Zhukovskaya - an old variety of cherry ordinary average ripening. Received in VNIIG and SPR them. Michurin through sowing the seeds of Michurinsky sorts of cherries from free pollination. Authorship belongs to S.V. Zhukov and E.N. Kharitonovoy. Since 1947, the variety is zoned in the Central, Central Black Soil, Middle Volga and Lower Volga regions.
The trees are characterized by an average growth force (height - 1.5 - 3 m), the crown is slightly sprawling, rounded in shape, moderately thickened and moderately dominant. The shoots are medium thick, curved, reddish-brown color. The lentils of medium size, silvery yellow, are rarely located on the shoot. The buds are medium-sized, pointed, without pubescence, lagging behind the shoot, painted brownish-gray. The leaves are larger than medium-sized, oblong-oval in shape, with a double or triple-crested serrated edge, the color is dark green. Sheet plate with a slight gloss, in shape - slightly concave in the shape of a boat and curved downwards, the base is rounded, the apex smoothly passes into the tip. Petioles are long, medium in thickness, not hairy, violet-red in color from the lighted side. Stipules are large, long, long falling.
Inflorescences 5-flower. The flowers themselves are quite large (about 3 cm in diameter), white in color. Petals are rounded, above average size. Pistil and stamens in the flower of the same length. Calyx conical, hairless, colored green with tan. Fruits are tied mainly on the bouquet branches, partly - on last year's increments.
The fruits of the Zhukovskaya cherry are attractive in appearance, large (the average weight of the berries is 4 g, individual specimens reach 6–7 g), in shape - oval-heart-shaped with a rounded base and an oval tip. The skin is dark red in color. The flesh is quite dense consistency, juicy, dark red, with a very pleasant sour-sweet taste, similar to the taste of sweet cherries. The highest tasting score - 5.0 points. Juice is colored dark. The stone of medium size (0.29 g +/- 0.01), relative to the weight of the berry, takes 7.7%, is ovate-ovoid in shape (12.0 x 8.3 mm), good separability from the pulp.
The chemical composition of the fruit contains: solids (15.86%), the amount of sugars (9.41%), acids (1.42%), ascorbic acid (19.8%). By use, the variety is universal: it is used fresh, suitable for processing in the food industry. Marked the suitability of fruits for mechanized harvesting.
Variety average term flowering. Fruits reach ripeness in the 2nd decade of July. The process of ripening on the tree at the same time, ripe berries are not showered. At the time of fruiting cherry enters the 4th year. The average lifespan of trees is 18 - 20 years, good fructification is observed up to 15 - 16 years of age.
Zhukovskaya is a samobesplodnaya cherry. Among the best pollinators there are varieties: Vladimirskaya, Molodezhnaya, Lyubskaya, Apukhtinskaya and Consumer black.
The level of productivity of the variety is good: 10-year-old trees produce 12 kg of fruit, and from 20-year-olds, up to 30 kg of berries can be harvested.
Winter hardiness of this cherry is average. In severe winters, it is possible that the flower buds are completely freezed, wood freezes. In some cases, these factors lead to the death of trees.
The variety is highly resistant to coccomycosis, in comparison with other zoned cherries. Also shows good resistance to such a dangerous viral disease, as ring spot.
Among the main advantages of Zhukovskaya cherry are: high-quality fruits of universal purpose, high resistance to a number of diseases and pests.
Among the shortcomings: a rather large size of the fruit seed and only an average level of winter resistance of flower buds.
Fruit tree characteristic
This variety appeared in 1947 as a result of the work of scientists of the Institute named after Michurin. Zhukovskaya was obtained as a result of the free pollination of various types of cherries and was named after its creator, the breeder S. V. Zhukov. Fruit tree much appreciated and today for compact size, good yield and great taste of fruits.
Cherry has an average size and can reach a height of 2 to 3.5 meters. The crown is rather sprawling, round-shaped. The branches are thin, covered with dark brown bark with a red tinge. The leaves are elongated, large, bright green in color, with notched edges and a glossy surface.
Scapes rather long, medium thickness, purple. The flowers are about 3 cm in diameter, have a white color and are arranged in beautiful inflorescences of 5-6 pieces. Fruits ripen mainly on annual shoots, but some can be tied to last year’s branches. A tree can bear fruit for about 15 years, and its life does not exceed 16-18 years.
The berries are maroon-red color, round shape, with a smooth and shiny skin. Cherries weight from 5 to 7 grams. Fruit pulp is very juicy, has a dense structure and has a sweet-sour taste. Berry juice contains vitamins C, A, E and trace elements necessary for health. For 1 season, you can collect from 15 to 20 kg of crop. This culture has received the highest praise of specialists during the official tasting.
For fruit ripening on the tree, the presence of a number of other varieties of this crop is necessary so that they can be used as pollinators, since Zhukovskaya is self-productive.
The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
This plant culture has many advantages:
- Variety refers to the early ripening, the berries begin to ripen within 3-4 years after planting the cherry.
- Very high yield, each year from one tree you can get up to 25 kg of berries.
- The fruits stick to the branches quite tightly and do not crumble, thanks to which they are perfectly preserved until the beginning of their collection.
- Cherries are quite large in size and have an excellent taste.
- Harvesting can be automated using special combines.
- Fruit culture of this variety is unpretentious in maintenance and care, and also exhibits increased resistance to many diseases.
The disadvantages of cherry wood include:
- Insufficient frost resistance, prolonged exposure to very low temperatures can affect the ripening and quality of fruits.
- Too large bone in the berries.
- The obligatory presence of pollinators of other varieties for harvest.
Breeding history and breeding region
Breeders S.V. Zhukov and E.N. Kharitonovaworking in the Michurin laboratory of genetics with freely pollinated material, were able to get a great variety. In the same place, a variety of Vavilov’s memory was bred.
In many ways, parental varieties are much inferior to the resulting form.
Zhukovskaya cherry variety has been bred long ago, in 1947 in Tambov regionbut is still popular due to its appearance and taste.
Appearance of cherry Zhukovskaya
Consider separately the appearance of the tree and fruit.
Tree not very tallas an adult reaches a little more than three meters. It has a back-pyramidal crown and low foliage. The same signs demonstrate Vyanok and Morozovka.
The main stem and skeletal branches have a red-brown color, on which are numerous golden lentils.
Leaves and buds differ in medium size. Pointed buds, gray with brown bloom, not having pubescence, lagging behind the trunk.
The leaves have a characteristic luster and dark green color, slightly tapered at the ends, differing in the open edges on the sides.
The form of the sheet resembles an inverted boat.
They are fastened on a red-violet petiole, which is distinguished by a small length and thickness.
The flowers of the cherry are five in one inflorescence, large and white, with a diameter of 30 mm.
The shape of the berries is oval-round, rather heart-shaped. Also the base and the top are oval.
Berries of large size, weighing from 4 to 7 grams, red-black color and very attractive in appearance. Rossoshanskaya, Tsarevna Felt and Generous can also boast of large-sized berries.
The taste of the fruit is pleasant sweet-sour, estimated at 5.0 points. The color of the juice is similar to the color of the berries.
Stone medium size, about 0.30 g, oval, in relation to the weight of the fetus its weight is 7.7. From the pulp of the fruit bone is separated very well.
Cherry variety Zhukovskaya fruit photo and description of the variety on.
Characteristics of a variety
A young tree for 4 years is able to produce crops. With age, the cherry begins to bear fruit more every year. So, with a ten year old tree you can collect up to 12 kg of fruits, and from the age of twenty about 30 kg.
Excellent yields are also demonstrated by the Shubinka, Chokoladnitsa, Black Large and Chernokork varieties.
The life of this tree is about 18-20 years. Active fruiting persists up to 20 years, after yields are declining.
Cherry Zhukovskaya - self-infertile varietyThis means that she necessarily needs additional pollinators in the garden. As well as being very dependent on weather conditions during the pollination period. During prolonged rains, you can never wait for the harvest.
Such varieties are well suited for pollination: Vladimirskaya, Tambovchanka, Lyubskaya, Black Consumer Goods and Orythgame Griot.
Only thanks to the neighboring cherry plants from the tree can you wait for a good ovary of the fruit.
Lebedyanskaya, Nadezhda and Fairy demonstrate good frost resistance.
Flowering tree begins in the second half of May and ready harvest can already be removed in the middle of July.
Ripe berries able to hang on the stalk for a long time and not fall off with strong wind or ripeness.
Due to this quality, mechanized fruit harvesting is possible.
Planting and care
Spring is the most favorable time for landing young tree. If a cherry seedling is purchased in the fall, then it would be better to leave it until spring, prikopav in the ground or sand.
When planting, you need to take into account the amount of sunlight, since Zhukovskaya cherry loves a lot of sun. The soil should be loamy with sandy impurities.
If it does not meet the stated requirements, then it is necessary to prepare the soil as close as possible to the optimum conditions for growing.
When the soil in the spring thawed completely need to prepare a pit for planting. The depth should be 60 cm, and a diameter of about 80 cm. Distance between adjacent trees not less than 3 meters.
If the seedling is purchased with open roots, it should be carefully examined for damage. After that, if necessary, remove and trim all damaged parts.
Carefully place the cherry in the pit and carefully fill it with prepared soil.
In the landing hole necessarily pour in two buckets of water slowly and gradually. The root system after watering should not be shown from the ground.
If this happens, then you need to pour a little more soil on top. Ground around the tree shed compost or pour mulch in the form of humus.
Quantity is adjustable 3 to 6 buckets of water under one tree depending on the age of the bush and weather conditions.
Sort does not differ in particular winter hardiness for the northern regions fits not very well. But in areas with a warm winter climate, the cherry will not die during the frosts and bring a good harvest.
For the winter tree it is recommended to cover with a thick cloth or special material. Before covering it is necessary to cut and remove branches that are older than 8 years.
At the same time fructifying main shoots and five young need to be left. Further, the branches gently bend in a circle and cover with tufts of straw.
This is done in order to protect the cherry from the freezing of the kidneys. On top you can wear burlap or thick paper.
The root system is protected by an additional layer of earth, and in the first heavy snowfall, pour as much snow as possible onto the root zone.
Preparation for the winter period includes, in addition to covering compulsory podzimny strait and feeding.
Diseases and pests
Sort notable for high resistance to coccomycosis and ring spots in comparison with other zoned varieties.
But it is badly opposed to such a disease as moniliosis, better known as fruit rot.
In the middle of July, an infected tree has large spots on the fruit, which rapidly increase in size, covering the whole berry.
The bark of the tree is also covered with a characteristic gray bloom. The flesh loses its qualities and density, a large number of berries fall to the ground, and the remaining ones turn black and dry.
Spores that cause disease very well overwinter in fallen leaves and fruits. Therefore it is necessary Be sure to burn or destroy all the affected fruits and leaves, and cut off the diseased bark.
For the prevention and prevention of disease throughout the summer period tree need to spray fungicides and Bordeaux mixture.
Among varieties resistant to fungal diseases you should pay attention to such varieties as Molodezhnaya, Morozovka, Tsarevna and Podbelskaya.
The main pests of cherries are cherry aphid, weevil, fly, sawfly and moth. The struggle with them begins in early spring, before the start of sap flow. At this time, it is necessary to make the treatment of the trunk in order to destroy the pests that successfully wintered on it.
Cherry aphid can retreat if we remove weeds under a tree in time and with good quality and spray it with onion or garlic extract.
The rest of the pests love to spend the winter in a circle around the tree, and digging up the soil in the fall and spring gives good results in their destruction.
Each of them is selected in accordance with the disease or pest.
The cherry variety Zhukovskaya has long been loved by gardeners for their qualities, unpretentiousness and gorgeous appearance. Vyanok, Griot Moscow and Dessert Morozova can also boast a good-looking appearance.
Watch the video about planting and caring for cherry Zhukovskaya
Brief description of culture, history of the variety
Cherries belong to the high-value fruit crops with abundant high-quality yield and unique taste. The fruits of the plant are characterized by universal value and are used both for fresh consumption and for certain types of technological processing. They include the following components:
- soluble solids
- P-active substances (catechins, anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, etc.),
- ascorbic acid (vitamin C),
- folic acid (vitamin B9),
- Riboflavin (vitamin B2), etc.
Variety in its special
Zhukovskaya - an old variety of cherries, which was obtained in the VNIIGIPSP them. Michurin in the 1940s breeders Kharitonov and Zhukov. The variety is a seedling from open pollination of local varieties. The variety underwent regionalization in the Central, Central Black Earth, Middle Volga and Lower Volga regions.
Characteristics and features
Trees have medium vigor. The crown is characterized by a rounded shape, a strong level of spreading, an average strength of foliage and density. Fruiting takes place on the bouquet shoots, a certain part of the fruit is formed on last year's increments. Fruits reach a mass of up to 4 g, individual cherries have a weight of 6-7 g, with a dry margin, almost black in color. They are heart-oval in shape, attractive, sourish, rather pleasant, taste, score at the tasting is 5 points.
On a note. The yield contains: soluble solids - 15.9%, sugars - 9.4%, titratable acids - 1.42%, vitamin C - 19.8 mg / 100 g, P-active substances - 807.2 mg / 100 year
The flowering time is average. The variety is characterized by self-infertility. The period of ripening crop varieties average - mid-July. The crop is formed at the same time, not prone to shedding. The beginning of fruiting falls on the 4th year of cultivation. The yield level of the variety is high; at 10 years of age, trees form 12 kg / tree, in 20-year-olds - up to 30 kg / tree. Durability of plants 18-20 years, satisfactorily fruits until 15-16 years of age. The variety is more resistant to coccomycosis in comparison with Lyubskaya and Vladimirskaya. Resistant to ring spots.
Like most varieties of this crop, Zhukovka cherry belongs to the self-fruitful varieties, therefore cherry pollinating varieties should grow in the area in close proximity to the variety. The most optimal of them are:
- Consumer black,
- Griot Ostgeim,
- Chocolate girl.
In most growing areas, the optimal period for planting "Zhukovskaya" is the middle of spring. In the southern regions of the procedure can be transferred to the first half of autumn. In the middle zone of Russia and the steppe regions, this is risky, since a variety that is not highly resistant to the adverse factors of the winter period will not have time to thoroughly prepare for negative temperatures.
Cherry Zhukovskaya recommended for cultivation in areas with chernozem or sandy loam soil. Acidity should be neutral. Clay soils are completely unsuitable for this variety, it is not recommended to cultivate Zhukovskaya on such plots.
The plot for the cultivation of a variety should not be shaded and subject to the negative effects of cold drafts. Грунтовые воды на делянке должны залегать на глубине не менее полутора метров.
Дополнительная информация: для возделывания сорта Жуковской не подойдут низинные участки, в которых в весенний период подолгу застаивается талая вода.
Выбор посадочного материала
Приобретать саженцы Жуковской рекомендуется осенью, когда их ассортимент намного шире, чем весной. One-two-year-old plants should be selected 1–1.2 m in height and at least 20 cm long in the root system. There should be no mechanical injuries or damages, growths, traces of diseases, ulcers, etc. on the bark of the variety. It must be elastic smoothness, and not be shriveled and rough.
We prapatyvat saplings for the winter
Purchased seedlings need prikopat for the winter. To do this, select a shaded plot, on which they dig a trench of the required length and a depth of about 30-50 cm. Planting material is placed in it in an inclined position, thoroughly shed water, then sprinkling the root system and part of the trunk with earth. In this position, the seedlings of the variety remain until spring, when they are carefully removed from the fossa before planting, taking care not to injure the roots and trunk.
The process of planting trees Zhukovskaya in open ground coincides with the same process in the other varieties of cherry ordinary. A pit with a depth of at least 60 cm and 80 cm in diameter must be prepared in advance. It should be dug in advance: during the spring planting it is done in the second half of autumn, and during the autumn planting - in 15-20 days. The soil extracted from the well is mixed with the following fertilizers:
- simple superphosphate - 60 g,
- humus - 5 kg,
- potassium chloride - 40 g.
In the middle of the pit, a stake of wood about a meter long is hammered. At the bottom of the hole sprinkle a little nutrient composition, which put the seedling Zhukovskaya. The plant is tied to a cola on the north side with a piece of twine, folded "eight". At the same time, it is necessary not to drag a sort of seedling so that it does not die.
Important! Before disembarking, it is necessary to visually inspect the planting material for the presence of dried or damaged parts, and, if they are found, remove them with a secateur and cover the cut point with a special garden pitch.
Sapling varieties are covered with soil, ensuring that the root neck rises above the soil level at a height of 4-5 cm. The soil is a little tamped down with feet. At a distance of 25-30 cm from the sapling “Zhukovskaya” it is dug around a little around and water is poured into a hole in the volume of 2-3 buckets.
Driving a seedling
The basal sector is subjected to mulching using sawdust or compost poured into a layer 2-3 cm high. This will prevent cracking of the soil and evaporation of moisture, including after the very first irrigation.
When and where to plant fruit tree
The best time for planting Zhukovsky cherries is the end of March or the beginning of April, when the snow melts completely and the soil becomes loose. In the southern regions of Russia, due to the rather warm climate, it can be planted in early autumn.
The tree loves warmly and sunlight, so you need to find him a well-lit place on the site, without the presence of drafts. If you plan to plant 2–3 seedlings at once, keep in mind that the distance between them should be about three meters, and the rows of trees should be five meters from each other.
The soil in which the cherry will grow must be saturated with organic and mineral substances and have an average acidity. Strongly clay and acidic land. It should be borne in mind that if in your garden groundwater is located above two meters, then a tree cannot be planted in such a place.
Since Zhukovskaya cherry is incapable of self-pollination, it must be planted next to representatives of other varieties of this crop. The best pollinators in this case are:
- Consumer black.
It is recommended to have any 3-4 trees in the garden. Sometimes cherry varieties can be replaced with a sweet cherry, it is also suitable for this procedure and will improve the quality of the Zhukovskaya harvest.
Description of landing
First of all, you need to purchase a quality and viable seedling. It is recommended to choose it by the following criteria:
- A sapling should be young, then it will soon take root in the ground and begin to develop.
- The best age of the tree for planting is 1-2 years, the height of the trunk is from 90 to 100 cm.
- The bark is clean and smooth, brown in color, with no signs of drying or rotting.
- The roots must be branched and flexible with many small roots.
- Kidney - fresh and unopened.
The seedling should be planted soon after the purchase, until the root system is dry. Preferably, one day before planting, place it in a special solution that stimulates root growth, or in ordinary water at room temperature.
It is necessary to dig up the land at the landing site and in 2−3 days dig a hole for a sapling 60–65 cm deep and 70 cm wide. After that, add humus, manure, mineral fertilizers, slightly dug soil to it, and then mix all the ingredients in the hole well with a shovel. If necessary, add more ordinary earth on top and insert a stake to which you will later need to bind a tree for fixation.
Then take a sapling, gently straighten all the roots and place it in a hole so that the beginning of the root system is 5-7 cm above the soil level, then cover it with earth. Now the tree must be well watered. To do this, you need to make a small depression around the barrel and pour about 40 liters of water into it.
The ground around the cherry should be covered with sawdust or soft soil to prevent the soil from drying out and weeds to appear. Do not forget to tie the sapling to the support, so that the trunk and branches are formed correctly during growth.
Rules for the care of the fruit tree
Cherry Zhukovskaya quite unpretentious, but in order for the tree to feel comfortable and give a rich harvest, it will require competent care.
It is necessary to water a tree 4 times in 1 season. The first time - during flowering, the second - with the appearance of berries, the third - during the period of fruit ripening, the fourth - after picking cherries. For watering around the trunk they dig small ditches into which 2–3 buckets of water are poured. After that, the land should be loosened and get rid of weeds.
Feed the Zhukovsky cherries need to startwhen her age reaches 3-4 years. Fertilizer should be applied every season 3 times: during the formation of buds, after flowering, and also with the onset of autumn. In spring, it is better to use saltpeter diluted with water and hydrated lime as a top dressing. At other times, suitable mineral and organic fertilizers. With the onset of the autumn period, it is better to use potash-phosphorus compounds as feed.
Several times a year the fruit tree should be pruned branches. The first time they are pruned a little when planting a seedling, then it should be done regularly, 2 times a year - in early spring and after the leaves fall. During this procedure, all dry and broken branches are removed, and also very long ones are slightly shortened. To form the crown of the cherry can begin 4 years after planting. It should be remembered that less than half of the existing branches can be removed for one pruning, otherwise the tree can suffer greatly and become sick.
Cherry Zhukovskaya bad tolerates a cold winter, it can freeze all the buds, so the southern regions and central regions of Russia are more suitable for growing this variety. But wherever it grows, with the onset of cold weather a tree must be covered up. Before this, it is necessary to pour sawdust around the trunk or to put a thick layer of peat. Then you need to wrap the cherry trunk with thick paper and cover the branches with a bag.
For the prevention of diseases, it is recommended to spray trees with chemicals to kill pests at the beginning of spring. The cherry of this variety is quite resistant to many diseases, but with illiterate care, Zhukovsky's immunity decreases, which may affect her health.
Harvesting and storage
After 4-5 years after planting, high-quality fruits in a rather large quantity begin to appear on the tree. They ripen in mid-July - early August in one stage and remain on the branches until they are collected. The older the tree, the greater the number of cherries you can get from it, the amount of harvest can be from 15 to 25 kg per representative of the Zhukovskaya variety.
Berry picking the stem does not need to be separated. For storage, unwashed fruits are placed in boxes with mandatory ventilation, where they are laid in a layer, about 5-6 cm thick. The crop should be stored in a cold and damp place, at a temperature of 7−9 degrees. In such conditions, cherries can lie for two weeks, and if they are in the refrigerator, then 20-25 days.
Fresh fruits are immediately usable, but you can use them to make various desserts, freeze them in the freezer and dry them in the oven to get dried fruits. Zhukovskaya cherry berries are made of delicious jam, jam, juice, compotes.
Description of diseases and pests
The fruit tree of this variety has a valuable quality - it is resistant to coccomycosis, a very common disease among the representatives of the cherry species. But there are some diseases and pests, that can hit Zhukovskaya, eg:
- Rust. Foliage is covered with dark-red spots and subsequently begins to fall. The tree becomes weak, which negatively affects the formation of fruits. You can cure the cherry by spraying with a solution of copper sulfate 3% or Bordeaux liquid 1%.
- Scab. The berries are covered with dark brown spots, the leaves lose their shape and begin to dry. Processing Bordeaux liquid (100 grams per 10 liters of water) will help. If the disease continues to progress, it is necessary to undergo a course of treatment with this drug.
- Monilioz. All the foliage of the cherry begins to turn yellow and wither in the summer. Berries dry, shrivel and darken. The cause of the disease is fungus. You can get rid of it with the help of the above preparations, you also need to ensure the tree is properly cared for and to prevent water stagnation during watering.
- Cherry fly A small insect that lays its eggs in berries, from which later formed larvae. As a result, a large number of fruits can be spoiled. To destroy a pest, spraying with karbofos (60 grams per 10 liters of water) or Inta-vir (1 tablet per 12 liters of water) is necessary. Repeat the treatment after 2 weeks.
- Fruit mole. Actively eats leaves, eating them almost completely. Wood treatment with insecticidal preparations helps.
- Cherry leafworm. It significantly damages the bark on the branches, as a result of which the gum flow begins near the tree. To get rid of the pest, in the fall you need to remove the top layer of bark and burn. Then you need to process the cherry by spraying Chlorophos (70 grams per 10 liters of water). With the onset of spring, it is recommended to repeat the course of treatment.
Description of cherry varieties Zhukovskaya
Large-fruited cherry Zhukovskaya of early maturity was bred by breeders of the All-Russian Research Institute of Genetics and Breeding of Fruit Plants S. Zhukov. and Kharitonov E.N. Recommended for cultivation of the Middle and Lower Volga, Central Chernozem and Central regions.
The trees of this variety are not too high, reach 2–3.5 m in height. A round sprawling crown of medium thickness and foliage grows to a diameter of 2–3 m.
The bark on the trunk and trunk is grayish-brown in color, and on the bent, not thick shoots it is dark brown with a reddish-brown tint. The branches are covered with large, elliptical, dark green leaves with a faint sheen and slightly jagged edge. Cherry blossoms relatively large, pleasantly smelling white flowers.
Fruit wood is represented by bouquet branches and partly by last year’s increments. A distinctive feature of the tree is a long period of fruiting.
Large (4-7 g) fruits are heart-shaped and covered with dark burgundy glossy skin. The flesh of a pleasant sweet-sour taste contains 9.4 g of sugars and 19.8 mg of ascorbic acid per 100 g of weight, as well as vitamins A, B, P and many trace elements.
A rather large bone is easily separated from the pulp.
Advantages and disadvantages
- precociousness (from 4–5 years old),
- high winter hardiness
- high and regular yields (15–18 kg, up to a maximum of 30 kg per 1 tree) over a long period (about 20 years),
- good taste and presentation of fruits,
- unpretentious care,
- low berry drops,
- resistance to coccomycosis,
- the possibility of mechanization of harvesting.
- low frost resistance of flower buds,
- large bone sizes.
Cherries tolerate almost any soil if regular watering, fertilization and good drainage are ensured.
It is desirable, nevertheless, that the soil be fertile and loose, with a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction (pH 7-8). Cherry develops well on sandy loam and loam, while ensuring a sufficient amount of organic matter.
Not welcome groundwater occurrence. Ideally, it should be 1.5–2 m from the surface of the earth. Otherwise, a drainage device is required.
Landing should be carried out in places where there is no stagnation of cold air and provided protection against winds. The tree grows best on a well-lit place, but it can easily tolerate partial shading: it can be grown in fan form against a wall facing north. Although the trees of Zhukovskaya are not too large, they need some space: the distance from it to other trees and buildings should be at least 3-4 m.
Selection of seedlings
The younger the seedling, the easier it takes root. Therefore, it is best to purchase 1-, 2-year-old trees. For the correct selection of seedlings need to consider the following:
- the crown and root system must be well developed,
- the bark should be smooth, whole and shiny, without cracks and dry areas,
- branches and roots must be resilient,
- buds should be green,
- root neck should be healthy, with no signs of rot.
Recommended planting dates depend on the climatic conditions of the region. In the southern regions with a soft and long fall, planting can be done in the first half of October - the seedling will have time to settle down before the soil freezes, and in the spring it will immediately grow. Spring cherry plant in cold regions. By the time of planting, the soil should be completely thawed out (usually in April). You can not leave planting at a later date - if the leaves have time to blossom, the tree will not take root.
Preparing for landing
Good soil preparation is the key to successful planting. From the selected area, all weeds should be eliminated in advance by digging up the soil (perennial weeds are destroyed by bunk loosening). It is possible in advance (0.5–1 year prior to planting) to insert 3-4 buckets of organic fertilizers and 300–400 g of a mixture of phosphorus and potash compounds. If the soil is acidic, use crushed chalk or dolomite (400–500 g / m 2).
At least a couple of weeks before landing (the best option is in the fall), a landing pit should be ready. In size it should be sufficient for free placement of the root system of the tree. In fact, the larger the pit, the better, but 50–60 cm depth and 80–100 cm diameter is considered sufficient for a cherry. In the process of digging the pit, do not forget to lay the upper fertile soil layer in a separate pile. Align the walls of the pit, loosen the bottom to a depth of 4–5 cm. The support peg deepens into the center by 20 cm. Its length should correspond to the size of the seedling (after planting, the peg should reach the lower branch). Pour around the peg a mixture of topsoil, two or three buckets of manure or compost, 400–500 g of ash and 100 g of double superphosphate.
Look again at the roots and branches of the seedling, cut off the dried and broken branches and roots. If the seedling has dried, put it in water for 20-24 hours.
Step-by-step landing sequence:
- Dip the roots in the clay chatter (can be supplemented with growth stimulants).
- Place the tree on a mound of soil, spread the roots along its surface. You can pre-pour into a hole 1–2 buckets of water and plant in the dirt - this gives good results.
- Cover the roots with the earth in layers, crushing each layer and observing the filling of the gaps between the roots. To improve the fit of the soil to the roots, you can gradually add water. Sapling must maintain a strictly vertical position.
- When the pit is full, tamp the soil around the trunk with your foot.
- Tie the seedling trunk to the support cola with a strip of fabric.
- Raise around the trunk (radius 30–40 cm) earthen roller. Pour into the resulting well 2–3 buckets of water.
Until the cherry tree grows stronger, the soil under it should be regularly loosened and free from weeds. The depth of loosening should be such as not to damage the roots (8–10 cm at the trunk and twice as much at the border of the trunk circle). For the safety of the tree is better to use forks. Loosening should be carried out after irrigation so that a soil crust does not form, followed by mulching.
After the tree has entered full fruiting (5–7 years after planting), you can begin to sow between rows with lawn mixture. It is useful to add clover seeds to the mix, which enriches the soil with nitrogen. Grass should be mowed regularly, but mowed hay can be left in place instead of mulch. Remember that there should be a strip of clean soil 35–40 cm wide near the trunk itself.
The young tree in the first year should be watered about once every 8–10 days. Взрослое дерево не нуждается в столь частом поливе –достаточно 4–6 раз за сезон из расчёта 15–40 л воды на 1 дерево (количество воды увеличивается с возрастом вишни). При жаркой и засушливой погоде число поливов можно увеличить. Особенно важно обеспечить увлажнение почвы в период завязывания и созревания плодов (июнь-июль). В августе (если погода не слишком сухая) поливы следует прекратить, а в конце сентября провести предзимний влагозарядковый полив.
Обрезку надо проводить в марте — апреле, до раскрытия почек, или осенью после опадения листьев.
Pruning cherries can be formative, thinning and sanitary.
The first pruning is carried out immediately after planting, when the tree is shortened by 1/3. To form a cherry can be in bushy or stam form. Cherry Zhukovskaya is usually grown shtambovoy, in the form of a tree, although if desired, you can cultivate it in the form of a fan (for example, in case of lack of space). The height of the trunk should be 40–45 cm.
Tree cherry is usually formed by a sparse-tiered pattern consisting of 6–8 skeletal branches arranged in tiers. When the tree reaches a height of 2.5–3 m, it is desirable to trim the center conductor to the side branch.
In young cherries, young shoots should not be cut off, but if their growth is too intense (growth length is more than 50 cm), they should be shortened by 1/3 of the length.
After the formation of the skeleton is completed, the cherry needs only regular thinning, during which shoots that grow vertically or thicken the crown are cut into the ring. Pruning should be carried out no more often than once every 3 years, and should not be cut off too much wood. If necessary, a strong thinning is recommended to carry it out in several stages (in different years).
Cherry prone to the formation of root shoots. It should be cut completely 3-4 times over the summer so as not to weaken the mother tree.
In 15–18 years after planting, the growth of branches weakens. If its value is less than 15 cm per year, rejuvenating pruning should be carried out - shorten the main branches by 1/3 of the length.
Sanitary pruning to remove dried or diseased shoots is carried out as needed, sometimes even in summer. Sections must be processed with a garden bar.
If the cherry bloom in the first year, you need to remove all the flowers.
Cherries begin to fertilize with 2-3 years after planting. Top dressing can be root and not root (spraying of leaves).
In the spring, the tree is fed with nitrogen fertilizers: saltpeter solution (1:50) is applied before flowering and the tree trunks are watered (at a rate of 30 g / m 2 saltpeter). In the summer, in the middle of June, it is useful to conduct foliar feeding with potassium-phosphorus salts (ammonium phosphate with magnesium sulphate 2%, with a nitroammophos).
In autumn, in September, they bring the main part of fertilizers: 12–15 kg of compost or manure and 150–200 g / m 2 of ash, 2 tablespoons of superphosphate. Nutrients are scattered in a wheel circle and buried at a depth of 10–15 cm. Superphosphate can be applied as a solution mixed with potassium chloride.
Preparing for the winter
Zhukovskaya has a fairly high frost resistance. However, additional security measures will not harm. It is advisable to stick the stem around the trunk with a thick layer of shavings or peat, and wrap the trunk, trunk and main branches with spruce, fiberglass or sackcloth soaked with tar. This will protect the tree not only from frost, but also from rodents. Wood insulation is usually done at the end of October.
Table: cherry pests and control
- Autumn deeply dig the ground with a pass to eliminate the stage of wintering pests.
- Treat with insecticides in late May - early June (Iskra, Karate, Inta-Vir).
- For prophylaxis, spray urea (3% solution) before beginning flowering (in April), and then again in a month.
- If an infection has occurred, use insecticides: before flowering, Ditox; at the end of flowering, Lepidocide. Repeat spraying 10–14 days until the pests disappear completely.
- Provide proper tree care to improve resilience.
- Before flowering, treat with a solution of Karbofos (20 g per bucket of water) or Phosphamide (0.2%).
Table: cherry diseases and their treatment
- Carefully remove diseased fruits, cut diseased branches with a section of healthy wood. All sources of the disease burn.
- Spray on the green cone with a solution of ferrous sulfate (0.15 kg per 5 liters of water), or in the fall - Bordeaux mixture (3%).
- Before starting flowering or immediately after its completion, treat with chlorine dioxide (15–20 ml per 5 l of water).
Harvesting, storage and use
Cherry begins to ripen depending on the weather in late July - early August. Maturation occurs in unison. The berries are well attached to the stalks and almost do not crumble even at full ripeness. This makes the variety suitable for mechanized harvesting.
In the backyard, the cherries are harvested by hand, plucking the berries along with the stem. Being collected without a stem, cherries are practically not stored and must be immediately processed.
Harvesting should be carried out in dry weather, preferably in the early morning (in this case, the berries tolerate transportation). The container for the collection and storage of berries should be dry and clean.
Due to the high juiciness of the pulp, the cherry is stored for a very short time - full-fledged freshness lasts only 3-5 days in the fridge (maximum storage time is 6-8 days). The shelf life can be increased to 15–16 days, if you pick the berries slightly unripe and immediately hide in a cool place at a temperature of +5 o C.
Due to the pleasant taste, Zhukovskaya cherry is consumed mostly in fresh form. Homemade preparations (jam, compotes, wine) from it also turn out very high quality. For long-term storage of cherries can be dried or frozen.
If there is Zhukovskaya in the garden, Morozovka, Kharitonovskaya, Turgenevskaya will go to her (pollinating) badly, these varieties are not bad and because of their winter hardiness ...
In Volgograd, “old” cherry varieties are popular: Zhukovskaya, Turgenevskaya, Chernokorka, Shokoladnitsa, Lyubskaya, etc. Varieties, of course, proven and reliable. But I did not take them to the new site. Well, as if tired. We all always raised, twisted, ate them. Yes, and there are already varieties with berries that are larger and tastier. However, I will note the pluses, minuses and the main characteristics of some of the popular varieties that are important for me: Zhukovskaya is a medium-grown tree. Beautiful as all the cherries. Berries are medium in size (gram 4 each), sometimes larger. But the bone is big. Productivity is not great, but good. 1-2 buckets from adult trees are usually removed. Maybe someone more - did not come across. Good disease resistance. But the average winter hardiness. Severe winter can beat flower buds. This cherry is self-infertile, i.e. next to it is desirable to plant a pollinator.
Winnie the Pooh
Zhukovskaya - sweet, dark red, in size as Youth. I did not like the fact that berries are showered and covered with dark spots. (Maybe she was sick of me)
I live near Smolensk. We have a good nursery_ branch of the Crimean op. station. For 6 years I have been involved in gardening with varying success. Planting cherries Zhukovskaya, Orlitsa, Dessert Morozova, Kharitonovskaya, wrote 3 varieties from Chelyabinsk. Conclusion: Chelyabinsk sour, are affected by coccomycosis, but bear fruit early and abundantly. Zhukovskaya and Dessert Morozova are very ill for me, maybe, in my opinion, Zhukovskaya bitter taste bitter.
Cherries: Zhukovskaya, Black Large, Chocolate Girl, Turgenevka. There are no problems with cherries every year.
Sergey Khudyakov, Rossosh Voronezh
Cherry Zhukovskaya known for a long time, but does not lose its popularity due to the excellent quality of the fruit, yield and resistance to fungal diseases. With minimal care, the owners are guaranteed 12-15 kg of tasty and beautiful black and red fruits.
The Zhukovskaya variety needs a minimum of four irrigations per season:
- during flowering,
- in the process of fruit ripening,
- after completion of leaf fall,
- in the second half of autumn.
Watering takes place in accordance with the crown parameter of the Zhukovskaya plant. With each procedure, you must spend at least 40-50 liters. Irrigation is carried out in two ways:
- Adding water to the grooves, the first of which is dug at a distance of 0.5 m from the trunk, and the second after another 50 cm. When moisture is completely absorbed by these grooves, they mulch with organic materials (humus, straw, sawdust, peat),
- With the help of drip irrigation systems, which are arranged in a spiral around the plant so that a distance of 0.3 m is kept between smaller and larger diameters. The dropper step is made equal to 25-30 cm, which will allow to fully cover the entire area of the root system.
When the moisture is fully absorbed, they loosen the stalk sector to a depth of about 10 cm. In the autumn, this distance is increased to 15-20 cm.
When preparing the planting hole in accordance with all recommendations, Zhukovskaya will not need additional feeding in the first years of cultivation. Only 2 years after the planting of a variety in open ground should one begin to use fertilizers.
First the procedure is carried out in the spring, during the flowering period and immediately after its completion (tentatively from the last days of April to mid-May). During the flowering ammonium nitrate is used, which is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:50. Also on the grade allowed to use ammonium nitrate, 200 g of which is diluted with 10 liters of water. When Zhukovskaya ottsvetet, it is sprayed with nitroammofoskoy (1: 200). Fertilizer consumption is 30 liters per plant.
In the second- the third decade of June is recommended to conduct foliar feeding Zhukovskaya. For this, it is desirable to apply a 2% solution of magnesium sulphate.
In the first half of autumn it is necessary to feed a variety of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. To this end, the following fertilizers are diluted in 10 liters of water per 1 m2 of the tree-trunk sector:
- granulated superphosphate - 40 g,
- potassium chloride - 20 g
During the digging on 1 m2 of soil contribute 120-150 g of wood ash. Also under the variety Zhukovskaya is recommended to make about 10 kg of semi-reabsorbed manure.
This procedure is carried out either in the first half of spring, or in the fall, after the cessation of leaf fall. Like all varieties of cherries, Zhukovskaya does not accept strong pruning and root formation.
When planting, it is recommended to leave no more than 6-8 main branches on a two-year seedling of a variety. The formation of a bole is started at a height of about 40 cm from the ground level. All increments below this level are removed. On the one-year-old seedling, shoots that are shorter than 50 cm are shortened by a third. The center conductor is also cut so that about 10-15 cm remains until the last lateral shoot.
With 2 years of life, plants are subject to removal:
- branches that grow deep into and down, thereby thickening the crown,
- sick, withered, mechanically injured shoots,
- skeletal shoots in the place where the growth of lateral growth ceased,
- center conductor if its length exceeds 3-3.5 m.
When the growth of most shoots will not exceed 15 cm, it is time to move on to the rejuvenating pruning of the plant. To do this, every three years it is necessary to trim the skeletal branches by a third.
Additional Information: Each cut must be treated with garden pitch.
During the growing season it is recommended to carry out timely weeding plantings in order to remove weeds. This procedure is important even for adults, fully formed plants. Neglect of weed removal is fraught with a decrease in yield and fruit quality.
In the process of cultivation Zhukovskaya usually have to resort to the use of chemical plant protection products. The variety is resistant to coccomycosis and ring spot, but is affected by diseases such as:
- monilioz (especially if the disease is epiphytotic),
- root cancer.
Among the pests the most dangerous for Zhukovskaya are:
To combat them, apply the appropriate fungicides and insecticides.
Features of harvesting
Like most varieties of cherries, Zhukovskaya begins to form fruits for the 4-5th year after planting in open ground. Maturation occurs closer to mid-July. If the summer period was wet and cold, then this process shifts by 2-3 weeks. Fruits are usually kept tightly on the shoots and are not susceptible to fall. Fruit picking is carried out in one step.
When harvesting is not recommended to tear off the stem. Cherry is placed in a special container with a layer of not more than 5 cm in thickness. Capacities for harvest should be shallow and dried.
Additional Information: In storage tanks it is recommended to make technological openings for better ventilation.
Fruit storage occurs in rooms at about 90% air humidity and a temperature of no more than 8-10C. In such conditions, the cherry is stored for one and a half to two days. When placed in a refrigerator, the storage period is extended to 20 days.
For the beginning of the mass flowering of the cherry, it is necessary that about two weeks the average daily air temperature should not be below 10 ° C. In the middle zone, flowering usually begins in mid-May and lasts 7–10 days. If during this period the temperature drops to 8. 12 ° C, then the pollen partially loses its ability to fertilize. As a result, mass abating of unfertilized flowers and underdeveloped fruits is possible.
Early ripening varieties of cherries in the middle lane ripen in 32–42 days, medium ones in 52–57, late ripening in 62–64 days. The crop on the plot is cleaned in two or three steps. For fresh consumption, fruits are removed at full maturity, for canning - 3–5 days earlier, when the flesh is denser. For transportation and non-durable storage of fruits, it is better to cut it with a scissors with a stem half the length. In a refrigerator at 0 ° C, cherries can be stored for a week.
Unfortunately, the cherry is not winter-hardy. From fruit crops, it is the most demanding of light. It does not tolerate long-term over-wetting of the soil and stagnant waters: the roots in these conditions develop weakly and gradually die off.
Description of Zhukovskaya variety cherry
The history of the hybrid has been around for several decades. Zhukovskaya Cherry was bred by E. N. Kharitonova and S. V. Zhukov at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute by free pollination based on Michurin varieties. Since 1947, it has been recommended for cultivation in the Lower Volga, Central Chernozem, Middle Volga and Central regions.
Cherry Zhukovskaya - a popular variety in our gardens
Characteristic features of this cherry can be reduced to the following aspects:
- The tree is medium-sized, grows up to 2–3 m. It has a rounded, sprawling, moderately leafy crown. Shoots slightly curved, covered with red-brown bark. Buds small, pointed, pubescence absent.
- The leaves are large, elongated, dark green color. Along the edges of small teeth. The surface of the sheet plate is shiny, slightly concave, reminiscent of a boat.
- Petioles of medium thickness, rather long, without pubescence, colored purple.
- In the inflorescences 5 large white flowers form, the diameter of which reaches 3 cm.
- Petals are rounded, large size. Calyx green color, shaped like a cone.
- Most of the berries ripen on the bouquet branches, a small amount is tied to last year's growth.
- The tree bears fruit for up to 15 years, and its life expectancy is 15–20 years.
- The berries are large, their mass reaches 4-7 g. They have an oval shape. The bases of the fruits are round, the tops are elongated. The skin, pulp and juice are dark maroon. The stone is quite large, taking 7.7% of the weight of the berry. The flesh is juicy, has a dense structure.
- The fruits have a balanced sweet-sour taste, a bit like sweet cherry. The Zhukovskaya variety received the highest tasting mark - 5 points out of 5.
How to plant a cherry in the ground?
Zhukovskaya is not able to self-pollinate, so harvesting is impossible without the presence of other cherries on the site. A good choice is Vladimirskaya, consumer goods black, Lyubskaya, Youth, Griot Ostheims and Apukhtinskaya. It is desirable to have at the same time on the site 3-4 trees.
The best time to land Zhukovskaya - April
The best time to land Zhukovskaya is April. In the warm southern regions, the procedure can be carried out in the fall, during September or in the first decade of October.
Important! Given the low frost resistance of this variety, it is better to choose the spring period for planting in central Russia, so the plant will have time to get stronger before the cold season.
To find a suitable place for a cherry, you need to take into account the needs of this culture:
- Absence in the chosen place of a shadow and cold drafts.
- Sandy or chernozem soil with a neutral acidity index. Clay soils should be avoided, they are absolutely not suitable for this culture.
- The soil does not resemble a swamp. Cherries do not like flooded areas, so if the groundwater in the selected location comes closer than 1.5 m to the surface, look for another option. Also not the best choice - the lowlands, in which the spring is long melt water.
Seedlings must meet certain quality criteria.
When choosing planting material should pay attention to the state of the plant:
- The seedling should not have mechanical damage, growths or ulcers on the bark. To the touch it should be smooth and supple, not rough and shriveled.
- Suitable for planting one or two year old plants with a height of 1–1.2 m with a root length of at least 20 cm.
- It is recommended to buy cherries in the fall, the choice at this time is quite wide, unlike spring.
In the winter the tree is instilled. Для этого выбирают затенённый участок, подготавливают яму глубиной до 30 см, размещают растение в наклонённом положении, засыпают корни и часть ствола землёй. Извлекают саженец перед посадкой.
Высадка вишни мало чем отличается от аналогичной процедуры, проводимой для других плодовых деревьев
Процесс высадки дерева происходит в такой последовательности:
- Для вишни выкапывают яму глубиной 60 см и шириной 80 см. Это необходимо делать заблаговременно. If the procedure is planned for spring - at the end of autumn, when planting cherries before winter - for 2-3 weeks.
- The removed soil (top 15–20 cm) is mixed with 5 kg of humus, 60 g of simple superphosphate and 40 g of potassium chloride.
- In the center of the recess set wooden stake. At the bottom pour a nutritional composition in the form of a mound, on which the plant is then placed. Be careful not to dig the root neck in the process. It should be located 5-6 cm above the soil level.
- Pre-seedling carefully inspect. If the roots are damaged or dry, they should be cut off.
- The plant is set in a hole and covered with prepared soil. It is necessary to ensure that the trunk was located in a vertical position.
- Then the ground around the cherry slightly compacted. At a distance of 30 cm from the trunk form a low roller and watered the tree with two buckets of water.
- The tree trunk is mulched with compost or sawdust in a layer of 2–3 cm. This will prevent cracking of the soil and evaporation of moisture.
- The seedling is not too tightly tied to the support, so that it remains possible to settle down a little with the ground.
Cherry growing is a relatively simple procedure if you learn all the rules of plant care in advance. The maximum possible yield can be obtained only with the right agricultural technology.
Cherry is poured over the season four times:
- in the flowering process,
- at the stage of the formation of berries,
- after the leaves fall,
- in the fall (until October 20).
For cherry drip irrigation is suitable or the use of furrows
Moisturize the tree around the perimeter of its crown. With each irrigation, in addition to water recharge, they spend 40-50 liters of water. Last time - about 70 liters.
You can water the cherry in two ways:
- Pour water into the grooves. The first one is dug at a distance of 50 cm from the trunk, and the second - after another 50 cm from the dimple. Water is poured into these furrows, and when it is completely absorbed, the ground is mulched with organic material (sawdust, humus, peat, straw).
- Use drip irrigation systems. The tape is placed around the trunk in a spiral-like position, while maintaining a distance of 30 cm between the larger and smaller diameter. The dropper spacing should also correspond to 20-30 cm. This method allows you to cover the entire root area.
After water absorption, the trunk circle is loosened to a depth of about 10 cm.. In the fall (in the last decade of September or early October) it is increased to 15–20 cm.
Important! Pristvolny site should be regularly cleaned from weeds that interfere with the full nutrition of the tree. Neglecting weeding can lead to a decrease in the quality of cherries and low yields.
If the landing pit was prepared in compliance with all the recommendations, the next year the cherry does not need additional dressing.
Fertilization is an essential step in tree care.
Top dressing starts to make only 2 years after disembarkation:
- In the spring the plant is fertilized during flowering and immediately after it. In the first case, the solution is based on nitrate, which is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:50. Slaked lime can also be used (200 g per 10 liters).
- After flowering, a solution of Nitroammofoski (1: 200) is introduced under the cherry. The consumption of each composition is 30 liters per tree.
- In the summer, in the second half of June, foliar feeding is carried out. The plant is sprayed with a 2% solution of magnesium sulphate.
- At the end of September, cherries are fertilized with a composition of 40 g of granulated superphosphate, 20 g of potassium chloride and 10 liters of water per 1 m 2 of the stem area.
- When digging into the ground add wood ash (120-150 g per 1 m 2). Also under the cherry make 10 kg of rotted manure.
In the spring (March or the first half of April), as well as in the fall (after the foliage falls), pruning is carried out. The first time the procedure is performed when disembarking. For two-year saplings it consists in the following:
- 7–8 main shoots are left on the tree. Shtamb form at a height of 40 cm from the soil.
- All increments that are below this level are removed.
In an annual sapling, branches longer than 50 cm are pruned to one third. The center conductor is shortened so that until the last of the lateral shoots 10–15 cm are left.
Pruning the crown will allow the tree to grow properly, and the gardener will make it easier to care for.
From the second year they cut:
- skeletal shoots in the place where the growth of lateral growth stops,
- crown thickening branches growing down and deep down (they are removed at the ring level),
- center conductor as soon as its height exceeds 3–3.5 m (up to this level).
In the fall pruning is carried out for sanitary and prophylactic purposes. Diseased and dried shoots are removed from the tree.
When the growth of branches will not exceed 15 cm, you should proceed to the rejuvenating pruning of cherries. It consists in shortening the skeletal shoots by a third every three years. Slices need to be processed with garden pitch.