Common Hazel is a shrub known as Hazel, or Hazelnut. This fruiting plant is popular with gardeners. And this is not surprising, because culture is unpretentious. In addition, every year gives a rich harvest of tasty and healthy nuts. How to care for the plant, you will learn from this material.
Common Hazel is a bright representative of the Birch family. In its natural environment, the plant is found in the forests of Southern Europe, Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, Belarus, central Russia and Cyprus. The plant is a long-lived, and can grow in one place for 70 years.
Shrub reaches 7 meters in height and 4 meters in diameter. Crohn culture spherical or ovate with a cone-shaped tip. The leaves are wide, round with small notches along the edges.
Monoecious and same-sex flowers. Male inflorescences develop in autumn and by the spring turn into long earrings in the shape of a cylinder. Female buds appear in late March - early April. After flowering, a fruit is formed - a nut up to 2 cm in diameter. It ripens in late summer - early fall.
Breeders bred a lot of varieties of hazel. Such varieties are popular:
- Academician Yablokov.
- Tambov early.
Each of these varieties will become a gardener's pride. In addition, their cultivation does not need to spend a lot of time and effort. The main thing is to provide the hazel with comfortable conditions, and it will surely please with the harvest.
For culture, choose a lit area. But at the same time make sure that the hazelnut was protected from drafts and gusts of wind.
The best place for a nut will be the area near the western or southern wall of the building. At the same time, keep a distance between buildings and hazel in 4-5 meters. Keep the same distance from the trees.
Common hazel, the photo of which is presented above, does not tolerate stagnant moisture at the roots. Therefore, in any case, do not plant it in a valley or in wetlands. It is desirable that the groundwater flowed at a depth of 1.5 meters from the surface.
As for the soil, light, air-permeable and fertile soils with a slightly acid or neutral reaction are preferable for the culture.
How to choose a sapling
For planting choose strong shrubs with 3-4 shoots. The diameter of the branches should reach 1-1.5 cm. Pay attention to the roots of the culture. Their length should be about 50 cm.
Keep in mind that for normal pollination in one area should be planted at least three shrubs, and preferably different varieties.
Planting Common Hazel
Shrubs need to be planted in the late autumn 2-3 weeks before the steady cold. But a month before planting, be sure to prepare the site. To do this, dig up the soil and make pits under the plants. Then the earth will have time to settle and condense.
If the soil is fertile, there will be enough holes with a diameter and a depth of 50 cm. In depleted soil make holes with dimensions of 80 x 80 cm. Between shrubs, keep a distance of 4–5 meters. The distance between the rows is 6 meters.
For planting, mix the excavated soil with 15 kg of rotted manure. Add to the ground 2 cups of wood ash or 200 g of superphosphate.
So, how to plant ordinary hazel:
- Cut the roots of seedlings to a length of 25 cm, and then immerse them in a clay dung trap.
- Form a hill out of the ground in the center of the depression and place a shrub on it.
- Pour the seedling with soil mixture, while ensuring that the root neck is located 5 cm above ground level.
- Lightly tamp the soil, hammer in the peg and tie the plant to it.
- Water the planting 3-5 buckets of water.
- After moisture is absorbed, mulch the stem of the shrub with a 3-5 cm layer of rotten sawdust, peat, or humus.
If you do not have time to plant hazel in the fall, then transfer the event to the early spring. But still collect pits for culture before the cold weather begins. During the winter, the soil is saturated with moisture and well compacted. Spring planting is no different from autumn. Although at first it is desirable pritenyat seedlings from the bright sun.
Regular moistening of seedlings is the main rule of care. Bream ordinary after planting it is desirable to water for the second week. Indeed, because of the lack of moisture, flower buds are poorly formed, which will further lead to a decrease in crop yield.
In spring and summer, it is enough to water the plant once a month. But in dry and hot weather, moisture should be increased. For each adult bush for one watering, use 6-8 buckets of water. At the same time, moisten the plant in portions, so that moisture is absorbed and not accumulated on the surface.
In autumn, common willow has enough precipitation. But if the season turned out to be dry, then watering 1-2 times the shrub would be superfluous.
On the next day after moistening or rain, be sure to loosen the soil in the near-bore circle. Otherwise, a dense crust is formed, which will block the access of air to the roots of the culture.
This event will save you from most problems. After all, the mulch will not allow the weeds to grow near the bush, and you will not need to constantly weed a seedling. In addition, it will help retain moisture in the soil. For mulch, use peat or rotted straw.
Sow mustard, oats or lupins near the bush. Mow the grass when it grows up. But do not remove the straw, and leave it under culture. Then you kill the "two birds with one stone" - the dried grass will share nutrients, besides, it will become a good mulch for the plant.
In spring, common hazel (hazelnut) needs nitrogen fertilizers. Therefore, as soon as the buds swell, add 20–30 g of ammonium nitrate or urea into the stem of the shrub.
Once every 2-3 years, it is advisable to feed the adult hazelnut with phosphorus and potassium. To do this, should be made under each bush:
- manure - 3-4 kg
- superphosphate - 50 g,
- potassium salt - 20–30 g.
Young seedlings in a year feed with organic matter. To do this, under each bush make 10 kg of rotted manure or compost.
Start this event preferably in the winter. But some gardeners prefer to cut hazel in the spring, at a late stage of flowering. It is believed that this improves the pollination of the crop and further increases the yield.
During pruning, remove broken, dried or damaged shoots. For normal yield, a shrub grabs 10 strong twigs growing in different directions. Therefore, cut out the excess and twisted shoots so that the middle of the bush does not thicken.
For adult cultures aged 18–20 years, it is desirable to carry out anti-aging pruning. Annually cut 2-3 old trunks, but leave as many root suckers growing closer to the center of the plant. In addition, shorten new skeletal branches. This stimulates the growth of lateral shoots.
Collect nuts of common hazel should be in late August - early September. Determine the ripeness of hazelnuts as a wrapper. It should turn yellow or brown, and the fruit itself is easily removed from the leaves.
After harvesting, spread the nuts in a thin layer in a well-ventilated area to dry. After 4-5 days, clean the fruit from the remnants of the wrapper and store in a cool dry place.
Preparing for the winter
Adult shrubs are cold-resistant and calmly endure the cold period. But youngsters up to 4-6 years old need to make shelter for the winter. To do this, cover the shrubs with lutrasil. In addition, you can bend the plants to the ground and throw them with spruce branches, and then with a layer of snow. Then the shoots will not freeze.
It is possible to propagate common hazel in several ways. The most popular with gardeners such methods of breeding hazelnuts:
- Horizontal layering. Embark on this event in early spring or late autumn. Choose one-year shoots, lay them in the furrows 10-15 cm deep. Secure the twigs, but do not cover them with earth. Do not forget to shorten the top. Buds otvodka give vertical shoots that need to spud up to the middle height. After 1-2 years, roots are formed on the twigs, and they can be transplanted to a separate section.
- Green cuttings. For breeding, use a young growth of 1-2 years of age. Proceed to grafting in early to mid summer. Cut strong shoots with 2–3 buds and root them in a mixture of peat and sand. Planting provide plenty of watering, while not only moisten the soil, but also the leaves of the shoots.
- Root shoots. This method is suitable for shrubs from the age of three years. For reproduction, separate part of the rhizome from the mother plant and place it in the greenhouse. Provide frequent watering and ventilation of the seedling. When the plant is strong, take shelter. Replant hazel to a permanent place in 1-2 years.
- The division of the bush. Dig an adult hazel and divide it into pieces. At the same time, make sure that each seedling has a root length of 15–20 cm. Treat the sections with crushed charcoal and plant the plants into prepared pits.
Diseases and pests
Hazel is endowed with a strong immunity, but in some cases gardeners have to deal with such diseases:
- Mealy dew. The symptom of the disease is the appearance of light bloom on the leaves and shoots of the shrub. Later it condenses and turns brown. The affected areas weaken and eventually die.
- Rust. On the upper part of the foliage are formed dark-red tubercles. And on the underside, they take the form of pustules of an oval or round shape. As the disease progresses, the affected areas turn into bands. Foliage culture turns yellow and falls.
At the first signs of illness, treat the shrub with fungicides. Bordeaux liquid and copper sulphate perfectly cope with these diseases. But it is much easier to prevent the occurrence of diseases than to fight them. Therefore, provide hazelnuts with good care and carry out all agrotechnical measures, and then you will have no problems with culture.
Hazel affects insects much more often. Often gardeners have to deal with such parasites:
- kidney mite,
- nut weevil
- hazelnut barbel,
- nut leaf beetle.
If these pests are found on the hazel, then spread a film under the shrub and try to shake off the insects. Then do not forget to burn the parasites away from the culture. If the pest invasion could not be stopped, then treat the shrub with insecticide. Actellic, Chlorofos and Karbofos preparations help insects well.
A novice gardener will also be able to grow a hazel tree on the garden plot, because the non-capricious character and vitality are qualities for which common hazel is valued. Planting and caring for a plant does not take much of your time and effort. And if you provide a shrub with a minimum of attention, he will definitely thank the crop of tasty nuts.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Landing
- 3.1. When to plant
- 3.2. Planting in the fall
- 3.3. How to plant in spring
- 4. Care
- 4.1. How to care
- 4.2. Watering
- 4.3. Top dressing
- 4.4. Care during flowering
- 4.5. Breeding
- 4.6. Wintering
- 5. Trimming
- 5.1. When to trim
- 5.2. How to trim
- 6. Pests and diseases
- 6.1. Pests
- 6.2. Diseases
- 6.3. Treatment
- 7. Types and varieties
- 8. Properties: harm and benefit
- 8.1. Beneficial features
- 8.2. Contraindications
Planting and care for hazel (in short)
- Landing: in the spring, before the start of sap flow, and in the fall, 2-3 weeks before a steady cooling.
- Bloom: at the end of March or at the beginning of April.
- Lighting: bright light, direct or diffused, at a distance of at least 4-5 m from other trees.
- The soil: rich in humus, light, friable, with a slightly acid or neutral reaction.
- Watering: first watering - one week after planting. During the season, you need to spend 5-6 waterings - about once a month, spending on each adult bush 6-8 buckets of water. In dry summers, you can water more often and more abundantly, and in the rainy season do not water at all.
- Top dressing: In the spring, as soon as the buds swell, and in July, nitrogen fertilizer is applied to the soil for simultaneous ripening of the soil, and in the autumn the hazel is fertilized with potassium and phosphorous. It is better to feed young animals with organic matter - every 2-3 years to make 10 kg of compost or rotted manure under each bush.
- Breeding: seeds, scions, layering, cuttings, grafting and dividing the bush.
- Pruning: in spring, late blooming, to help the plant with pollination. Anti-aging pruning is carried out when the shrub reaches the age of eighteen, and its productivity drops. Do not forget to cut unnecessary basal shoots.
- Pests: nut weevil, leaf beetle and barbel, as well as aphid and bud mite.
- Diseases: affected by rust, rot of the branches and powdery mildew.
Hazel - a tree or shrub.
Hazel can reach a height of 7 m. It has a spherical or ovoid crown with a cone-shaped tip. The leaves of hazel are large, broadly or round, with notched edges. Mono-sex and monoecious flowers: male flowers develop in autumn and form thick cylindrical earrings on short sprigs. In spring, they bloom before the leaves appear. Female flowers form bud-like inflorescences and are located in two in the axils of the bracts. Hazel blooms in late March or early April and gives a huge amount of pollen, which is the main food of bees after wintering. Blooming hazel is decorated with flowers and golden earrings. Hazelnut is a small (about 2 cm in diameter) spherical yellow-brown single-seed walnut surrounded by a notched tubular cover (plyus) and a woody pericarp. Nuts ripen in August.
Hazel nut prefers a temperate and subtropical climate. His plantations can be seen in southern Europe, Cyprus, Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Ukraine and central Russia. Unfortunately, in amateur gardens hazel can still be found not as often as other fruit bushes - bird cherry, sea buckthorn, dog rose, hawthorn, actinidia and others.
When plant hazel.
Hazel planting is carried out in the spring, before the start of sap flow, and in the fall, 2-3 weeks before the beginning of stable cold weather, but autumn planting is preferable to spring. Where to plant hazel? Find in your garden a moderately lighted area, protected from drafts, in which the groundwater does not lie higher than one and a half meters from the surface, and it is better if this place is not far from the western or southern wall of the building. Do not plant hazel in places where meltwater accumulates in the spring. The nearest large trees should be located at a distance of 4-5 m from the forest, since the optimum nutritional area of hazel is from 16 to 25 m². As for the composition of the soil, poor, heavy, loamy or marshy soils are not suitable for hazelnut. The best soil for hazelnut is humus-rich light and loose soil with a neutral or slightly acidic reaction. If you are going to plant several seedlings, then before preparing the pits, make a deep digging area.
Planting hazel in the fall.
For planting choose saplings of hazel without leaves, with 3-4 strong shoots with a diameter of at least 1-1.5 cm, with a well-developed root system. The length of the roots should be at least 50 cm, but before planting they are cut to 25 cm. If you are going to plant several bushes, place them at a distance of 4-5 m from each other in a row with row spacing of about 6 m.
Prepare planting pits for the month, so that the soil in them had time to settle and condense. If the soil at the site is fertile, then a hole with a depth and diameter of 50 cm will be sufficient. In poor soil, the depth and diameter of the hole should be at least 80 cm. Before planting, fill the hole with a fertile mixture - soil from the top layer mixed with 15 kg of rotted manure and two glasses of wood ash or 200 g of superphosphate. Not bad to throw into the pit several handfuls of land from under the forest hazel.
In the center of the pit form a hill, set on it a sapling, the root system of which before planting is immersed in a clay dung trap. The seedling must be positioned so that the root neck after seeding is 5 cm above ground level. The pit is filled up, the surface is tamped down, a stake is driven in next to it and the seedling is tied to it, after which the plant is watered abundantly, spending from 3 to 5 buckets of water, regardless of In addition, in a dry or wet ground you planted a plant. When water is absorbed, grumble the tree circle with a layer of sawdust, humus or peat 3-5 cm thick.
How to plant hazel in the spring.
The spring planting of hazel is performed according to the same procedure, however, it is advisable to dig holes from the autumn, so that during the winter the soil is saturated with moisture and thickened. For guaranteed pollination hazel need to plant on the site at least three bushes, and it is desirable that they were not of one variety. And do not forget to add a few handfuls of land from the forest hazel to the pit when it is planted: it contains silky fungi. At first, the seedlings are better to shade from the bright spring sun.
How to care for hazel.
Planting and caring for hazel is not laborious, and if you sow mustard, lupine or vetch with oats in the tree near the bush, to use them after cutting as mulch, then you will have even less trouble.You can keep the soil under the hazelnut under the black steam, from time to time loosening it to a depth of 4-7 cm and cleansing from weeds. In addition, you have to fight all the time with the root shoots, and it is better to do it while the offspring is still weak. Each root shoot needs to be dug out and cut off in that place where it departs from a root. The sections on the roots are treated with crushed coal.
Caring for the hazelnut includes watering the plant. Seedlings begin to water in a week after planting. The lack of moisture can adversely affect the formation of flower buds and the ripening of hazel fruits. During the growing season, the soil under the hazelnut should be watered 5-6 times, spending 6-8 buckets on an adult bush. In the dry summer you can moisten the hazel and more often - he loves water very much. But in the rainy season, watering hazel can not remember. On average, hazel water is watered once a month. Water is poured into the near-stem circle in portions so that it does not stand in a puddle, but is absorbed. The next day, after watering or raining, it is advisable to loosen the soil in the circle of a wheel.
Top dressing hazel.
The cultivation of hazel involves the introduction in the stem circle of fertilizers. In the autumn, the hazelnut is fed with potassium and phosphorus: once every 2-3 years, 3-4 kg of manure, 20-30 g of potassium salt and 50 g of superphosphate are added to each bush. In the spring, the hazelnut will need nitrogen fertilizer, for example, ammonium nitrate or urea: as soon as the buds swell, apply 20-30-30 g of fertilizer into the tree circle. Nitrogen top dressing is necessary for hazel and in July for the fruits to ripen at the same time. It is desirable to feed young plants with organic matter in the form of compost or rotted manure - it is enough to make them every 2-3 years in the amount of 10 kg per one bush of hazel.
Caring for hazel during flowering.
An indicator of successful development of hazel is its flowering. When does the hazel blossom? Flowering occurs in April, before the leaves appear on the shrub. When the air temperature rises to 12 ºC, the hazel earrings grow and add 3 cm per day, and the drier the air, the faster they become longer, and when the ear rings reach a length of 10 cm, they become loose and start spreading pollen. This dusting lasts from 4 to 12 days, while female flowers are uncovered within two weeks. Female flowers catch the pollen of male flowers, either from their own or from the neighboring hazel. That is why it is better to grow at least three hazel bushes in one area.
Description of hazel
Common Hazel - it is a multi-trunk long-standing shrub 3-8 m high. The leaves are round, unevenly biconteous along the edge, with pointed ends. Walnut double wrapped, wide open over the nut.
Hazel blooms early in April; fruits ripen in September. Hazel flowers are dioecious, monoecious (male and female are located separately, but on the same plant), small, inconspicuous.
Male filth flowers collected in long pendant earrings. Male inflorescences overwinter fully formed; female inflorescences are usually in the stage of tubercle overgrowth. Hazel begins to bear fruit in the 3-5th year after planting. The fruit is a brownish yellow nut with a dense shell, surrounded by a ply formed by fused bracts. On one stalk 3-6 nuts ripen.
How to grow hazel in the garden
Hazel - cold-resistant, relatively shade-tolerant plant, well developed under the canopy of trees in the forest. However, in the garden plots, the bushes are arranged so that they are as lit as possible, which contributes to an increase in yield.
Plants pollinated. When growing hazel nuts in the garden, it is better to plant several varieties next to it. The soil requires moderately moist, rich in nutrients, with groundwater lying no higher than 1 m from the surface.
To facilitate the care of planting hazel seedlings is best done on a permanent place in the fall. In this case, plants can take root in the summer of next year, as they suffer less from drought. Can be planted in early spring. The planting pattern is 6 × 6 m. The root system of hazel is superficial, so a deep hole is not required for planting. The root collar cannot be covered with earth. After planting, it is necessary to pour plenty of water on the tree trunks. Planted plants are pruned in the spring over 5-6 buds, so that side shoots and root shoots appear.
Caring for plantings of hazel when grown in the garden is weeding and loosening between the rows.
Organic fertilizers are applied under the forest as the main ones in order to improve the composition of the soil. Mineral yield is given in top dressing, usually in the fall, when male flowers are laid, and in the spring when the female blossoms, as well as during planting and a month and a half after it. It is necessary to conduct liming on acid soils.
Note: to maintain high yields and extend the fruiting period can be, if you regularly remove trunks older than 20 years, sick and damaged shoots.
Hazelnuts and hazelnuts are harvested as they mature. They are released from the wrapper and dried at room temperature. Store nuts in cloth bags no more than 1 year.
About 200 species of pests have been recorded on hazelnut. The most common of them are the nut weevil, the bud mite, the hazel gland, false guard, aphids. The most dangerous diseases are gray and fruit rot, powdery mildew, anthracnose.
When caring for common hazel, to protect shrubs from diseases and pests, it is necessary to systematically inspect the bushes and promptly treat them with approved preparations before bud break and after leaf deployment. With a slight degree of damage, pest repellent substances can be used (extracts of tops of tomatoes and potatoes, tobacco infusion, ash).
Useful and decorative properties of hazel
The beneficial properties of wild hazel fruit and its cultivated forms (hazelnuts) are due to the high content of beneficial substances. The cores contain up to 30% of proteins, up to 79.3% of fats, 17% of sugars, vitamins (A, B1, B2, B9, C, D, E, P, K), macro- and microelements (iron, chlorine, zinc, magnesium, potassium, calcium, manganese, sodium, iodine, phosphorus, sulfur). Tannins are present in the shell of the walnut kernel.
The fruits of common hazel are not only a unique food for humans, but also an excellent food for wild and some domestic animals. Walnut oil is the best in taste from vegetable oils, in addition, it is used in the treatment of atherosclerosis, gallstone disease, and hair loss. Hazel seeds are ground with water and get “milk” - a nourishing, dietary product. It is also used in the treatment of pulmonary diseases, febrile states and rheumatism.
Use hazel nuts fresh, dried, roasted (hot). They are used to make cakes, pastries, creams, and various fillings.
Landscape designers appreciated the high decorative properties of hazel. Due to the large dark green foliage, painted in autumn in bright yellow and red colors, the plant looks very impressive.
Decorative forms of common hazel have been created, selected for various characteristics. By leaf color white-mottled, golden, golden-edged. The shape of the leaves - dissected nettle, oak-leaved. The shape of the crown - weeping, and form with twisted branches. Especially popular krasnolistnye varieties and forms of hazel.
Received the name of a bear nut. Tree up to 20 meters high, 8 meters wide. Bark of a bush has gray color and exfoliate by plates. It grows very slowly. In autumn, the leaves turn yellow. The fruits of the tree hazel are divided into sharp slices. Shrub unpretentious, endures drought, adapts to any climate.
It is a shrub with many trunks, has a trunk length of 3 to 7 meters . The bark of hazel is brown, the leaves are rounded, have a dark green color. The fruits are oblong nuts. Shade-tolerant and frost-resistant. Found in Primorsky, Khabarovsk.
The composition and benefits of hazelnut
Hazelnuts, which are called hazel, the most common and favorite types of nuts. Hazelnuts are considered valuable and tasty nuts., several times more nutritious than bread and dairy products.
The bulk of the fetus is formed by fats, one-fifth of proteins and amino acids. The nut contains a huge number of minerals.:
All the listed healing and healing properties fill the body with energy. Hazelnut oil has acids that can protect the heart and blood vessels. For the growth and development of the body, the nut is useful for children, and the elderly to maintain strength and health. In addition, hazelnuts are substances that can cleanse the body, remove toxins. Vitamins, prevent the appearance of cancer cells. Fruits, leaves, bark, roots are used for medicinal purposes. Hazel is a laxative, used for diarrhea. A decoction of the bark of the tree can serve as a remedy for varicose veins.
Hazel oil is widely used as a cosmetic
Hazelnut is widely used in cooking.. Walnut is used in the preparation of various dishes, as well as added to pastries.
Preparations prepared on the basis of hazel are used in cosmetology. Against hair loss, use oil and decoction of nut leaves.
But, along with beneficial substances there are contraindications. It is necessary to eat a limited amount of nuts, otherwise it causes headache and allergic reactions.
Planting and tree care
With proper planting hazel need to choose a free, sunlit place. The tree grows well on any soil, does not like swampy and sandy areas. Before planting, it is necessary to prepare a place that will not flood the saplings when spring comes.
Favorable time for planting fall, but you can plant seedlings in the spring, until the end of April. The distance between the trees with the growth take into account at least five meters. For harvesting, it is necessary to plant three or more, inter-pollinated shrubs..
Before planting, you need to purchase a young sapling, you can dig it in the forest. Prepare a hole by digging it up with a spade, 80 by 80 cm in size and 80 cm deep . Humus, black soil, fertilizer is introduced into each pit and mixed with the ground. Around the seedlings to form a hole and pour water. After the mulching is done with sawdust or grass.
Preparing pit for planting hazel
After planting, a young shrub needs to be watered, weeded, fertilized, treated from pests. After planting young shrubs need to loosen the soil and water, especially in summer in hot weather. Adult tree care does not require much, you need to produce pruning for good fruiting. When buying you need to be careful of seedlings, seedlings, they bear fruit a few years later, the nut is smaller in size. Hazel grows in mixed and coniferous forests, in the steppes, along the rivers. Hazel is widespread in Russia, the Caucasus, Europe, and the Primorsky Territory.
Rules of reproduction and cultivation
There are different ways of reproduction vegetative and seed. Seed method is used for growing seedlings. For sowing, ripe nuts are taken, sown immediately after harvest in September.
Varietal shrubs propagate vegetatively:
- The division of the bushes
During reproduction by layering young shoots bend down and root to the ground, not tearing from the bushes. Everything should be done with care, so as not to harm the kidneys, which will give young shoots.
Rhizome growth the plant appears in the third year after planting the seedlings. One shrub produces over a hundred shoots, and they are used for breeding. Three summer rhizomes are separated along the edges of the bush with an ax, spade or hacksaw. Sprouts have weak roots, they are planted in one hole for 3 pieces. And in nurseries they grow about 2 years to strengthen the root system.
Leshchina multiply and dividing the bush. The uprooted shrub is divided into several parts so that each stump has roots. After planting should be abundant watering, for a good engraftment of the bush. For the third year, these seedlings begin to bear fruit.
In order to propagate by grafting, cuttings are harvested from autumn, and stored in a cool place. The inoculation is done in the spring in the butt, in the split or behind the bark. Better graft vaccination for the cortex. Vaccinations smear with garden pitch and cover with foil. After bud break, the film is removed.
Hazel propagation by grafting
Hazel cuttings rooted in closed ground with high humidity. It is necessary to cut the saplings 10 centimeters long, remove the lower leaves. After that, prepare the composition of sand, peat, soil and humus. Planted cuttings in boxes with wet soil under the film. After 3 weeks, after the appearance of the roots of the film is removed.
Susceptibility to pests and diseases
Susceptibility to diseases and pests and diseases Hazel is rarely exposed. There are many shrub pests:
Damaged fruits caterpillars showered in large quantities. A dangerous pest is the weevil beetle. When spring comes, he eats the leaves, then lay eggs. A larva appears inside the nut, which gnaws out all the contents. In the fight against pests, it is necessary to spray the bushes after flowering with a solution of chlorophos or other drugs. Measures are being taken to clean the foliage and damaged nuts near the tree.
In gardens, it is rarely found lush and beautiful hazel tree, although the shrub is popular. The bush has many values in medicine, and also wood is of particular value in furniture and industrial production.. In addition, the shrub is an object of beauty in any garden, especially during flowering.
For a tree to give a good harvest, you need to know a few secrets.
- The right choice of location. The landing area should be well lit, but protected from the wind. It is desirable that this was a hill. Wood in the summer should have time to ripen. In winter, the kidneys will need to follow. Damage cannot be allowed.
- It is advisable to pick fertile soil. Young plants are demanding for watering.
- In the spring it would be good to add nitrogen fertilizers. In the fall will also need additional feeding. Good use of phosphate fertilizers.
It is necessary to feed the hazel three times:
- In early spring, add a tablespoon of nitroammofoski under each bush.
- Mix ash and potassium salt and add in June 300 grams of the mixture under each tree.
- In July, pour a tablespoon of superphosphate under the seedling.
Mature trees must be pruned. They prune better after pruning.
The common hazel is usually not whimsical. She has a good survival rate, special care is not needed.
Attention should be paid to the hazelnut pests. These include the walnut weevil, aphid, shieldfish and kidney glue. Kernels can devour the caterpillar acorn caterpillars.
In early spring, the bark should be cleaned, in the fall to remove the foliage that has flown around.
Hazel remains known for a long time. Fruits can be roasted, eaten raw and dried. Harvesting is carried out in early September. You can determine the ripeness of the plyus. She becomes brown. Nuts can begin to crumble from the tree. The collected fruits are best dried. As soon as they are dry, the plates are easily separated from the nuts themselves.
Store the harvest required in a dry place. Nuts can be placed in paper bags. Fruit has a good taste for two years. If the nuts are bad to dry, they will begin to mold. Young leaves of hazel are many housewives use for cabbage rolls. For animals harvested branch feed from hazel. Furniture is made from wood. Hazel is considered a valuable material in various industries.
Blooming hazel is considered a good honey plant. During the flowering period around the tree a large number of insects can be observed. There are many bees among them. The aroma of flowers attracts them to her.
Hazelnut and hazelnut
People call hazel hazelnut. Among garden crops it is hazelnut. However, hazelnut and hazelnuts are not the same thing. Trees are considered relatives, as they belong to the same family. Still, hazel is a wild plant, and hazelnuts are cultivated. Another difference is the fruits. In hazelnuts, they are more. By taste, hazel is inferior to hazelnuts. In its composition hazelnut nut contains more fat, protein and various useful substances.
Hazel has an antique origin. Even in ancient times, people starved hunger nuts. Grow it began long ago. However, on the territory of Russia varietal plants appeared only in the twentieth century. And now it is rarely grown in garden plots..
The virtues of hazelnut
Hazel fruits are considered high in calories. Each nucleolus contains carotene, many different vitamins, biotin.
Leshchina still used to decorate landscapes. Its large leaves are not afraid of gas pollution. They have a rich color, which pleases the eyes of others in the summer. In autumn, the foliage becomes bright yellow.
Nuts are indispensable in the food industry. They are used in the perfumery, soap making and paint industry. Even the cake is used in the manufacture of halva.
Wood is in great demand. Из веток лещины делают удочки, обручи для бочек, трости.
Орехи содержат много сахарозы, эфирных масел. Они необходимы для больных сахарным диабетом, атеросклерозом.
Лещину считают хорошим слабительным средством. Она является хорошим жаропонижающим. Растение способно предохранить организм человека от различных болезней.
Hazelnut hazelnut will help nursing mothers during lactation.
Traditional medicine proposes to use for the treatment of the bark, roots, leaves and fruits. Broth leaves can prevent hypertension. When kidney disease is recommended to drink a decoction of the leaves. Infusions on the cortex of hazel help get rid of hemorrhoids, varicose veins.
Description of hazel plant
In the genus Corylus dominated by large shrubs, formed by numerous shoots and reaching a height of 3-10 meters. The exception is the tree hazel, not prone to the appearance of root shoots and eventually turning into a powerful, long-lived tree up to 20 meters high.
Leshche of any kind can be easily recognized by broad-oval or nearly round leaves with a serrate edge and a well-marked venation. They are kept on short dense petioles and densely cover long branches resembling twigs.
Hazel flowers are divided into male and female. The appearance of earrings with male flowers is considered the beginning of the universal spring flowering. Fertilization of female flowers occurs due to the dispersion of pollen and the first insect. In the inflorescences formed from 1 to 5 ovaries. The fruit of hazel is ripening inside a solid woody shell called a nut.
A characteristic feature of the culture is the presence of a kind of wrapper around the ovary. Resembling a helmet, or in Greek korys, the plusus is formed from a modified bract. As the fruit ripens, it dries out and presents a silvery-brown or brownish walnut shell.
Cultivation of hazel
Our ancestors appreciated the great taste of hazelnut or hazelnut, high nutritional value and benefit several thousand years ago. For many centuries, the inhabitants of Europe gathered the fruits of hazel, which grew in abundance in deciduous forests. The first cultural landings, as evidenced by written sources, could be located on the territory of the modern Balkans, the Mediterranean south of Europe, or on the Black Sea coast. So, in the Caucasus, nuts were grown more than 6 thousand years ago, and their often used name “hazelnuts” is of Turkish origin.
Varieties of southern origin are distinguished by large fruit and excellent quality nuts.
But in the northern regions, where winters are more severe than in Turkey, Italy or Azerbaijan, the plants are at risk of dying or will give a meager harvest. Therefore, the selection of hazel is an important task of domestic specialists, the first of whom was I.V. Michurin.
Common Hazel (C. avellana)
The species, named after the Italian region of Avellano, the oldest cultural center in Europe, is one of the most common. The natural range of common hazelnut or real hazelnut covers the west of the European continent, as well as a significant part of Russia from the Leningrad region in the north to the Crimea and the Caucasus in the south.
The common hazel shrub has adapted well to life in forest ash, forest-steppe, and even in the steppe regions.
Adult plants can reach a height of about 5 meters and, under favorable conditions, they thrive perfectly, forming dense, difficult-to-pass thickets. The common hazel shown in the photo feels especially comfortable under the canopy of deciduous forest. Here are the plants:
- protected from frost
- get enough nutrition and moisture
- but due to the poor distribution of pollen, the fruit is not fully productive or does not form at all the ovary.
The species is actively used by humans. Due to the durability, unpretentiousness and winter hardiness, hazel is used in breeding. Today, more than 20 varieties of fruit hazel, spreading hazelnuts of excellent quality, and several interesting decorative forms that will rightfully decorate both the garden and the urban landscape have spread in Russia.
Decorative forms of hazel
Getting nuts is not the only purpose of hazel. Decorative plants are widely used, differing from the wild ancestor by leaf color, crown shape and individual shoots.
The most popular is the red hazel leaf. The shrub differs little from a normal plant, but its foliage has a pronounced reddish tint. At the same time, on young leaf plates the redness is much brighter than at the base of the shoots, and more and more green tones appear in the shade in the coloring. A feature of C. avellana Atropurpurea hazel is an anthocyanin coloration not only of the leaves, but also of the plumes around the ovaries.
Many Russian varieties of hazelnuts also stand out reddish foliage, giving additional expressiveness of planting.
In addition to hazel purpurea, other varieties can be seen in Russian gardens. An example would be variegated forms:
- Albovariegata, different leaves, which are clearly visible light green or almost white stripe on the edge,
- Aurea, in the color of the foliage and the whole crown of which yellow and golden-green tones predominate,
- Aureomarginata, in which the golden color affects only the edge of the leaf plate and forms a kind of border.
At the disposal of landscape designers and all those who are not indifferent to unusual plants, there are forms of hazel dissected, serrated, pinnate, and even screwed foliage.
Of undoubted interest is hazel:
- weeping or C. pendula, growing in the form of a stem tree with drooping branches,
- crooked or C. contorta, all shoots of which are oddly twisted, and the company’s speed is several times lower than that of ordinary plants.
Hazel large (C. maxima)
The species that cultivated the cultivation of hazelnut began is called hazelnut. Since ancient times, the plant, as a source of nutritious and very tasty nuts, was cultivated in the Balkans, in Italy, Turkey, in the Caucasus and in the Crimea. By the name of the Italian region of Lombardy, the species became known as the Lombard nut, and the peoples of the Black Sea region knew it as Pontic.
Like other species, this culture is demanding on the soil. Where hazel grows:
- the soil is pre-saturated with nutrients,
- take care of regular watering and aeration,
- feeding is regularly used, especially important for obtaining a stable and full-fledged harvest.
Culture, giving the highest quality hazel nuts or hazelnuts, is easily distinguished by large, multi-stemmed bushes reaching a height of 10 meters.
Twice-toothed, oval or nearly round leaves of the plant are noticeably pubescent from below. On the leaf plates, the venation is clearly visible, and the young foliage often has a rich anthocyanin coloration. There are also reddish long, completely obscured walnut toothed clumps.
Hazel leaf (C. heterophylla)
The Asian variety is common where the habitat of common hazel ends. Diverse leaf hazel, named because of the characteristic shape of leaf plates, can be found in the Far East, the Chita region, in China, Mongolia, as well as on the Korean Peninsula and even on the Japanese islands.
Like its gather, this species prefers dry slopes, on which willingly grows, broadleaf mixed forests and oak forests. Bush:
- it has a widely rounded crown consisting of several trunks up to 10 cm in diameter,
- reaches a height of 3 meters
- in favorable conditions, forms dense thickets that impede the growth of other species characteristic of the underbrush.
A distinctive feature of the hazel is diverse - leafy plates with a small pointed tip and a cut like a top.
Also, the species is characterized by early flowering and fruiting. Ovary surrounds consisting of two parts, pubescent plusus, shaped like a bell. Ripe hazel nuts reach a diameter of 15 mm. The core is hidden under a strong grayish shell.
The plant is incredibly hardy, tolerates drought better than other species and is not afraid of frost. This allows you to grow hazel in Siberia, use it to strengthen the slopes of ravines, planted where there is a danger of wind erosion.
The main thing is that the place where the shrubs are to grow should be protected from flooding and stagnant melt or rainwater.
Under the plot of land, hazel has proved its simplicity and docile disposition. It is light-requiring, but it can grow in partial shade, the thickened crown can be easily put in order with the help of a shears, and with proper care the bushes live and bear fruit for several decades.
Manchurian hazelnut (C. sieboldiana var. Mandshurica)
Manchurian hazelnut grows in the Russian Far East, in Korea and in northern China. This variety differs from the plants described above in the unusual form of plyus. Forming a long dense tube that hides a nut, it grows up to 6 cm.
The shoots forming a shrub up to 4 meters high are covered with brownish-gray bark, smooth on young branches and covered with cracks on perennial wood. For the species characteristic large soft foliage. The ovary, which is formed after the flowering in May, is grouped together by 3-4 pieces. Nuts ripening in the first half of autumn have an oblong pointed shape. The kernels are thin-shelled and edible, but getting nuts is difficult because of the bristly clumps.
The plant is not afraid of frost. Therefore, with the right place for planting hazel in Siberia and care, the culture can be used as a walnut and decorative.
How to grow hazel
The hazelnut is an undemanding culture, care of which is possible even for novice gardeners. Preparing for planting and caring for common hazel begins with choosing the right place.
Hazel loves light, but can grow in the shade. But if the foliage of the seedlings is red, it will look brighter in the sun. In the shade, such plants gradually lose their attractiveness and turn green. Foliage with white or yellow color, fading under direct sunlight, and here you need to take care of protection for the hottest hours.
In the wild, shrubs settle in deciduous forests with rich humus loose soil. In this case, the root system of the plant does not tolerate stagnant moisture, and drought quickly provokes wilting of the foliage and a drop in yield.
In the spring the plant wakes up early, and transferring it to a new place can cause long-term acclimatization. Therefore, the best time to plant a hazel is autumn.
Pits of at least 50 × 60 cm are prepared in advance. If hazel cultivation and care is to be done once after several specimens, about 4–5 meters of free space is left between them. For rapid rooting and active growth for backfilling, a mixture is prepared based on:
- fertile soil
- 10 kg of high-quality humus
- 200 g of superphosphate,
- 50 g of potash fertilizers.
The composition is laid on the bottom in the form of a cone, on which the roots of the shrub are carefully laid so that the root collar is at ground level. When the pit is filled, the soil is compacted, watered abundantly, and then mulched to maintain optimum soil moisture.
How to grow hazel, not only decorating the site, but also regularly pleasing with tasty nuts. Experts advise to select varieties according to the timing of flowering, as well as take into account the possibility of pollination by the wind.
Care culture includes:
- watering, essential during the ripening of nuts,
- feeding in early spring and at the time of formation of the ovary,
- pruning to form a crown, rejuvenate or maintain a healthy state.
In regions with severe winters, young shrubs may freeze slightly. They are advised to bow in the ground and shelter. Pruning hazel in the spring allows the plant to free from broken, frozen or dried branches. In addition, a simple procedure will help to correctly form the crown, to give the sun access to each fruit-bearing branch.
To this end, 8-10 strong shoots are left in each bush, while the rest, trying to free the center, are removed at ground level. For hazel is possible to grow on the trellis, as well as the formation of a stem plant.
In order not to weaken the bush, they annually cut out excess root shoots. This is especially important on grafted specimens.
Hazel: useful properties and contraindications
The main treasure of the plant are nuts. This is a real storehouse of vitamins, healthy fats, proteins and minerals.
About 65% of the weight of the core accounts for essential fatty acids. Among the micro and macro elements are magnesium, potassium and calcium, phosphorus and sulfur, zinc, manganese, fluorine. Vitamins are represented by group B, ascorbic acid, A, E, and PP. Caloric content of 100 grams of fruit is 700 kcal.
The rich composition and high energy value of the product determines the beneficial properties of hazel and contraindications that should be taken into account when eating tasty nuts.
What is useful hazelnut? Nuts rich in healthy fats, magnesium and potassium are valuable products for the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases, especially:
- coronary artery disease
- sclerosis of cerebral vessels,
- myocardial infarction.
Natural remedy not only stimulates the heart muscle, but also strengthens blood vessels, improves blood quality. In addition, hazel nuts are useful for the nervous and digestive systems, they stimulate the gallbladder, improve metabolism and resist the aging process of the body.
Due to the mass of vitamins, proteins and fatty acids, hazel fruits are indispensable in the diet of vegetarians, and people with lactose intolerance can replace cow's milk with tasty and healthy nut milk. Low sugar content ensures that the hazelnut dessert does not affect the diabetic's health and does not cause weight gain for those who are trying to lose weight.
Speaking about the benefits of common hazel, we must not forget about the leaves, bark, plyus and other parts of the plant. All of them contain biologically active substances, which impart astringent, antipyretic, vasodilating, anti-inflammatory, and regenerating properties to vegetable raw materials. Infusions and flocks on the basis of hazel prescribe problems with digestion, vascular diseases, urinary diseases and helminthic invasions.
Walnut oil has a wound healing effect. It helps to quickly remove irritation, reduce pain, and speed up tissue regeneration. Milk from pounded kernels is a proven remedy for the treatment of gastritis, cholecystitis and enterocolitis, as well as for other problems, accompanied by cramps, irritation and pain.