Black currant - one of the types of shrubs that can be planted at the dacha. The plant is resistant to cold and hot weather, well propagated by cuttings. Already in the second year, you can collect sweet berries. Novice gardeners are wondering how to plant currants in the spring and grow it in the summer cottage. Planting and growing a sapling is not difficult, knowing some rules.
Planting currants in spring: step by step instructions
Planting black currant in the spring - troublesome occupation. To plant a berry crop and get a good harvest for the next year, you need to know the simple rules of planting. It is better to plant in early spring. In spring, the seedling will get stronger and take root.. Next year it will delight with tasty berries. Better for landing - the end of April - the beginning of June.
Before planting currants in the spring, you need to prepare a place. This is done 20 days before landing. The place where the shrub will continue to develop should be smooth and clean. Blackcurrant will not grow on tubercles and on grassy soil.
If the land for planting was not prepared in the fallthen it needs to be done in early spring. For a start, dry grass and leaves are removed. After the soil is fertilized. Currant, like all shrubs, needs feeding. Feed it must be every year in the autumn. The first bait is done before planting seedlings. For the first time you need to take:
Rock salt and lime should be taken in equal amounts. Superphosphate - half less than other additives. Everything mixes well until smooth.. One bucket of such a mixture is poured into 1 square meter of land and is evenly distributed with the help of a rake. Then you can do the wells, a depth of at least 50 cm.
Selection and preparation of seedlings
Buying black currant saplings in the store or on the market, you need to choose it correctly.
- The first thing to consider well sapling from all sides. On examination, it is worth paying attention to the root system: it must be intact, without any damage, have at least 3-5 healthy roots.
- The next thing you should pay attention to is the length of the seedling. It should not be longer than 15 centimeters.
- The urinary roots must be well developed. On the bush must be at least 3 escape. If not, then consider such a bush for planting is not worth it. He will be sick and may not even take root.
- For careful transportation of planting material should carefully roll it into a damp cloth. Put a plastic bag on top.
- Upon bringing to the place of shelter to remove. If this is not done immediately, then the sapling disappears. At the site once again carefully consider the plant. If the roots break down during transportation, they can be cut to a healthy basis.
- To preserve the plant before planting on a permanent place, you need to bury it in a moist soil and pour it well or dip it in a liquid clay mixture. The main thing is to prevent the root system from falling under direct sunlight.
Before planting the seedling in open ground you need to prepare it. The day before planting, put the seedlings in warm water. The next day can be planted in open ground. The root system of the shrub should be placed in the hole in the middle. All roots gently straighten and place throughout the hole.
Next, cover the ground and thoroughly rammed. Be sure to spill warm water. After the water is absorbed into the soil, you need to sprinkle it again with earth. And once again it is good to spill it with warm water. The next day, you need to prune shoots and buds. If the seedling was purchased in a specialty store, then the pruning of the shoots was already done in the store.
If this has not been done, then this procedure can be done by yourself. On each bush after cutting there should be 4 escapes. Circumcision needs to be repeated:
- in a year - at strong bushes,
- after two - in weak plants.
Do not forget about the abundant watering once a week. Make sure that there are no parasites. It is also important to loosen the ground and weed the grass.
Choosing a landing site
A good place will be along the fence. You can plant seedlings next to a green tree, departing from it 1 meter. And it will also look beautiful if the seedlings are planted next to perennial flowers.
In no case can not plant tomatoes and cabbage next to currant bushes. As you know, cabbage loves wet soil. The root system of the seedling will rot and become unusable. From the neighborhood with tomatoes and cabbage currants will fall ill with the same diseases as they.
Near the shrub well grow potatoes, carrots or greens. Such a neighborhood needs the same care and watering that currants. Potatoes or other horticultural cropse can infect currants with diseases.
You can not sit different varieties of currants next to each other. In the process of cross-pollination, currant bushes will lose their original qualities and productivity.
Black currant varieties
Yield depends on the type of currant that will grow in the dacha. When buying seedlings in the spring is to decide on its grade. There are 5 types of varieties:
- Large varieties. As a rule, they are low-growing shrubs, about 1 meter high. Berries grow quite large, sometimes reaching the size of a grape. The berry itself is sweet, with a slight sourness. The skin of such varieties is very dense. The disadvantages of the considered variety group include the rapid aging of the bush. Flowering occurs in mid-May. Harvest can be collected in early July. These varieties include currants Dobrynya and Yadrenaya.
- Sweet varieties. The most popular are: Green haze, Nina and Bagheera. Bushes are short, never reach a height of 1 meter. The berries are medium in size with thin skin, very sweet. Maturation term is average. The disadvantage is the abundance of basal shoots. This type of currant blooms in the second half of May. Harvest comes at the beginning of July. Currant winter-hardy and drought-resistant. This type of currant propagates by cuttings, needs support, is prone to many diseases.
- Early varieties. Early maturing varieties are Exotic, Black Emerald and Daughter. Shrubs branched and propagated by cuttings. By the winter temperatures are calm, not afraid of frost. Blossom in the first half of May. The yield is at the beginning of July. Berries are sweet with thin skin.
- Average. These varieties of currants grow vertically, shoots are very dense. Berry can be both large and very small, to taste sweet with a little sourness. Does not suffer from powdery mildew, resistant to many other diseases. Among the shortcomings is the extended and unfriendly ripening of the crop. Blossoms in the first decade of May. This group includes varieties Titania and Pygmy.
- Late. Late varieties of currants include Vologda, Lazy and some types of Daughters. Bushes quickly reach a height of 1 meter and stop their growth. Currants winter well and are not afraid of drought. Thin-skinned berries are rather large and very sweet. Blooms in late May, and the harvest can be collected in late August. Shrubs feel great in the conditions of Siberia.
To planting currants in the spring was successful, consider the features of this perennial shrub.
Currant is a moisture-loving plant; in the wild, it most often grows along a river bank or in a lowland where there is enough moisture. In order for the fruit to bear fruit abundantly, choose flat areas or low gentle slopes (up to 5 degrees of steepness) for its planting. The plots must be securely closed from the winds.
The following areas are unsuitable for planting currants:
- with groundwater deposited closer than 1.5 meters to the soil.
Also you should not choose deep, closed valley areas for planting, where cold air stagnates for a long time - it damages delicate shrub flowers.
Rich harvest of black currant
Black currant requires the obligatory presence of moisture - fertile loams with good drainage of the subsoil layer are suitable for planting. Drought-resistant red and white currants can be planted on the not so water-rich hills. Even sandy and light loamy soils are suitable for them.
The best land for planting
Important: in no case do not plant currant bushes in dry soil, especially carbonate and sandy.
Black currant "is afraid" of soils with a high pH above 6.5, it develops poorly on them, often suffers from fungal diseases and bears fruits poorly, and the berries spontaneously fall from the branches of the bushes. If your soil is too acidic, you need to produce it.
An important condition for the successful growth and development of currant bushes is the illumination of the landing site. Shrub likes good lighting. Thanks to the sunlight, the berries of the new crop will be abundant, large and tasty. In the process of growth should thin out the bush - thickening also leads to a decrease in fecundity. Because of this feature, currant bushes are recommended to be planted in one place, and not along the edges of the plots, as gardeners often do. Along the edges of the site often lies the shadow of the trees, the fence, buildings.
Planting currants in spring in open ground
The best time for planting a currant bush is autumn, but if there is a need, you can spend it in early spring. It is recommended to do this in regions with little snow and not cold winters, having previously (in September or early October) prepared a landing site.
Planting fruit bushes can be:
Reproduction of currant through seeds is unpopular with gardeners, since it inherits only a portion of the good properties of the variety. Therefore, the most common practice of planting in open ground is planting cuttings and seedlings.
The main disadvantage of spring planting of a bush in open ground is the short period during which the procedure should be carried out. The currant grows and dissolves very quickly, and it should be planted before the juices begin to move and the buds appear, in March and early April. It may happen that the currant has already fully “woken up”, and the earth has not yet warmed to the optimum temperature for rooting the bush.
To prepare a place for planting, you need to dig the soil to a depth of 30 cm, level the area, remove the weeds with roots and apply fertilizer.
If the soil is weakly fertile, add 10 kg of organic fertilizer per 1 square meter of land plus digesting phosphate and potash fertilizers - 10-50 g per square. m. Digging holes or a trench for the bushes is permissible right before planting, but it is better to do this in the fall and fill with a mixture of humus and compost. Pits must be at least 40 cm deep and at least 50 cm wide.
Planting currant cuttings
Cutting may be for you a more profitable way to plant currants than planting seedlings. An adult bush, planted with a handle, fully inherits all the properties of the “mother” bush. If you have taken a stalk from a strong fertile plant, then after a short period you will receive an equally strong bush with tasty berries. If you or friends have a good bush, prepare several cuttings.
Choose cuttings for spring planting:
- 15-20 cm long,
- over 0.6 cm thick
You can get the desired cuttings, conducting autumn or spring pruning.
Preparation of material of black currant for landing in the autumn period is made from September to the middle of October. For cutting take from the basal shoots or from the branches that are adjacent directly to the trunk.
Cut off best in the early morning. The upper cut of the cutting must be made straight, 1-1.5 cm above the bud, the lower cut is made oblique - at an angle of 45 °.
Important: use a very sharp garden knife to minimize the damage to the plant. After cutting, remove the cuttings in the lower drawer of the refrigerator, and before spring planting, remove, “refresh” the lower section and put it in water for a day.
Harvesting red and white currants in autumn
To get the cutting material of red and white currant, start harvesting in early August. At this time, the kidneys enter rest, the juices stop moving, and the plant will transfer the procedure with minimal stress.
Cuttings of red and white currants are cut from the young branches, which have managed to woody. They should be stored in the same bottom drawer of the refrigerator, but wrapped with cling film or placed in moistened sand.
Preparation of cuttings for planting in the ground includes, like the black currant, the updating of the lower section and the drink with water. However, the cuttings should remain in the water tank for no more than 30 minutes. Then all the kidneys are removed, except for the 4 upper ones, and on the lower part of it make 3-4 longitudinal grooves 3 cm long and 2 mm deep. This will accelerate the formation of roots.
Then take a container from 30 cm deep, pour soil into it, pour it. "Pierce" the hole, place the stalk, then fill it with soil, leaving 2 buds above the ground. Liberally pour the stalk and leave it in the greenhouse or on a well-lit window sill. Planted into the ground after regrowth of a young green shoots from 5 cm.
Preparation of cuttings in the spring
This option is more convenient because it allows you to do without storing planting material.
Experienced gardeners recommend starting planting as soon as the earth reaches 20 cm deep. The wetter the ground, the better the shrub will take root.
How to plant spring cuttings:
- put the cutting in the hole or trench obliquely, with the lower end,
- bury the cutting in the ground to a depth of at least 3-4 cm,
- leave 2 kidneys above the surface (the first should be directly above the ground).
If you plant no more than 3 cuttings, you can plant them in the wells, and if more, then it will be more convenient and expedient to dig a planting trench.
Prepared lignified cuttings can be planted immediately, or by powdering the lower end of the cutting with a root-stimulating agent. For better formation of roots, you can mulch the earth with compost, a layer not thinner than 3 cm.
Planting currant seedlings
Half of the success in planting currant seedlings in the springtime is the right choice of seedlings. What should be the "correct" planting material:
- age 2 years
- with 2-3 healthy shoots
- fresh, with no signs of wilting,
- with 3 or more skeletal roots 20 cm long,
- not having fungal diseases (signs - spots).
To simplify the care of plants, choose varieties with increased resistance to diseases and pests. This information should be reported in the description of the variety.
Table. How to plant a currant sapling
Important: the optimal distance between bushes and rows: between bushes should be at least 1-1.5 m, and from row to row - at least 2 m. With this arrangement, the bushes will not be mutually shadowed. It is best to plant currants in a checkerboard pattern.
In the summer, a freshly planted currant bush will require minimal effort from you. It will need to be watered as needed (remember, all types of currants love water!), From time to time to feed with a small amount of fertilizer, as well as remove weeds and loosen the ground.
Watering the plant must be drip or subsoil, at least once a week, under a bush of 2-4 buckets of water. In windy and dry weather, watering should be more abundant and more often. It is necessary to do this in the evening - overnight the moisture nourishes the root zone.
Important: do not pour water into the center, it will badly affect the plant - pour water along the perimeter of the bush crown. As soon as the berries began to acquire a “mature” color, it is necessary to stop watering temporarily so that cell sap in the berries does not cause an excess of cracking. In early September, spend abundant prewinter watering - 5 buckets of water for each plant, trying to soak the soil to a depth of 50 cm.
Feed the bushes is annually - on 1 square. m 150 g of superphosphate, 60 g of ammonium nitrate, 40 g of potassium chloride. Nitrate can be “fed” currants annually, phosphorus and potassium is enough to make every 2 years.
If your site is acid-soil, 1 time in 5 years, close up in the ground 4 cups (800 ml) of lime per 1 sq. M of soil. Lime can be replaced with the same amount of chalk or 6 cups (1200 ml) of ash.
Around the currant bushes need to carefully loosen the soil. Try when loosening to reach a depth of no more than 8 cm - so there will be no risk of damaging the roots. Loosen between rows at least 12 cm deep and mulch.
Be sure to monitor the thickening of currant bushes and thin out the shoots - if the bushes oppress each other, they will soon get sick from lack of food and light. More information about pruning currant bushes can be found in our article.
Currant Disease Control
Currant is a useful berry, which requires little effort and minimal expenses from the gardener. Even a beginning gardener is able to cope with its reproduction. Despite the fact that planting currants of all kinds is better in autumn, spring planting, subject to the rules, will provide you with a rich harvest and an abundance of vitamins.
When to plant currants
Currant bushes are planted not for a specific time period. Сроки посадки ягодных кустарников разнятся. После посадки культура плодоносит на 2–3 год, урожайность растет к 5–7 году, период плодоношения 12–15 лет и более. Важное условие для посадки – опавшие листья на саженцах, на это следует обращать внимание при покупке.
The most favorable time for planting currants - autumn months. It is important not to plant the young growth too early - in September, when, for example, in the southern regions the weather is still hot, you shouldn’t delay landing, October is the most optimal time. Young seedling needs a reserve in 2-3 weeks to take root.
It is not easy to choose the right weather for planting black and red currants in spring. After the winter, in March, the cold stay for a long time and the ground is not yet ready for field work. Or, on the contrary, too quickly, in April the heat comes, the buds on the seedlings start to grow, the conditions for survival of the young plant are lost. In order to plant a currant in the spring was successful, it is better to do this before blooming buds on seedlings.
How to plant currants
For breeding berries use rooted cuttings and layers from the mother plant, it is better to plant them at 1–2 years of age. A successfully selected variety in the same place can bear fruit for 15 years or more. What sapling you choose is of great importance:
- Carefully study the rhizome of the shrub. There should be at least 3 skeletal roots about 20 cm long,
- When buying a plant for planting in a pot, remove it and inspect it. If the earth lump is completely braided by root - the plant is well developed, it will take root quickly.
- A healthy plant looks good, with no signs of wilting.
The exact dates of the landing of young shrubs directly depend on your region. Planting and transplanting currants in the spring is made at a time when daytime air temperature will be no lower than +5. + 10 ° С. Autumn planting currant is better to spend a month before the onset of cold weather. For the 4–5th climatic zones (central Russia), the favorable periods are:
- spring is April and the beginning of May,
- in the fall - from the end of September - to the beginning of November.
Regardless of the time of year, planting black currant, like red, requires fertile soil, not clogged with weeds and overgrowth of wild bushes and trees. The place for the plant must be protected from the north wind, the sun (the berry is demanding for lighting) is the south side or the southeast part of the plot.
Shrub does not like the proximity of groundwater, wetlands, abundant moisture and drafts. Groundwater at the site should be below 1-1.5 m from the soil surface. Their position can be determined independently, drawing attention to the weed grass growing on the site:
- cattail (distance from the surface to the water is less than 1 m),
- cane, horsetail, willow, alder, groundwort (from 1.5 to 3 m),
- wormwood, licorice (up to 5 m).
When marking pits for planting, the distance between the bushes should be 1.2–1.5 m, and the distance between the rows should be 1.5–2 m. If it is planned to make one row of bushes in the area, it is better to plant it along the fence. The distance between plants in a dense single row should be 0.8–1 m. It is not necessary to plant currant bushes next to the gooseberries, because they have common pests and diseases, and large trees. From the raspberries need to retreat 1.5-2.5 meters, because crimson shoots can subsequently "clog" young saplings.
The berry crop grows and bears fruit on black soil, on loamy soils. Currant planting is carried out as follows: planting pits are dug up to 60 cm in diameter and 30–50 cm deep, and fertilizers are applied after. Norms of fertilizers on 1 hole:
- phosphoric - 50–60 g,
- Potash - 30 g,
- wood ash - 120 g
Acidity of soil under plantings is desirable in the range of 6.5–7.5 pH. If the soil is at pH 5.5 and below, liming is required for a rich harvest. This reception is carried out for 2-3 years before laying the currant plantations and in the future, if necessary, every 3 years. Currant responds well to mulching pristvolnyh circles with straw, rotted sawdust and leaves.
The distance between the bushes
The frequency of planting depends on the type of berries. Spreading plant in a single row after 1.5 m, straight-growing - in a dense row after 1 meter. Inter-row spacings are made 2–2.5 m wide. This distance is quite enough for passage between plants during tillage, garter bushes, spraying, harvesting and other works.
How to choose and save currant seedlings
If you react to the choice of seedlings of this culture responsibly, the currant bushes will grow on your site, supplying to your table a vitamin berry for more than one year. It is better to buy seedlings in a nursery, garden center with positive reviews or from verified vendors, because here you will receive complete information about the characteristics of the variety, ripening periods, taste and requirements for planting and caring for the crop.
Currant seedlings can be sold with an open or closed root system. The latter, sold in pots, containers or bags of soil, cost a little more, but they tolerate transportation and transplant better.
A good seedling roots are so powerful that it is easily removed from the pot
When choosing a seedling with unprotected roots, you need to pay attention to the following signs:
- root system state. A viable seedling will have from 3 to 5 well-developed lignified skeletal roots with a length of 15 cm without cliffs and damage. The presence of adventitious fibrous roots is important. In addition, the root system should not be dried, ideally, if it is in a mash or slightly damp,
- condition of the aerial part. She can have one or several flexible, smooth shoots up to 40 cm long. Height here does not play a significant role, because during planting they will need to be shortened. But ask the seller to make a cut on the escape should. If a seedling is infected with such a dangerous disease as a glass case, then blackness will be visible on the cut. Pay attention to seedlings buds. They should not be increased in size. Swollen buds signal the infection of the currant with a kidney mite.
The roots of seedlings should be moderately long, without damage, with a large number of fibrous roots.
All of these signs are valid not only for black, but also for other types of currants. By the way, it is very easy to distinguish black currant sapling from white or red. It is necessary to slightly rub the twig: the black one will emit a characteristic smell, white and red will not.
Having bought a seedling, you should take care to deliver it to the landing site safe and sound. It is best to wrap unprotected seedlings in a damp cloth and place them in a plastic bag. Such protection will protect the root system from drying out. After transportation, the shelter is removed and carefully inspect the bush:
- if you find damaged tips of the roots or shoots, they should be cut to the healthy part,
- if planting is planned after some time, then a sapling is best prikopat in the ground,
- You can dip the roots in the clay mash. This will prevent them from drying out.
A pot made of clay protects the root system from drying out and improves the survival rate of seedlings.
You can not leave unprotected seedlings in direct sunlight, which quickly dry up the buds and the bush will not take root well.
Planting seedlings of black, red and white currants in the fall in the open ground
Autumn planting is the most rational option for replenishing the garden plot with this berry shrub. During the winter, the soil under the planted bush will settle and thicken, and as soon as the warm days come, the currant will go into active growth. Experienced gardeners claim that it is during the autumn planting that the currant shows a high survival rate.
The best option for preliminary soil preparation is planting green manuret plants (lupine, clover, Pancake week radish, oats) on the site for the future currant. Even before the flowering of these herbs are buried in the soil and thus heals it, make it more fertile. Also on the site it is necessary to carry out the following preparatory work:
- the plot should be leveled, the mounds and valleys removed,
- dig up the soil, removing weeds and their roots,
- prepare the landing pit. It should be about 40x40x40 cm in size. The barren land is discarded from the bottom of the pit, and the fertile top layer is returned back, having previously mixed it with the following fertilizers: 1 bucket of organic matter (compost, manure or humus), superphosphate (200 g), wood ash (1 a glass).
Blackcurrant has a superficial root system, therefore it does not need deep planting holes.
It is best to carry out the above procedures in advance, approximately 3 weeks before planting, so that the ground can settle.
Timing and landing scheme
The optimal time for autumn planting currants - mid-autumn, before the onset of frost. In central Russia it is usually done in the first decade of October, in the northern regions from the second half of September, and in the southern regions it is possible to plant currant seedlings in late October. Compliance with these terms - a guarantee that the plant before the onset of cold weather will restore the root system, firmly settled in the ground.
When planting several saplings of black currant, it must be borne in mind that over time the bushes will grow, become sprawling, therefore the distance between them should be 1.5–2 meters. Such a distance will allow the currant to fully eat and receive a sufficient amount of light.
The main rule when placing bushes on a plot is simple: planting should be done in such a way that the plant is comfortable and at the same time it is convenient to pick berries
The distance between bushes of other currant species (red, golden) may be slightly less, since the bushes of these varieties are more compact, not spreading.
Technology of planting currant seedlings
The process of planting currant seedlings is as follows:
- Prepared in advance landing pit shed water.
- At its bottom, a small mound is formed, on which the seedling is set at an angle of about 45 degrees. With an inclined landing, the root system of the seedling will be formed more intensively.
Plant a bush at an angle of 45 degrees to the ground level so that the stems are fan-shaped and the lower buds on them are covered with earth.
For the convenience of subsequent watering around the bush can build an earthen roller
When pruning shoots, it is desirable to cut branches to the outer bud, then next year a wide bush will be formed
Special care planted currant bush does not require. In dry weather, it is watered several times, as well as mulching the perennial circle with peat or humus, thus protecting the root system from the cold weather.
Planting currant seedlings in the spring in the open ground
Planting currant seedlings can be carried out not only in autumn but also in spring. Spring landing has its advantages:
- rooting and development of seedlings occurs at a favorable time when the root system is fully provided with the necessary amount of nutrients, due to which a rapid growth of the ground part begins,
- There is no danger of damaging a young bush with frost. Before the start of winter, he will be able to fully take root, build up a powerful root system.
The complexity of the spring planting is the correct choice of terms, which depend on weather conditions. Most often, the favorable time begins in April, when the earth warms up, the danger of strong return frosts that can damage the upper buds of the seedling will pass. The temperature of the air during the day should be about +10 degrees, and at night - +5 degrees. At the same time, it is impossible to be late with this event, because the landing should be carried out before the start of bud break. Later terms will lead to rapid growth of the aerial parts of the plant, because the currant buds bloom very early. The insufficiently strong roots do not have enough strength for its good nutrition, therefore the protective forces of the currants will be reduced.
In the northern regions and in the Urals, spring planting is most often carried out in May, after the soil has warmed to a depth of at least 20 cm. If planting is done earlier in these areas, the rhizomes will freeze and currant plantings will die.
Technology spring planting currant is no different from the autumn, but further care includes the following activities:
- frequent watering, which will help the young plant to gain a foothold in the soil. A signal of this will be the young green leaves that emerged from the kidneys,
- compulsory loosening of the wheel circle after each irrigation in order to prevent the formation of a dense earth crust,
- weed control, which obscures a low currant bush, absorbs large amounts of water and nutrients from the soil.
Strong pruning of the aerial part of the seedling will contribute to good growth of the roots, development of lateral buds during the spring planting of currants. It is shortened to a height of 15–20 cm, leaving 3-4 green buds.
What you need to know before planting currants in the spring?
Landing and red and black currants in the spring should begin as early as possible, the best soon after the last snow melts. Also, you should pre-select a suitable place, which you and sow currant seedlings.
The best place for the presented plant will be a sunny, protected from the wind plot, with moderately wet soil. Currant moisture-loving culture, and does not tolerate dry soil, however, and excessive watering can cause rotting of the roots.
Before you put a currant on the seemingly perfect plot, it is worth knowing the depth of the groundwater flowing under it. If this kind of water will be too close to the surface, refuse to plant currant seedlings in this place, since they are not likely to take root.
If you are unable to find a plot with moderately wet soil, you will have to carefully monitor that it does not dry out on hot summer days, which is especially important for black currants. Permissible depth of groundwater in the place of growing currants, from 1 meter.
Once you have decided on the landing site, proceed to its immediate preparation, which will require compliance with the following points:
- Clear selected area from any types of weeds, and especially from wheat grass. Weeds are removed along with the rhizome, and if necessary, you can dig up the entire area in order to completely get rid of weed roots.
- The soil itself should be enriched with both mineral and organic fertilizers. To do this, remove the top 40-50 cm of soil in the area, pour all the necessary fertilizers into the resulting depression, and return the top layer of soil to the place. The currant is a perennial plant, and can bear fruit for about 20 years, which means it is extremely uncommon to neglect the dressing of the soil with fertilizers before planting the presented crop in it. This kind of soil preparation is best carried out a year before the intended planting of seedlings, and this applies not only to currants, but also to the vast majority of other berries.
- If the soil has increased acidity, remove a layer of soil with a thickness of 50-60 cm, pour back the soil with a weak alkaline reaction, and the pH of 7-8 units. If replacement of the soil is not possible, it is possible to plant seedlings in acidic soil, but in this case the plants will develop much worse.
In general, this is all the stages of preparing the soil for planting currants, and given its long lifespan, it will more than pay for all your efforts.
Planting cuttings of currants
For experienced gardeners, the idea of planting currants with cuttings is a much more profitable idea than planting it with the help of seedlings. The fact is that if you properly grow a currant bush from a cutting, as an adult it will bring berries that are 95% identical in their characteristics to those of the mother bush.
This property is very important for gardeners who already have proven and productive bushes of this plant, having propagated them with the help of cuttings, you can guaranteed to get young animals with similar qualities, without any risk of miscalculation on unfamiliar seedlings from the market.
Moreover, if you have only one, but well-bearing shrub, several cuttings can be prepared from it at once, which automatically makes propagation by cuttings more profitable than planting seedlings.
As for the preparation of the cuttings themselves, they should be taken only from matured shoots, the thickness of which is not less than 0.6 cm.
Also, special attention should be paid to the length of the cutting itself, which should not be shorter than 15 cm, and at the same time it is undesirable to use cuttings more than 20 cm in length. It is necessary to adhere to the optimal length of the cutting 17-20 cm, and not to give in to the false belief that the longer it is, the better and faster it can develop.
Once you have chosen the desired cutting, proceed to pruning it.. Thus, the upper cut should be made straight, and at a distance of about 1 cm above the bud from above. The lower cut is made oblique.
Plant cuttings should be either in the wells, the depth of which will be equal to the length of the bayonet spade, or in trenches with the same depth. We recommend to prefer planting cuttings in trenches, which should be harvested in the fall, fertilizing them abundantly with a mixture of rotted manure and compost. Planted cuttings should be as soon as the snow melts.
Planted cuttings should be at a distance of 10-15 cm from each other. If you plan to plant several rows of cuttings, the distance between the rows themselves should be 40 cm.
Подобное расстояние нужно для того, чтобы за растениями было легче ухаживать и осуществлять полив, а также для того, чтобы в будущем можно было беспрепятственно выкопать любой из черенков, превратившийся в саженец, и посадить его уже на постоянное место жительства, без риска повредить как его, так и корни соседнего растения. Погружать черенок в грунт следует исключительно нижним концом, на глубину в 3-4 см.
In the place where you planted the cuttings, it will not be superfluous to mulch the soil with peat and humus, which will protect it from premature drying, which is extremely undesirable for currants at any stage of its growth. Mulch the soil to a depth of 3-5 cm, but if you wish, you can go up to 10 cm.
The cuttings planted in the spring should take root and settle down to the onset of autumn, and it is during this period that they should be transplanted to a permanent place of growth.
If the cuttings are not strengthened by the fall, leave them until next spring, and as soon as the snow melts, proceed to planting, guided by the information at the very beginning of the article.
Attention: in order for the cuttings to take root as soon as possible, they should be soaked in growth stimulants for 10-24 hours. The most suitable stimulators for this purpose are heteroauxin and indolyl butyric acid.
Before you begin cutting cuttings, should be prepared serviceable and sharp tools. Otherwise, you risk damaging the cuttings that can no longer grow normally.
Aftercare for cuttings and seedlings
After you have watered the soil abundantly during the direct planting of seedlings or cuttings, leave them alone until the ovaries of the subsequent berries appear.
If the period of appearance of the ovaries coincided with the hot summer, especially carefully follow the soil, and do not let it dry. With the onset of the autumn cooling, water the seedlings with 5-10 liters of water, and leave them until the next warming.
After 20 days after planting, the seedlings should be fertilized with fertilizers. To do this, under each of the bushes need to make about 15 g of nitrogen fertilizer, preferably especially for berry crops. Then you can forget about fertilizer before the first fruiting. When you have harvested the first crop, currant bushes should be fed every year.
As the currant bush grows and develops, do not forget to prune its old whips, which bear bad fruit, and draw nutrients from other parts of the plant, thereby reducing the yield. However, this measure will be required only 2-3 years after planting a bush.
After reading all the recommendations given in the article, the spring planting of currants of any kind will be easy for you. These tips are suitable only for planting currants in the spring. Regarding how to plant currants in the fall, will be discussed in the next article!
Selection of seedlings
First of all, it is necessary to choose the variety that is zoned in the area. Currants are often affected by fungal diseases. Therefore, it is desirable to dwell on varieties less susceptible to this pathology. One last thing: seedlings can be realized with an open and closed root system. So, you need to make the right choice between them. Planting material with a closed root system is grown in plastic containers, pots, wide-diameter glasses made of thick polyethylene film. The cost of such seedlings is higher. Plants with open roots - seedlings grown in the soil, and then dug out from there in the fall and stored in special hangars or basements at the desired humidity and temperature.
With open root system
Saplings with an open root system are usually dug in the nurseries in the fall, and then unrealized leftovers are stored in specially equipped hangars or cellars. Therefore, after the purchase they must be carefully examined. Shoots in young plants should be at least 45-50 cm. It is desirable before this, if the roots are dried, lower the plant for 12 hours in water.
The positive point of planting seedlings in pots is that plants in the open ground are transferred from the clod of earth. At the same time, their roots do not experience stress and are not damaged.
When buying planting material with a closed root system, it is better to choose those that were grown in polyethylene containers. Then you can well consider the state of the roots. After all, good seedlings, they should be between 15 and 20 cm long.
Of course, many gardeners themselves grow up seedlings, and not buy them. But due to certain circumstances, for example, the early arrival of frost, it is necessary to store planting material in winter, since it is not possible to land it in the fall. Store seedlings better in the cellar. If it is wet there, then the plants can not be watered. When the planting material is obtained from cuttings, and they are cut to a length of about 20 cm, then the bottom shelf of the refrigerator can be a place for storage. There the temperature is stable and the seedlings tolerate the winter period well. But before putting the plant into storage, its roots should be placed in a plastic bag.
How to store before landing
It is better to store seedlings in the cellar. To do this, you need to take a plastic box, put wet sand, sawdust or sod soil into it. Put the plants in the substrate and sprinkle them on the roots. After that, pour water at room temperature, cover the root system with a film and put in the cellar until February. If there is dry, then the land in which the roots are located must be periodically moistened. At the end of winter, you can prepare containers and plant seedlings in them, waiting for suitable daily temperatures to transfer the plants to a permanent habitat.
When transplanting in a tank, attention should be paid to the condition of the roots and shoots. By this time, pink-white buds characteristic of the black currant begin to appear on the branches.
Is it possible to grow from a twig or branch
Saplings can be independently grown by layering, dividing the bush, cuttings and other ways. The easiest and fastest is reproduction by cuttings. It is necessary to cut from the basal lignified shoots, the thickness of a pencil, branches 15-20 cm long, but that they had 4-5 buds. Experienced gardeners grow seedlings from cuttings with just one peephole. Cut the leaves and put in the water, which must be constantly changed. And you can plant the cuttings in the spring in a very wet soil.
When to plant: spring terms
In the spring you need to plant currants in those regions where the height of the snow cover is small or completely absent. Otherwise, young plants in the winter can freeze the roots. But as soon as the snow melts, it can be both in March and in early April, when the layer of thawed earth is not less than 20 cm, you can start planting until the buds have buds. Because if you skip the optimal time, the plant will be sick and will not enter fruiting time any longer.
It is not enough to choose a quality sapling. In order for the plant to grow well and bear fruit, it is necessary to determine the place of its planting. After all, black currant can tolerate, for example, penumbra, and red loves to grow only on the sunny side of the site, in a location protected from the winds. In addition, the proximity of other plants affects the development of currant and its fruiting. Shrub can be planted on any soil, but he does not like sour. Thus, it is necessary to consider:
- Shrub location, illumination,
- The composition of the soil.
In more detail the requirements for the place of planting currant, soil composition, we consider below.
Currants are more demanding on moisture than, for example, gooseberries. Therefore, in the area she was given low places. And in the southern regions of the country near water sources to water the shrubs in time.
You can plant tomatoes and cucumbers in the aisle. Undesirable potato. Not because it is a bad neighbor. Just when digging tubers can damage the currant roots. Not bad adjoins currants with apple orchard. But when placing these crops it is necessary to remember that the crown of trees grows, and currants will not bear fruit in the shadow.
Near the currant is better not to plant gooseberries and raspberries. The gooseberry is sick with almost the same diseases as currants, and raspberry makes a lot of shoots, which will negatively affect the growth of the shrub.
Currants grow well in the central regions of the country on chernozems, sod-podzolic, gray, sandy, loamy soils. In the south - southern chernozems and chestnut. On lands with high acidity, large yields should not be expected. Therefore, as soon as horse sorrel was seen on the site, and this is a natural indicator of a decrease in acid-base balance, the soil should be limed.
Make lime, dolomite flour, chalk must be strictly according to regulations. Excessive lime is harmful to plants.
How to plant seedlings in open ground
Choosing seedlings and conducting preplant soil preparation, you can begin the breakdown of the berry. It should be ergonomic, that is, so that the plant is comfortable and summer resident. The latter, for example, pick berries, carry out various agrotechnical care activities. Currant loves space, so the bushes can not be planted thickly. The distance between them should be 1, 25 meters - 1, 5 meters, and the aisle about 2 meters. Landing near the fence or utility rooms involves a distance of at least a meter.
Preparation of fossa
If the ground in the fall at the site was plowed to a depth of more than 35 cm, then dig holes that would fit a seedling with a straightened root system. When loosening was done manually, the pit is made deeper. The optimum volume is 50x60 cm. Before planting the seedling in the hole, it is necessary to pour out a bucket of water and wait until it is absorbed. Then put the seedling in the slope so that it is in the hole deeper by 5 cm than it grew in the nursery.
For the spring planting of seedlings, it is better to prepare the pit in autumn, so as not to dig into too wet ground.
For plowing in the fall, 3 centners of manure, 3 kg of superphosphate, 1 kg of potassium salt are added to one hundred parts of the plot.
Fertilizer must be added to the well in the spring before planting, pre-mixed with the top layer of excavated soil. Plant nutrition can be humus (3 kg), potash salt (10 grams), superphosphate (30 grams), ammonium nitrate (15 grams). And you can put a one-liter jar of wood ash on the bottom.
Planted plants, regardless of the timing of planting and soil moisture, are watered at the rate of 5–10 liters of water per bush. Due to this, the earth settles and densely covers the roots. Therefore, they do not dry out and currants well take root. Watering should be carried out daily until the summer resident sees the beginning of the growth of the seedling.
The amount of watering and water depends on the season of the year, air temperature and precipitation regularity. If there is a rainless period, water the plants every 4–5 days. But when the rains pour without ceasing, the young plants cannot be given excessive moisture. Roots can get wet.
Landing methods may be several. Summer resident himself decides how it is convenient not only to plant a currant, but then take care of the bushes. In most cases, this placement is in one or more rows. Two more ways deserve attention:
The method is old, but effective. In one nest place 3 seedlings. They are set so as to form a conditional triangle with a distance of 30 cm between plants.
The positive point of the method: the method is good because in the second year after planting from one bush only up to 2 kilograms of currants can be obtained.
On the trellis
A more progressive method, long used in vineyards. But recently used on berry crops. This technology is about 15 years old, although there are more than forty in vineyards. The essence of the method: currants are planted at a distance of 1 meter in a row. The galvanized wire is pulled along the row on the supports. Then the branches are tied to it with a string or special ribbons. When spring pruning try to escape shoots to the side to shorten.
Positive aspects of the method: facilitated care for the currants and harvest.
In the first year, when young currant bushes do not fully use the allotted area, vegetables are planted between the rows. In autumn, they dig up to a depth of 16 cm, and 10 cm near the bush, so as not to damage the roots. During the growing season, from 5 to 7 loosening is carried out in order to protect the currant from weeds and the formation of a crust after watering. Plant growth requires a lot of nutrients, so they respond well to fertilizer.
Feed currants in spring and summer is necessary if the bushes have a weak growth. Autumn fertilization is carried out the following year, as soon as the soil conditions allow. Use bird droppings, slurry, pre-diluted with organic matter water. When feeding on one currant bush it is necessary: 2 liters of slurry. Ammonium nitrate mineral fertilizers 20 grams, 40 grams of superphosphate, 15 grams of potassium salt.
Fertilizers need to be in the grooves, which are located at a distance of 50 cm from the bush.
If the bushes are sprawling, or bear a big harvest, then apply props. In the case of young plantings are used to facilitate care. They can be made of wooden pegs, metal-plastic pipes, used hoses for drip irrigation. Some summer residents even put on old bicycle tires so that the bush “does not creep away”.
Shrubs need to be cut annually. Otherwise they will thicken and will not give a big harvest. The very first pruning of seedlings is made immediately after planting in early spring, leaving shoots with four buds. Of all the shoots that grew in the first year, leave the 3-4 strongest, all the rest are cut near the ground.
The strongest increase is observed in young branches.
The main thing when planting currants with saplings is to prevent common mistakes:
- Failure to meet the landing dates. Currants need to be planted in the spring, when she still has not appeared leaves. But too cold earth can cause hypothermia. And in either case, this leads to the death of the plant,
- Substandard seedlings. It is necessary to choose zoned varieties with a good root system and immunity against fungal diseases,
- Improper planting seedlings. Beginners are allowed to twist the roots. The pit is deeply buried or it is made too shallow,
- Incorrect primary care. After planting, the gardeners forget that they need to be watered several days in a row to compact the land and close contact with the root system.
Video about planting blackcurrant seedlings.
It is better to plant currants in the fall before the onset of frost. But it happens that the summer resident does not have time to do it in time. Then you can plant the plants in early spring seedlings. To land a success, you need to properly conduct such activities:
- Choose zoned, healthy seedlings.
- Plan a plot.
- Prepare for planting from the autumn pit, fertilize them.
- According to the regulations, plant, water and trim the shoots so that no more than four eyes are left on each.
- Water daily until the plant growth is visually visible.
- Be sure to do pruning next spring to form a bush.
According to reviews of experienced gardeners, the plant will take root and will bear fruit, if only to withstand exactly the time of its planting.