Plant called eggplant, or Tmelon brood, little blue, Is a type of herbaceous perennials of the Nightshade family, wildly grown in Asia, India and the East.
This fruit began to be introduced into the culture 5 thousand years ago, as confirmed by the oldest texts.
The eggplant bush is about 40-150 cm tall. The leaves of the plant are large, rough, green, sometimes with a purple tint. Flowers with a diameter of 2-2.5 cm, purple, single or collected in inflorescences of 2-7 units, bloom from July to September. The fruit is a large, rounded, cylindrical or pear-shaped berry with a diameter of up to 20, a length of up to 70 cm and up to 1 kg, dark-purple in which are small, flat pale brown grains ripening at the end of summer or early autumn.
Seed planting rules
Eggplant - the most thermophilic fruit of the genus Pasanova. It does not stand frosts and in the circumstances of our climate is grown only through seedlings.
The ripening period of early ripening species of eggplants is 100 days from the emergence of shoots, and for late ripening this time period is 150 days.
Eggplants can be planted at the beginning of March with the expectation that the earth should warm up to 18 degrees by the time the seedlings are transplanted, and seedlings by this time are at least 75 days old.
Planting and cultivation of eggplants comes from pre-sowing seed treatment, and it is best to take seeds from the second year of storage when planting, because they are more viable. In order to activate the seeds before planting, they are moistened for 3 days in 3% potassium humate solution, and then they are planted one by one in cassettes or single pots with moistened soil consisting of 60% of peat, 20% of humus, and 10% from the turf with the addition of 5% sand or sawdust and the same number of biohumus, deepening the seeds in the soil composition by 1 cm. After sowing, the soil is compacted, then the container is covered with a film.
Growing quality seedlings
Seeds germinate at a temperature of about 25-26 C after 15 days. If a considerable part of the seedlings ascends, the film is cleaned, and the temperature and light increase. Caring for seedlings does not require significant effort from you.
From the time of sowing and until the appearance of buds, the ground is not watered, the humidity of the air should also not be high, and only when bud formation the humidity of the earth and air should be increased.
If you have sown seed in rich soil, feeding for eggplants is not required, however, if the soil is poor, pour it 2-3 times crystalline - 12-15 g per 10 liters of water. And watch that the seedlings have enough light, in other circumstances the plant will be painfully stretched. If there is a cloudy weather outside in a long time, then it is necessary to make the room temperature a few degrees cooler, which is usually achieved by airing, and also slightly reduce the humidity of the air and the earth.
Unlike tomato, eggplants do not respond well to the pick, so they are sown immediately in individual containers. Nevertheless, when crops form one or two leaves, there is a need to move them to larger pots, 10-12 cm in diameter. Before swooping down plants into large pots, they should be watered abundantly, and then carefully moved along with the landball in a new dish. 2 weeks before planting the seedlings in the open ground they are taken to harden: gradually lowering the temperature of the content, bringing it to 14-15 C.
The last couple of days before planting, the seedlings should spend the whole daylight on cool air, and if it is warm in the yard in this case, you can keep the seedlings on the street all night. Strengthening procedures increase the resistance of the seedlings to the wind, adaptability to cold temperatures and direct sunlight. Seedlings that will be grown in the greenhouse in the future, hardening is not required.
Planting in open ground
To plant eggplant seedlings in open ground, you need to know the main conditions for transplanting seedlings to a prepared bed - the temperature of the earth is within 18 C and the age of the plant is 2-2.5 months. Seedlings should be 16-25 cm tall, have 8-10 real leaflets, and, possibly, a certain amount of buds. Preferably, the danger of return frost by the time of planting seedlings have passed.
In this case, there is the best period for planting seedlings on the garden - the beginning of June. Place for growing eggplant should be sunny, however, protected from the wind. The best predecessors of eggplants:
It is impossible to grow eggplants in a place where potatoes, peppers, tomatoes and, in fact, eggplants were grown before.
The plant needs to create an optimal microclimate, protect it from possible contamination with diseases or pests, prepare a nourishing soil for growth and development. Even the perfect care will not help get a good harvest blue, if you do not previously hold the necessary activities.
Before growing eggplants in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate or film, you should:
- thoroughly wash the entire frame and covering material,
- process disinfectants
- dry and ventilate the building,
- remove plant residues from the soil in the fall,
- change, pickle, process the soil,
- fertilize, lime when necessary,
- dig deep
- form the beds
- create optimal conditions for eggplants - temperature + 20-28 ° C, humidity 60-75%.
Agrotechnical cultivation of crops in the greenhouse involves the preliminary forcing of seedlings at home. The vegetable does not like transplanting, so direct sowing in closed ground is often used. However, in most regions of the country for this it is necessary to use insulated, heated greenhouses, which will significantly increase the cost of cultivation.
The procedure is carried out in a standard way for all varieties, only disinfectant solutions differ depending on the building material. The specificity of growing eggplants in a greenhouse is different because of its susceptibility to various diseases. Disinfection of the room is carried out very carefully.
Depending on the material used in the construction of the material used:
- soap solution for film, glass,
- light solution of potassium permanganate for cellular polycarbonate,
- water with vinegar for PVC and metal parts.
In the presence of moss on the frame of a greenhouse or greenhouse, it must be removed, the surface is treated with a 5% solution of ferrous sulfate. Disinfection should be done carefully, because fungal spores are vitality, they retain their vitality for a long time (up to 10 years).
In the autumn, it is permitted to treat with sulfuric checker gas, which repels many insects and destroys mold. A closed building to stand in the smoke for 3-5 days, then well ventilated. Bleach is suitable not only for the soil, but also for spraying greenhouse construction. Modern biologics are less effective, but can be used as a safe for humans tool.
Soil and beds
The bulk of harmful microorganisms accumulates in the upper layer of soil. By removing only 7-10 cm, you can protect the eggplant by 90%. The removed earth is exposed to disinfection in one of the ways:
- heat - watering with boiling water, aging in an oven at + 80 ° C, prolonged drying in the sun, warming with hot steam,
- chemical - treatment with a solution of potassium permanganate, copper sulfate, formalin, dry bleach,
- biological - permitted biological products.
If the soil in the greenhouse has been used for several years without a change, then before growing eggplants, it is advisable to replace about 10 cm of the surface layer with a new earth. Otherwise, the treatment should be carried out at a depth of 25-30 cm.
Acidity should be in the range of pH 6-7. Bleach is suitable not only for disinfection, but also deoxidation.
Cultivation of the soil in the greenhouse involves the application of fertilizers, changing the structure if necessary. For loam and clay soil to make manure or humus, sand, peat, rotted sawdust - 1 m² is required, respectively, 1: 1: 2: 0.5 buckets of components. For sod land you need 1 bucket of humus, sand and garden soil. Sandstone diluted with clay soil, peat, rotted sawdust and humus in the ratio of 1 m² 3: 2: 1: 2 buckets.
In addition to humus, the nutrient composition to enrich wood ash, urea, superphosphate and potassium sulfate salt. Fresh manure is allowed to make only under the predecessors, because the fertilizer reduces the commercial quality of eggplant, becomes the cause of disease. As organic additives use humus, compost, rotted sawdust.
Microclimate in the greenhouse
The culture loves light (10-12 hours), sufficient watering, moderate air humidity and heat. When sowing seedlings of eggplants in greenhouses, the ambient temperature should be + 16-18 ° C during the day and + 10-12 ° C at night the first week after germination. It is then maintained at + 20-28 ° C during the day and + 14-15 ° C at night.
Eggplant grows with moderate humidity. Too dry air will lead to wilting of the aerial parts, and wet will provoke fungal diseases, rotting. It is important that the culture is located on the sunny side and not obscured by other plants. Great importance when using a single layer of land for several years has the observance of crop rotation.
Planting grown seedlings in closed ground should be planted 65-75 days after sowing at home with a plant height of 15-25 cm and 4-5 pairs of true leaves. In spring, you can add to the beds:
Before planting seedlings of eggplants in the greenhouse, pour plenty of water into the ground for a few days so that the water is absorbed into the soil. The landing pattern depends on the size of the building. On narrow beds, seedlings should be placed in one line at a distance of 30-60 cm from each other, depending on the variety, between rows are 70-100 cm. On wide ones there is a two-row belt planting: between plants 30-60 cm, ribbons - 60-70 cm.
Seedlings should be planted in well-watered holes, slightly exceeding in depth seedling tanks, the rhizome from the ground or the peat pot should not be released.
Eggplants do not like strong penetration, compared to the previous level of the soil can be buried 1 cm deeper.
Pour into a nutritious soil mixture, pour over, slightly condense. To conduct mulching between the rows with peat or straw. After disembarkation, the bushes for several days may be a little worn down. Water the seedlings with warm water after 5 days, so that the plants have time to first adapt to the changing conditions.
How to care for eggplants in the greenhouse
Planting and caring for crops in closed ground are made in accordance with agrotechnical rules. After planting seedlings of eggplants in the greenhouse, it is necessary to observe the temperature regime, avoid low or high humidity, water as needed. The vegetable does not tolerate the transplant, so you need to give the opportunity to settle down in a new place.
In a polycarbonate greenhouse, eggplant care implies:
- timely watering,
- maintaining optimum temperature
- airing without drafts,
- loosening, weeding,
- introduction of complex dressings,
- garter of fragile twigs,
- preventive measures against diseases and pests.
When growing eggplants in a greenhouse or greenhouse, water every 5-7 days with warm water (+ 24 ° C). To provide oxygen to the root system, loosen the spacing during the formation of a dense earth crust. Mulching makes it less likely to moisten the soil, preventing the growth of weeds.
Top dressing over the summer is needed 3-4 times depending on the condition of the plants. Organics to make in the autumn preparation, after planting, use complex mineral fertilizers containing potassium and phosphorus. An excess of organic additives leads to an increase in green mass, rather than the formation of the ovary. The first procedure is needed 2 weeks after planting the seedlings in the greenhouse, the second - at the beginning of flowering, the third - after the appearance of the first fruits, the fourth - when signs of micronutrient deficiencies appear.
The secret of successful cultivation of eggplants in the greenhouse is the ventilation of the building when the temperature rises above + 28 ° C. Depending on the variety, low, medium and high growth shrubs are formed. Low-growing plants should be pinned to the side shoots, as they form a lush bush that prevents free circulation of fresh air. High varieties cut from above to stop the draw. Be sure to tie the twigs, so as not to break off under the weight of ripening eggplants. It is advisable to leave 5-7 pieces on the plant, a larger number will not allow to obtain large fruits.
To grow a good harvest of eggplants can only be in the greenhouse. Culture is demanding on the environment and care. It is important to comply with agrotechnical rules, crop rotation, preparation activities. Fruits to collect at achievement of a technical maturity, without waiting for full maturing.
When to plant eggplants in the greenhouse
Eggplants grow only in heat: the most comfortable temperature for them is from 20 to 30 o C, at a temperature below 15 o C the growth stops, and when the temperature drops to 0 o C, the plants die. In greenhouses, especially from polycarbonate, ideal conditions are created for them, but even here the temperature must be carefully monitored: overheating is also harmful, and in extreme heat the flowers are not pollinated and fall.
It is difficult to name the exact date when seedlings of eggplants should be populated in a greenhouse (seedlings: it is impossible to grow them from seeds even in a heated greenhouse, seeds are sown for seedlings even in winter). To start planting should be ready and seedlings, and greenhouse: as the beds in it, and temperature conditions.
Ideal seedlings meet the conditions:
- has about 8 leaves,
- seedling height - 15–20 cm,
- the stem at the same time reaches a thickness of not less than 5 mm.
Seedlings should have well-branched roots, but it is better not to see this: it is necessary to plant with a large clod of earth without disturbing the root system. This situation is typical for seedlings aged about 2.5 months. At least, earlier than in 2 months no manipulations on taking out seedlings from a box or cups are strongly recommended. Eggplants should bloom in a permanent place.
It is advisable to grow each instance of seedlings in a separate container: it is easier to avoid root disturbance during transplantation
As for the temperature background, here it is necessary to pay attention to both the air temperature in the greenhouse and the soil condition:
- The soil should warm up to at least 15 o C. But it is better to 18–19 o C.
- Air temperature, respectively, is in no way lower than 18 o C, and better - from 20 o C.
Of course, in a heated greenhouse such conditions can be created at any time, but if we talk about greenhouses without heating, the timing of planting depends on the quality of the greenhouse and the climatic characteristics of the region. In the middle lane, the desired temperature regime occurs approximately in the middle of May, in the north - a little later, in the south - in April. But in the southern regions, somewhere since the Lower Volga, the use of greenhouses for growing eggplants is not mandatory. In general, the timing has to be adjusted depending on the current weather.
Before planting seedlings in the greenhouse it is necessary to properly prepare the beds. Eggplants are a capricious crop, they easily become infected with various diseases, which accumulate a lot in constantly used greenhouses. Therefore, an important stage of preparation is the cleaning of beds from the remnants of previous plants and soil disinfection. In especially severe cases, if in the previous season there were diseases in the greenhouse, it may be necessary to completely replace the soil. Perform these operations must be long before planting seedlings.
Among the three possible methods of soil disinfection (thermal, chemical and biological) the least time consuming is chemical. At the same time, the harmful insects that live in the soil will also be destroyed. Radical techniques consist in the use of bleach or formalin, but, it seems, in most cases there will be a sufficient pouring of the beds with an aqueous solution of copper sulphate. The concentration of the solution - 2 tablespoons per bucket of water, the amount - such that the soil becomes very wet. After watering with copper sulfate for a day, it is possible to cover the garden bed with plastic film so that the chemical processes can be completed to the full extent.
Copper sulfate well disinfects the soil, killing most pathogens
After removing the film, the ground should be allowed to dry to the point where it is possible to work with it, and dig the bed well. When digging add all the necessary fertilizers. The best eggplants respond to organic fertilizers:
They can be taken around a bucket per square meter. If these components have not yet completely decomposed, the process will continue in the garden, while the soil will be naturally heated. Но совсем свежий навоз или компост средней степени готовности не годятся: можно испортить корни рассады.
Кроме органики, всегда хороша древесная зола: до литра на 1 м 2 . Минеральные удобрения в случае внесения навоза и золы можно и не добавлять, а вот древесные опилки для рыхлости грунта будут нелишними, но их лучше предварительно ошпарить кипятком. In the case of a strongly acidic soil, add chalk, hydrated lime or dolomite flour (a handful per square meter). After digging the beds, it is necessary to level it with a rake and let it stand for several days.
Planting of seedlings is carried out in holes dug with a shovel or shovel with a depth corresponding to the depth of the seedlings taken out of a box or cup with a clod of earth: eggplants are almost not buried in the ground during planting. It is advisable to once again sanitize each dug hole: it will be enough to pour about 2 liters of a pink solution of potassium permanganate into it, then it will be easier to water after planting. It is necessary to remove seedlings from containers as carefully as possible, trying not to disturb the root system. Putting the plant in the hole, it is necessary to pour the earth into it and slightly compacted. Since the well was already sufficiently moistened, after planting, watering is needed minimally: only that possible voids in the well are finally filled with soil.
The scheme of planting eggplants in the greenhouse, including polycarbonate
To make the beds look beautiful and the rows of eggplants are even, you can stretch a rope along the planned rows to accurately mark the location of the holes. The planting scheme depends not only on the size of the greenhouse and the preferences of the owner, but also on the eggplant variety: among the greenhouse varieties there are varieties of varying degrees of bush height. But in any case, the distance between the bushes in the rows should be at least 35 cm: the bushes in most varieties grow very sprawling and occupy a lot of space. The distance between the rows is at least 60 cm, and it turns out that there are no more than 5–6 bushes per 1 m 2 of greenhouse. More dense planting increases the risk of disease due to poor ventilation of plants. Seedlings can be planted as a conventional scheme, and in a staggered manner: the second option is more suitable for tall varieties.
One of the schemes of planting eggplants involves the arrangement of two beds, each of which is organized in two rows
Depending on the geometry of the greenhouse, it is convenient to plant eggplants in one or two lines. In wide greenhouses (from three meters) most often equip a wide bed in the center, planting two rows of eggplant in it. Narrow beds are arranged along the walls for planting other vegetables. In less wide greenhouses it is more convenient to make two wide beds along the walls with one passage between them. Three narrow beds are possible, in each of which there will be only one row of eggplants. The distance from the rows to the walls of the greenhouse depends on their inclination. In greenhouses with vertical walls, 25–30 cm is enough; in the case of sloping walls, tall bushes need to retreat from the wall to half a meter.
In recent years, polycarbonate greenhouses are very popular, in a large assortment offered by retail chains. The advantages of this material are high light transmission and the possibility of producing practically insulated structures. Its positive properties include stiffness and the absence of stretching or compressing the material during temperature fluctuations. Polycarbonate is durable, odorless and allows the manufacture of greenhouses of all sizes. But it should be remembered that polycarbonate greenhouse needs regular ventilation. Care should be taken to prevent condensation from settling on the walls: high humidity dramatically increases the likelihood of plant morbidity.
The polycarbonate greenhouse costs a lot, but it greatly eases the labor when growing thermophilic crops
Planting schemes for eggplants in polycarbonate greenhouses do not differ from those in the case of home-made greenhouses: depending on the geometry of the greenhouse and plant varieties, plantings in one or two lines can be chosen. The distance between plants is from 35 cm, only for short-growing varieties it is possible to decrease to 30 cm. Between rows - at least 50 cm, but better from 60 cm. Aisles between the beds are arranged in a width convenient for maintenance of the plantings.
What crops can be grown nearby
Planting eggplants in the greenhouse is better not to mix with the planting of other crops, but this, of course, is unrealistic for any of our summer resident. Therefore, it is necessary to understand what eggplants can coexist with, and which neighbors are contraindicated for them. Eggplants get along well with plants that need similar conditions and the same soil composition, acceptable neighbors for them are tomatoes. But in the case of tall bushes, the eggplants need to take the sunnier side of the tomatoes so that the tomatoes do not overshadow them. Planting with peppers is also possible: they have identical growing modes. But eggplants need more space.
When planting along with solanaceous crops, it is necessary to take into account certain risks associated with the fact that they will attract the same pests. Their illnesses are the same.
Many gardeners plant eggplants in greenhouses with cucumbers. And, although in numerous discussions various arguments are presented in defense of such a neighborhood, it should be recognized as far from being the best. First of all, cucumbers and eggplants have different requirements for air humidity and soil: cucumbers need more frequent watering than eggplants. But it's not scary: after all, they can be planted on neighboring beds, and watering can be controlled. But cucumbers love to reach up, shading the next planting, and light is needed for eggplants. Therefore, if planting cucumbers in a greenhouse with eggplants, they should be separated as much as possible in space.
Saving space in the greenhouse, you can not plant all the vegetables in one pile
Fine neighbors for eggplants are legumes (legumes, beans, peas). True, it is better to choose among them the bush varieties, which again is associated with the possibility of shading with curly peas or beans of the plantings of eggplants. Along the edges of the beds you can plant any green crops. And if, for example, parsley does not require greenhouse conditions at all, then basil will say a huge "thank you" for the warmth and moisture provided by its owner. You can even plant onions next to eggplants, especially on greens. The beneficial effect will be flowers and herbs with a strong aroma, such as marigolds, nasturtium, thyme, oregano.
You can not plant potatoes next to: both vegetables are the favorite food of the Colorado potato beetle. Almost all cultivated plants, including eggplants, inhibit exotic fennel.
My eggplants in a polycarbonate greenhouse did not grow very well. All the time, the leaves ached and were late bound. I do not know, maybe there are special types for greenhouses. In the OG it worked better. But there is no life for the Colorado. Eggplant for them is like a drug. They say it is necessary to put a ring cut from a plastic bottle on the barrel before planting. The female crawls along the ground and cannot overcome such a barrier. I'll try. As the temperature of the soil is more than 10 degrees set, and plant.
My experience) Krasnodar, of course, not Sevastopol, but closer than Moscow. Last year, they also actively engaged in growing their seedlings. Everyone writes that you need to plant 60-day seedlings. My eggplants have risen after February 20 (soaked on February 14). 7–10 days take a long time to bite. We landed on 30.04 (70 days old) very overgrown, flourishing. She wrote that 6 weeks for growth is enough, that is, if you plant 1 May in the ground + 2 weeks for the shoot, then soak it on March 5.
Eggplant is a demanding crop, but its capriciousness refers primarily to heat-loving. It is very difficult to grow it in open ground, and in most of our country eggplant needs greenhouse. Greenhouse cultivation involves the use of conventional agronomic techniques, starting with planting, which should be carried out only with the onset of real heat.
Adding an article to a new collection
Eggplant is a heat-loving culture, so it grows well in open ground in southern Russia. But in order to get a good harvest in mid-latitudes, it is necessary to grow it in a greenhouse or under a film cover, as well as to take into account some of the nuances.
By default, we accept the fact that you already have a well-constructed and equipped greenhouse, as well as varieties of eggplants that have been zoned for your locality (for experienced greenhouses, gardeners most often choose low-growing and early-ripening plants).
Growing eggplant seedlings for planting in the greenhouse
In the middle band for growing in a greenhouse, sowing of eggplant seeds is carried out at the end of February, with planting in a film greenhouse approximately on the 20th of May (by this time the soil should warm up to 15 ° C at a depth of 15-20 cm). In the heated greenhouse it is possible to plant seedlings at the end of April.
Eggplant seeds are sown in a nutrient mixture of 3-4 parts of sod land, 5 parts of humus and 1-2 parts of peat with the addition of wood ash and superphosphate. Sowing is carried out in boxes to a depth of 1-1.5 cm with a distance of 2-3 cm between the seeds. It is more convenient to sow directly into individual cups with a length, width and height of at least 8 cm or into ready-made peat cubes - thus less likely to damage very delicate roots eggplant with further manipulation of the seedlings.
The optimum temperature for germination of seeds of eggplants is 25-30 ° C (the index at 13-15 ° C is already critically low), so the containers are covered with foil and put in a warm place.
During germination (as in the future) it is necessary to ensure that the soil does not dry out, for which it is regularly and carefully spilled with warm water.
After the emergence of seedlings capacity with sprouts transferred to a bright place, protecting plants from direct sunlight.
For a better development of eggplants, it is worth holding additional lighting of seedlings with special lamps so that the light period is 10-12 hours per day.
To prevent eggplant seedlings from being drawn, the first week should be to maintain the daytime temperature within 14-16 ° C, and the nighttime temperature - 12-15 ° C. In the future, the daytime temperature is adjusted to 18-25 ° C, and nighttime to 16-17 ° C.
If you originally sowed the seeds of eggplant in a common box, at the stage of the emergence of 2 true leaves, you should pick a seedling.
From the moment of emergence of shoots to the disembarkation of eggplant seedlings to a permanent place, 50-70 days should pass. In the greenhouse, seedlings are transplanted when the plants reach a height of about 20-25 cm, have a well-developed root system, 8-12 well-developed leaves, and sometimes already several buds.
Planting eggplant seedlings in the greenhouse
The soil in the greenhouse for eggplant seedlings is desirable to prepare in advance. Already in autumn, carefully dig up the area prepared for eggplants, remove all plant residues, spill it several times with clean water (to “deepen” any fertilizers remaining on the surface) and disinfect. For the last operation:
- or spill the beds with boiling water,
- or put dry bleach into the surface layer (100 g per 1 sq. m),
- or treat the beds with formalin solution (per 1 sq. m - 250 ml of the finished 40% preparation diluted in 10 liters of water).
After drying, the soil is again dug up, and in the spring, just before planting, the seedlings are once again loosened. In addition, in the spring organic fertilizers are also added to the soil (for example, 2/3 buckets of completely rotted manure per 1 square meter of bed).
If it is necessary to reduce the acidity of the soil, dolomite flour is also embedded in it at the rate of 2 tbsp. on 1 sq.m.
Eggplant seedlings are planted in the greenhouse soil on a belt pattern, with distances of at least 30-40 cm between future bushes and at least 60-70 cm - between rows. Thus, no more than 6 plants should fall on 1 square meter, otherwise a strong thickening is formed, and you will not receive large fruits.
Before planting, the ground is plentifully shed with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Planting holes should be about 15 cm deep, and the seedlings are not deeply buried. If young eggplants grew up in peat pots, they are planted in the ground right in the container.
Eggplant is extremely sensitive to damage to the roots, so all transplanting should be done very carefully!
After planting, the soil is slightly compacted, mulched with peat or humus and once again watered a little.
Forming eggplant bushes in the greenhouse
Garter eggplant in the greenhouse - an important point, if you want to get a strong, evenly developed bushes and a good harvest afterwards. The main stem of the plant at the seedling stage should be tied up to a trellis or a peg - in most eggplants the shoots in the greenhouse grow tall and fragile (with the exception of compact stem varieties).
When young plants reach a height of 25-30 cm, they pinch the tops and stepson - remove weak side shoots to avoid excessive branching of the bush. As a result, the strongest and most viable shoots remain, and the fruits formed on them will be larger and juicier. If you are ready to get even medium-sized, but numerous eggplants, then it is better to do without nipping and not to injure once more a capricious plant.
Also in the process of growth and development of eggplants need to remove deformed and yellowed leaves and fruits.
Watering Eggplants in the Greenhouse
Eggplants in the greenhouse like regular moderate watering. However, the roots of this plant are quite weak, so try not to "pour" it. This is especially true of seedlings - since it is planted in a well-moistened soil, the first full-fledged watering after the "move" into the greenhouse should be carried out after about a week.
How to water the eggplant? Water with warm water under the root, carefully watching that the moisture does not fall on the leaves, otherwise plants can "pick up" a fungal disease. In growing up and flowering eggplants, the irrigation schedule is as follows: in cool, cloudy weather, the plants are watered once a week, during particularly hot periods - in a day or two at the rate of 15-30 liters of water per 1 sq. M. During the fruiting period, the frequency of watering should be doubled, not forgetting that the soil wetting depth should be at least 20 cm.
A good help to competent irrigation will be mulching of beds with eggplants with straw, rotted sawdust or peat, which retain moisture in the soil.
It is not so critical for eggplant to increase the temperature, but still carefully watch that there is neither excessive stuffiness nor humidity in the greenhouse, nor strong drafts during ventilation.
Loosening and hilling of eggplants in the greenhouse
In order for the eggplant roots to breathe better, the moisture remained in the ground longer, and the weeds slowed down their growth, after each watering it is advisable to loosen the soil around the plants - first to a depth of 4-5 cm, during the appearance of buds and flowers - 5-6 cm fruit set - by 7-8 cm.
Eggplants have a superficial root system that is easily damaged, therefore, it is not worth loosening deeper than 8 cm.
During the growing season, eggplants need several times to pile up to a height of 5-7 cm to stimulate the emergence of new roots. Usually this is done after feeding and watering.
Maintenance in the greenhouse temperature and light conditions
The optimal temperature for the growth of eggplants in the greenhouse: 16-18 ° C at night and 25-30 ° C during the day.
This culture is especially afraid of sudden changes in temperature and long-term cooling (and in the case of eggplants, the thermometer is already below 13 ° C). If the plant is cold or the temperature in the greenhouse strongly “jumps”, the eggplant may start dropping buds (flowers, ovaries) or die altogether.
The eggplant responds to the lack of lighting by slowing down the growth and chopping the fruits. Make sure that the leaves and ovaries of the plants are always in the sun, timely remove stepchildren and leaves that shade the neighboring plants.
Feeding eggplants in the greenhouse
When growing eggplants in the greenhouse for the season spend 3-4 feeding.
The first feeding of seedlings of eggplants is carried out by any complex fertilizer after the plants have taken root (approximately 2 weeks after planting).
When the buds appear, offer phosphorus and potash fertilizers to the eggplants (1 tsp superphosphate for each plant + watering with a solution of potassium sulfate (1 tbsp) and ammonium nitrate (1.5 tbsp per 10 l of water) .
When the first fruits appear, the plants are fed with nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer (1.5 tbsp of ammonium per 10 liters of water).
During flowering and fruiting, additionally, solutions for mullein, bird droppings, and wood ash can be used. However, remember that an excess of organic matter can reduce the amount of the crop, because it promotes the growth of green mass, and not the formation of fruits.
Approximately one month before harvesting, it is recommended to pour 1 cup of the nutrient solution prepared from 1 tbsp to each eggplant bush. superphosphate, 1 tbsp. potassium salt and 10 liters of water.
Eggplant harvesting in the greenhouse
Depending on the variety, the fruiting of eggplants begins in late spring and continues until the onset of frost. From the moment of ripening of the first fruits, harvesting should be carried out regularly, approximately at weekly intervals, cutting off ripened eggplants together with the stem with a sharp shear and not allowing them to overripe. Do not pick the fruits with your hands, it is very likely to damage the plant.
It is easy to determine that eggplants are ripe - the fruits become glossy, bright, acquire a characteristic color for the variety. If you press on such a fruit with your finger, the dent will quickly disappear.
Если вмятины нет, то баклажаны еще не созрели, а если вмятина не исчезла, то они переспели. Старые плоды сильно темнеют и становятся матовыми, мякоть грубеет и меняет цвет на коричневый.
Перезрелые и недозрелые плоды не стоит употреблять в пищу – они не только невкусны, но еще и опасны для здоровья. In overripe (soft, dark) eggplants, the content of poisonous alkaloid - solanine, which is very easy to poison (the taste is defined as bitterness) increases sharply.
Ripened eggplants can be stored for about 2-3 weeks in the refrigerator or in a dry cool place. During this time they should be eaten or processed. Solanine, contained in them in small doses, is neutralized during heat treatment or soaking in salt water.
Growing eggplants in the greenhouse - the task is quite capable of the gardener, even with minimal experience. One has only not to neglect the tips that we have given you above, and the "blue ones" will surely delight you with a good harvest. Check for yourself!
Varieties eggplant for growing in a greenhouse
This method of cultivation allows you to expand the choice of varieties up to the most exotic. But since, in most cases, planting volumes are limited by the area of the greenhouse, it is better to dwell on tall crop varieties, which will allow to get a large number of fruits from a small area.
If greenhouse cultivation is combined with garden plantings, then for a greenhouse it is more rational to leave copies of late ripening terms. Early eggplants will have time to ripen in the open field.
When “populating” the greenhouse, the far-sighted solution will also prefer hybrids.
Early hybrid, grows up to a meter. Fruits are white excellent taste, devoid of bitterness. Weight reaches 500 g. Resistant to mosaic, fusarium rot. Harvest well stored before heat treatment.
Early ripe hybrid. It is steady against sharp differences of temperatures, but best of all grows in the greenhouse. The fruits are classic, dark purple pear-shaped, weighing up to 450 g. It has sprawling branches, when growing, special attention should be paid to pasynkovanyu.
Early ripe variety with cylindrical fruits of unusual green color, average weight 350 g. Harvested and resistant to diseases.
Very tall hybrid reaches 2,5 meters in growth. Medium early gestation with good immunity to mosaic. Fruits exceed kilogram. Have a classic shape and appearance.
Sredneranny grade with the extended fruits of lilac color. Differs in its yield. Eggplants weighing from 250 to 450 g are tied together and ripen. That in greenhouse conditions allows you to quickly harvest and clean the acreage. When the garter in a warm environment grows to two meters.
Tall variety of extra early ripening. The ovaries of its medium-sized fruits are folded into the hand. On one bush can grow and ripen hundreds of eggplants. Lilac-pink, fine-toned, weighing 100-130 g., They have excellent taste.
Mid-season grade with good keeping quality. Resistant to most diseases affecting nightshade. Pear-shaped fruits differ in white coloring. The weight of an average eggplant is 250-300 g. High palatability and tender pulp.
Viola di firenze
Mid-season high-yielding variety, bred by Italian breeders. Resistant to lodging, has good immunity. But it is very sensitive to temperature extremes, thermophilic. Oval fruits weighing up to 750 g.
The early ripe hybrid, growth exceeding meter. The fruits are classic, pear-shaped, high taste. The bush grows compactly, which is a big plus for greenhouse cultivation. Small fruits: 150-200 g, which is offset by high yields.
The above hybrids and varieties will be successfully grown in greenhouse conditions. They need to pay attention. Annually there are novelties among hybrid copies.
Choosing seed plants, it is better to give preference to those that grew in open ground. They will be different best immunity.
How to start growing eggplants in the greenhouse
Greenhouse work, in fact, is much easier than gardening in the open field:
- the greenhouse allows you to adjust the temperature of air and soil for eggplants,
- it is possible to organize the workplace so that everything is at hand,
- in cold weather, working in the shelter is much more comfortable,
- greenhouse creates an isolated environment, limiting the ingress of pathogenic bacteria and insects.
When embarking on greenhouse plantings, it is necessary to focus on three important aspects, as a guarantee of a good harvest:
- the greenhouse is properly set, processed and prepared and properly maintained,
- planting material - selected according to the interest of the host variety and variety of eggplant,
- neighboring plants - the closed space of the greenhouse requires special attention to the combination of different plants in the same area.
With what to plant eggplants in the greenhouse
It is good when there is an opportunity to take the entire greenhouse under planting of one species. But the absolute majority of gardeners can not afford this.
Neighboring plants should:
- to share nutrients with each other so that they receive them in sufficient quantity,
- to be exposed to different diseases - simultaneous treatment from one pest on different species does not give the same results,
- need to maintain a similar microclimate - temperature and humidity level,
- in order to be able to free the greenhouse from planting and allow it to parry, it is desirable that the neighboring plants ripen in approximately one time frame.
Therefore, the choice of related crops is a real long-term strategy. It is undesirable for eggplant neighborhood under the same roof solanaceous - potatoes, tomatoes, peppers.
Neighborhood with garlic, onions, legumes has a very beneficial effect on blue ones. And unexpectedly: with chrysanthemum, calendula, marigolds. These flower cultures protect vegetables from the bear and other pests.
Low-growing eggplants can be combined with cucumbers, zucchini, melon, letting the latter on a vertical support.
Fortunately, they coexist with herbs and spicy herbs such as lettuce and basil.
If you still have to combine unwanted neighbors in one greenhouse, they should be planted, focusing on growth to the cardinal points - from short to high. As a culture separator use siderata, onions, garlic.
The preparation process consists of three stages:
- tempering alternating temperatures
- disinfection in potassium permanganate,
- stimulation - soaking in a weak solution of compost, 3% solution of potassium humate.
After which the seeds are germinated between two layers of damp cloth and planted in cups. Sprouting from the ground seedlings should be in a dark place at an air temperature of 26 to 28 C.
Infusion of willow branches - the best natural growth stimulant. To do this, you need to chop 2 kilograms of young willow branches and pour 10 liters of water for a week. In this infusion, you can soak the seeds, diluted with it watered seedlings.
Soil preparation for seedlings
For sowing seedlings are well suited the following composition: peat, sand and forest land in the ratio of 1/1/1.
The seedling land can also be enriched with sunflower or buckwheat husk.
It is better to sow seeds in separate cups.
Peat pots for seedlings, filled with soil, are watered with boiling water, so that peat is skimmed, it is better to let water through and give more trace elements to the substrate. This procedure promotes decontamination. It is possible to start landing only after complete cooling.
Terms of sowing eggplant
Terms of ripening of different varieties of eggplant range from 80 to 150 days. Seedlings from seeds to adult plants develop two or two and a half months. In peat pots, you can plant seedlings in a greenhouse, without overloading, a little earlier, after 1.5 or two months.
Growth and its development in natural conditions will depend on the length of the day, the natural change of temperature during the day. The peculiarity of greenhouse cultivation lies in the possibility of organizing artificial twelve-hour lighting and temperature conditions.
In an unheated greenhouse, transplantation can be scheduled for the end of April, respectively, the planting time of seedlings falls on February.
The temperature from 23 to 28 C is suitable for successful development. The interaction between lighting and temperature is produced so that with the beginning of daylight, the air warms by 2-3 ° C, and after turning off the fluorescent lamps in the room it becomes cooler. This will bring the seedlings closer to their natural conditions and increase their endurance.
A mirror installed opposite the light source will illuminate the seedlings from all sides. If the light is low, the temperature is reduced by a couple of degrees and increases the volume of dressings.
How often to water the seedlings
Eggplants are watered as needed, not allowing the soil to dry. You can combine watering with loosening, but it must be done very carefully.
Watering is brought under a root, warm soft water. Can be watered with slightly diluted herbal or willow infusion, crystalline or other growth stimulants.
Top dressing is required only if the appearance of the seedlings inspires fear - the leaves turn yellow and wither.
Eggplants are a very popular solanaceous crop, which gardeners cultivate mainly in open areas, although it has also proven itself when grown in greenhouses in areas where the climate does not favor these vegetables. Planting this type of nightshade in closed ground allows you to get a generous harvest of valuable vegetables in a few months. Planting and cultivation of eggplants in the greenhouse is especially effective in those regions where summer is not characterized by duration and heat.
When growing eggplants in greenhouses, it is much easier to get large and healthy fruits, since they are more damaged by diseases and pests in the garden. Planting eggplants in the greenhouse will allow much earlier to get commercial vegetables to the table than when cultivated in the beds.
Planting and growing eggplants in a greenhouse implies a series of compulsory procedures, on which an excellent harvest of fruits will depend. Work in the greenhouse includes the following steps:
Choice of eggplant variety
Since eggplant is quite a capricious crop, not every one of its varieties is suitable for planting and growing at a country house in a greenhouse. Since vegetables have a rather long growing season, it is best to choose specimens with early ripening periods, although if the greenhouse is well insulated and heated, any varieties of eggplant can be cultivated in it. Such varieties (including hybrids), such as Bagheera F1, The Nutcracker F1, F1 Purple Miracle, Dwarf early, Ping Pong F1 (white), Early maturing 148, Lolita F1, Czech early, Robin Hood, Hippo F1, Baron F1, Piglet, Prime minister, Polundra, Epic F1, Valentine F1, Clorinda F1.
Soil preparation in a greenhouse for seedlings
Since eggplant is a rather capricious culture, the final result of growing this vegetable culture largely depends on the quality of the nutrient substrate. Greenhouse beds must be thoroughly cleaned from weeds and plant debris. Only after this we carry out the disinfection of the soil (here we have more complete information on the preparation of its soil). This procedure is necessary for the destruction of various pathogenic bacteria.
For those who wish, a thermal method is possible.
Substrate purity can be achieved by thermal (thermal) method. In this case, the surface layer of the earth is treated with hot steam or poured boiling water. In the presence of an outdoor oven, the top layer of soil can be heated on large baking sheets. Usually for disinfection of soil for planting vegetables, it is enough to heat it to 100 degrees. Excessive overheating of the soil adversely affects both pathogenic and beneficial microorganisms contained in it, so it should not be allowed to happen.
Biological soil disinfection
There is another way to disinfect the earth - biological. In this case, it will take much more work. To carry out this procedure, remove the top layer of soil (20-25 cm) with a shovel and put them in stacks at a country house, dividing it with slurry. For the "deoxidation" of the acidic land, we lime it with lime-fluff (4 kg / 1 cubic meter). The folded layers of earth and slurry ripen about 3 years. During this time they need to be shoveled twice a year. You should also regularly remove germinating weeds. Ripened soil can be safely used in the greenhouse for planting and growing eggplants. In this case, its increased fertility will allow to get the maximum yield of vegetables.
Where and how to plant
Eggplant seedlings can be grown in plastic or peat pots (cups) with a diameter of up to 8-12 cm. It is better not to plant seedlings in smaller containers, since any transplant is very painful for young eggplant plants. It is best to use a special substrate for growing vegetables, which is sold in specialized stores. If this is not possible, then for planting it is possible to mix the usual garden cottage land with rotted compost (1: 1). To this substrate we add a small amount of sand (so that the soil is loose) and some wood ash.
Watering and feeding
After gently watering the seeds, we cover the seating containers with film or glass. Water the vegetable seedlings only as the soil dries. We regularly feed it with special fertilizers. Only after the appearance of 4-5 leaves on the plant is it ready for transplanting to a permanent place in the greenhouse.
Planting eggplant seedlings in the greenhouse
Having leveled country greenhouse beds, we start planting seedlings on a permanent place. However, it must be carefully removed from the pots or plastic cups, in order to avoid damage to the plant itself and its root system. In order for eggplants to grow faster, it is best to grow seedlings of vegetables in special peat cups, which then can simply be planted directly on the garden without removing the plant from them.
Choosing a place to grow
Planting holes for eggplants should be no more than 15-20 cm deep. Each of the holes before planting seedlings pour 2 liters of low-boron solution of potassium permanganate. When planting young plants can not be buried them much lower than they grew before. The maximum allowable depth of the lowering level is 1 cm. After that, the soil around the plant is gently compacted, forming a small depression - the hole. Planted for permanent seedlings pour water at room temperature.
The layout of the seedlings
Some gardeners when growing eggplants in greenhouses heavily thickened planting, from which the bushes are small and unproductive. Plant thickening prevents good lighting and, therefore, the normal development of fruits in vegetables. The most suitable scheme for the cultivation of eggplants in the greenhouse: between the rows - 60 cm, the interval between plants - 30 cm.
Formation of vegetable bushes
This procedure allows you to get healthy highly productive copies of vegetables. When young eggplants grow to 25 cm, you should pinch the tip of the main stem. This procedure starts the growth of lateral shoots, which will develop the maximum number of fruits. In order not to overload the plants, on each of them we leave 5-6 most powerful shoots. Extra shoots pinch. Such strong bushes give maximum yield.
In the future, we regularly inspect the bushes of eggplants and timely remove non-fruiting shoots, ugly fruits. It is also necessary to constantly remove the yellowing leaves of plants.
Eggplants prefer regular and sufficient watering. In other words, the soil in the beds for our vegetables should always be well hydrated, but at the same time there should not be too high humidity in the greenhouse. To maintain optimum soil moisture, we irrigate the cultivated landings in the morning, after which we mulch the beds with any available material (straw, peat), cover with agrofibre or paper.
The first full watering is done 5 days after planting. At the same time, it should be so abundant that the earth is well soaked by 20 cm. It is necessary to water the plants under the root, avoiding droplets on the leaves. After 12 hours, loose soil, preventing the formation of a solid crust. With excessive moisture in greenhouse conditions, eggplants can suffer from fungal diseases. With a lack of moisture, the fruits of this vegetable crop become tasteless and grow small.
Even when planting seedlings in the greenhouse in each well we make 1/3 tsp of complex fertilizer. In the future, every 10 days under the plants add infusion of herbs. To get them in a barrel (200 l), we sprinkle chopped grass (dandelion, nettle, wheat grass) to half, pour 3 tbsp there. spoons of urea and soda ash. Fill the grass with water to the top of the barrel and insist a week. Before using the herb infusion filter and mix with water (1: 5).
Eggplants are responsive to nitrogen fertilization. The first of them is carried out in a greenhouse a couple of weeks after planting. For this we breed 3 tbsp. spoons of Azofosca in 10 liters of water, adding at least half a liter of nutrient solution to each plant. After tying the first fruits on the bush, we help the plant with mulleed infusion, infused week, in a ratio of 1:10.
Mineral fertilizers and stimulants
Во время массового формирования завязей у овощей и роста плодов вносим в грунт комплексные минеральные удобрения. Для улучшения опыления растений опрыскиваем баклажаны специальными препаратами Бутон либо Завязь. In any case, when growing eggplants, one should not abuse organic and top dressings in order not to provoke active growth of foliage and unnecessary shoots. If the gardener notices that the bushes are becoming more and more in volume, we produce foliar feeding of plants using potash fertilizers and remove the unnecessary green mass.
Pest and Disease Control Eggplant
Indoors, eggplants are less susceptible to disease and pest damage, but still at the first appearance of signs of their occurrence it is necessary to use the appropriate chemicals.
For the successful cultivation of this vegetable culture in greenhouse conditions, it needs to create the most optimal conditions. Since eggplant is a very thermophilic culture, it is therefore necessary to create truly “tropical” conditions for growing it.
How to maintain the temperature
So eggplants at + 15 degrees stop growing, and when the air temperature drops to + 13 degrees, they turn yellow and fade away altogether. After such stress, they will not be able to give a normal harvest. Eggplants do not tolerate frost at all. Already at zero temperature, you can safely say goodbye to the dreams of the harvest "blue". That is why it is so important not to allow the slightest decrease in temperature in the greenhouse.
On the other hand, when the temperature rises to 35-40 degrees, eggplant can stop pollination and the formation of ovaries. To reduce the temperature in the greenhouse, it is necessary to open the vents on one side only, so as not to create drafts that these vegetables also do not tolerate.
The maximum yield of eggplants can be obtained by constantly maintaining the temperature in the greenhouse at 26-28 degrees. That is why the summer resident will have to constantly air the greenhouse and water the walking paths on hot days. At night it is necessary to close the transom and the door of the greenhouse, in order to prevent a sharp decrease in air temperature.
We collect fruits in the phase of technical ripeness. They must be of the size and color that is characteristic of a particular variety. Subsequent fruit picks are performed at intervals of a week. Cut off the fruit with a part of the stem with a sharp shears.
How to prepare the ground for planting eggplant
The composition of the soil must meet the needs of blue - friable, slightly acid, fertile. The land is prepared in autumn:
- the first stage - thorough cleaning and disinfection of the greenhouse,
- if time allows, after harvesting, the land is sown with green manure, which are later dug up,
- digging procedure is repeated in spring
- make mineral fertilizers,
- planting time allows eggplants to harvest early crops of greens or radishes at this place - with blue ones it will only be useful.
The timing of planting depends on weather conditions, the type of greenhouse and the maturity of a particular type of eggplant. The transshipment into the soil is shown to the bushes of seedlings having the first peduncle.
How to plant seedlings in the greenhouse
Any manipulation of seedlings that traumatize the root system slows down its development and increases the risk of infection with fungal diseases. That is also good cultivation in peat tanks, that it allows you to lower the root into the hole without exposing it.
To do this, on the greenhouse bed digging grooves, slightly larger than the size of the pot. Eggplant set in the hole, without deepening. If the pots look very strong, you can notch the bottom and walls in several places with a knife. So the root system is easier to cope with the peat walls limiting it.
The ground in the hole is watered before and after disembarkation, sprinkled with a layer of mulch on top and left without irrigation for three to four days.
After transplantation, the air temperature in the greenhouse must be maintained within 20-22 C.
At what distance to plant eggplants in the greenhouse (planting schemes)
The method of planting can be chosen linear - in the same groove at equal intervals from each other. Or chess - in the holes.
The distance between the rows should be kept about 60 centimeters. And 30–35 centimeters in a row between plants. In heated greenhouses, the planting thickness should be no more than 2 bushes per square meter. In unheated greenhouses - 3-4 bush optimal number of plants per square meter.
The main rule of the greenhouse - plants are planted for growth. Tall two-meter eggplants, can be placed in the center. Yielding them in the growth of plants to plant as the height decreases.
Eggplant greenhouse care
Activities for the care of eggplants in the greenhouse differ little from similar work in the open field. They include:
- productive feeding - under greenhouse conditions, underfeeding is more beneficial than overfeeding, otherwise instead of fruits you will have to rejoice in lush foliage,
- loosening and mulching the soil around the trunk,
- the formation of a shrub, which for tall tied up plants differs from the usual,
- timely watering,
- control of humidity and temperature
Top dressing and watering
In a greenhouse, it is better to organize drip or irrigation irrigation so that moisture does not fall on the leaves and does not evaporate in large quantities into the air.
In any case, this procedure is carried out in the evening to reduce the amount of evaporation. And only warm water.
Top dressing bring together with watering. It is necessary to do it more carefully, to observe dosages smaller, than for an open ground.
If the soil is prepared with observance of technology, then it is more expedient to make organic matter in the form of weak solutions of herbal infusion, with mulching.
For greenhouse cultivation, foliar top dressings of eggplants are poorly diluted with a single-percent solution of boric acid or weak potassium permanganate. This should be done in the evening.
Eggplants are great lovers of abundant moisture of the roots and at the same time do not tolerate high humidity. Stale raw atmosphere is not for them. In addition, excessive moisture creates the conditions for the development of fungal diseases.
It is possible to lower the air humidity:
- organization of drip irrigation,
- blocking evaporation from the ground mulch.
Air temperature and airing
Eggplants feel good in the temperature range from 25 to 28 C. In the summer period, a rise in temperature is more dangerous for them than a drop in it. If the plants slow down in growth when the temperature drops to 14-10 degrees, then an increase to 30 C and higher can kill the plants.
Organizing cold drafts is the wrong decision. If the microclimate of the greenhouse and the outside air have a large temperature difference, airing should be carried out carefully, opening the transoms away from the eggplant.
In warm weather, you can keep the greenhouse completely open even at night. This will help pollinate and increase eggplant immunity.
Forming a bush and tying
In greenhouse cultivation, it is important to pay special attention to the formation of a bush, so that in conditions of dense planting, the branches on which the crop matures are evenly illuminated by the sun, and the fruits do not interfere with each other's growth.
Tying is obligatory for bushes that are taller than half a meter. Otherwise they will bend under the weight of the fruit.
Low-growing varieties from 05 to 0.6 meters will be enough one loop connecting them to the support, or gamachny tying to the greenhouse ceiling like a tomato garter.
Samples that reach a height of 2-2.5 meters will require a solid count and a few cloth loops along the trunk.
The large fruits of eggplant, which in their weight are close to a kilogram, must be laid for ripening in mesh hammocks, suspended from the ceiling of the greenhouse. Otherwise they may break off branches.
Masking tall varieties
Tall varieties do not pinch at the growth point. Their advantage is that they transfer their productivity to the vertical plane, while taking up less space.
The butchers on tall trunks are cut selectively, leaving the stems evenly across the entire height and tying each one separately.
An effective method of pinching for tall varieties: removal of stems and leaves from the bottom to the first flower. In the future, around the new ovaries, the leaves are also removed.
Masking low-growing varieties and hybrids
Low-growing varieties of eggplant pinch at the growth point for better branching. Of the side shoots leave the strongest in the amount of from two to five stems. Others are removed. Be sure to cut the stepchildren without ovaries, deformed fruit and dried leaves.
Hybrids usually pinch and stepchildren, forming a cone-shaped silhouette to the plant so that each subsequent shoot is shorter than the previous one. The yield of hybrids is much higher, the removal of a large number of stepsons will reduce fruit formation.
Collection of greenhouse eggplants and their storage
Vegetables are considered ripe when the crust acquires a glossy shine, and the fruit is rounded and takes the form characteristic of the variety. Eggplants are harvested often, preventing them from ripening. The sooner the ripe fruit is removed, the more new ones will become.
Eggplant is not designed for long-term storage. Their flesh darkens, accumulates bitterness. The most gentle varieties can be stored without heat treatment for not more than a month.
If it is necessary for the fruits to endure for some time, they are stored for storage in a dry cool room, shifted with paper or straw.
Diseases and pests of eggplants in the greenhouse
In a closed environment, the risk of eggplant infestation is much less, and control measures are more effective, since limited space is subject to treatment. Pests such as the Colorado potato beetle or aphids rarely enter the greenhouse. And in the case of the detection of single individuals, you can fight them simply by collecting them in a container with heavily salted water.
The main thing to worry about is that the insects do not remain to spend the winter inside the greenhouse and do not set aside the larvae.
Ants, slugs and snails are the most characteristic pests for the greenhouse. Attracted by the warmth, garden mollusks gather in large quantities at the base of the greenhouses from the inside. They can be collected and fed to poultry or used as an ingredient in the fermentation of nutritious herbal mixtures. The superphosphate powder scattered between the rows will protect the eggplants from crawling slugs on the stems.
To deal with anthills in the greenhouse is much more difficult. As an alternative to industrial insecticides, hot water is used with the addition of boric acid and hot pepper, one teaspoon per liter. Boiling water is poured with a funnel or syringe into the entrances.
Fungal diseases in the greenhouse are especially dangerous. Trapped once inside the tent of the mycelium will be very difficult to withdraw in the future.
The owner will have to completely change the soil - a very hard and time-consuming work. Freeze the greenhouse in winter and repeatedly treat its inner surface with disinfecting compounds.
Black leg, late blight, mosaic, stolbur and gray rot in greenhouse conditions are developing especially rapidly, putting an end to the entire crop of eggplant.
If you find signs of disease, you must immediately destroy the diseased plant and make a total treatment with the fungicide of the remaining bushes.
Mandatory measures to prevent damage to eggplant fungal diseases:
- disinfection of planting material, tools,
- purchase of seeds and seedlings only from reputable producers,
- crop rotation and careful selection of neighboring plants,
- Mandatory processing of the greenhouse with fungicides at the end and before the start of the season,
- if the greenhouse is heated, it must necessarily be on prevention for some time - it cannot be used continuously all year round,
- adding sparing folk remedies - wood ash, tobacco, copper sulfate and potassium permanganate solutions - to eggplants feedings.
Greenhouse growing eggplant technology is not much more difficult, but in some ways even easier to cultivate in open ground. It is associated with less contact with pathogens and pests. Allows you to ensure proper temperature for planting. The joy gained from work, coupled with an excellent harvest will serve as a good incentive.
The most favorable land for eggplants - loamy or sandy. They also grow well in heavier soils; nevertheless, in this case, it will be necessary to introduce into the soil of peat and humus 1 bucket of each fertilizer per square meter. m plot, and, in addition, should be diluted with heavy soil sand or sawdust. It is more correct to do this even in autumn, before planting the seedlings, while digging to the depth of the shovel base.
If you wish to soil the soil in such a case in a cool form, this fertilizer is applied in the autumn, and in the spring you can dig up the area only with rotten manure. And yet it is more correct to prepare the site for eggplants in the fall, so that in the spring, if the earth dries out after the snow melted, it was necessary to loosen it with a rake, covering up the fertilizers scattered throughout the site. The technique of planting eggplant seedlings in the ground is the same as pepper.
In the garden beds are usually made 30-40 cm apart 3 cm more depth than the height of the pots with seedlings, and between the lines they keep a distance of about 60 cm. Then the wells are flooded with water, planted in the ground, previously watered with the land clod, fill the hole with earth and seal it. After planting, the area is mulched with dried earth or peat. The first 2 weeks you need to monitor that the land on the site was wet all the time, and the best way to prevent too rapid drying of the earth is peat mulch.
Growing in a greenhouse
In the greenhouse is better to plant hybrid types of eggplants. Planting seedlings in a greenhouse encourages compliance with the following conditions:
- seedlings should have 9 developed leaflets,
- the root system should be well formed,
- the seedlings must be at least 20 cm high,
- The age of seedlings is 65-75 days from the moment of appearance.
The beds in the greenhouse are prepared as follows: since autumn, the soil is cleaned of various residues of other plants and disinfected with blue vitriol (2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water). 3 weeks before planting eggplants in the ground for each square. m bring in 4 kg of humus, 60 g of superphosphate, 30 g of sodium chloride nitrate, 15 g of magnesium sulphate and 30 g of potassium, then the beds are dug and the soil is leveled.
The holes are dug a little deeper than the level of pots of seedlings, at a distance of 45 cm from each other, saving an interval between lines of about 60 cm. Watered before transplanting seedlings, then carefully remove them from the pot together with the land clod, and bury them. Then the soil is compacted and the plants are watered at a new site.
Care and feeding
Eggplant is moisture-loving, so wetting the earth is an important point of care for them, however, before watering the eggplants after planting the next time, give them 5 days to get used, after which the plants are watered once a week, and when the eggplants bear fruit, the frequency of watering doubles. Moisturize plants with warm water early in the morning. After watering, the entire greenhouse needs to be aired, because the soil should be wet, but not the air.
The optimum temperature for eggplant is 28 C, the higher temperature is not permissible, therefore airing in the greenhouse should become a permanent procedure, especially on hot days. In addition, in hot weather it is necessary to water the paths in the greenhouse. Eggplants have the need for frequent feeding - once every 2-3 weeks. The first time the plants are fed 15-20 days after planting in open ground.
Feed a mixture of fertilizers, folding with 10 g of ammonium nitrate, 10 g of superphosphate and 3-5 g of potassium sulfate, calculated per square meter. m plot. Instead of the mentioned fertilizers, it is allowed to use ammofoska, crystalline, nitrophoska in the amount of approximately 20-25 g for the same unit of land. In subsequent fertilizing, the dosage of fertilizer is increased one and a half to two times over time. Do not forget that after applying fertilizer, it is imperative to water the plot. Fertilizer eggplants grown in greenhouses, carried out twice per season:
- before the start of fruiting, 2 weeks after planting the seedlings on the garden - with mineral fertilizers (Mortar or Kemiroy),
- after fructification has arisen - nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers (ammonium nitrate solution and superphosphate).
Organic fertilizer they are applied only once - into the soil before planting, since their later introduction may cause a powerful increase in greenery and good flowering, but the fruits may not be tied. Sometimes it is possible to tie up the eggplant bushes to the supports, because in greenhouse conditions they grow too high and at the same time fragile, in addition, it is preferable to remove the side shoots from the bushes, retaining only 5 of the strongest ones from them.
As for diseases, late blight or tobacco mosaic can form in greenhouses due to high humidity, with which Zircon or Fitosporin fight, although it is still easier to prevent the development of diseases by constantly airing the greenhouse. Of the pests most plague aphid, whitefly and spider mites. The appearance of harmful insects can be eliminated by the fact that a simple method - airing the greenhouse.
Most eggplant needs watering в период массового развития плодов, однако, активное увлажнение рассады в течение первой декады после высадки может очень ослабить растения. Вода для смачивания баклажанов должна быть тёплая – 25-30 C, лить водичку необходимо аккуратно под корень, чтобы капли не попали на листья.
После полива необходимо аккуратно разрыхлить междурядья и удалить сорную траву. It is necessary to loosen the soil at least 5 times per season, not allowing the formation of a crust on the ground, however, if you milled the site in time with peat in such a case, it would be much less necessary to loosen the row spacing, and there will be few weeds in the area.
Hothouse eggplants grow much higher than the ground, so they have to garter to the stakes in three areas, but from the very moment the seedlings are planted in the ground, they should be engaged in the formation of a bush in one shoot, which over time will need proper fixation. For those who grow eggplants in the open field, it is more correct to create an eggplant bush in several stems.
As soon as the plant reaches a height of 30 cm, the top of its main shoot is pinched in order to provoke intense tillering. If the bush grows, it retains from two to 5 upper lateral processes, others are cut with shears. Watch that all other processes are evenly lit.
Eggplant collection and storage
You can pick ripe fruits after 30-40 days after flowering, if they become glossy. Fruits are harvested in a state of normal maturity, as overripe, and when overripe, they are not tasty. It is necessary to cut the fruit with a pruner, keeping a 2 cm long fruit stem on them. For a long time the eggplants are not saved, therefore it is more correct to use them as food or to make preparations for the winter - freeze in the form of caviar, either salads, salt or pickle.
If you place the eggplants in a dark place where the temperature is not pain, more than +2 C, they can be fresh for about a month. Allowed, wrapping each eggplant in a piece of paper, put them in a box in one layer and put in a cold place, in which they may also contain a certain time. And, of course, the eggplant fruits last longer in the freezer.