It is much more pleasant to eat sunflower seeds, which are grown by hand. Well, if the plot for planting will be away from the highway, then the harmful substances in the finished seeds will be as small as possible. What you need to do before planting a sunflower in the country?
First, choose a soil. Ideally, this will be black soil, but sandy soil will also work. It is categorically impossible to plant seeds in clay soil - time will be wasted. And be sure to take care of good drainage, otherwise the sunflower just rot in too moist soil.
Secondly, you need to decide in which place it is better to plant the plant. The name sunflower speaks for itself. Of course, the place should be open to the penetration of warm rays, because this plant is so fond of the sun. In hot summer with moderate watering, it reaches three meters in height. Here, of course, it is important to adhere to the time when to plant sunflower.
Third, prepare the ground. Plant well in the place where corn, wheat, peas or beans were previously grown. This soil will be enriched with all the necessary trace elements. It is important to remove all weeds from the selected area before planting.
Should I listen to the lunar calendar?
Many gardeners before deciding when to plant sunflower refer to the lunar calendar. It has long been known that planting plants that stretch upward is necessary when the moon grows. Once the average daily temperature reaches 10-12 degrees, it is worth looking into the lunar calendar. If the moon is growing, then it's time to plant seeds. As for seedlings, here it is necessary to realize that in advance, approximately in the middle of April (20 days before the start of planting in the ground).
A prepared place and soil is half the success. Now it's up to the seeds.
There are two types of seeds on the market for planting: regular and hybrids, which are indicated by F1 marking. What is the difference between them?
Unlike ordinary seeds, hybrids do not leave "offspring". This means that the grown seeds cannot be used for planting next year: the harvest will not be possible. But there are also advantages. They are chosen by those gardeners who want to harvest a rich harvest this year, and not to grow seeds for the next planting. The percentage of germination of sunflower hybrids is about 80%, while for ordinary seeds it is only 60%.
It should be noted that in addition to the yield of hybrids good resistance to diseases, they are not afraid of moisture, do not crumble.
Which sort of sunflower to choose is up to the gardener himself. Some seeds are more suitable for a particular type of soil, others will grow in a separate climatic zone, others correspond to all conditions, but they are much more expensive.
How to plant sunflower seeds
Already in early May, the average daily temperature usually reaches 10 degrees. This comes a time when planting a sunflower in open ground.
In the previously prepared soil pits are depth of about 5 cm (in the northern regions, plus 3 cm). The distance between the grooves is about 40 cm, between the rows - about half a meter. In one hole 2 or 3 seeds are sown. If the average daily temperature has already reached 10-12 degrees, the first shoots will appear in 8-10 days. But you can plant a sunflower before. However, at a daytime temperature of 6-8 degrees, seedlings begin to appear only after 20 days, and seeds need to be planted deeper than 5 cm.
And it should be noted that the longer sunflower sprouts do not sprout, the more likely it is that birds and rodents have spoiled them or destroyed them. Therefore, the seeds of this plant never have one hundred percent germination.
Here's how to plant sunflower seeds in open ground. But you can plant the plant and seedlings.
When to plant sunflower seedlings
At room temperature, the first shoots appear in a week. But until the time comes when planting in the ground, the sunflower should grow. Therefore, the best option is to sow the seeds of the plant in advance 20 days before the intended landing on the site.
How to plant sunflower seeds for seedlings? For this you need to prepare special peat pots, in each of which to sow one or two seeds. Instead of pots, you can take plastic disposable cups. For a good seedling is better to use high-quality black soil with fertilizers.
It is important that the place where the seedlings will stand, has sufficient lighting. If daylight penetrates little, the shoots will stretch, turn white, be weak and thin. From such a seedling, most likely, it will not be possible to collect a good sunflower crop.
As soon as the first shoots appeared, the time of weeding the sunflower begins. In total, from the moment of planting of seeds or seedlings into the ground before harvesting, at least three treatments of the plant from weeds should be done. It is here that it will become clear how to plant sunflowers. The distance between them should be sufficient for the convenience of weeding and so that the flowers do not shred. Immediately after the start of flowering, it is recommended to tear off the lower leaves to the very cap, so that the seeds get enough moisture and are not empty.
After the first weeding and before flowering the plant should be fertilized. It all depends on when to plant a sunflower. The first top dressing is made approximately in a month after landing, the second - through a similar period. For a start, it is better to take a full-fledged fertilizer, and then you can limit yourself to the nitrogen-phosphorus feed of the plant.
The sunflower does not like water, so before deciding how to plant a sunflower in the country, it is better to give preference to places where the soil will dry out quickly. For a good harvest, it is enough to produce three irrigations per season: immediately after germination, before flowering, and in the process of seed ripening.
When the sunflower has grown, and it happens about three months after planting, it remains only to harvest. But just at the time when there is very little time left until the seeds ripen, the birds attack the plant. And then the question arises of how to plant sunflower seeds so that the grown crop is less exposed to raids of birds?
There is nothing you can do about the location of the site for planting, you need to give preference to good soil and the open sun. But you can save the crop, using artful tricks. After the sunflower has faded and the seeds started ripening in it, it is necessary to tie up the head of the plant. For this case, suitable fishing net with very small cells, gauze, fine cotton fabric. But you should avoid harmful advice about wrapping polyethylene around the head of the sunflower. For full ripening of seeds, they need air, and in a closed package the seeds will simply spoil.
What influences a good result?
As a summary, it should be noted, what does affect the receipt of the expected yield at the end of the season.
- Sunflower grows well in areas open to the penetration of sunlight on black earth or sandy soils with sufficient drainage.
- An important role is played by the choice of seeds. From their quality depends on the germination of shoots and resistance to diseases and pests.
- You should know when to plant a sunflower in the open ground with seeds and seedlings.
- The quantity of sunflower harvest is influenced by the quality of care for them, namely: timely weeding, watering, fertilizing with fertilizers, protection from bird attacks.
- As soon as the sunflower begins to dry and bows its head to the ground, it is time to reap the fruits of its work. This means that the seeds are ripe and ready to eat raw or after heat treatment.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Growing from seed
- 3.1. Sowing
- 3.2. Growing seedlings
- 3.3. Picks
- 4. Sowing in open ground
- 4.1. When to plant
- 4.2. Priming
- 4.3. How to plant
- 4.4. What to plant after
- 5. Care
- 5.1. How to grow
- 5.2. Watering
- 5.3. Top dressing
- 6. Pests and diseases
- 6.1. Diseases
- 6.2. Pests
- 6.3. Treatment
- 7. Cleaning and storage
- 7.1. When and how to clean
- 7.2. Storage methods
- 8. Types and varieties
- 9. Properties: harm and benefit
- 9.1. Beneficial features
- 9.2. Contraindications
Planting and care of sunflower (in short)
- Landing: Sowing seeds in open ground - in late April or early May, when the soil at a depth of 10 cm warms to 8-12 C.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: any, except sour, marshy and saline, but more suitable fertile soils with clay content.
- Watering: frequent and plentiful. Moisture is most needed before the plant forms 4 pairs of leaves, and then during budding, flowering and seed pouring. In the heat, watering should be daily, and in drought the site should be watered 2-3 times a day.
- Top dressing: regular throughout the growing season with the use of both organic and mineral fertilizers. The method of introducing the main elements - the root, the plant is supplied with micronutrients with foliar dressings.
- Reproduction: seed - seedling and seedless.
- Pests: steppe crickets, weevils, burrowing moths, sandy slow fish, meadow moths, wireworms, cockchafer and their larvae, herbivorous bugs, aphid.
- Diseases: peronospora (downy mildew), embelisse (black spot), fomopsis (gray spot), fomosis of the stem, coal (ashy) rot, dry rot, verticillus wilt, gray rot, alternaria (brown spot), sclerotis, gray rot, gray rot, alterariosis (brown spot), sclerotis, gray rot, gray rot, alterariosis (brown spot), sclerotis, gray rot, gray rot, alternariosis (brown spot), sclerotis, pink rot, gray rot, alternariosis (brown spot), sklerot pink , powdery mildew, rust, broomrape, bacteriosis, viral mosaic and greening of flowers.
Sunflower - description
Oilseed Sunflower (lat. Helianthus annuus) is an annual plant up to 2.5 m in height with a core root system penetrating to a depth of 2-3 m. The stem of sunflower is erect, covered with hard hairs, unbranched, with an elastic and soft core. The leaves are alternate, long-petiolate, with the upper sessile, and the lower opposite, ovate-heart-shaped, with pointed tips. The length of the sheet plate with serrate edges, pubescent with a stiff pile, reaches 40 cm. The flowers are collected in very large baskets surrounded by wrapping leaves. The buds and young baskets turn after the sun, changing orientation from east to west during the day, but with maturity the plant fixes the position of the basket, although the leaves still turn after the sun. The marginal flowers of baskets from 4 to 7 cm long are reed infertile, and numerous internal ones are tubular, bisexual.
Usually, oilseed sunflower forms only one inflorescence, but sometimes additional processes with small baskets occur. Sunflower blooms from July to August, cross-pollinated with the help of wind and insects. Fruits are oblong, slightly compressed achenes with weakly pronounced edges, from 8 to 15 mm long and from 4 to 8 mm wide, with a leathery pericarp and gray, white, striped or black skin (husk). Inside the seeds are white kernels in the seed coat. Sunflower is an excellent honey plant.
Sowing sunflower seeds.
It does not make sense to grow sunflower through seedlings, because its shoots are able to tolerate small frosts. But if you decided to grow sunflower seedlings, then sow the seeds 20-25 days before planting in the garden immediately in separate containers - in pots or, for example, in cut plastic bottles 28-30 cm high with drainage holes in the bottom. Mix fertile soil with humus in equal proportions, fill containers with a wet mixture, plant one or two seeds in each at a depth of 3-4 cm and be sure to press the soil so that it embraces the seeds from all sides. Place the crops in a warm place and cover them with a film.
Growing sunflower seedlings.
As soon as the seedlings appear, the crops are moved to the bright window sill. Care of seedlings consists in moistening the substrate, carefully loosening the soil and regular airing. A week before planting in open ground, the seedlings are hardened, exposing them daily to the open air and gradually increasing the duration of the procedure.
The fact is that the sunflower does not tolerate the transplant very well, therefore it is better not to pick the seedlings. Sunflower seedlings are planted in open ground at the beginning of June along with an earthen clod, a method of transshipment. The scheme of planting sunflower involves placing seedlings at a distance of a meter from each other. Be very careful not to damage the root system during transplantation.
When to plant sunflower in the ground.
Sunflower is sown at the end of April or at the beginning of May, when the ground warms to 8-12 ºC. The culture is unpretentious for growing conditions - shoots can withstand frosts down to -5 ºC and drought. However, there are a few caveats:
- - do not grow sunflower for several years in one place, take a break of 3-4 years,
- - do not plant sunflower where tomatoes, beets or legumes grew last season,
- - the best precursors for sunflower are corn and grains,
- - when planting a sunflower, keep in mind that not a single crop can fully grow in the diameter of its root system.
Soil for sunflower.
Fertile soils with some clay in the roots and moisture under them will be optimal for sunflower. In general, the sunflower is able to adapt to any kind of soil, both light and heavy. The culture does not suit sour, marshy and saline soils.
Before sowing sunflower, prepare a plot: free it from weeds and apply complex mineral fertilizers for digging. Some gardeners do not consider it necessary to fertilize the soil specifically for this crop, believing that if other vegetables grow well on the site, the sunflower will also grow.
How to plant sunflower in open ground.
Before sowing, sunflower seeds need to be calibrated and then etched for 14 hours in a one-percent solution of potassium permanganate or kept overnight in garlic-onion infusion, for the preparation of which 100 g of garlic are crushed, mixed with onion peel, poured with two liters of boiling water, infused for 24 hours and filtered through gauze. The use of garlic infusion for seed treatment will not only kill all pathogens, but will also scare pests and rodents away from seeds for the first time.
Sowing of sunflower is carried out in a moist soil to a depth of about 8 cm, leaving 2-3 seeds in the nest. Between large sunflowers keep a distance of about a meter, and between varieties of average height - about 60 cm. The greater the distance between the plants, the larger the seeds of the new crop will be.
What to plant after sunflower.
Growing sunflower greatly depletes the soil, so planting vegetables after it is pointless, it is better to plant some legumes - soybeans, beans, peas, vetch, lupine. Legumes will allow the soil to rest and saturate it with nitrogen. The next year, after the legumes on this place you can grow cucumbers.
Watering the sunflower.
Water the sunflower as needed. Especially the plant needs moisture until 4 pairs of leaves are formed. The next stage of increased need for moisture falls on the formation of inflorescences, and then - in the period of flowering and filling seeds. When moistening sunflower, not only the frequency of irrigation is important - it is necessary to saturate the soil to the depth of the roots of the plant. In the summer heat, sunflowers are watered daily, but if drought occurs, you will have to moisten the soil two or even three times a day - the sunflower is very moisture-loving.
Top dressing of sunflower.
Since the sunflower needs a large amount of nutrients, after the formation of the third pair of leaves, it should be fed: 20-40 g of superphosphate is applied to each m² of the plot, scattering dry fertilizer on the surface. Then the granules are buried in the soil to a depth of 10 cm, after which the area is watered.
As soon as the baskets are formed, add potassium-nitrogen fertilizer to the soil: add a tablespoon of potassium sulfate to the bucket solution (1:10). Re-fertilize the plants with the same solution during seed ripening.
Sometimes blistering curvatures appear on sunflower leaves, cracks form on the stems, and it becomes brittle. These are signs of a shortage of boron in the soil. In this case, it is necessary to treat the plant on the leaves with a boron-containing preparation.
Diseases of sunflower.
Sunflower with the wrong care and non-compliance with agricultural technology can hit many diseases.
Perinosporosis, or downy mildew, is a fungal disease caused by the plasmopar mushroom. The diseased plant looks underdeveloped, its stems become thin and fragile, and the leaves are small and chlorotic, with a white bloom on the underside of the plate. But there is a form of the disease in which the stems shorten and thicken. За один сезон возможно повторное заражение пероноспорозом уже почти завершившего свое развитие подсолнечника. В этом случае на листьях появляются небольшие маслянистые пятна неправильной формы, на их нижней стороне образуется белесый налет, а стебли становятся светло-зелеными.Then the infection penetrates the basket, which, as a result of the lesion, ceases to develop.
Embellisia, or black spot - A harmful disease that affects not only sunflower, but even very resistant weeds. Symptoms of the disease appear on plants in the developmental stage of 5-6 leaves: dark necrotic spots of 3-5 mm in size appear on the plates, which grow and coalesce, forming spots of 4-5 cm in size surrounded by a yellow border. Dark elongated spots of irregular shape appear on the petioles, numerous cracks appear in the place of attachment of the petiole to the stem, and black necrosis forms on the stem around the petiole. You can also see dark brown specks on baskets affected by embelisia.
Fomopsis, or gray spot - one of the most dangerous fungal diseases affecting all parts of the plant. Dark angular necroses appear on the leaves, as if from a burn, and the leaves, together with the petioles, dry up and die. On the stems around the affected petioles, brown necrosis with a clear contour also forms, which later turn gray and become covered with pycnidia. Stems become fragile and break easily. The disease progresses with increased humidity in warm weather.
Fomoz stalk caused by fungus and manifested in young plants in the development stage they have 6-8 leaves. Brown spots appear on the leaves with a bright yellow rim; they increase to cover the entire leaf and even the petiole. Then the fungus infects the tissues of the stem, and if the infection occurs during flowering, then soon brown spots of irregular outlines are formed on the basket, the seeds develop poorly, turn out to be half-empty, and then also turn brown.
Coal, or ash rot - A fungal disease that also affects beets, potatoes and corn. An infection is gathered on the root neck and, as it develops, it moves up the stem, blocking the supply of nutrients through it, causing the leaves and the top to begin to wither, dry out, and the plant may die. The disease progresses in the heat with prolonged absence of precipitation.
Dry rot caused by fungus and is ubiquitous. On the front side of the basket there are rotting dark brown spots that gradually dry out and harden. With a strong lesion, cells with grains easily move away from the base in whole layers. The seeds look flat, underdeveloped, stuck together, and their taste is bitter. Most often, the disease develops in a protracted drought and after a sunflower damage by hail.
Gray rot It is also caused by a fungus that can persist for a long time in the soil, on seeds, plant roots and in post-harvest plant residues. An active infection becomes in wet weather due to a decrease in temperature. On young plants appear brown spots, soon covered with a grayish bloom. On the stems are formed dark strokes with the same touch. It affects fungus and ripening baskets, which causes oily stains on their backs, the fabric in these places becomes softened, covered with bloom, rots and dies. Under favorable conditions for the fungus, it can adversely affect the yield of sunflower.
Verticillus Wilt can lead to the gradual fading of tissues and even the death of plants. The causative agent of the disease is a fungus that infects the vascular system of sunflower. The first signs of the disease are noticeable when flowering, then verticillus appears on the leaves, losing turgor between the veins, after which they frown and die, but for a long time they may not fall off. The infection infects the stem vessels, deteriorating the quality of the generative organs - if you cut the stem of the affected plant, you can see the flesh that has become brown. The fungus is activated during prolonged drought and heat.
Alternaria, or brown spot, caused by fungus, affects the stems, leaves and seeds of sunflower. At first brown necrotic spots appear on the leaves, which increase and take on irregular shapes. Sometimes Alternaria appears only at the end of the growing season. The disease develops on the background of high humidity and air temperature.
Sclerotinia or white rot affects the sunflower throughout the growing season, but can manifest itself in different ways. The rapidity of development is characteristic of this disease. Shoots affected by white rot, die immediately. Young plants with 5-6 leaves at a temperature of 16-18 ºC on the background of high humidity on the leaves formed a white felt bloom. With the development of the disease, diseased tissues die off, the stems break down and the plants die. On the back of the basket appear wet light brown spots, the fabric under which it becomes soft. Radical defeat of sunflower with white rot reduces the supply of nutrients to the leaves and stalks, which brings the death of the plant closer.
Ascohitosis may appear during the whole growing season, but the symptoms become more pronounced in the second half of summer: very dark, almost black spots round or irregular in shape, 1-2 cm in diameter appear on the leaves, stalks and baskets, and pycnidia appear in the center of the spots . The infection has a fungal origin.
Mealy dew is common in southern areas. It manifests itself as a white mealy bloom on the surface of the leaves, which gradually darkens and turns into a dense brown film. With the intensive development of the disease decreases the yield of plants and decreases the oil content in the seeds.
Rust - A fungal disease common in all places where sunflower is grown. In spring, on the lower and sometimes on the upper side of the leaves, convex orange formations in the form of pads - pustules appear; upon cracking of which, a rusty powder, which represents the spores of the fungus, is scattered. Rust causes the death of leaves, and with a strong infection other organs are affected. In the affected plants, there is a loss of moisture, metabolic disorders and a lag in development.
Zarazikha is a single-stemmed parasite with flowers of a light purple shade and fruits in the shape of a box. Broomrape sprout attached to the root of the sunflower, is introduced into it and lives at the expense of the plant, greatly reducing its yield.
Bacteriosis as is clear from the name of the disease, has a bacterial nature. Diseased sunflower tissues rot and become tainted, wither and dry.
Mosaic caused by the virus of curly tobacco striation and manifested by a change in the leaves of sunflower - they become variegated, then they deform and lag behind in growth and development.
Greening flowers it is manifested by leaf chlorosis, dwarfism, the formation of thin secondary shoots and the sterility of flowers that acquire a green color. The disease is caused by mycoplasma bodies that carry the cicadas.
Not only diseases but also pests can affect the sunflower crop. For example:
- - steppe crickets - adult insects that damage the plant during the period of the first leaves and destroy the growing point. Most pests focus on the edges of the plots
- - scoops - the first generation of pests is dangerous: caterpillars in the soil gnaw off the stem at the root collar,
- - sandy slow fish - these beetles gnaw seedlings and eat them,
- - weevils - the greatest danger is represented by southern gray, gray and gray beet weevils, which eat the seedbed leaves, snack on the stems and harm the sprouts that have not yet emerged from under the ground,
- - meadow moths are distinguished by great voracity and omnivorous: the larvae can eat the entire leaf surface, leaving only large veins, they also destroy the epidermis in baskets and stems,
- - herbivorous bugs suck juices from the plant. The most dangerous pest damage to seeds, which leads to their death,
- - Aphid damages young leaves, causing the plate to wrinkle, turn yellow and turn brown. Plants affected by aphids are lagging behind,
- - wireworms - larvae of the click beetle - they eat away the seeds sown, sprouts, gnawing seedlings under the ground. Wireworms are dangerous until 2-3 pairs of leaves develop in a sunflower,
- - May beetle - its larvae, being in the ground, damage sunflower and other cultures, feeding on plant roots at the first stage of their development.
Description: varieties and varieties of sunflower
The elegant, bright sunflower with tasty black seeds well known to most people comes from North America. Oil varieties, in contrast to the decorative inedible "relatives", annuals. Their height can reach 2.5-3 m. Many gardeners consider the sunflower to be a non-capricious plant, therefore they often upload photos of their plots on which the “sun flower” flaunts.
At least 60 types of oilseed crops are now known. Among them:
These hybrids differ in terms of ripening. On average, the crop of seeds can be harvested after 2.5-3.5 months. after planting the plant in open ground.
Planting a plant at the dacha
In open ground sunflower sown in spring. To grow a crop, you need to pick a sunny, windless place with fertile soil. It is good if before that grain or corn were growing on the plot. Poor forerunners for the "sun flower" are legumes, tomatoes and sugar beets. If the territory does not allow "to turn around", you can plant a plant between the rows of cereals.
Attention! It is not recommended to grow sunflower oil varieties at the same place for several years in a row. A break of 3-4 years is needed to restore the soil.
Seeds are sown in the ground warmed up to + 8 ... + 12 ° C. But do not be afraid of return frosts characteristic of spring. Sunflower can withstand short periods of cold up to -5 ° C. In the hole depth of 8 cm put 2-3 seeds. The distance between plants should be about 0.5 m for medium-sized sunflowers and 0.75-0.9 m for tall ones.
Fertilizer and feeding "sun flower"
Since fertilization is one of the key conditions for proper care, it is important to remember a few rules:
- Oilseed varieties like potassium.
- Excessive enthusiasm for nitrogen reduces the "immunity" of the culture.
- Bees are more likely to pollinate those sunflowers, under which potassium phosphate fertilizer is applied.
- Feed manure excluded.
Plant reproduction: options
The breeding method depends on the type of sunflower:
- for perennial suitable division bush,
- for annuals (oilseeds) - only the seed method.
The seed propagation option involves careful material selection. All copies must be large, without visible damage. To rid the seeds of harmful microbes, they need to be etched. To do this, use special preparations or products made according to popular recipes.
One of them is onion-garlic tincture:
- Garlic (100 g) is scrolled through a meat grinder and mixed with onion peel.
- Pour all 2 liters of boiling water, insist 24 hours and filtered through cheesecloth.
The seed is soaked in liquid overnight, just before planting. At first, this tool also helps to repel pests.
Attention! Roasted sunflower seeds from bright packages with colorful photos that are sold in stores are not suitable for planting and breeding sunflower. Take only fresh. Collected 2-3 years ago, too, will not fit.
Diseases and pests of sunflower
- White rot. It affects the basket from the inside and reduces the yield of the plant.
- Gray rot. Distributed throughout the stalk. The first signs - the appearance and reproduction on the leaves of dark spots.
- Mealy dew. If it occurs, it is only at the beginning of the vegetation phase. Looks like white spots on the underside of the leaves.
- Fomopsis is one of the most common ailments. Sick plants acquire a gray-silver color, the trunk becomes empty, the sunflower fades.
- Gnawing scoop. Damages the root neck of young sunflowers.
- Meadow moths. They "hunt" on the leaves of the plant.
- Wireworm. Gnaws germinating seeds and seedlings.
- Different types of aphids. Damage to leaves and baskets. Often fly over the sunflower with fruit trees.
To fight insects, use insecticides. If the birds attempt to harvest, you should act smarter. Put a scarecrow or pull the rope along the beds with strips of fabric, newspapers, foil, hang the old discs. You can close the basket with a gauze cover with holes. But this method is only suitable if the plant is already pollinated.
Combination with other plants in the garden
One of the most successful joint planting options is the “duet” of sunflower and corn. Their roots lie at different levels of the soil. For this reason, plants do not compete for water and nutrients, which both of them require quite a lot. Successful is the combination of sunflower with curly beans, cucumbers and lettuce.
Should not be engaged in the cultivation of "sunny flowers" next to the potatoes. It is also important to remember that oilseed crops greatly deplete the soil. Therefore, the site after it needs careful care and application of organic fertilizers in the fall. In the next season, it is best to plant siderats or legumes in the place of a sunflower: peas, beans. It is recommended to sow other vegetables not earlier than in 1-2 years.
Selection and processing of the area under the sunflower
Sunflower grows on any soil, but gives a good harvest on slightly acid loams, black soil, chestnut soils. Wetlands with high acidity, as well as sandstones for productive cultivation "yield" - will not work.
It is not recommended to sow sunflower after sugar beet and tomatoes. In these areas, the soil contains a large amount of nitrogen, and the culture does not like it. This fact must be taken into account when applying fertilizers. Better fit, previously planted with winter cereals, corn, cabbage.
Sunflower quickly depletes the soil and cannot be grown two years in a row in one place.
Also, keep in mind that after sunflower land requires restoration, and is not suitable for almost all garden crops. After it, the soil must be fertilized and the spring grain, peas or beans must be planted - they will help to quickly restore depleted soil. Return to sowing sunflower on one plot is possible only after 7 years.
In the autumn phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied to the site: superphosphate, potassium sulfate. After that, the soil is deeply dug up so that at the level of the roots there is no subsoil and compacted areas of soil.
Seed preparation for planting
Sunflower is prone to over-pollination, so sowing the seeds of the last harvest is not worth it. It is better to purchase them in a specialty store. Before sowing, planting material is calibrated and pickled.
Calibration is carried out using a sieve, leaving only the largest specimens. Also, seeds are checked for the volume of grain, or "for completeness" - dipped in a saline solution (a teaspoon of salt per liter of water) and use only those that have dropped to the bottom of the tank within 10 minutes.
Preparation of sunflower seeds for planting
Growing sunflower requires seed dressing before planting, as pests love to profit. Use chemicals: Prestige, Agrovital, Commander.
You can prepare a folk remedy for dressing sunflower seeds from 100 g of twisted garlic and onion peels. The components are poured over two liters of boiling water overnight, filtered in the morning and dipped into the solution for 12 hours. This method is more humane and safe for birds and animals.
Seeds are sown in May, when the soil warms up to 8 degrees Celsius. At the site with a hoe make holes, 5-7 cm deep. The greater the distance between the holes, the larger the caps will grow. The recommended landing step is 50 cm.
The first shoots of sunflower
In each hole 2-3 seeds are dipped and sprinkled with earth. The soil should be wet.
Sunflower growing technology
Shoots appear after 10 days. From now on, you must regularly water the sunflower. The root system and the aboveground part of the plant are rather large, and they consume a lot of moisture. The culture does not tolerate weedy neighborhoods, so regular weeding is required.
Sunflower seedlings are fed in the phase of 2-3 leaves
In the phase of 2-3 leaves, it is necessary to feed the sunflower with azofoskoy 40 g and urea 20 g per 10 liters of water. Fertilizers are applied after pre-irrigation.
Since the beginning of the formation of seed pods, potash fertilizers (sulphate or potassium chloride) are applied. This helps to increase the level of drought resistance of the plant, the formation of large seeds and increase their oiliness.
From conceiving seeds to flowering, sunflower's need for moisture doubles. Therefore, the rate and frequency of irrigation during this period increase.
Sunflower Disease Control
Before you grow a sunflower in the country, you need to prepare for its protection from a variety of diseases and pests, since crop yields often suffer precisely because of them. The most dangerous fungal diseases are: downy mildew, fomoz, rust, fomopsis, white rot.
They infect leaves and seed pods. Sunflower affected by fungi is lagging behind, caps do not develop. Первые признаки большинства болезней можно заметить в фазе 2-3 листков, но основные симптомы проявляются позже. Для борьбы с заболеваниями посадки опрыскивают до начала цветения препаратами Микосан-В, Фитоспорин, Триходермин.
Часто подсолнечник поражается заразихой (лат. Orobanche) - растением-паразитом, поселяющимся на корнях культуры. It has no roots and foliage and is fed by the sunflower.
Sunflower Contagion feeds on culture juice
During the growing season, broomrape forms about 100 thousand seeds, which remain viable for up to 15 years in the soil. Seeds germinate only in the presence of the host plant. There are no preparations against the parasite, therefore it is necessary to choose resistant varieties, and also to observe crop rotation.
Sunflower pests and control
To eat oilseed sunflower like many pests. Sunflower flaming (lat. Homoeosoma nebulella) occurs most often. She lays eggs in a basket at the stage of its formation, and later the larvae hatch and gnaw seed kernels. Pests are also common: southern weevil, wireworm, sunflower barbel, shponoska.
The larva of the moth on the sunflower
Reduce the likelihood of insect damage will help: seed treatment before planting, timely removal of weeds, respect for crop rotation. If pests are found, the plantings are treated with insecticides - Taran, Desiccant, Actellic.
Great damage to the crop can cause birds. To scare them near the caps of sunflower they tie bright multi-colored ribbons. Also use tinsel or old computer disks. Often, gardeners install on the site scarecrow.
Sunflower protection against birds
Protecting seeds from birds and pests will help strapping heads breathable fabric, such as gauze. This should be done only after pollination and leave in this form until the seeds are fully ripe.
Sunflower harvest begins in August. By this time the heads bow to the ground, the extreme petals dry out and fall off, the seeds become black in color.
Ripening seeds become harder, and the sunflower head is lowered
Matured caps are cut off and, if necessary, put on a board (1-2 days). Remove the seeds over the spread cloth. The heads rub together until all the seeds are out.
Seeds are dried in the shade, poured them on the substrate in a single layer. Waiting for windy weather, seeds are sifted. To do this, they endure to the open area, dial into any container and pour it back from a height of human growth, thereby removing weed particles.
Sunflower head ripened to harvest
Store sunflower seeds in a dry place in hermetically sealed containers or in bags of non-woven material.
Grow a sunflower in the country and collect a good crop under the force of even a novice gardener. Particular attention should be paid to the preparation of seeds for sowing, timely watering, removal of weeds and combating dangerous diseases and pests. If the technology of cultivation of sunflower, described in our material, is observed completely, you will collect a magnificent harvest of tasty and oily seeds.
In order to protect sunflower crops from diseases and pests, it is necessary:
- - observe crop rotation,
- - choose to grow resistant to diseases and pests varieties of sunflower,
- - before sowing, it is necessary to seed the sunflower seeds with fungicides and insecticides,
- - observe the terms and scheme of sowing,
- - regularly destroy weeds in the area,
- - carry out preventive treatment of plants with fungicides and insecticides,
- - remove plant residues from the site after harvest,
- - conduct in the fall deep plowing or digging the site.
If during the growing season there are signs of fungal diseases on plants, the infection should be destroyed by systemic fungicides solutions, for example, Apron or Kruiser. Stop processing at least one month before harvest. Viral diseases are incurable, therefore mosaic-affected specimens should be immediately removed and burned.
Seed treatment before sowing with insecticides protects the seedlings from pests for 5-7 weeks, but then you should occasionally carry out preventive spraying of the sunflower with solutions of insecticides and acaricides with a broad spectrum of action, such as Volg, Akarin, Aktellik or Agravertin. Especially dangerous are sucking insects - aphids and bedbugs, since they not only damage the plants and suck the sap from them, but also are carriers of incurable viral diseases.
How to plant a sunflower in the country, in the garden or in the garden
Growing sunflower seeds - an exciting experience, albeit rather painstaking.
Plant better in warm, dry weather, preferably at noon or in the afternoon, when the soil is already thoroughly warmed. Early in the morning or late in the evening, when the soil is cold, planting seeds is not recommended. Those who are afraid of planting seeds immediately in the open ground due to the "vagaries" of the weather, can plant seeds at home in a pot, wait for the first shoots, and then plant the plant on the site, just like cucumber seedlings or tomato are planted. If a novice gardener I decided to plant the seeds immediately in open ground, the sequence of actions will be approximately as follows:
- Determine the location. Many gardeners like to plant sunflower along the edges of the plot, as an overgrown sunflower reliably closes the plot from prying eyes, like a hedge. But the one who wants to get a good harvest of seeds should choose a separate garden bed for a sunflower in a well-lit place. The name itself suggests that this wonderful flower loves the sun,
- Next you should form the wells for planting,
- A seed is put into each well and gently sprinkled with earth,
- When all the seeds are planted and properly sprinkled with earth, they can be watered, but very carefully, so as not to erode the soil. It should be moderate watering.
When the first shoots, the sunflower must be fed. This culture is especially “responsive” to complex fertilizers, which contain potassium in their composition. If the seedlings are already well stretched out, but they are still thin, and there is a strong wind outside, you can tie up a sunflower just like tying up tomatoes. Then, when he is stronger and gaining strength, he can be “freed” from support.
In central Russia, the sunflower ripens around late August - early September. Determine the degree of maturity of sunflower can be the color of the seed. If the sunflower is not yet ripe, the seeds will be light gray. Then they gradually darken and turn black. When the sunflower seeds are fully ripe, you can start harvesting. The heads of the flower are carefully cut, and the seeds are removed and laid out to dry. Then the planting material for the next year is selected from these seeds.
Sunflower cultivation: practical recommendations
Growing has its own characteristics. In order for the cultivation of these flowers to become a pleasure, you need to know the approach to them.
The flower needs regular watering, it is also necessary to feed it in a timely manner. Many gardeners are surprised that the sunflower, which last year had excellent fruit bearing, becomes practically “fruitless” next year. The reason for such metamorphosis is often very simple. A gardener should know that a sunflower can never be planted in the same place for two years in a row, because it takes all the nutrients out of the soil. But a year or two later, you can put him in his usual place again.
The flower is very popular in thosewho keeps a small apiary in his garden plot. This plant always attracts the attention of bees, and therefore those who grow sunflower in their apiary will have not only tasty and nutritious seeds, but also wonderful honey.
Sunflower looks great in the composition of "hedge", especially those varieties that are pulled high up and have powerful, large inflorescences of bright yellow shades. From flowers of a sunflower original bouquets and compositions turn out.
Also, undoubtedly, it is worth planting sunflower on your plot to those who lead a healthy lifestyle and are not indifferent to their diet. Natural Sunflower Seedsthat have not yet been heat treated (that is, roasted seeds) contain a large amount of natural antioxidants, which slow down the aging process and have the most beneficial effect on the skin.
Sunflowers are very fond of birds, so if a novice gardener is determined to save the crop, you need to scare the birds. For this purpose, you can use the classic garden scarecrow, and you can hang old CDs on the branches of nearby trees. When discs will reflect sunlight, the birds will be scared of these highlights and fly away. You can also hang red rags on sunflowers, as the birds are often afraid of red.
Sunflower can be grown as an ornamental crop, as a honey plant or as an agricultural crop for seed production. In any case, the cultivation of this flower is an unusually interesting, though painstaking, occupation. In order to succeed in this matter, it is very important to properly care for the sunflower and follow the advice of experienced gardeners. With proper care, the sunflower will delight the owners of the cottage with luxurious flowers and tasty seeds, as well as provide a reliable shade for the plants - their “neighbors”.
Click homemade seeds all year round! All the details of growing sunflower in the country
How to grow sunflower
Sunflower originally from America. But the plant is so loved by the people of Russia, which has become almost popular. True, it is not so often possible to meet in the suburban areas - and in vain! We will tell how to settle again in the country "sun."
For the harvest of seeds in the cottages sow oilseed sunflower. This one-year unpretentious plant not only adorns the site, but also attracts insect pollinators. The fruits of sunflower seeds are called. Inside them are two edible cotyledons containing a large amount of fat and carbohydrates. In size, they are not large, have a slightly sweet taste. The inflorescences are medium or large, give a rich harvest, and during the flowering period they can be used in cutting to create autumn bouquets.
Best of all sunflower fruits in warm regions, but if you wish, you can grow it in the middle lane. The technology of growing sunflower is quite simple, but still it is worth considering a few nuances.
Choosing sunflower varieties
Choosing sunflower varieties
What do you want to get from sunflower grown on the site? Abundant fruiting, disease resistance, unpretentiousness. And most importantly - that the seeds were large and tasty! This is not least dependent on which variety or hybrid is selected for sowing. Consider some of them.
Volcano F1. Mid-season hybrid, which will give a good harvest, even in bad weather and lack of care. Resistant to rust and verticillous wilt.
Gourmand Large-fruited variety that will delight the crop in 105-110 days after planting. Beautiful honey plant. Seeds have excellent taste.
Reina. This hybrid is a record holder in drought tolerance and one of the leaders in terms of yield. Mid-season, ripens 95-100 days after sowing.
SEC. The most popular variety of sunflower. Large-fruited, mid-season, excellent melliferous beetle and a real giant (reaches up to 2 m in height). The first harvest can be harvested after 84-90 days after sowing. Does not tolerate thickening.
Jason F1. High-yielding early ripe hybrid. Not afraid of drought, powdery mildew, gray and white rot. Flowering and fruiting evenly.
ON A NOTE! For decorative purposes, such varieties and hybrids of sunflower as Teddy bear (Teddy bear), Moulin Rouge F1 (Moulin Rouge F1), Tayo (Taiyo) and etc.
Choosing a place for sowing sunflower
Place for sowing sunflower
The name "sunflower" says that this plant loves the sun very much. During the day, the young heads of sunflowers follow the movement of the luminary, and when the seed begins to ripen, turn it to the east. Therefore, the best place for a flower would be a well-lit area, without shading and drafts.
The soil should be fertile, give preference to black soil and sandy loam. Heavy, clay and acidified soils will have a bad impact on the harvest. Cooking is better in the fall. Clean the beds from weeds and dig up to a depth of 20 cm, previously make a bucket of humus per 1 sq. M. On poor soils, it is also worth making complex mineral fertilizers, for example, nitrophoska or azofoska according to the instructions. Great idea - to sow siderats that will improve the condition of the soil.
ON A NOTE! Sunflower quickly consumes nutrients, so every year you need to change the landing site. It is not recommended to plant sunflower after legumes, as well as tomatoes and beets. It is best to plant after corn, potatoes and cereals.
Cooking sunflower seeds for sowing
Cooking sunflower seeds for sowing
Seeds for sowing sunflower can be bought in the store or procure yourself. In the latter case, do not use the seeds of hybrids, because new plants will not retain the characteristics of the parent plant.
Then carry out the following procedures step by step:
- if your seeds, calibrate them in size to get uniform seedlings,
- pickle the seed with Fundazol, Vincit Forte, TMTD, Baktofit or manganese solution,
- to stimulate growth can use Kornevin or another similar drug,
- dry the seeds on a dry cloth.
We sow sunflower seeds in the ground
We sow sunflower seeds in the ground
For germination, sunflower seeds need a soil temperature of 8-12 ° C at a depth of 8 cm, for normal development and fruiting - 20-27 ° C. Therefore, the best time for sowing is April-May, when the soil warms up well. Another option is sowing seedlings at home or in a greenhouse. It is more suitable for central Russia with its late spring. On average, ripening occurs after 70-150 days, so you can roughly calculate when you want to get a crop and when it is worth sowing.
Sow the treated seeds in a well-moistened soil to a depth of 3-5 cm. Put 2-3 seeds in each well in case some seeds do not sprout. If the variety is large, leave between holes about 80-90 cm, medium - 45-55 cm. The distance between rows should be at least 0.7 m. Observe the same parameters when planting seedlings in open ground.
Caring for sunflower
Caring for sunflower
In the first weeks, the plants are especially vulnerable to weeds, so the soil should be loosened superficially as follows:
- after the emergence of shoots
- in phase 2 pairs of leaves,
- in phase 3 pairs of leaves (additional hilling is also needed),
- in phase 5-6 pairs of leaves.
When the sunflower grows to a height of 70-80 cm, loosening can be stopped. During flowering, it is desirable to hold another earthing up and, if necessary, install supports.
ON A NOTE! When the sunflowers appear on 4 true leaves, thin out the seedlings. Leave only the strongest copies, carefully cut off the rest. Pulling seedlings is not recommended, so as not to damage the roots of neighboring plants.
Properly water the sunflower
Properly water the sunflower
Young shoots of sunflower need moisture, and they need to be watered often enough - in dry weather up to 3 times a day. Also, plants need abundant watering during periods of budding, flowering, the formation of baskets and seeds.
The basic rule of watering a sunflower: it must be abundant in order for the earth to be moistened to the depth of the roots.
Adult plants are not afraid of drought, their long roots are fully capable of providing themselves with water. But too dry up the plants, especially in the heat, it is not necessary, otherwise the leaves will begin to age faster, and in the seeds will be less oil.
Watering sunflower need between the rows. Sprinkling can also be carried out (artificial irrigation).
When and how to harvest sunflower.
The sunflower is harvested during its full maturity, when the leaves and baskets dry up and turn brown - it is at this time that the oil accumulates in the seed, the seed kernels harden, the peel acquires the color characteristic of the variety, and the seeds are crushed when squeezed from the sides. When the site will be no more than 15% of sunflowers with yellow reed flowers, you can start cleaning.
But sometimes the ripening of seeds coincides with the beginning of the rainy season, and the baskets do not have time to dry on the vine. Do not store seeds with high humidity. In such cases, on the eve of the beginning of the rains, plants in dry weather are treated with desiccants, which ensure rapid ripening - the seeds in the baskets are sown a week earlier. This measure increases the yield of sunflower seeds, the seeds are of high quality, and their moisture does not exceed 9%.
Sunflower harvesting should be completed in six days, otherwise the seeds will begin to crumble. When cleaning the heads, they are cut 2-3 cm lower along the stem, then seeds are removed from them with the help of friction and the garbage is blown off.
It is possible, without cutting off, to tilt the heads above the bucket and beat the seeds out of the baskets, tapping from the back side with something heavy. Ripe seeds themselves slip out of the nests in the bucket.
Третий способ уборки позволяет сохранить урожай совсем без потерь: корзинки срезают с 10 см стебля, когда созрело только 2/3 семян. На головки надевают тканевые или бумажные мешки и подвешивают их на 2-3 недели к потолку в хорошо проветриваемом помещении, после чего с легкостью вылущивают спелые и сухие семена из гнезд.
The remaining stems in the area must be pulled out and burned, and the area to plow or dig up the depth of the spade bayonet.
Ways to store sunflower.
The keeping capacity of sunflower seeds depends on the integrity of their shells - grains with damaged skin are not protected from infection and quickly deteriorate. Reduce the shelf life of seeds and organic impurities, because they have an increased hygroscopicity compared to seeds.
For long-term storage, only cleared and scoured seeds with a moisture content of not more than 7% can be laid, cooled to 10 ºC. Dried seeds in a dry room with good ventilation. If humidity exceeds 12%, it is necessary to increase ventilation when drying.
Dry seeds can be stored for half a year. Keep them in a clean, dry, unheated room in fabric bags suspended from the ceiling.
Preparation of sunflower seeds for sowing: processing of sunflower seeds
Sprouted sunflower seeds in the photo
The processing of sunflower seeds before sowing is a whole complex, both technical and sanitary, necessary to improve the yield and germination of this crop.
Tillage before sowing sunflower seeds includes feeding with microelements, most of them are economical to use. The fact is that getting into the soil, they form poorly soluble compounds. They split for a long time, and the plant receives much more from them than from other types of fertilizers. Before planting sunflower seeds in open ground, they can be treated with compounds containing iron, copper, cobalt, iodine, molybdenum and manganese.
During storage, the seed sunflower can be damaged by insects, so it is etched. This is an economically and environmentally beneficial reception. The load of fungicides on the environment during dressing is much less than during spraying. The treatment during the treatment of sunflower seeds allows you to effectively deal with diseases that can no longer be destroyed after germination. As drugs are used "Maxim XL", "Apron XL", "Cruiser".
Next, the seeds need to germinate. To do this, they must be soaked in water, wrapped in gauze or some other fabric and placed in a place where the temperature is up to 20 ° C. When you notice the appearance of the first shoots, sunflower seeds can be planted in the ground.
Planting sunflower seeds in open ground
Sunflower unpretentious, and huge flowers are able to decorate any garden. Sunflower can grow on any soil, with the exception of sandy and strongly acidic. The very name of the plant suggests that it is very fond of the sun, but still able to grow and bloom even in partial shade. For planting sunflower need to take the most illuminated place of the site. Before you grow a sunflower out of seeds, you need to dig up the ground in the fall and apply fertilizer. Sunflowers are completely unpretentious and can grow at temperatures up to minus 5 ° C. At the same time, they are not afraid of frost.
For planting sunflower seeds, it is necessary to make holes 2.5-3 cm. The holes can be made even by hand, loosening the soil, since the distance from the surface is quite small. Put the seeds inside the corner down. After you have planted the seeds, cover them with earth and water carefully, but do not flood them.
For the cultivation of sunflower seeds can make furrows and place seeds in them at a distance of about 40 cm from one another. Between furrows it is necessary to observe a width of up to 0.5 m. The less often the plants are planted, the larger the seeds will be in them. A good harvest is obtained when the cultivation of sunflower seeds is carried out between the rows of beets, potatoes and other vegetables.
Collection of sunflower seeds for seed production
Sunflower seeds are easy to collect when the plant is completely dry: you can leave the sunflower to dry on the stem, or cut the stem and dry it indoors. But in this and in the other case, it is necessary to take precautions in order to protect them when collecting sunflower seeds.
While the sunflower has a beautiful view of a bright flower reaching for the sun - it has not yet ripened. The moment of ripening occurs when the basket inflorescence leans towards the ground, and the marginal petals-tongues turn brown, lose their bright yellow color, wither and dry. By the time the sunflower seeds are harvested, at least half of the yellow petals should fly around. Now let's examine the basket itself - the seeds in it can still sit quite tightly, but already be thick and dense, and also turn their own black color (different varieties of sunflower have a slightly different color, for example, there are white stripes).
In the phase of yellow ripeness, when 35–40 days have passed after flowering, the process of accumulation of oil in the seeds is completed. After that, there is a physical evaporation of moisture from the seed and a period of full ripeness begins.
Cutting a sunflower head occurs when it has completely acquired a brown color (dried out). The stalk of a sunflower is quite solid, so cut it carefully so that during this process you do not scatter some of the seeds from the bag / fabric (use a good shears).
Take as much seed as you need for planting next year, and leave the rest to the birds. As a result, they not only feast on seeds, but also clean your garden plot from pests as a thank you.
Before harvesting sunflower seeds in areas where natural standing drying is not suitable due to the humid climate, it is necessary to:
- tie a sunflower flower with a bag / cloth
- cut it off with a stem not less than 30 cm long,
- hang in a dry ventilated area, tied to the base of the flower with twine, thread or fishing line, and its other end, attached to a hook, stick or hanger,
- sunflower should be dried stem up, head down.
Drying sunflower seeds to get seeds
The easiest way to dry sunflower seeds directly on the stem, if the street is dry, sunny weather. If the weather is wet - it is necessary to cut the basket to dry in the room (under a canopy).
In any case, it is necessary to tie a gauze or a breathable fabric around the flower's head. Tying a basket will save sunflower seeds from birds, squirrels and most other wild animals, not allowing them to “harvest” before you. It also keeps the seeds from falling to the ground and getting lost.
While the sunflower dries:
- Do not forget to check the package / fabric and collect the falling out seeds,
- inspect fallen seeds and, if they are in good shape, store them in an airtight container until the rest of the seeds are ready,
- if the bag / cloth gets wet - be sure to change to dry,
- It can be temporarily tied up with a plastic bag to prevent it from getting wet, and after the rain has ended, you can immediately take it off.
The drying process of sunflower seeds takes an average of 1-2 days, but it may take longer, depending on how early you cut the heads, and under what conditions they dry.
Now we transfer the packets of sunflowers to a flat surface, carefully remove the bags / fabric and pour the spilled seeds into the storage container. To remove seeds that have not fallen out on their own, simply rub them with your hands or a hard vegetable brush. You can rub the sunflower heads together until all the seeds have been removed.
Carefully wash the seeds under cold running water, pour them into a colander. Give water to completely drain. Washing will eliminate most of the dirt and bacteria that have gathered on them while the flowers are outside.
Next, you need to dry the seeds. To do this, distribute them in one layer on a thick towel and leave to dry for several hours, in parallel we remove all the garbage and damaged seeds.
Fully dried seeds poured into a sealed container for further storage and use.
The largest seeds should be left next year for sowing.
Types and varieties of sunflower
For commercial purposes, sunflower is classified by the color of the husk. For example, sunflower varieties with black husk are classified as oil, because they contain up to 50% of the oil, and varieties with striped skin are used to produce food, including confectionery. Oil grades, in turn, are divided into polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and mid oleic acids, depending on the quantity and quality of the acids contained in the seeds.
According to the length of the growing season, varieties and hybrids of sunflower are divided into early-ripening, medium-early, middle-ripening and middle-late. We offer you an acquaintance with the best varieties of sunflower:
- – Suite - highly productive, large-fruited, resistant to diseases, drought and weeds confectionery variety of early ripening. Plants of this variety reach a height of 185 cm, the diameter of their basket is 25-27 cm, large kernels adjoin the walls of seed plants loosely,
- – Nutlet - high-yielding early ripe universal grade, steady against weather conditions, weeds and some diseases and wreckers. In plants up to 170 cm in size, large oval-oblong black sunflower seeds with peel in a longitudinal dark gray stripe,
- – Gourmand - large-fruited mid-ripening universal crop, resistant to weeds, drought, some diseases and pests. The plant reaches a height of almost 2 m, its basket is convex, lowered, the seeds are large and elongated,
- – Oliver - highly productive, early-ripening oil hybrid of Serbian breeding, resistant to diseases and drought. The plant is low - up to 145 cm, not branched, with powerful roots. Medium size baskets have a flat shape, ovoid dark seeds are also medium in size,
- – Forward - resistant to various rots, sclerotinia, fomopsis, peronosporosis and weeds, high-yielding oil-bearing hybrid of medium early ripening up to 190 cm high, with convex shape downed baskets with a diameter of 15-20 cm and dark striped seeds.
- – Rimisol - resistant to lodging, mid-oilseed hybrid, characterized by immunity to certain diseases and pests. These are plants up to 160 cm in height with a thick, densely leafy stem, a developed root system, inclined convex baskets with a diameter of up to 22 cm with elongated black seeds,
- – Flagship - early ripe fruitful oil grade, resistant to powdery mildew and weeds, but affected by fomopsis. Plants of this variety are up to 2 m high with elongated oval seeds,
- – Prometheus - super early and highly productive oil variety resistant to drought, weeds, rust and powdery mildew. The height of a plant of this variety is no more than 140 cm, and the diameter of their baskets is 18-22 cm,
- – Attila - also very high-yielding and high-yielding oil variety resistant to almost all fungal diseases and adverse conditions. Plants up to 165 cm in height with semi-inclined flat baskets with a diameter of up to 24 cm,
- – Vranac - a high-yielding medium-pastry confectionery hybrid resistant to diseases, drought, lodging and shedding. The plants of this variety are tall and powerful, medium-sized baskets, very prominent, wrapped down, wide-ovate seedlings, large, black with dark gray stripes along the edges,
- – Diamond - early ripe fruitful confectionery variety, relatively resistant to lodging, drought and fungal diseases. Its stem is up to 190 cm high, the baskets are convex, large, inclined, achenes large, black with gray stripes,
- – Zaporozhye confectionery - mid-season highly productive variety resistant to weeds, shattering, verticillus and perinospora. The height of the stem reaches 210 cm, baskets with a diameter of 20-25 cm are flat or barely convex.
Useful properties of sunflower.
The composition of sunflower seeds include such substances:
- - carotene, which increases the body's defenses by neutralizing the harmful effects of free radicals,
- - betaine, which activates lipid metabolism, promotes energy production, normalizes gastric acidity, improves the digestive system and prevents the deposition of fat,
- - choline, promoting the absorption of fats, reducing cholesterol, strengthening the central nervous system, stimulating cardiac activity and slowing aging,
- - resins that have bactericidal, bacteriostatic, astringent and anti-rotting effect,
- - fatty oils involved in tissue regeneration, eliminating inflammation, accelerating the process of wound healing, protecting the body from the effects of carcinogens,
- - flavonoids, strengthening and improving the elasticity of capillaries and vessel walls, neutralizing the effect of free radicals and reducing blood pressure,
- - organic acids, increasing appetite and immunity, activating metabolic processes, removing toxins and normalizing digestion,
- - tannins with bactericidal, bacteriostatic and astringent effects,
- - glycosides with diuretic, sedative, expectorant, vasodilator, antimicrobial and disinfectant action,
- - anthocyanins, which reduce capillary and blood vessels fragility, slow down the aging process, stop bleeding, strengthen the heart muscle, normalize metabolism and the central nervous system, relieve inflammation,
- - bitterness, stimulating the appetite, normalizing digestion, strengthening the immune system and helping to restore the body with weakness, fatigue, exhaustion, loss of strength and neurasthenia,
- - phytin, stimulating the liver, reducing cholesterol, normalizing the state of the nervous system and activating fat metabolism,
- - lecithin, which accelerates oxidative processes, provides fat metabolism, improves brain function, normalizes the cardiovascular system, stimulates bile secretion,
- - pectin, removing radionuclides and salts of heavy metals, inhibiting putrefactive flora in the intestine,
- - saponins, diluting sputum, removing mucus from the bronchi and lungs, preventing DNA synthesis in tumor cells.
In addition to these substances, the seeds contain proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, calcium and zinc.
Sunflower seeds - contraindications.
The use of sunflower seeds can be not only good, but also harmful. For example, they suffer from tooth enamel, gradually destroyed by a strong peel covering the seeds. Sunflower seeds are calorie-rich, therefore in large quantities are contraindicated for those who seek to reduce their weight. In addition, they usually use roasted sunflower seeds, in which almost nothing useful remains.
The use of seeds on voice data has a negative effect - a thick film is formed in the throat, making it difficult to sing and speak. If you buy seeds for food, you should understand that the long roots of sunflower not only absorbed nutrients, but also poisons and toxins, so you should make sure that the plant was grown in an environmentally safe area, and before frying, the seeds were cleaned of dust and dirt.