The desire to decorate your site with fir is always justified. Cone-shaped, dense crown, large cones of rich colors, juicy green needles, harmonious combination with deciduous trees and shrubs, pleasant aroma is only part of the advantages of coniferous plantations. But planting and caring for Korean fir require certain knowledge, without which the beginning gardener cannot do.
Varieties of Korean fir
Before you decide on the choice of Korean fir, you should learn more about each variety, its properties, preferences and the necessary conditions for growth.
The most popular varieties of coniferous wood include:
- Korean Molly Fir Planting and caring for her will not bring much trouble, it does not require too frequent watering, it grows well in bright, windless areas. The tree is planted away from buildings and other plantations. The bright green, dense cone-shaped crown of an adult fir can reach 7 m in height and 3 m in diameter. Cones of attractive blue-violet color, not more than 5 cm long grow.
- Korean fir Silverberlock. Planting and caring for this variety will bring real pleasure to lovers of landscape design. Moderate watering, high winter hardiness, a decorative look of needles are part of the strengths of Silberlock. Dark green, cone-shaped, “curly” crown of an adult plant reaches 5 m in height, grows up to 12 cm in a year. Cones of violet-green hue, 7 cm long. Before planting the fir, attention should be paid to the soil, it should be fairly loose and acid . The tree prefers bright, windless places.
- Korean fir Blue Emperor. Compact decorative tree. Unlike previous varieties considered undersized. Silver-violet, short, dense, soft crown for a year grows by 6 cm and stops in growth when it reaches one and a half meters height. Small bumps are dark purple or blue. To the conditions, fir is not demanding, it is well acclimatized in shady areas with moist soil.
- Korean fir Silver. Description of the variety should start with the size. This tree is considered dwarf and grows no more than half a meter high and seventy centimeters wide. Thick dark green soft crown at the top and soft blue bottom will be a worthy decoration of rocky gardens. There are no bumps on the tree. In the care is not whimsical, but takes root only in bright, windless places with slightly acidic, loose soil.
All these varieties are well acclimatized in our climate.
In Moscow, the Korean fir will take root better and faster if you take a seedling in local nurseries, where the tree has become accustomed and adapted to the climate.
Planting and care of Korean fir: features
In order for the cultivation of fir to be enjoyable, and it become a real decoration of the site, you should know some of the characteristic features of this tree.
First of all, you need to correctly determine the landing site. Considering that the tropics and subtropics are the historic homeland of the conifer tree, the best option would be a well-lit, windless section with loose soil. Young saplings are particularly demanding, even a slight shadow and draft can become disastrous for them. Therefore, it is not recommended to plant them near other large plantings and buildings.
The tree does not tolerate transplants. Therefore, when choosing a site for planting, it should be taken into account in advance that the roots of the fir do not grow deeper, but in breadth, and are located close to the surface of the ground. This makes it impossible for any planting near an adult tree.
The soil composition does not play a decisive role when choosing a landing site. Fir can independently saturate even the poorest, loamy soil with nutrients. But to speed up the adaptation of the seedling will help sandy, light, nourishing soils. Marshlands and lowlands should be avoided, in which meltwater gathers in the spring. In the absence of other options, you need to take care of good drainage in advance.
How to plant Korean fir
When the place for the seedling is determined, you can start planting. This should be done before the appearance of buds and shoots. The optimal landing time is March, April.
Korean fir - winter-hardy tree. In order for a sapling to survive the first winter, it should be between four and ten years old at the time of planting.
Well under the seedling to cook, taking into account the characteristics of the variety. The larger the crown of an adult tree, the larger the pit. The average depth is seventy centimeters. At the bottom - a drainage system of broken brick, sawdust.
Before placing the seedling in the hole, you need to mix one part of the dug soil with half of the peat and humus. Mixture fall asleep in the pit and leave for shrinkage. Then the roots of the tree gently straighten, put in a planting hole and sprinkle with earth. For watering after planting will require at least two buckets of water and near-barrel mulch.
No need to deepen the roots of the tree. They must be close to the ground, otherwise the fir may die.
When planting two or more saplings of Korean fir, it is recommended to maintain a distance between the pits of at least five meters for single plantings or two meters if you wish to create a hedge.
Maintain the health and ornamental plantings will help the following withKorean fir care tips:
- Regular, abundant watering. Without sufficient moisture, the crown will become rare and unsightly.
- Top dressing and timely processing from wreckers.
Watering fir planted in open ground will differ from container plantations. In the second case, water is required more and more often. In the first two weeks after planting, seedlings should be watered every day, regardless of the place of cultivation. An adult tree needs plenty of watering three times during the vegetative season. In a particularly hot and dry summer, it is better to be safe and provide the fir with moisture at least twice a month.
To better preserve moisture in the soil, the near-stem circle should be abundantly mulched and loosened after each watering.
It is better to mulch the soil with sawdust or needles treated against infections.
To fertilizer fir is not demanding. The first feeding is three years after disembarking. Use better specialized tools in the proportions specified by the manufacturer.
Pruning tree crown is not required. It is carried out solely for the purpose of maintaining the decorativeness of fir. The main time to remove dried fragments.
Juicy, thick needles are vulnerable to pests and diseases. The most common problems encountered by gardeners include:
- Aphid. Characterized by a whitish bloom. Affected parts of the crown should be removed and spray planting drugs with insecticidal properties.
- Fungus. May occur in the field pruning wood. Special biopharmaceuticals for conifers will help to cope.
- Dummy. Affected planting changes color to brown, dries. On the needles are marked honeydew moisture. For the prevention and treatment of the disease, it is recommended to cover the fir with sackcloth in spring, previously treated with glue against insects.
- Tick spider web. Characteristic signs are cobwebs, yellow spots on the needles, shedding of needles. To prevent the disease, spraying with cold water in the morning or evening is recommended. Treat with infusion of garlic or dandelion.
When the first signs of infection of a coniferous tree appear, you should immediately begin processing. This will help save the tree from complete destruction.
Fir in landscape design
Coniferous planting will be a real decoration of any site. They are used in flowerbeds, alpine slides, stone gardens and rockeries. Different shades of needles are well combined with each other, emphasizing each other favorably.
With the help of group plantings you can zone open areas, organize hedges at gazebos, recreation areas. In combination with deciduous stands, fir trees create beautiful compositions.
Knowing the rules of pruning, coniferous plantations can be given any shape, such a tree will be the subject of attention and admiration.
Dwarf varieties are well combined with deciduous shrubs, thujas, flowers.
Korean fir is notable for longevity. And it only depends on proper planting and maintenance whether it will become a chic decoration of a plot or turn into an unsightly tree occupying a large area.
Korean fir (abies koreana)
But for decorative varieties, the parameters are much smaller, but the general features are similar:
- abies koreana has an attractive cone-shaped crown,
- the needles have an unusual emerald color, and the lower part of the needles is silvery,
- cones of a peculiar form which differ in a violet color and quite large sizes. Cones usually rise on the branches up, it gives the tree elegance,
- the bark has a reddish color, and the young shoots are usually yellowish,
- on the tree branches are densely, so the fir becomes very attractive and looks like an artificial spruce,
- The tree is winter-hardy, like Siberian cedar. Thanks to this property, fir can be grown in the coldest regions of Russia,
- and in summer, the tree also endures drought, especially adult members of this species.
Varieties for growing abies koreana
If you plant a Korean fir at random, then perhaps the selected variety will not take root in the region and will disappoint with its decor. In addition, the tree has two varieties - stunted varieties similar to a flattened ball, and tall with conical and pyramidal crowns.
There are species that differ in the color of the needles, the shape of the cones, and preferences in the conditions; we consider in more detail the most popular varieties:
- Diamond. It is a dwarf tree, which has a pillow-shaped crown, a tree in diameter growing no more than 70 cm, and a height of only half a meter. The needles are thick and dark green with a bluish bottom. Needles are very soft, up to 2 cm long. Cones are not typical for this variety. Take root best in areas where there are no drafts and winds, and there is a lot of light. Soils to choose better loose and slightly acidic. If the soil has weak fertility, then this problem can be corrected on its own. Brilliant is best planted on stony gardens or containers.
- Silberlock A very tall tree, reaching a height of almost 5 m. The cone-shaped crown, the main trunk in it is difficult to distinguish or it is completely absent. The tree grows very slowly. The needles are dark green and curved upwards, green and purple cones grow. The variety tolerates frosts, but under the weight of snow its branches can break. When planting, choose loose and acidic soil in spacious bright places. Silberlok is ideal for creating Japanese gardens, single plantings.
- Molly. This is a large tree, the height can reach 7 meters. The conical shape of the crown, in diameter of about 3 m. Very thick needles of bright green color, in the lower part may have a gray-blue color. Very attractive bumps, different purple-blue. They very densely cover a tree, about 5 cm long. Molly loves to grow in the lighted areas, without drafts. The tree must be watered frequently, but not abundantly. Best used for single landings.
- Compact. Dwarf representative of the Korean fir, characterized by a symmetrical and compact crown about 80 cm in height. The tree resembles a shrub. The needles are very dense and long, blue shade. Cones are extremely rare. The variety for good growth is recommended to be planted in lit areas where loamy soils or sandy soil with humus content are present. Fir well take root near the paths, walking areas and reservoirs.
- Blue Emperor. A small tree height, grows tightly, a pillow without a pronounced center. It grows about 7 cm a year. The needles are soft, short and thick, the lower part is white and the top is purple-silver. The cones are dark blue or purple, small in size. This variety is able to grow in shady places, likes nutritious moist soils. The grade perfectly decorates the Alpine hills and gardens in east style.
Choosing a landing site
Fir does not take root at all sites, because its homeland is subtropical and temperate zones.. Therefore, a place to land on your the site should be chosen carefully, sometimes making significant changes.
The choice of planting site will depend on the selected tree species.. But the basic requirements are:
- good lighting, because penumbra and shade for many varieties are destructive,
- the absence of large trees near, especially if you are planting a tall fir,
- the lack of strong winds and drafts, especially intolerant seedlings.
When grown, Korean fir does not require a lot of nutrients, so almost any soil is suitable for planting. Even heavy soils and loamy soils will do; plants can eventually ennoble the soil, making it more structured.
But it is best to plant Korean fir on sandy soils and other light soils with a high content of organic matter. Acid soils are also suitable for this purpose..
Consider, fir trees do not like wetlands, areas that are flooded with water. If your site is such, then take care of the drainage system.
How to plant Korean fir
Early spring is considered an ideal time for planting, a time when young shoots and buds did not appear on the seedlings.
For a sapling, the age should be at least 4 years old, even ten-year-old trees are also great. Even younger seedlings are not recommended to be used, because in the summer they will suffer due to strong illumination, and in winter they can die from frost.
Prepare a deep planting pit for the seedling. Consider the characteristics of the variety, the greater the root system, the greater should be the pit. Its average depth can vary from 40 to 80 cm. You fall asleep in a hole dug out of it, the soil and peat.
Allow the mixture to sit down, then plant a plant — spread the roots of Korean fir with a knoll and cover it with soil. Give plenty of water to the fir after planting.
It is important that the root collar does not penetrate when planted in the soil. The tree will not grow if it is underground.
Care for the soil and Korean fir
Abies koreana requires care, which is built on the needs of the tree, based on the season and the soil on the site. Trees that are planted in decorative containers require special attention. They need more feeding and watering.
Young seedlings need moisture more, especially for those who have a strong root system. After planting, it is worthwhile to add moisture to the soil every 15 days. And also worth doing with the trees that are grown in containers.
Wetting large trees should be no more than 3 times during the growing season, because the fir is resistant to drought. If the summer is extremely dry, then during the month, organize a two-time watering.
Do not forget to loosen and weed the soil around the tree after each watering. In the autumn and springtime, cover the near-stem circle with mulch to better retain moisture in the soil. Use as mulch sawdust or pine needles. The soil will become more permeable. for air and moisture due to this, but about the comrades do not have to worry.
Top dressing and pruning
Fertilizer should not be often, because the tree and not demanding on them. The first dressing spend no earlier than 3 years after planting a tree. Use special liquid preparations that are intended for coniferous trees.
Korean fir pruning is not needed. But to achieve the thickest and branchy needles, it is important to prune the shoots in the center. Every year, dried needles, branches and cones should be removed, thanks to which the decorativeness of the tree is improved.
Korean fir in the care and cultivation is quite simple, but for it it is worthwhile to properly choose the variety for planting and the place in which the tree will feel extremely comfortable. And if everything goes well and the tree takes root, then it will become the most beautiful and trouble-free decoration on your site.
Attractive appearance and unpretentiousness ensured Korean fir popularity with landscape designers. And not surprisingly, this plant looks very decorative:
- cone or spherical crown,
- ash-chestnut or reddish bark, in young trees - smooth, in old - textured, with deep cracks,
- thick two-color needles - rich emerald green top and silver bottom,
- needles - saber-shaped, up to 2 cm in length, soft, not thorny,
- vertical growing like candles, cylindrical cones lilac-purple hue. On the tree, they grow from the 8th year of planting, their size depends on the plant variety.
Decorative varieties of this conifer develop very slowly, reaching a height of 0.3-7 m. Wild species of this ephedra are able to grow faster, reaching up to 15 m in height, and their trunk diameter is 80 cm. Decorative fir has a pleasant aroma and the ability to purify the air . It is winter-hardy and unassuming, tolerates frosts and droughts thanks to a strong root system, can grow on acidic soils.
Attention! Пихта корейская обладает повышенной чувствительностью к задымленности воздуха, поэтому лучше всего растет она на участках, расположенных за городом.
Для создания красивого ландшафта, пихту высаживают как солитер или в группе с барбарисом, вейгелой, снежноягодником, декоративными плодовыми растениями. Ее также используют для обустройства живой изгороди или аллеи, защищающей участок от ветра. When making a rock garden, next to the dwarf varieties of fir will look good alissum and periwinkle. In landscape design are actively used:
- undersized varieties 30-80 cm tall- "Silberzwerg", "Piccolo", "Brilliant", "Aurea", "Compact Dwarf", "Dark Hill", "Doni Tajuso", "Oberon", "Blue Emperor",
- tall varieties more than 80 cm tall - Brevifolia, Molli, Select, Cis,
- possessing enhanced decorativeness - “Blue Standart”, “Silberlocke”, “Taiga”, “Ottostrasse”, “Kristallkugel”.
Low-growing varieties of this conifer grow well in containers, so they can be used to decorate terraces and gazebos.
For planting on the site suitable 4-5 summer seedlings. They are recommended to be planted in April or September, it is better - in rainy or overcast wet weather. When choosing a place for fir, it is recommended to give preference to well-lit areas with drained loamy soil. 2 weeks before planting the seedlings, you should prepare the pits for planting by following these steps:
- Dig a hole 60 × 60 × 60 cm and fill it with 2 buckets of water
- after the soil absorbs water, stitch the bottom of the pit with a shovel,
- create a drainage layer of 7 cm, pouring crushed stone or broken brick,
- prepare the soil substrate, mixing in the proportion of 1: 1: 2: 3 sand, peat, clay and humus, adding to it also a little sawdust and nitrophoska,
- fill the soil in half with the soil mixture and leave it for 2 weeks for natural shrinkage of the soil.
On the day of planting at the bottom of the pit to form an earthen mound, place a seedling on it and cover it with soil until the root collar, leaving it open. After that, compact the soil and water, and then mulch so that the mulch does not adhere to the root neck of the tree.
With proper care in one place, Korean fir has been growing for about 250 years. Slow growth - about 3 cm per year, contributes to the fact that it remains miniature for a long time and even at 30 years of age does not exceed 3 m. The conditions for caring for it are necessary:
- watering young trees during drought,
- feeding, starting from 3 years of landing on a permanent place. For this purpose, suitable complex min fertilizers, which must be applied at 200 g per tree,
- Early spring pruning of dry and damaged branches - before the start of sap flow,
- shelters of young firs for the winter with spruce branches, a stem around them - leaves, peat,
- to protect the fir from burns caused by the spring sun, trees should be covered with non-woven material.
Korean fir can be grown independently from seeds. To do this, in September, should sow the seeds of fir in a container with a fertile substrate. Shoots appear throughout the month. Once the fir sprouts reach 5 cm in height, they will be able to dive into pots, and then be planted in the spring on a prepared site, where they can grow for another 3-4 years until they are ready for transplanting to a permanent place.
In case of violation of growing conditions, for example, planting on poorly drained areas, fir can suffer from root rot. In addition, it can be affected by insect pests - Hermes, spider mites, false defenses, moths, click beetles, cracklers, fir-barbels. You can fight them by spraying the plants with insecticides, collecting the beetles by hand, planting a number of companion plants - spruce, larch.
Due to the variety variety, choose a dwarf or tall decorative fir will not be difficult. Wherever she was put - on the lawn, flowerbed or along the edge of the plot, it will look great everywhere, decorating a yard or a corner of the garden. Having taken root in the new place, the fir will become a tree requiring a minimum of maintenance.
Needles and bumps ↑
The main difference of fir in the form of leaves. They only resemble conifer needles from afar, but in reality they are flat and narrow — up to 2 mm wide, and they feel soft to the touch. The needles are directed upwards.
But they are different on different shoots. On branches without cones, they are dihedral with a groove in the middle and are folded halfway along this groove, and there are two whitish strips below. On the shoots, where cones grow, needles are tetrahedral.
The second difference - in the cones. They grow vertically upwards like chestnut candles. On a young tree, they have a purple-violet hue, the size of the cones is about 6-8 cm. When it matures, it does not fall, but falls apart. The scales fall off, and winged seeds spread around and only the rod remains on the tree.
Korean fir - evergreen, coniferous plant. It grows slowly, an increase of about 3-5 cm per year. Classic Korean fir can reach a height of 15 meters. But the average height of the plant in our area is 3-5 meters.
Crown conical or pyramidal shape. The bulk of the needles has a dark green color, and the lower part has silvery stripes.
Korean fir can live up to 150 days.
Planting and care ↑
Fir plant is photophilous, but young plants are better at pritenyat, due to the fact that bright sunlight is bad for a young plant.
Before planting, it is necessary to ensure good drainage. The plant is undemanding to soils, and feels good on acidic, infertile soils. But the crown will be more dense and bright if the tree grows on soils with a high content of humus.
Korean fir is transplanted in the springtime at a young age, since adult plants do not tolerate this procedure.
It is often not necessary to water the fir, 2-3 times per season is enough. Small shrubs love spraying and if the weather is dry, then give them a good shower in the morning or in the evening as often as you can.
It is necessary to feed a tree for 2-3 years of life with complex fertilizers in order to get abundant beautiful buds with a bigger size and a brighter color.
The land should be loosened and weeded, then the plants will be happy with a healthy and beautiful view.
Mulching works especially well to maintain plant shape. In addition, the mulch protects the roots from drought and frost, which has a good effect on the growth of fir.
In no case should we forget about the crown haircut. It is best carried out in the fall.
Where to plant Korean fir? ↑
Due to slow growth, Korean fir looks great in the landscape of a small area, especially dwarf varieties. They can even arrange a small green area near the house or a narrow strip along the path to the house. With its charming and eye-catching views, such bushes will adorn the main entrance.
Looks great with other conifers, but with deciduous trees just as good.
Popular Korean dwarf fir varieties are planted in gardens and alleys. Alpine hills and rockeries make out these same varieties.
But if you want Korean fir because of its cones so that the cones are large and bright, then you should not choose dwarf varieties. Carefully look at the article about varieties, where descriptions and photos are given.
They are combined into 5 groups of the largest annual increase:
- microscopic varieties grow to 3 cm per year
- miniature - up to 8 cm per year
- dwarf - up to 15 cm
- sredneroslye - up to 30 cm
- full-grown - more than 30 cm per year.
For the garden, you can choose a variety to your taste with a cone-shaped, bushy or pillow-shaped crown. Varieties differ not only in height and shape, but also in the color of needles.
There are a lot of them, here are some:
- Aurea The needles are golden-green, the young needles are yellow, the old ones are green. Grows in 10 years to 1.5 m, the shape of the crown is conical.
- Brillant. Bonsai with an oval-shaped crown. In 10 years it reaches about 60 cm in height and 40 in width, the needles are bright green with age darken.
- Dennis. At the age of ten, the size of a dense, rounded crown does not exceed 10 × 30 cm, the needles are silver-blue.
- Glauca. It grows about three meters, the crown is conical, the needles are gray-blue.
- Gruebele. Bonsai tree with green needles.
- Horstmann Silberlocke. The plant with a conical crown in 10 years reaches from 1 to 2 m in height and 1.5 m in diameter. The needles are very unusual, silver-green.
- Molli. It grows up to 7 m in height, 2 m in diameter, the crown is dense and magnificent, pyramidal. The needles are flat, green-blue, young growth is bright green.
Fir trees are loved by many gardeners for their high decorative qualities, unpretentious care and durability. They are widely used in landscape design.
Site selection and soil preparation
For growing fir prefers fertile soil. For the landing pit, they independently prepare a mixture of leaf earth, peat, sand and clay (3: 1: 1: 2).
When choosing a landing site you need to pay attention to the grade of fir. Trees with bright, decorative color of the needles prefer well-lit places. Some varieties lose their density and beautiful crown shape if they grow in strong shading. Half shade most of them bear well.
Sequence of actions during landing:
- Prepare a planting hole in size slightly larger than a container with fir. If the root system is open, make the hole half a meter deep and wide.
- From the broken brick they form a drainage at the bottom of the hole, sprinkle it with the prepared soil. You can add up to 10 kg of sawdust and fertilizer for conifers per well.
- Planting fir. If it grows in a container, they don’t disturb the earthwalk The root neck of the tree should be at ground level.
Planted wood is watered, the soil in the near-bar circle is loosened and mulched with spruce, sawdust or peat.
How to water
Fir is poured on a hot summer 1 time in 7 days. Young seedlings can be watered more often. Do not allow strong drying of the soil in the near-stem circle. Mulching the soil under the fir will help retain moisture longer.
Fir loves sprinkling, it can be carried out on top of the needles. It is advisable to do this early in the morning or in the evening, so that the sunshine will not leave a burn on the wet needles.
Top dressing and fertilizer of fir
Every spring, the first two or three years after planting, fir should be fed with mineral complex fertilizer. Adult firs are not so demanding to feed.
Ordinary fertilizers, which are used for vegetables and fruit trees, cannot be used.
For conifers, special fertilizers are needed that do not create a high concentration of the soil solution. The composition of these drugs is less nitrogen than potassium and phosphorus, but there is magnesium, which gives a bright color to the needles, and mycorrhiza. It is mycorrhiza that helps the roots of conifers absorb nutrients from the soil.
Fertilizer for fir can be made in two steps:
- first time in March or April
- and the second at the very beginning of summer.
Granular preparations that dissolve in the soil for a long time, it is desirable to use in early spring.
For feeding of fir, rotted compost can be used. To this end, in April, they dig up the tree near-trunk circle to a shallow depth, pour the compost into a layer of 5 cm, and mix it with the soil.
Pruning is carried out in late February or in March before the active movement of the juice along the stem of the plant. Remove all broken and dried branches. You can also do pruning in the fall, when the active growth of fir ends.
For trees with a crown in the form of geometric shapes, spirals or silhouettes spend forming pruning in the spring. To direct thin shoots in the right direction using wire. All cuts are treated with garden pitch for speedy healing.
Reproduction of Korean Fir
Korean fir is propagated by seed or cuttings. Cones on a tree begin to grow only in the 8th year of life. The Korean fir they are very beautiful, but when ripe, quickly decay. Therefore, if there is a desire to collect seed, young cones need to be tied with gauze in advance. Then the ripened seeds will not become food for birds and will not fall into the ground under a tree.
Seeds are sown in autumn or spring. Before spring planting, they are stratified for a month. The seeding depth for sowing is about 4 cm.
For reproduction by cuttings, healthy annual shoots with apical buds are cut. Root them in a wet substrate, covered with a transparent film or a jar. The first 10 years, the growth of seedlings is very slow.
Common diseases and pests
Immediately notice the disease on the fir is quite difficult, especially if it has a thick crown. Therefore, it is important from time to time to inspect the tree, checking whether there are branches on it with yellowed needles or small spots.
One of the first signs of fir disease is a change in the shape of young shoots - they bend and dry.
Drop of needles may indicate fungal diseases or an attack of insect pests, such as spider mites.
Some diseases can be caused by the state of the root system. If the roots lack nutrients or air, they can be affected by pathogenic fungi, rot. It is possible to determine the disease by the characteristic smell of rotten leaves from the soil under the fir.
Korean fir in landscape design
Korean fir with blue cones looks beautiful in a single planting in a flower bed, alpine slide or rockery. Miniature varieties will decorate a small area. You can plant in a group of trees with different color of needles to emphasize the beauty of each instance. Silver Korean fir with silver needles looks interesting next to green junipers.
Tall firs can be used to create hedges or decorate walls and fences.
Fir trees can hide a gazebo or a bench for relaxing in the garden from prying eyes, decorate the entrance to the house.
These plants wonderfully protect the site not only from prying eyes, but also from noise. The distance between the seedlings in the hedge should be about two meters to the crowns of adult trees closed. If the fir is planted on a plot with deciduous plants, a beautiful composition can be obtained, the main thing is that the trees do not interfere with each other's growth.
From the fir, you can form a tree of any shape - like a weeping willow or bonsai. These amazing plants provide an opportunity for fantasy flying and creating a beautiful garden.
Korean fir: plant description
Speaking of Korean fir, it is important to specify its description, since this tree has a number of differences from its more popular relatives. Under natural conditions, the Korean fir is a giant tree that can grow up to 14 meters in height. The trunk of such a tree can have a diameter of about 1 meter.
But when growing ornamental varieties of this tree it is rarely possible to achieve similar results, although the common features are still:
- Korean fir tree has an attractive cone-shaped crown,
- the needles on the tree have an unusual emerald color, although the lower part of each needle is silver, with a wax streak,
- Korean fir has a peculiar shape of a cone, which is purple in color and large in size - up to 10 cm in height and 4 cm in width, usually the cones rise up on the branches, which makes the tree particularly elegant,
- bark color is reddish, although young shoots usually have a yellow color,
- the branches on the trunk of the tree are quite thick, making it very attractive and even a bit like artificial spruce,
- Korean fir is distinguished by excellent winter hardiness, which is comparable to the frost resistance of Siberian cedar, thanks to which it can be grown not only in the latitudes of Ukraine, but also in the northern part of Belarus and in the coldest regions of Russia,
- in the summer, this tree no less steadfastly tolerates droughts, especially when it comes to adult representatives of the species.
Features of Korean fir planting
Since the birthplace of fir is a moderate and subtropical belt, it follows from this that the tree is not able to take root in all areas. Therefore, the place for its landing should be chosen with special care, and sometimes make significant changes to your site.
Choosing a landing site
Features of the choice of a place for Korean fir largely depend on the selected species of this tree. But the basic requirements will be as follows:
- good lighting, since shade and partial shade are destructive for most varieties,
- absence near other large trees, especially if you want to plant tall fir varieties,
- lack of strong drafts, to which young seedlings are especially intolerable.
How to plant a Korean fir
Having decided on the place of planting, let's look at how to plant Korean fir seedlings so that they not only take root, but also grow into an attractive shrub.
First of allThe ideal time for planting is early spring, while young buds and shoots have not yet appeared on the seedlings.
Secondly, the seedling should be at least 4 years old, although even 10-year-old trees are excellent for this purpose. Younger seedlings are not recommended to be used, since in the summer they will suffer due to strong light, and in winter they can die from frost.
We prepare deep pit for a sapling. In this matter, it is important to take into account the characteristics of the variety - the larger the crown and root system, the larger the pit should be. On average, its depth can vary from 50 to 80 cm. When preparing a hole in it, it is important to fill the mixture of soil dug out of it with humus and peat (take 1 part of the soil from the site and 0.5 humus and peat).
Having poured this mixture into a hole with a knoll, give it time to sit down, then take a planting - straighten the roots of Korean fir over an earthen hill and cover it with remnants of soil. После посадки пихту обильно поливают несколькими ведрами воды, а околоствольный круг мульчируют. Очень важно, чтобы при посадке в почву не заглублялась корневая шейка. Если она окажется под землей, дерево не будет расти и через некоторое время может даже погибнуть.
Как ухаживать за корейской пихтой
Korean fir, in addition to proper planting, requires and care, which is important to build on the needs of the tree, as well as on the basis of the soil on your site and the time of year. Separate attention will require trees that were planted in decorative containers. Watering and feeding they need more often.
Watering the plants and caring for the soil
Moisture is more necessary for young seedlings that do not yet have a strong root system. In particular, immediately after planting it is worthwhile to add moisture to the soil every 10-15 days. Similarly, it is worth doing with those Korean fir trees that are grown in containers.
As for the adult large trees, it is worth not more than 2-3 times to add moisture under them during one growing season, as the fir refers to drought-resistant plants. However, if the summer turns out to be very dry, it will not be superfluous to organize two-times watering during the month.
After each watering do not forget to weed the soil around the fir and loosen it. In spring and autumn, the near-stem circle can be covered with mulch, so that moisture is better preserved in the soil, and nutrients are fed from the mulch to the roots. As mulch is recommended to use sawdust or disinfected needles. Due to this, the soil will become more permeable to moisture and air, and about the weeds do not even have to worry.
Top dressing of the Korean fir
Fertilizer application for fir should not be frequent, as this tree is not demanding for them. The first dressing should be carried out no earlier than 3-4 years after planting a tree on the site. For this purpose, it is recommended to use special liquid preparations intended for coniferous trees. On 1 square. m near-barrel area will require no more than 100-120 g of the drug.
Pruning of Korean fir
As such, pruning for Korean fir is not needed. However, in order to achieve branchy and most dense needles, it is very important to prune the central shoots. In addition, annually it is necessary to remove dried pine needles, cones and branches, thereby improving the decorativeness of the tree.
Major pests and plant diseases
Having decided how to plant Korean fir and how to take care of it, it is important to understand that this conifer is quite vulnerable to various diseases and pests, as it has juicy needles - the best food and shelter for different parasites. We list the most common problems of these trees and methods for their elimination:
- Aphid hermes, about the appearance of which will tell white scurf on the needles. Damaged needles must be removed, and in case of severe injuries we spray with systemic insecticides. For prevention, we plant near spruce and larch.
Shatter-panwhich is marked by browning and drying of needles, branches and the presence of honey drops of moisture. It is necessary to fight with it in the spring, putting on a sackcloth soaked with glue from caterpillars on a tree trunk.
Spider mite leaves behind on the needles not only the web, but also the yellow heel, which later turn brown and cause the needles to fall. The most common tick appears in hot and dry weather, so for prevention it is important to regularly spray branches of fir with cold water (but it should be done either early in the morning or late in the evening). To combat the pest using infusions of garlic or dandelions.
Fir moth It is also capable of destroying fir needles, as it feeds on its juice. Only deep digging of the near-barrel circle each spring will help to destroy it. Young butterflies are fought by spraying with biological preparations.
Korean fir: landing
Immediately practical advice that will help your seedling to settle down after planting - spray the seedling for the first few days. Fir loves the combination of moisture and shade (but only at the time of planting), so if you can fit the planting under rainy weather, this is an ideal development. However, if it rains, no additional watering, as the fir does not tolerate waterlogging - it threatens her with death.
Korean fir requirements are slim: planting is ideal in clayey soils. The depth, width and height of the landing pit are equal to each other - 60 cm. If you plant several firs in one area, maintain a distance of at least 2 m between them. To fill the landing hole, it is better to prepare the soil yourself. Mix 2 parts of clay with 3 parts of humus, 1 part of peat and 1 part of sand. Fir needs good drainage, so at the bottom of the planting pit should flaunt a 6-inch layer of pebbles or rubble.
Note: to enhance the effect, add 10 kg of sawdust and 0.2 kg of nitroammofosca to the soil for planting pits to meet the plant's demand for potassium and phosphorus.
If there is no rain and it is not foreseen, immediately after planting, pour fir abundantly - at least 30 liters of water should go to each plant. Deepening the root collar is not welcome - the fir does not like it. Let it remain at ground level.
Fir loves shadow only after planting. In general, this plant is very light-loving - in adulthood. And do not plant it in wetlands, since nothing good will come of it. The lower the area where you are planting fir, the better should be the drainage. From the point of view of soil acidity, Korean fir is unpretentious, so even on a plot with acidic soil you can plant it boldly. But if you want the plant to reach the peak of decorativeness, there should be a lot of humus in the soil.
Korean fir tolerates low temperatures quite well due to its stunning frost resistance. But if the severe frost lasts for a very long time, considerable damage to individual young shoots is not excluded.
Due to the rather powerful development of the root system, penetrating into the deepest layers of the soil, fir does not bother and in no way disturbs even the strongest wind.
Too old plants are extremely undesirable to replant from place to place, as it is extremely difficult for them to adapt after such manipulations.