First you need to correctly determine the time of planting seed, because a short day light can cause the death of the plant. The best time is around mid-March, but the exact date should be determined based on the fact that the culture will begin to bloom about two weeks after the first shoots.
Petunia - the real decoration of the site
Another important point - the proper preparation of the soil and packaging for planting. So, the capacity should not be deep - it is best to use special cassettes, small boxes or jars. After preparing the soil, it is steamed, poured with boiling water and frozen - these measures will help prevent the occurrence of pests and save you from diseases.
Seeds are planted in a slightly moistened soil, while simply throwing, and not bury deep. If you use seeds in the shell, they can be slightly sprayed with water from a spray bottle. After planting, containers are covered with glass or film and put in a warm and sunlit place, which will create a greenhouse effect.
As soon as the first few shoots appear, the temperature should be lowered to + 20 degrees. Also occasionally air landing, starting from two minutes and every day, slightly increasing the time. After the appearance of 2-4 true leaves, they pick a seedling. Then the plant is hardened, for which the temperature must be reduced gradually to + 15 degrees. This will allow petunias to get used to new street conditions.
With the help of cuttings
Another way to breed is to use cuttings. To do this, in the middle of summer from the side shoots of a healthy petunia, you need to take cuttings about 8 cm long, having about 4 true leaves.
The received preparations need to be planted in separate capacities, having moistened soil and having covered it by means of cans. Tanks need to be put on a bright place, not forgetting to regularly water the soil. But at the same time it is very important to avoid the formation of condensate and over-moisture of the soil.
The optimum temperature is about + 22 degrees - these are the required conditions for rooting the plant. As soon as the first 3 true leaves appear, the seedlings are hardened, pinch and they land at a new place.
How to grow seedlings in peat tablets?
If you are a novice grower, the best option is to use peat tablets. In this case, in the future, you do not have to pick and feed the seedlings, and transplanting them into open ground takes place with minimal stress, reducing the risk of damage to the root system.
For planting in peat pots, it is better to use the seeds in the shell - they are much easier to lay out individually. Such products are placed in a container, soaked with water in advance, then a small depression is made in the “tablet”, a seed is placed there. Next, the container with the plantings is covered with glass, which will create a greenhouse effect.
In the future, you need to act as usual, the seedlings are ventilated, quenched, we feed, we pinch, and we land at the right time. When a certain period comes, you need to plant seedlings in the created holes, along with a peat pot.
How to care for petunia at home?
It is quite simple to care for an adult plant - it is necessary to water it, feed it on petunia, choose the right place for planting. However, when growing plants at home, there are some nuances that are worth remembering. Let's take a closer look at how to properly care for this plant.
Petunias prefer loamy or sandy soil. If you create a soil mixture with your own hands, you must use a mixture of turf land, sand and humus. Also, if we are talking about “sour” soil, the bed should be treated with lime.
If you are going to grow petunia in pots, you need to use nutritious soil, for the preparation of which you need to use leaf soil, sand, humus and peat. It is permissible to add a little mineral fertilizer. And before you land, make a drainage layer at the bottom of the container about 5 cm.
It is important to note: each plant has about 5 kg of soil.
Light and temperature
When growing petunia must support the following mode:
- For seedlings - about + 18 degrees.
- For an adult plant (planting in the ground) - about + 15 degrees.
If we talk about the choice of a place for planting plants in open ground, the area should be bright, where there is enough sun. If the light is not enough, the petunia will stop blooming. Young seedlings need to be planted in pots and put it on the south side. Many gardeners notice how flowers are drawn out, which may be due to a lack of sunlight. In this case, you need to increase the lighting and lower the temperature by a couple of degrees.
Petunia is very resistant to drought, but it also tolerates irrigation, reacting negatively to stagnant water in the ground. Try to water the plant under the root, otherwise you can damage the leaves and flowers.
The first 2-3 weeks the plant does not need to feed. The only thing that can be done is to spray the green part with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, which will save the seedlings from diseases. After you plant in the ground, use the universal dressing needed to form a strong root system. If you grow petunia on a bed, you should use "strong" fertilizer, because in this case the plant is vulnerable to the external environment.
It is better to create such dressing yourself, using urea, potassium humate or potassium. After a couple of weeks, you need to use complex fertilizers, which are aimed at the intensive growth of plants. At the same time plants can be fertilized no more than once a week.
If petunias do not bloom for a long time, you need to create a “stressful situation” for the plant, for example, by stopping feeding the flowers or minimizing watering. Usually after such events the culture begins to bloom.
Petunia is a perennial plant; however, annual varieties are most often used in gardening - after planting and before the appearance of the first shoots it usually takes about a week. The first true leaf appears about two weeks after disembarkation. When the petunia "will be fulfilled" about a month and about 5 true leaves will appear on the seedlings, it can be transplanted. A month later, the first buds will appear on the flowers.
Bud develops within a week, the flowering process takes about 5-7 days. If you provide a plant competent care, it will delight its flowering from early summer until the first cold weather. When planting annual plants, wilted plants from the garden completely removed. But if you want to save the flower for the next year, it is worth cutting and transplanting it into a larger volume. In winter, care will be simple: just lightly water the plant as needed. And if the petunias provide normal illumination, the flower can form buds again.
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What diseases and pests can you encounter?
Petunia - a very unpretentious plant, it is also resistant to diseases and pests. However, gardeners should know what problems they may encounter when growing this plant.
The main fungal diseases include:
- Black leg.
- Gray rot.
- Brown spotting.
- Late blight
If black or white spots appeared on the stalks of the bush, they rot, most likely a problem in the fungus. The main reason for this problem is high humidity and high temperatures, lack of normal lighting. Increased soil acid and the use of large amounts of nitrogen fertilizers can also adversely affect this plant. The main "tool" of struggle is high-quality prevention.
Try not to thicken the crops, using the land from the garden, after having treated it with steam, do not use a large amount of nitrogen fertilizers and regularly dispose of the affected leaves.
It is important to remember that petunia is afraid of rain, because with heavy showers the petals can be damaged, which will give the bushes an ugly appearance.
Bacterial diseases include:
- Tobacco mosaic.
- Leaf galls.
These diseases are very rare, however, when they appear, they will begin to spread quickly through petunias, including through the seeds. With the defeat of these diseases, the appearance of plants, flowers, flowering decreases. They can not be cured - only the removal of petunia from the garden will help.
There are also pests: aphids, thrips, spider mites. Pests are particularly dangerous at the seedling stage. To determine their presence is very simple - carefully inspect the bushes, on the leaves or buds sure to remain "traces" of pests. Against them, use suitable chemicals.
Varieties and types of petunias
In our parks and gardens grow garden or hybrid petunia. The first terry varieties of petunias were bred in 1855, and in 1881 - large-flowered. In the middle of the last century, the result of cellular hybridization was ampelous petunia.
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Petunias by the size of a flower can be divided into two groups:
- large-flowered (flower diameter - 7-13 centimeters),
- many-flowered (flowers - 5-8 centimeters).
Today, plants with small flowers (2-4 centimeters in diameter), which formed the third group, small-flowered, have become extremely popular.
Petunia is divided into the following varieties:
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It has three subspecies:
- milliflora (miniature flowers with a diameter of 2-4 centimeters) —Picobella Blue variety,
- multiflora (undersized plant with flowers 5-7 centimeters in diameter) - Mirage Orchid variety,
- grandflora (has flowers in the form of a large gramophone).
This species forms shoots that tend down. The best subspecies of this variety is Surfini. Most flower growers prefer to grow this particular variety due to the variety of colors, resistance to bad weather conditions and fast growing season.
Surfins are divided into 3 series:
This variety can be found in bush petunia (multiflora, milliflora and grandiflora). There are cases that it occurs in the cascade and ampelnaya.
Terry flowers require more scrupulous care than other varieties. These flowers are much heavier, so they can not withstand strong gusts of wind. For their landing it is necessary to select a protected place. It is necessary to highlight the Double Cascade Mix.
Before novice growers often have a question, how to decorate your balcony with beautiful flowers? There are only two options: buy ready-made seedlings or personally grow planting material.
Almost all varieties and hybrids of petunia multiply through seeds. But there is still reproduction by cuttings (for such a method it is necessary to preserve the mother plants). Growth and flowering from cuttings is faster. But endurance and abundant flowering is the strength of reproduction from seeds.
Petunia: growing from seed
These plants need to be sown on the surface of the soil, not sprinkling them, otherwise the seeds will not germinate. Sowing is not as simple as it seems. This is due to very small seeds. In case of missing seeds in a seedling container, you need to pick up a small seed with a toothpick and move it to the right place.
Important! It is advisable to use a second toothpick to indicate the place of sowing of seeds, since it is almost impossible to consider them on dark soil. This method will help to sow evenly.
The use of food containers will also simplify seeding. Such containers are easily ventilated, and the transparent lid will be able to miss a sufficient amount of light rays. The use of even small containers is possible before picking sprouts.
After sowing seeds on the surface of the soil, it is necessary to pour water from the spray gun. Place the crop should be covered with a plastic bag or film. Periodically, they need to be aired to avoid condensation, as well as monitor soil moisture.
The first shoots will appear in 14-15 days (if the seeds are good, then all will appear at once). But this does not always happen. Many flower growers claim that if after the expiration of the 2-week period the shoots did not appear, then the expectation of their further appearance is meaningless. There were cases that sprouts appeared in a month, but there would be no joy from this. These sprouts will be weak and they need to be constantly inspected, and the result will be unpredictable.
A dive must be done with grown shoots, for this they are seated in different containers.
Capacities can be different - from small pots to plastic cups and yoghurt containers.
There are secrets of growing! Petunias have a very extensive and extensive root system. At home, until it becomes warm outside, it will grow for two months - this is at best.
In order to get a strong and healthy seedlings, it is necessary to provide the plant with a sufficient amount of land. In cramped conditions, the roots will not receive adequate nutrition and the result can not be seen.
Watch the video! How to sow a large number of petunias at home
There are two ways:
- instant dive sprouts in large containers (but this is inconvenient),
- at first, use small containers, and in 3-4 weeks transplant into larger containers. For all the time of germination, such a procedure must be performed twice. The result will be quite a strong seedling with a very extensive root system and formed buds. This seedling will easily transfer transplant and quickly adapts after planting in open ground.
Petunia loves the light. At the end of winter, when sowing seedlings, it is necessary to organize additional coverage from the moment the sprouts appear. With a small amount of light sprouts will be drawn out and become too weak.
Very important temperature. Before germination of the first greenery, the temperature should be 23-25 degrees. When the first shoots appear, the capacity is ventilated, thereby increasing the time the shoots stay in the open air. An abrupt change in conditions can adversely affect young shoots.
After picking, when the seedlings are strong, you can continue lower the temperature. It should be about +15 degrees at night, and + 18 ... + 20 degrees in the daytime.
Watering should be carefully, without falling on the leaves. Also important is the measure when watering: petunia does not like both drying and moisture (rot may appear).
Like every fast-growing plant, petunia loves top dressing. When planting seedlings on a mixture of soil with hydrogel, which is soaked in a solution of fertilizers, fertilizing should be done less frequently and later. For fertilizing can be suitable any complex flower fertilizer.
To get a compact, branched and neat bush, grow shoots to pinch. With an ampel variety, this will not work, although you have to pinch it, but it will grow in length. Such step-by-step cultivation will give the desired results and the seedlings can be transplanted into open ground, pots, flower beds.
For vegetative propagation, well-developed and healthy uterine shoots are collected in autumn. The most difficult thing is to preserve these queen cells during the winter when there is a shortage of light.
The cutting itself should start from the end of February - the beginning of March. For this, the required temperature should be 12-15 degrees, the room should have good lighting.
For cuttings taken the tops of the shoots, whose length is 4-6 centimeters. In the large leaf varieties, it is desirable to remove the bottom sheet and make the rest shorter. Cut cuttings must be placed in a lightweight and moisture-absorbing substrate. Covering lutrasil will help keep the cuttings moist.
When rooting, the temperature should be between 20 and 22 degrees. The formation of the roots will occur after 6-10 days, and after 10-12 days the cuttings must be transplanted into pots, in advance pinching the top.
Growing conditions for petunia
In the hot and dry summer, petunia flower beds will be the most beautiful. Hybrids tolerate cool and wet weather as well as frosts. Because of this, in the fall of their bloom longer.
Varieties with small flowers can tolerate frosts up to 4 degrees, so they can be planted in the soil earlier than other varieties (mid-May). Large-flowered varieties love more warmth and they should be planted at the end of spring.
Fertilizer for petunias
In order for plants to bloom profusely, they need a sufficient amount of nutrients.
Nitrogen fertilizers must be applied after planting in open ground. When the leaves turn yellow, feeding is repeated after 1 week. Во избежание нарушения баланса между ростом и цветением, петуния удобряется комплексными подкормками с высокой концентрацией калия.
Petunia fertilized regularly, until August. When drought is necessary to combine watering and feeding. In wet weather, fertilizers crumble under the plants, without affecting the leaves.
For abundant flowering of petunias, the soil should be fertile and loose. In addition to fertilizers, soil loosening should be periodic and regular. This will allow the roots to absorb more oxygen, and watering will be more efficient.
Beginning growers do not know how to properly care for these plants. To lush bushes formed, they need to pinch, while removing the upper parts of the shoots. This method is done only with the active growth of the plant. For the formation of a new point of growth of several shoots, pruning the stem over a 5-6 leaf is cut with secateurs. Thus, from this place will begin to grow new shoots in different directions. In this phase, seedlings will slow down their development, but at the same time will be able to get a little stronger. With the appearance of lateral shoots, the bush becomes rounded.
Pinching after rooting is carried out only if the seedlings will be planted in open ground. Sprout must adapt, and for this, it needs a couple of days. It is during this period of time that it is necessary to create favorable conditions for the plants to take root.
Petunias can bloom long and plentifully. For planting, you can use vases, containers, flower beds and flower beds. To get the amazing beauty of a flower, you need to spend quite a bit of energy on their cultivation.
Watch the video! Petunia from sowing to flowering
Petunia is a surprisingly gentle and cozy flower., a characteristic feature of which are flowers, shaped like little gramophone, as well as winding stems, and therefore petunias are often used by gardeners to decorate interior and exterior decoration. The popularity of the plant is also explained by the rich color: from white and soft pink to dark purple. Sometimes there are two-colored and multi-colored species.
The homeland of petunias are tropical regions of South America, where more than thirty species of this amazing plant are already described. Petunia blooms from the end of June and can last until the end of autumn. Many species, both original and hybrid, belong to perennials, but, as a rule, gardeners prefer to grow them as annuals, because they do not tolerate frosts.
When and how long does the plant bloom?
The flowering period of the plant begins at the end of June and may continue until the first cold weather. The flowering of small-flowered varieties begins on the 70th day after sowing, and the large-flowered varieties - on 90-95 days after sowing. Petunia buds develop about seven days, each bloom can last up to five days.
After the petunia fade away, a seed box forms at the site of the inflorescence. If you cut it, you can save the variety for growing petunias next season. Wash flowers right away., because the plant spends a lot of effort on the development of the seed box, while the process itself is reduced.
Why is this not happening?
If the petunia does not bloom by the expected time, it is recommended to pay attention to the following conditions:
- Pot volume and distance between plants. Remember that petunia is a plant that has a strong root system, so you need at least two liters under each plant. Tip: It is recommended to thin or transplant petunias.
- Insufficient soil moisture. Petunias love abundant watering, but they are often not necessary to be watered, otherwise the root system may rot. Measure watering with the age of the plant. Young petunias can not be watered plentifully, as their root system has developed inconclusively.
- Insufficient light level. Petunias are light-loving plants, which means it is recommended to choose the brightest and sunniest areas for them. Exposure to sunlight can damage the leaves of the plant, so make sure that the plants are sufficiently moist.
- Lack of top dressing or wrong feed pattern. How to feed a flower for abundant blooming? In order to grow plants require nitrogen fertilizers, and in order to bloom - phosphate and potash. Therefore, the following scheme is optimal: first you need to water the plants, then add a sufficient amount of organic or mineral fertilizers, then water again and add a mineral leaf feed. Remember the frequency of action. It is not recommended to exceed the required volumes of watering or top dressing.
- The appearance of the plant. In order for the plant to bloom profusely, it is recommended to pinch the top, leaving five leaves. This method will stimulate the development of additional shoots. In addition, it is necessary to regularly remove wilted flowers, as this will be a stimulating factor for a new round of flowering.
Knowing and applying tips on growing petunias, you can achieve a long and abundant flowering, and this will undoubtedly lift your spirits.
The necessary conditions
How to care for a beautiful woman so that she blossoms plentifully? For, to petunias pleased bright colors, it is recommended to comply with a number of conditions. Schematically, you can derive the following formula of abundant flowering: the capacity of suitable sizes + sufficient watering + regular and competent feeding + removal of faded flowers. So, more about everything.
- Capacity suitable size. Remember that petunias have a developed root system, which means it requires a lot of soil. The calculation should be as follows: five liters of soil for one petunia. Thus, in a container with a volume of 10 liters it is possible to plant only two plants, in a balcony box, the length of which is one meter, no more than three petunias can be planted. If you plant more plants than recommended, the stronger ones will suppress the less powerful ones, which means you can not wait for flowering at all.
- Regular and competent dressing. Plants are recommended to start feeding after two weeks after picking the seedlings. For young plants, it is advisable to use nitrogen fertilizers, they promote growth, and adult petunias need to be fed with phosphate and potash fertilizers, as they contribute to the formation of buds.
- Sufficient watering. It should be remembered that adult petunias love abundant, but not frequent watering. Adult plants can tolerate short-term drying out of the soil quite well. Remember: if you pour a petunia, then it can start a “black leg”.
- Removal of dead flowers. It is recommended to regularly remove the faded petunia flowers, because it contributes to a new round of flowering. Tip: if you notice that the plant has become much lower, it is recommended to remove seed pods, dead flowers and feed them with phosphate and potash fertilizers. Petunia will come to life and the flowering will be abundant.
Petunia ampelous and cascade
One of the most famous and common varieties of petunia has become ampelous The branches of ampelous petunia are showered with beautiful buds and gracefully hang down. This petunia is planted in pots and hung on loggias and balconies. But before embarking on disembarking, one should study how to form ampelous petunia. To form a petunia, you need to pinch the tops of the shoots - this will enhance their growth, and the plant will be more lush and well-groomed.
Cascade Petunia lands on verandas, arbors, loggias and balconies. She, like the ampelous one, produces long shoots that are 1.5 m long. Cascade petunia differs in that its shoots are thicker and grow not only downwards but also upwards. So, one plant can create a whole blooming flower bed with a diameter of more than 2 m.
Almost all varieties of petunias multiply by seed or vegetatively - cuttings. The easiest and most popular way is planting petunia seeds. However, when someone gets to grow a petunia seedling, you should know a few important rules for sowing and caring for a young plant.
Growing petunia seedlings from seed
Petunia seeds are sown in March. If you want it to bloom earlier, then sow in February. When sowing, be guided by the time of flowering of different varieties of petunia. So, small-color varieties will bloom in 70-75 days, large-color - in 85-90 days.
The land for petunia seedlings should consist of peat, garden soil and sand in a ratio of 2: 1: 1. This mixture should be sieved and steamed for an hour: this way you will get rid of possible diseases and weeds. After preparing the ground for seedlings, you can begin sowing. Seeds should be scattered over the surface of the earth and covered with a film or glass.
How to dive petunia
In order to properly dive the petunia, you will need: tanks for transplanting (peat cups, pots, etc.), a shovel or knife, a sprayer, a special substrate for petunia.
- In the prepared substrate, which you covered in a container for the plant, you need to make a recess with a spatula. Pour water into the hole.
- Stepping back from the stem of a plant 0.5 cm, carefully pull it out with a knife, trying not to damage the root.
- Transfer the petunia to a specially prepared container and put it in the recess.
- After that, you need to gently sprinkle with the substrate and tamp.
- Sprinkle the plant with water.
Although petunia is considered an unpretentious plant, you need to take care of it. In order for it to please the eye with beautiful flowers and lush forms, minerals, trace elements, nutrients are necessary. Since June, the plant must be fed with special liquid fertilizers for flowering petunias. If it is not enough to water petunia, it will quickly turn yellow and lose its beauty, therefore the soil should be light and moisture-intensive. Do not forget about the sunlight - the plant should receive it in sufficient quantity. Therefore, choose for his landing sunny side.
Be sure to remove dried flowers and shoots to form new buds. Shorten the side shoots - so they will grow better and maintain the shape you need.
Top dressing of seedlings of petunia and flowering plants
When you notice that 3-4 leaves have appeared at the seedlings, the plants should be fertilized. What kind of petunia should be dressing? You can use fertilizer "Crystal" or any other universal means. A week later, feed the petunia with a special fertilizer with nitrogen, using a sprayer. Also, do not forget to fertilize it with potassium from time to time.
Adult petunia for the prevention of chlorosis is fertilized with iron fertilizer or ammonium nitrate. Thus, petunia can be grown at home. The plant will delight you with its luxurious flowers all summer. The main thing is not to forget to take care of her, to water in time, to transplant and to make sure that she has enough useful microelements.
Petunia is a bush plant with erect or creeping stems. The height of different species varies from 20 to 70 cm. The stems are strongly branched. Hairy sessile leaves oval-shaped rich green color.
Voronkovidnye single flowers sit on short stalks. Depending on the species, they bloom in the axils of the leaves or on the crown. In standard varieties, flowers are simple; in hybrid varieties, terry and fringed. The colors are different, some with interesting patterns, veins, border of contrasting shades.
Popular species and varieties
Growing petunias at home begins with choosing the right variety. For apartments, miniature and ampelous species are more suitable. Each variety has several interesting hybrid varieties. There are five main ones.
- Multicolored. Bushes are small, compact. Abundant flowering - the leaves are almost hidden under the buds. A simple, unpretentious culture, the best option for growing in a pot.
- Large-flowered. Differs in beautiful flowers up to 16 cm in diameter. The bush is quite large, it looks beautiful in pots installed on high ground. This species is more common as a balcony plant. More than 100 hybrid varieties of large-flowered petunias are known.
- Ampelnaya. Stems are long, drooping, strongly branched. They are characterized by rapid growth, abundant and long flowering.
- Floribunda. Intermediate variety between multi-flowered and large-flowered petunias. Easy to care, hardy.
- Cascade. A common variety for home cultivation. A long spherical bush, densely covered with buds, is formed from long shoots. With good care, hanging branches reach one meter in length.
Location, temperature and lighting
Hailing beauty from sunny Brazil and requires similar natural conditions. Great place - windowsill on the south and southwest side. From a lack of sun will prevail green mass, to the detriment of flowering. From May you can transfer pots to a balcony or terrace, protected from wind and rain.
Thermophilic plants like the air at least 19 degrees. But no more than +25. Under the influence of too high temperatures, it becomes vulnerable to insects - spider mites and aphids.
It takes a lot of ambient light.
Humidity and watering a flower
Water the seedlings of petunias should be carefully
In hot days when the thermometer rises above +23 requires regular spraying from the spray. Carry it out in the early morning or after sunset. Water is used purified at room temperature.
Watering requires literate and moderate. Over wetting is not allowed. Petunia easily suffers a shortage of water (short time), but stagnation leads to rotting and the appearance of various infections. The regularity of water procedures is a guarantee of good development and lush flowering. The irrigation schedule is different in summer and winter. Since June, the liquid is required 2 times a day, in moderation. Only distilled water is suitable, not cold. From December to March, watering becomes more scarce: every 2-3 days.
Loosening is carried out the next day after watering. No more than once within 2 days.
Soil and fertilizers
Needs nourishing and fertile. Can be purchased at the flower shop - a universal substrate for indoor plants.
Perhaps personal preparation:
- sod soil and humus mixed in equal parts.
Perlite will create greater friability. The finished soil mixture should be sifted and disinfected - pour it with a concentrated solution of potassium permanganate. It is recommended to immediately add mineral fertilizers that dissolve very slowly in the ground. The drainage layer should be at least 4 cm in a pot.
It is recommended to feed up immediately after transplanting seedlings to a permanent container, or after buying plants in the store. That the root was formed strong make a universal complex. The additive, which includes a whole range of nutrients, a beneficial effect on growth and flowering.
Urea and potassium contribute to resistance to various kinds of bacteria. Supplements are required every week.
Choosing the right pot
Each instance requires from 4 to 5 liters of soil. If a free container is 10 or more liters, then two or more seedlings are planted in it. It is better not to place more than 3 representatives of the flora in a large box. Preference should be given to low, but wide tanks with a large number of drainage holes and good air permeability. Caps from natural raw materials - clay, ceramics, etc. - meet all requirements.
Pruning and blooming
Required to create a more magnificent bush form. Pruning the longest stalks. Shorten them is no more than one-third. Trimming all the tops of the shoots can achieve a neat and beautiful look. Pinching is also carried out. If the species is vigorous, then begin with the formation of seven leaves. For the rest, the appearance of 9-10 leaves is permissible. Remove the upper fragment of the stem, on which the growing point is formed. This will help the plant to be in perfect - round shape. Faded buds are pruned immediately after flowering.
If the coveted buds still do not appear, carry out a "shake": watering and fertilizer is minimized.
Required if the roots completely filled the pot and stopped growing, and after purchase. The new capacity is slightly different in size from the previous one (by 5-6 cm in diameter). It is advisable to transplant in cloudy weather or late in the evening. The soil is pre-disinfected with a solution of manganese. The shrub is carefully removed from the container, the earth lump should remain intact.
To the roots do not damage pre-petunia plentifully watered. In each flowerpot the drainage layer is obligatory, half of the soil is poured onto it. It is slightly crushed and a sapling with an earthy clod is set in the center of the bowl, the rest of the soil mixture is poured out. The process ends with abundant watering. For better adaptation, you can add excipients - peat or humus.
These white midges resemble a mole. Их способность летать становится настоящей проблемой для владельцев комнатных растений, ведь они быстро заражают других зелёных «соседей». Прячется вредитель под листьями. Сигнализирует об их появлении пожелтение листвы.To reduce the insect population and completely get rid of them, glue traps are perfect. But, if the measures were not taken on time and the number of uninvited guests has increased dramatically, then only special chemical means can help.
The most popular method. It is better to buy a landing material larger, in the shell. By preparing the ground in advance and creating comfortable conditions (good lighting, air temperature from 21 to 24 degrees, drainage in the box, disinfection of the soil mixture), you can start sowing. Having mixed up with the river sand, the planting material is evenly distributed over the surface without deepening into the ground. Then plentifully spray and cover with glass or a film. It is required to clean the condensate regularly, spray and air it.
Shoots will appear in 3-4 weeks. A signal to the need to dive - the formation of 3 leaves. In a separate container, they are transplanted after the formation of strong roots and a small bush.
Vegetative method is the separation of planting material from the parent bush. At least 2 internodes should be present on each process. The length of the room varies from 7 to 8 cm.
The cuts are done this way:
- at right angles the top,
- at an acute angle lower.
The wounds are treated with crushed activated carbon. Cuts sliced watered with a stimulant. For rooting suitable sand or overflow. For the formation of a new root system, 3 weeks is enough.
How to choose a healthy plant in the store
Before you take a new pet home, make sure its health. Signs of a petunia affected by diseases or insects:
- naked bottom of the stems. This is a sure sign that the seedling has outgrown a certain age and needs to be molded,
- very long shoots. Like the previous version needs to be formed. In addition, such a purchase is complicated by difficult transportation,
- spider webs, brown blotches and sluggish leaves. May be a symptom of pest attack,
- stagnant water in the tank. Perhaps this is how a representative of the flora was watered systematically. In this case, the root system may be affected by rot.
Types and varieties
A variety of choices affects the most sophisticated grower. This summer queen of window sills and balconies most people associate with:
Classify flowering pet cascading shrub and ampelnye species. In addition, it is divided into terry, miniature, simple, short and other representatives.
How to care for it to bloom profusely?
What to do to petunias strongly and magnificently bloomed? In order to prolong the flowering of petunias in pots, it is necessary to create care during blooming and follow a number of rules:
- It is recommended to water the plants in a timely manner and in sufficient volume, as well as to loosen the soil. Loosening allows the access of oxygen to the root system, which will benefit flowering.
- When the plant drops all the leaves and flowers, it is necessary to continue watering, but do not be zealous: once a week will be enough.
- In early spring, it is necessary to make the watering more intense and be sure to feed the plants with nitrogen fertilizers, so that the leaves will become bright green in color and will start to grow rapidly. In addition, it is recommended to dive the tops of the plant, which will allow it to grow.
- At the end of May, pots with petunias can be taken out onto the street, however, you need to monitor the air temperature and, possibly, bring them into the house for the night so that they will not be damaged by frost. In early June, the plant should begin to bloom intensively. At this time, you can make a choice: leave the petunias to bloom in pots or transplant in open ground.
In order to prolong the blooming of petunias in flowerpots and enjoy their bright and elegant attire throughout the summer, it is important that petunias grow in fertile soil. The soil should be enriched with humus and such basic microelements as potassium, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, iron, etc. In addition, it is recommended to regularly feed petunias using ready-made fertilizers for flowering plants.
We must not forget about regular watering and pinching grown plants. If you refuse to pinch, the petunia will stretch in length, as a result, the stems will rest on the ground or hang untidy from the edges of the pot.
In general, the rules for caring for petunias in vases are not particularly different from caring for them in pots. Just remember the formula: good soil + regular subcortex + regular and sufficient watering + pinching and the plants will be dotted with buds of elegant flowers!
How to pinch properly?
For to petunia pleased elegant dress, you must regularly pinch it. However, this should be done when the plant blooms and according to the rules, otherwise you can even harm it.
- It is necessary to pinch off a part of the shoot, at least 3-4 cm long, since if only the tip of the shoot is removed, the side shoots that will grow in this place can break from the strong wind, moreover, the plant can go into growth and flowering then can not wait.
- The pinching procedure should be carried out as the lateral stems of the plant develop, this means that when the lateral stems grow to 10-15 cm, the procedure is recommended to be repeated. Repeat the nip should be until the plant becomes lush.
Difference between the plant surfinia and petunia
There is an erroneous opinion that caring for a petunia at home is quite burdensome. But in fact, any beauty requires labor investment, otherwise the flowers will not be pleasing to the eye. Petunia is grown according to certain rules and taking into account the recommendations and meticulous care from it turns out a rich decoration of the garden or courtyard.
Petunia knows every urban and rural resident, the plant needs no introduction. She saw everyone who has a garden, a flower bed near the entrance or an open balcony with installed flower pots. The popularity of the flower was due to its unpretentiousness and ease of reproduction seeds at home. Seed material in the store is inexpensive, and therefore blaze balconies and loggias of high-rise buildings with a riot of colors.
In recent years, petunia has been displacing another equally popular flower from flowerbed areas - surfiniya, which is a hybrid derived from petunias. Surfinia and petunias are relatives.
Immediately identify the differences between the two types of plants is difficult, but Surfinia took on the good qualities of the breed, leaving in the past some flaws.
Surfiniya has longer and stronger stems, it grows higher, the abundance of additional sprouts allows you to create a lush bush, like a big hat with a surface plastered with picturesque colors. From nature, branches of surfini fall down from the hanging pots, it gives the effect of flowing flowering waterfall.
Breeding characteristics of petunia
Sowing of petunias is done when the increased day length has increased so much that the shoots have enough light for development and growth. Illumination is important for the germination process, so the timing is adjusted depending on the surrounding circumstances:
- if the house has a southern arrangement of windows, then the beginning of March is considered the best time
- the northern location of the openings allows you to start sowing in early April or late March,
- in the case of an artificial lighting installation, seedlings are grown from the winter of February.
Lack of sun or artificial light will lead to a strong stretching of sprouts, they will be weak and susceptible to disease. From such a seedling you will not get full-fledged beautiful bushes with an abundance of flowers.
Late planting will sprout strong and resilient to various changes, but the flowers on such bushes will appear later. The usual period of flowering occurs in 2.5–3 months after sowing the material, the flowers develop until mid-October.
The laying of petunia seeds in peat tablets is also carried out in February, subject to additional lighting with lamps. If artificial lighting is not set, the February sprouts will bloom at the same time as those planted in March.
Soil preparation for seeds
Sowing is produced in a shallow and wide container, which is loved by seedlings of petunias. Home care and cultivation involves the processing of wooden or plastic containers with antiseptics or disinfectants prior to planting.
The bottom is laid out with a drainage layer, fine gravel or crushed stone, expanded clay is taken as the material. The composition of the soil can be used differently, but among its main characteristics should be such:
- nutrient saturation
To prepare the soil take in equal parts of the sheet or sod soil, humus, fine sand and peat. If the earth is acidified, then it is mixed with a small amount of lime solution.
Care for the soil composition after mixing involves placing in an oven or microwave for roasting. The second method is treatment in boiling water to combat live pathogens.
A large screening layer is placed on the bottom of the box, a small one is placed on it, leaving the distance on the walls below the wall 3 cm from the edge. The ready-made land purchased in the pavilion is treated as well as cooked on its own.
Considered to be convenient in terms of technology and economical. seed germination method petunias in ready-made peat tablets. In such conditions, even hybrid varieties grown with problems produce high germination and flowering. The loose peat structure, hygroscopic and permeable, takes roots and gives them the opportunity to fully develop.
Tablets are wrapped with a fine mesh round plates, in which there is an opening where seeds are placed, products with a size of 3.5–5.0 cm are perfect for growing petunia, which will give the necessary space. Before use, the tablets are placed on trays and soaked with water for a couple of hours. If, after swelling, the tablets feed on all the moisture, then it is topped up, the remaining water is removed.
Sowing Petunia Seeds
The fineness of the seeds does not allow to distribute them evenly, so mixing with sand gives the best results. Modern methods of seed production allow the release of seeds in the form of dragees in a shell of useful components.
Such seeds are better sprouting and sowing is facilitated by the fact that they are large compared to conventional seeds, they allow you to withstand the required technological intervals when landing in the ground.
Before planting dragee moistened drip pipetting method or disintegration time is 4–5 minutes. The capsule is unrolled with a toothpick and fingers release the seed. The material is placed on the surface of the prepared soil and not closed, while keeping an intermediate distance. For growing petunias they create an optimal temperature and light conditions, the temperature should be 24–26˚С.
The first shoots appear above the surface in 14–15 days; now the air temperature can be reduced to 20 ° C in the daytime and 16 ° C at night. Illumination when sprouting seeds should be about 16 hours a day, so in the early spring they put additional fitolamps for additional lighting.
Enough illumination It is an obligatory moment that you need to pay attention to, because at this time the flower buds are laying, their number depends on the duration of the light.
It is easier to plant seeds into peat tablets because a separate capsule is placed in one tablet; a toothpick is used for this. Each place the seeds are additionally moistened with a drop from a pipette. Seed material cannot be buried in the soil, since germination occurs only in the light.
Growing petunias in greenhouse conditions
Greenhouses are considered the best medium for germinating petunias. Growing from seed in a greenhouse raises germination and yield of flowers on a bush. If there is no specially built greenhouse, then make improvised conditions that repeat it.
Capacities with seed planted cover film, glass, polycarbonate. Piece microclimate allows 100% survival of all crops of hybrid and naughty varieties.
The best place to install the container is considered to be where the air temperature is 24–26 ° C and good lighting. The windowsill is great in the apartments, in such a place the seedlings will not stretch out from the lack of light. If the temperature in the room is below 20 ° C, then the petunia may not ascend at all. In the greenhouse on the inner surface of the transparent material condensate accumulates, if possible, the coating is turned over to the opposite side, at the same time delivering fresh air to the plants.
The opening time of the seedlings is gradually increased from 2-3 minutes for the first time to several minutes per day after a series of openings.
This will help to avoid mold on the soil surface, which is caused by high humidity and causes black leg disease.
If after 10 days the sprouts did not appear on the surface of the ground, then there is no point in waiting for them to appear.
The temperature is reduced after the appearance of sprouts in order to avoid unnecessary stretching. Now the landing tanks are located away from the heating devices and placed closer to the window openings. To create the desired humidity conditions apply a weak manganese acid solutionsprinkled with sprouts twice a day.
Plants placed in the conditions of peat tablets also require compliance with the prescribed moisture; for this, tablets are sometimes moistened with water and not allowed to dry. To do this, pour moisture into the tray, the tablets swell, and the excess water is drained in order not to re-moisten the soil, which leads to various disease-causing diseases.
Watering is done only along the inner walls, and patches with painful mold are sprinkled with dry sand, ash or perlite (the layer should be about 2 cm). To avoid mass infection you need to quickly hold pinout sprouting seedlings. Seedlings are accustomed to the outdoor conditions by gradually opening the cover, and when real leaves develop on the stems, they completely remove the roof.
A pick is made after the formation of 3 true leaves, which develop on the trunk after the appearance of the first cotyledon leaves above the ground, paired with each other, determining the varietal characteristics of the plant. Picks carry out sharp small scissors or just nails. Pinch off the central trunk to the level of developed 4-5 leaves. Some new branches will develop here and a few new branches will develop and the bush will form magnificently.
Broken sprouts will temporarily stop growth at first, but this is a normal phenomenon, as the formation of roots takes place, and the above-ground part will grow into growth after one and a half months.
Topping sometimes several times, it will affect the number of colors. When establishing suitable weather, young seedlings are transferred to a garden bed or to decorative boxes for further growing petunias at home.
Transplanting young seedlings
Transplantation of sprouted seedlings into separate containers is done after multiple sprouts create crampiness in a common container. The individual cups will create the required comfort and space, the plant will grow strong and then transplanting into an open garden will be easier.
In separate cups, shoots are deepened to the first true leaves, so that on the part that is underground, the root system develops and the risk of the disease of the leg is reduced.
The development of the root system in seedlings
Opinions on the issue of trimming the central root are divided. Some believe that if you pinch it, then the lateral roots will grow and form a powerful clot of roots. Other experts say that during transplants the roots are injured enough, so you shouldn’t do it on purpose.
The shoots are carefully removed along with basal soil, while they are buried up to the cotyledon leaves. If we talk about petunia grown in the conditions of a peat tablet, then for such a seedling there is no need to pick a pick. The signal for transplanting seedlings is the fact of its germination through the thickness of the tablet. If at this time the sprouts are not transplanted, then the roots on the air will dry, which will negatively affect the formation of the bush in future periods.
Top dressing, watering and fertilizer of saplings
The transplanted saplings from the peat tablet begin to feed 14–15 days after the pick, before which time they have enough nutrients obtained earlier from peat.
First, the leaves are sprayed every other day, while the sequence of the stimulant and the mineral nitrogen complexes change. In the future, nitrogenous fertilizers are introduced under the root, and nitrate and urea are used. If this is not done, then the growth of the bush stops, and the leaves brighten.
In the future, the petunia feels the need nutritional top dressing, the flower actively reacts to fertilization every two weeks. Successfully acts on the flower and potash fertilizers, at home such complexes are most conveniently applied in liquid form, they are diluted with water in accordance with the instructions on the packaging.
Watering is carried out in any way - through the pallet or spray. Есть определенные правила создания влажности, которые следует соблюдать:
- the use for watering of watering cans is excluded, the overmoistening of the earth threatens the development of the disease “black leg”, in this case the roots rot from the underground part, then the whole plant dies
- drying should also not be allowed, without moisture, no plant can live,
- Do not use chlorinated water directly from the water supply for irrigation, before use it is defended for a day, and before irrigation add a small amount of lemon juice,
- irrigation water should be the same temperature with the soil.
Growing petunias in the home or garden in the private sector is an interesting and rewarding activity. Despite some seed breeding efforts, a blooming multicolored carpet in the courtyard, decorating the exterior, will be a well-deserved result of labor. Landscape designers successfully use the characteristics of hanging or spray petunias to design coziness and fantastic decoration of gardens, parks, courtyards and simply loggias and balconies.
Sowing seeds begin around February. They are sown on the ground surface without embedding. For germination need sunlight. From above the seeds are sprinkled with water from a spray bottle. Granulated seeds are moistened stronger - the shell should get wet.
The container with crops is covered with glass or a film, put in a light, warm place. Maintain a stable temperature: 22–25 ˚С. Shoots appear in about a week. From this moment they begin to air the greenhouse daily. The first time the film is removed for ten minutes. Gradually, the duration of the airing increase. When the sprouts get stronger, the shelter is removed.
Small seedlings are very weak, prone to black leg disease. To obtain healthy seedlings, they follow the irrigation regime and provide full coverage. If there is little natural light, set artificial light. Between irrigation, the ground is slightly dried, but does not allow its complete drying.
After the formation of two or three of these sheets carry out the first pick. Seedlings are planted in a more spacious box with loose soil. Between germs maintain a distance of 3-4 cm.
The second pick is done in a month. Seedlings planted in separate pots, pinch the tip of the main root for the development of a full-fledged root system. The first time after transplantation, seedlings are kept in a slightly shaded place, closely monitoring the soil moisture.
To form a lush, dense bush with an abundance of lateral shoots, the first pinching is done early - after the appearance of the third or fourth pair of true leaves.
Removal of the growing point in young plants stimulates the active formation of lateral shoots. At the same time flowering moves away a bit. After pinching petunia treated with growth promoters.
Petunia care and lush blooming
When the seedlings are stronger, it becomes much easier to care for them. Petunia - unpretentious plant that requires a minimum of attention. How to care for a petunia, so that its flowering lasts until autumn? It is enough to create favorable conditions for it, adhering to several rules.
- Lighting Petunia - light-loving culture. During the active growing season it is placed on the western and eastern windows. On the south side necessarily pritenyayut. On the north windows can be kept only with additional artificial lighting. Signs of lack of light - shoots drawn out, thinned, the leaves turn pale.
- Temperature . Likes moderate heat 20–25 ˚С. Easily withstands heat up to 30 ˚C. At home, petunia does not bloom at temperatures below 19 ˚C. In winter, a rest period at a temperature of 10–18 ˚С is desirable.
- Humidity Petunia is neutral to the level of air humidity, but it gratefully responds to spraying. In winter, additional moisture is not needed - sprayed mainly in the summer.
- Watering It is important to properly water the petunia, because it is prone to the development of rot and fungal diseases. It is undesirable to pour or overdry the soil - you need to try to find a middle ground.
- Top dressing. Petunia begin to feed in two weeks after the last picks. At intervals of ten days, potash fertilizers are applied. Sometimes you can feed organic, humic mixtures.
Reproduction by cutting
Ampel varieties, terry and mini petunias can be propagated by cutting. Rooting cuttings petunias easy. Ampel varieties can be propagated throughout the year, terry varieties - only in early spring.
For reproduction petunia cuttings take the tops of the shoots with four to six leaves. The top two are left, the bottom ones are removed, the middle ones are cut in half. Cuttings are planted in a loose, fertile substrate. After planting, the surface of the soil is sprinkled with a thin layer of sand.
The container with the cuttings is covered with a film, sprayed with a solution of the fungicide. The use of growth stimulants is usually not required - fresh cuttings root easily. Before the roots appear, the container is kept in a well-lit, warm place; the ground is sprayed daily with warm, clean water.
In about two to three weeks, cuttings can be planted in small pots. As in the case of seedlings, young plants pinch over the fourth leaf to enhance branching.