow successfully in the winter, he is provided with additional lighting from fluorescent lamps. This will prevent unwanted stretching of the shoots.
- Air humidity. Bone mango is very adaptable. The tree grows without problems in normal room conditions with dry air. But despite this, he requires regular spraying with soft water with a temperature slightly above room temperature. In winter, the tree grows well and without daily spraying.
- Watering the mango. The plant at home should be watered after drying of the upper soil layer. Allow it to dry completely. For irrigation, use only separated water. Mango grows well with constant moderate humidity.
In addition to observing the above conditions for growing mango, a tree at home requires certain care measures:
- Crop. Mango from the stone at home is growing very intensively, therefore, in order to preserve high decorative qualities, it must be cut off. Usually, they start shaping after the mango grows to a height of 1 meter. First, pinch only the growth point of the main shoot. After this, the side branches begin to grow, which are subsequently also cut off.
- Transfer. Growing a mango from a pit also involves a transplant. The tree grows intensively for the first 5 years, so the transplant must be annual. After will be enough once every 2–3 years. Carry out a transplant in the spring. During this period, the tree begins to grow rapidly and therefore easily tolerates damage to the root system. In this new pot should be slightly larger than the previous one. Replanting the plant immediately into a large one is not recommended.
- Top dressing. You can grow mango from the stone at home without using fertilizers. But then the tree grows weak and frail. To prevent this from occurring during the period of intensive growth, it is fed with a solution of universal fertilizer.
So we learned how to grow a mango with your own hands from an unnecessary seed, but what about its flowering in indoor conditions?
How does this plant bloom?
About how the mango tree looks already mentioned, but how does this culture bloom at home? Mango trees bloom no earlier than 5–6 years from the time of planting. Up to this point they just grow.
But in the indoor environment to see their flowering is almost impossible. Even if the trees grow in the greenhouse or winter garden is not always possible to admire the flowers. To see live how mango blossoms can be, only if the culture grows in the conditions of nature.
Will there be fruit?
When growing mangoes at home from the bones, seeing the fruit itself is very unlikely. Trees that grow in the house can only produce fruit if vaccination is available. They are purchased in the appropriate nursery. You can also try self-vaccination. For this you need the following:
- Rootstock. As it is used mango flower grown from seed.
- Graft. As it uses the kidney from the specimen giving fruit.
- Sharp knife.
- Insulating tape.
The very technique of grafting a mango from a seed growing in a pot is very simple. On the stock, a T-shaped incision is made. It should be located in 1-2 cm from the root of the neck. Its edges gently bend. After that, a pre-cut kidney is placed on the incision site. All this is securely fixed tape.
The best time for vaccination is spring. At this time, the mango begins to grow actively, which contributes to the accelerated growth of vaccination. In a month it will be seen how successful she was. If the implanted kidney grows, then the inoculation is almost 100% successful.
Further care of the vaccination is as follows:
- After 1–1.5 months, you will need to remove the top of the stock. To do this, just above the vaccination site with a sharp knife or pruner cuts the entire main shoot.
- The resulting cut is necessarily smeared with a small amount of garden pitch.
After grafting until the tree blooms, it will grow for about 3 more years. During this period, the mango will increase the crown. After the formation of the ovary, the fruit will grow for another 3-4 months. Mango pollinates very badly, so there will be very few fruits.
Watering and feeding
In the room where mango grows it is necessary to constantly maintain the humidity of the air. For this, the plant is sprayed with water, and also open containers filled with water are placed close to it. Water for irrigation should not contain chlorine, have room temperature. Do not allow dry soil in the pototherwise the plant will be sick and then die. Watering should be sapling 2 times a week.
To achieve flowering at home is very difficult. This tree is unlikely to bear fruit. It can perform only a decorative role. To maintain its decorative qualities, you must purchase special fertilizers.
Funds containing nitrogen is enough to make 1 time per month. He is responsible for the color and growth of deciduous mass. In winter, it is better not to fertilize, because at this time plant growth slows down. It is also recommended to feed representative of the tropics biohumus.
With good care, the tree can bloom when it reaches the age of 6 years, or even later. It is believed that only grafted plants can bloom and bear fruit. The tree must be cut, forming its crown to your liking.
Mango in natural conditions
Mango (Indian mangifera) is an evergreen tropical tree with valuable fruits. Its homeland is East India. From there it moved to other Asian countries, East Africa, California, Spain, the Canary Islands. The largest supplier of these fruits is still India, not for nothing mango tree - one of its national symbols.
Mangifera is a long-lived tree. In nature, mangoes grow, which at the age of 300 years delight with their harvest. Mango trees have the following options.:
- Height 10–30 m.
- Crown circumference - up to 10 m.
- The width of the sheet is 5 cm, and the length is 40 cm.
- Root length - up to 6 m.
- Fruit weight - from 250 g to 2 kg.
The leaves of the tree first have a burgundy shade and only as the plants grow they turn green. The mango flowering period is from February to March. Its inflorescences reach 40 cm in length. The aroma of yellow flowers is like the smell of lilies. The fruits that are tied in them grow only in 3 monthsand sometimes it takes half a year. All this time, fruits hang on long strong stems left over from the inflorescences, which looks very unusual.
A ripe fruit has a smooth and thin skin of green or yellow color. The place that is turned towards the sun has a bright red color. Orange Fruit Flesh to taste like both peach and pineapple. At the same time, it is distinguished by extraordinary richness and tenderness.
There are more than 500 mango varieties in the world. They differ in the height of the tree, as well as the shape, size and color of the fruit. Among them there are dwarf species, it is they should prefer for indoor cultivation.
Cultivation from a stone
The mango plant can be purchased at a specialist store or nursery, but it is much more interesting to grow it yourself. The main thing that is needed for this is a mango fruit, because one cannot do without its bones. It is better if the fruit is ripe. Planting a plant consists of several stages.
Seed preparation for planting. Before planting, you must remove the seed from the fruit and release the seed. For this, the mango fruit is cut into two halves, after which a bone is taken from it. It should be rinsed and carefully opened so as not to damage the contents.
It often happens that the bone does not open. In this case, you can not split it with a hammer or other tool, because you can harm the future germ. You should put the core in a container with clean water and put it in a warm, well-lit place. Water needs to be changed periodically. Usually after 2 weeks the bone swells and opens.
Mango seed resembles a large bean. After its extraction is required to make treatment with a special fungicide. This is done in order to protect the germ from disease.
The processed seed is wrapped in a damp cloth or paper towel, placed in a plastic bag with a clasp and put away in a plastic container. You can pour wet sawdust on the bottom of the container and put the seed on top. The whole structure is placed in a dark warm place until a sprout appears. Germination takes place in 2−3 weeks. All this time no seed drying.
The planting of the seedling is carried out in an already prepared pot with an earthen mixture. It is better to take the pot immediately, so that the plant often does not replant. As for the soil - its composition can be universal. The main condition is a neutral level of acidity. Otherwise, the seedling will slowly develop, and then completely wither.
Planting is as follows.:
- The pot is filled with soil mixture for 2/3 volume. The layer of claydite at its bottom should be no thinner than 5 cm. Without such drainage, the risk of stagnation of water and root decay increases.
- In the middle of the pot is made a recess in which the seed is planted. Three-quarters of it should be in the ground, and one-quarter above the ground surface. If the sprout has spiked, plant the seed horizontally. When planting, a seed without a sprout is arranged sideways.
- Land in a pot is watered and covered with a piece of plastic bottle or a transparent container.
- The container with the planted seed is placed in a warm and bright place, which is protected from direct sunlight. Periodically, it must be opened and ventilated, and when the soil dries out, it must be watered.
- If the plant does not appear for a long time, you can pour the earth with a solution of epine or another growth stimulator.
- After the appearance of the mango sprout shelter is removed. This usually happens in 2−3 weeks. In the future, you need to observe the plant and care for it, as an adult.
At home, mango grows without any problems, if properly care for him. When creating conditions close to nature, the tree will decorate the apartment for a long time.
Lighting and temperature. Mango is very fond of sunlight, so the pot with the plant should be put in a place with maximum illumination. It is better to choose a window facing south. In winter, the tree requires additional lighting, which can be provided with a fluorescent lamp. With a lack of light, the leaves begin to fall off from it, and it withers away.
The best temperature for growing mangoes is 21–26 °. The plant hardly tolerates any climate change, so it is not recommended to rearrange it from one window to another and take it to the loggia or balcony even in good weather.
Humidity and watering
In nature, mango grows in a tropical climate, and dry air does not suit him. The optimal indicator of humidity should not be below 70−80%. The leaves of the plant are recommended to be sprayed with warm water. If necessary, you can put water containers next to a flower pot or purchase a humidifier.
Watering should be carried out at least 2 times a week. Soil in the pot must be kept moist and loosened more often. Excess moisture is harmful to the tree, so zealous with watering is not recommended.
Fertilizer and crown formation
Of all the fertilizers, mango prefers organic. Biohumus and humus should be applied to the soil every 2 weeks. To do this, make a groove around the stem of the plant, where the mixture is laid. Once a month, it is desirable to conduct a liquid fertilizer with mineral fertilizer, which contains a lot of nitrogen. This contributes to the preservation of lush foliage.
In the natural environment, the mango reaches a multimeter height, but at home it is necessary to cut it in time to form the crown. After the eighth leaf appears on the plant pinch the top. When the tree reaches 1−1.5 m in height, proceed to pruning, leaving five main branches. After that, monitor the further growth of shoots, forming a crown, what you want. If desired, you can cut it in the form of a ball or other shape.
The pruning procedure is carried out in the spring or summer period and is carried out 1-2 times a year. After it, the plant is quickly restored, so do not be afraid to cut the extra branches, thickening the crown.
Every spring you want to replant the tree in a pot that is larger than the previous size. This is done to form a strong root system. When a plant is three or four years old, it can be transplanted less often - once in 3 years.
How to get fruit
Even with the best care for a mango tree, it will not bloom in captivity. Fruits appear only on the grafted plant. If the city has a nursery with fruit trees, there you can get material for vaccination and try to hold it yourself. The vaccination technique is not as complicated as it may seem.
Here's how it's done:
- On a home plant at a distance of 1−2 cm from the root of the neck with a sharp knife is cut in the shape of the letter T.
- The edges of the cut gently open. There is inserted graft, taken in the nursery.
- The junction is sealed with electrical tape.
If everything is done correctly, in about a month the scion kidney will begin to develop. In this case, after 90 days should cut off the main escape of the tree slightly above the vaccination area. The resulting cut should be treated with garden pitch.
After vaccination, the plant takes at least 3 years to grow a new crown. Only after this period will it begin to blossom and bear fruit. Expect a big harvest should not be, as the mango flowers in the apartment is not very pollinated. Fruit ripening occurs in 3-4 months.
Growing a mango from a stone at home is quite possible. This tree will be a wonderful decoration of the apartment and surprise your friends.
Mango tree at home: the secrets of growing.
To sprout a mango bone, prepare:
- Soil (universal for seedlings), you can even use ordinary land from the garden.
- Plastic cup (preferably transparent)
- Plastic bag.
That's the whole set, all at a minimum, agree? And now I will talk about those "tricks" that you need to know before planting a mango.
Only fresh mango bone is suitable for planting.
From my own experience I will say that only fresh mango bone is suitable for plantingif it is already the second or third day and is almost dry, it is better to take a new seed, because the germination of the dried seed decreases the minimum.
Carefully open the bone, so as not to damage the inner seed.
The most difficult in the germination of mango bones — it is neat to open the bone so as not to damage the inner seed. If you do everything right, then the probability of germination of the seed you have will greatly increase by 2 times.
Pour the prepared primer into a plastic cup.
- Pour the prepared soil into a plastic cup so that the volume of the soil is slightly more than half of the glass.
- Make a hole in the middle of the ground and stick the mango bone in there with the concave side down so that 2/3 of the seed is buried in the ground.
- Well spill the soil (but do not fill!) And put on a plastic bag on the glass, make a greenhouse.
- Make a hole in the greenhouse so that the greenhouse is ventilated.
- Put in a warm place and you can forget about it for 18-20 days.
When, after 18 days, I approached the greenhouse, I saw that through the holes made, the sprout had already made its way by 10 centimeters!
Transplantation seedlings mango bones.
The transplant was made as follows:
- Carefully took a sprout from the pot and knocked the excess earth from the roots. It was very interesting to look at this sprout, it was standing on its roots, like a figurine, and on the whole it looked like an alien creature.
Верхние листья все таки завяли, зато боковой листик очень активно стал расти. В любом случае, все это очень забавно, поэтому буду растить манговое дерево до тех пор, пока оно будет с состоянии расти в условиях закрытого помещения.
Уход за комнатным манго.
На основе своего опыта, я сделала соответствующие выводы по уходу за комнатным манго. Вот основные моменты:
- For all the logic of the situation, experience has shown that the mango does not like direct sunlight, so it stands on my shelf on the side of the southeast window, where the sun is only in the morning and evening hours.
- Watering is also moderate, it is necessary to let the soil dry out, 1 time even forgot to water the mangoes, and it did not react negatively to a short-term drought.
- Spraying I do not spend it, but once a week I wipe the leaves with a damp cloth.
In general, during its growth, mango almost never was capricious, and it grows along with unpretentious chlorophytum.