First you need to understand what vaccination is. This is one way to propagate a plant. With its help, you can bring your own variety of fruit tree, combining one species with another. You do not need to spend a lot of money on the purchase of new seedlings, just find a few cuttings or processes. Grafting a new bud or sapling of a tree is a kind of engraftment on another plant. You can graft different types and varieties of trees. All properties and qualities of the crop are preserved, and in many cases become even better than they were.
The use of vaccinations has proven its worth. So, with the help of such a procedure, it is possible to renew old fruit trees, which will start to yield in 3-4 years. The quality of new fruits will improve several times. Not only professionals in large nurseries plant trees, more and more often gardeners independently master this technique.
They inoculate only when the quality of the tree and its fruits begins to deteriorate every year. Only then the procedure will help to quickly update the tree or replace it with another grade. It has been proven by scientists that several varieties and species can be grafted on the same tree at the same time. There are several common types of grafting for fruit trees.
Types of vaccinations
Types of grafting fruit trees are selected individually for the characteristics of the tree and climatic weather conditions. It is necessary to tell about the main methods of inoculation, which can cope with any gardener. There are many options, but the following deserve attention:
- Budding. This type of vaccination is done with a kidney. This method is used only in the spring. To make such an inoculation, an incision is made on the handle and on the tree itself. Then apply the stalk to the place of the cut and gently primatyvayut. Basically, this procedure is done with young plants.
- Copulation. This type is done with a cutting. In this way, a young stalk and a tree trunk are connected and firmly connected to each other. Such a connection should be a continuation of the trunk. This method of vaccination can be done at any time of the year. It is important to observe one condition - the cutting must be at least a year.
- In the split. Terms of grafting fruit trees in this case have no boundaries. This method is used for a long time. Even our great-grandmothers used it. The only condition here is that the branch to which the cutting is to be grafted must be 2 times larger in diameter. The vaccination is done as follows: on the branch of the plant they make an even and smooth cut and right in the center they apply splitting no more than 5 cm deep, but not less than 4 cm. Then a cutting is inserted into the gap formed and fastened tightly.
When to plant fruit trees
Terms of grafting fruit trees play a significant role in this matter. The most favorable time for such procedures is spring and summer. But for the operation itself to choose a cloudy day without rain. You can vaccinate at any time of the day. The long-term experience of many agronomists shows that grafting of fruit trees in the spring is of the highest quality and most successful.
If such a procedure needs to be carried out on a cherry or plum, then this can be done immediately with the onset of spring. Such trees are not afraid of frosts and cold snaps. Apple and pear love heat, so graft them when the temperature stabilizes.
Begin to plant trees with the advent of the first buds. It is allowed to grow cuttings in the summer, but only where the climate is warm and dry. Many summer residents begin such manipulations on the lunar calendar. It is possible to find all the detailed information about favorable days for this.
In the fall, trees are planted infrequently, this is due to the fact that the low temperature does not allow the cuttings to settle well on the tree. If you still need to plant a tree only in the fall, then it should be done in early September. It used to be thought that winter was also not the right time to vaccinate, but recent experiments prove the opposite.
Winter vaccination as a new step in the field of grafting trees
Terms of grafting fruit trees were previously strictly limited to spring and summer. Now the situation has changed dramatically. Many gardeners try to plant a tree in winter. And, oddly enough, they are achieving quite good results in this matter. Fruit trees such as plum, plum, cherry, apple or pear are capable of producing high-quality planting material during this period. Winter vaccination gives the same high further crop, like many others, and the percentage of seedling survival is close to 100. Such a vaccination has the main advantage - a new cutting grows in a short period of time.
Procurement of cuttings
It is important to properly prepare cuttings for grafting fruit trees. In order to succeed in the future, they must be pure-quality. It is better if they are obtained from the mother plant, on which phytosanitary selection has been made many times. The thickness of the cutting should be at least a pencil, and its length - about 40-50 cm. If the trees are where there are severe frosts, then cuttings are favorably cut in late autumn or early winter.
If the time of grafting of fruit trees is chosen, they should be properly preserved until this point. Sometimes it happens that it is difficult to make it, the material disappears. Cherry and plum are considered the most capricious in storage. The best temperature for them should be from -2 to -4 degrees.
Storage also depends on the territory and climate features. If the area is rich in snow, the cuttings are instilled with a thin layer of earth and snow is covered with about 70 cm above. If the area with constant thaws and snow is not enough, in this case, all the cuttings are tied in a bundle and covered with raw sawdust. Then spread on the frost and keep them until the formation of a crust of ice about 15 cm thick. Then the cuttings are shifted to a place near the house, sprinkled with dry sawdust and stored until spring.
Many gardeners store cuttings in the basement or cellar. This method is suitable for all types of trees, except cherries and plums. They are very damp, then they will not give a harvest for a long time. Such storage contributes to the early development of buds on the cuttings. Leaves are formed prematurely, because such material will hardly grow on the tree in the future. After storage, the bark can dry out a lot, then before grafting, they are soaked in water for a couple of days and cleaned in a cool place.
We have disassembled the types of grafts of fruit trees, now we will pay attention to the tools with which we perform such an operation.
To spring or summer grafting of fruit trees was easy, you need to prepare the right tools. They should be well sharpened. So, the following devices are needed:
- Garden knife.
- Saw or hacksaw.
- Material for strapping.
- Garden var.
All of these tools for grafting fruit trees can be found in every garden. For example, a garden knife is needed for a high-quality cut of the tree. With the help of a pruner you can quickly cut the stalk. Saw or hacksaw is easy to cut thick and extra branches. Banding and garden var are necessary to bond the tree and the cutting to each other. Ladder required for high plantings. Do not forget that the tool for grafting fruit trees is sharp, so when working with it you need to follow safety rules.
Trees after vaccination
As soon as the time of grafting of fruit trees has arrived and the procedure has been successfully carried out, it is necessary to wait until the cutting begins to grow. At this time it is necessary to monitor rodents and aphids and start fighting with them in time. Do not deprive such trees abundant irrigation and fertilizer. If several cuttings were planted on a branch, then only one will be left. It happens that the cuttings are blown away by a strong wind, then they are strengthened with small arcs made of flexible branches. As soon as a year has passed after vaccination, new shoots are shortened in length by 1 /3 and form a branch.
Tree graft compatibility
Tree compatibility is important for vaccination. Many gardeners do not know what to plant a pear, plum or apple stalk. To achieve the best result, you need to combine similar with similar. Only in this case, the cuttings will take root at 100%. But some people go to plant a pear on an apple tree and get a rather unusual crop. It is also important to choose the right time for grafting fruit trees, this will also be a guarantee of high-quality fruit.
Having dealt with all types of vaccinations and the tools with which they are made, you can update the fruit trees with your own hands. As it turned out, grafting fruit trees in the spring is the most effective. The result will not be long in coming - amazing and tasty fruits will delight you and your loved ones.
What is a vaccine and what is it for?
A vaccination is a vegetative (seedless) method of plant reproduction, when one plant or part of it is engrafted onto another.
The part (stalk, bud or branch) that grafts and bears the varietal characteristics of the plant is called graft. And the basis on which the graft is engraved is the stock. They can serve as a young plant (wild or cultivated), and old, and even broken. The stock is responsible for the nutrition and growth of the tree, determines its frost resistance.
The main purpose of vaccination is to obtain a cultivated plant, since fruit trees do not transmit their varietal qualities through seeds. If you have quality wilderness nearby (seedlings), it is easier, more reliable and cheaper to plant your favorite varieties on them than to buy ready-made seedlings.
In order to save space several varieties can be grafted onto one trunk at once.
Vaccination will help save grade when damaged old tree.
So it is possible replace not liked variety for a better one.
And, of course, this way you can to increase the frost resistance of culture (for example, if an apricot is planted on a plum adapted to local conditions).
How to choose a stock?
- The main rule: the stock must be of the same type as the graft. The apple tree is well grafted onto the apple tree, the pear tree is onto the pear tree, the cherry tree is placed on the cherry tree and cherry, etc. -So use genetically similar material.
- The tree needs to choose healthy and strong.
- Graft and rootstock must be compatible in terms of growth.
- It is desirable that the fruits ripen at the same time. Cleverly selected varieties allow you to break this rule without losing the result, but this is the path of experienced gardeners.
- If you want to get a columnar apple, the stock must be appropriate.
- A tree grown from a seed, tall, has deep roots, durable and more resistant to adverse factors. While the clone stock (obtained by cutting) is low, it begins to bear fruit earlier and produces more marketable fruits.
Necessary tools and materials
The following tool is used for vaccination:
- Pruner - for cutting cuttings.
- Coping knife - to separate the bark.
- Garden saw - for cutting thick branches.
- Garden knife - for cutting thin branches. Some use regular stationery instead.
Along with the usual knife, an okulirovochny is used: it is equipped with a “bone” to separate the bark. In addition, there are combined knives - with two blades on the handle.
Some gardeners are advised to use several knives: one - for the cuts of the branch, the second - for the cuts, the third - for putting up the garden pitch.
Additionally, you may need a flat screwdriver (to make a wedge in place of the split).
Be sure to have on hand insulating tape or film and garden pitch (pitch).
The tool must be sharp, serviceable. It must be processed before each use. alcohol.
When can trees be planted?
Let's take a look at when to plant trees? Vaccinations are winter, spring and summer. Each season has its advantages.
Winter vaccination allows you to get varietal sapling-same year already next autumn.
Its main amenities:
- the gardener has more time
- works are carried out in a warm room
- survival rate - 97%.
Timing winter vaccinations fluctuate from December to mid-April. The main thing is to finish the work 2 weeks before planting the seedlings. Preparation begins in the fall: before the frosts, one-year or two-year-old shoots are dug (you can also use root shoots) with a stem thickness of at least 7 mm, cut off some of the roots and store them in a cellar. For the scion, one-year shoots are cut from the outer part of the crown, varieties are signed and also put in the cold. 2 days before vaccination they are transferred to a warm place.
Vaccination in spring It is considered the most physiological. It lasts from March to early June, during active sap flow on the stock. The graft can be harvested from the fall or cut right before the process. For successful accretion, it must “sleep”.
It is recommended to begin work when the daytime temperature rises to 10 degrees, and the nighttime temperature - to zero.
Summer vaccinations have their advantages:
- You can assess the condition of the overwintered stock and select the best trees.
- Cuttings do not require storage.
- There is a time to try again.
- The grafted twig tends to give more side branches, which is convenient for crown formation.
The optimal time for vaccination is August. In the summer they plant in cloudy, but dry weather. Leaves with cuttings need to be removed. It is also important what time to inoculate. In the heat (if it is not possible to wait it out), work is carried out before noon and after 16 hours.
How to harvest cuttings?
A stalk is not any twig, as it seems at first glance.
To create a good garden material you need to carefully choose:
- It is necessary to harvest cuttings from a fruit-bearing tree, which has shown good yield.
- An annual runaway with at least two buds is taken as a cutting (preferably, when there are 4-5).
- Foliage and bark should be healthy.
- Twigs are best suited from the outer south side of the crown, where there is better illumination.
- It is advisable to take material from the middle tier.
- The cross section of the ideal cutting 6 - 7 mm (as in a simple pencil).
- Spring buds on the cuttings must sleep.
- If you are going to vaccinate in the summer, it is better to cut the graft on the day of vaccination and use it within 3 hours.
- In winter, cuttings must be checked for viability. Make a small cross section: if the green layer under the bark, the cutting is alive.
There are several ways of vaccination:
- Vaccination for the bark.
- Vaccination in the cut.
- Graft Splitting
The choice depends on the size of the tree, climate and season.
This method is used with a significant difference in the thickness of the stock and scion. The timing of vaccination - from the beginning to the active stage of sap flow.
The stock is clipped under the stump. As a scion, sleeping or awakening cuttings are used, cut to 2 - 3 buds. The lower part of them must be cut at an acute angle to get a cut 2.5 - 3 cm long. An incision of the same length is made on the stump, then the bark is carefully separated with a special knife, after which the graft is inserted. The place of accretion is tied up and processed by garden pitch.
For a better survival rate on the handle, a horizontal incision is made along with the oblique - the so-called saddle, with which the graft “sits” on the stump.
In total, 2–3 shoots can be “planted” on a stump.
Video instructions are below.
Produced in stock of any thickness. Used mainly to update the crown of the old tree. In this way, you can inoculate in winter, spring and summer.
A slit narrowed downward is cut from the side of the tree, where a cut into 2 buds is wedged in and cut from two sides along a slanting graft. After that, the plant is tied and treated with garden pitch.
More in the video below.
Used for trees with rough bark or damaged by unsuccessful vaccinations. The easiest and best way for a beginner. In the split, vaccinate before the start of sap flow.
The stock is cut down under the stump and cleaned with a garden knife. Then a slot is made in it and a temporary wedge is inserted. Graft is a branch with 5 buds, cut from two sides at an angle and inserted into the slot, after which the wedge is removed. If the stock is much thicker, insert a handle on each side. The plant can not be tied, because it creates a natural clip. At the end of the process with garden pitch all open spaces. Details shown in the video.
The copulation method is used on a thin stock when it is impossible to graft behind the bark. It allows you to cultivate very young seedlings, without waiting for the shtamb. Copulation is carried out when the trees are asleep: in winter or spring before the start of sap flow. For winter grafting, trees must be dug out in the fall, and planted in the spring with a graft.
Normal copulation is done like this. The graft is shortened to 2 - 3 buds. On the scion and stock make equal oblique cuts. Then the slices are applied to each other and wrapped with tape. If the branches coincide in thickness, the graft lies on top. Если подвой значительно толще, привой размещают сбоку, чтобы кора и камбиальный слой совпадали – в этом случае можно привить до 3 черенков.
The method of improved copulation is to add a “tongue” to the slice - an additional cut on both branches. "Tongues" allow you to more closely mate and better held in the future. If we implant on a stump, during copulation we also make a “saddle”.
Here is a video on how to do copulation.
In addition, it is possible summer copulation green cuttings. This refers to the leafy parts of the stem with several buds. The cutting is planted on an unrooted stock, and then the resulting plant is rooted in conditions of high humidity or artificial fog. The method is most often used for grapes and flowers, but can be used for fruit trees.
It consists in splicing two plants, i.e. the graft is not a cutting, but a living tree or shrub. Plant thickness may be similar or different. The whole vegetative season is suitable for work, but spring is the best time.
This method is mainly used for garden decoration. It allows you to fill the desired area, close voids - especially when it comes to creeping forms. Also, with the help of ablation, it is possible to give the plant additional nutrition from another root.
The plants of similar thickness of plants are subject to interlacing (for oblique cuts to each other, “tongues” can be cut out). If the stock is much thicker, the bark is cut and a graft is placed there. Place accretion bandaged.
The draft is exemplified by a citrus vaccination.
Vaccination kidney, ie, budding - the most common type of vaccination. The graft for vaccination is a single kidney, which gardeners call the "peephole." It is taken from the escape of a cultivated plant and engrafted on a branch or trunk of another variety or wild.
Spring budding spend kidney, formed last summer. For this, in the fall or at the end of winter, cuttings are harvested. Already in the same season, the bud will begin to germinate and give rise to a new escape.
If the vaccination is carried out in the summer with a freshly cut kidney, then it will take root, overwinter and begin to grow only next spring.
Video about the features of summer budding:
How long does the vaccination take root?
After vaccination, it is necessary to observe the plant. How long does vaccination take root on a tree? Already after 2 weeks, rooted shoots start to grow. In a month, it is already clear whether there is a result, since the unvoted cutting dries out. If everything went well, fully graft with the stock will grow together in 1.5 - 2 months.
As the shoot grows, it is necessary to loosen the harness. When the graft grows 10 cm (or after a year), it can be completely removed.
Adding an article to a new collection
If at the beginning of the summer season there was a need for vaccination, you need to understand what the timing of grafting fruit trees in the spring and how to carry it out correctly.
The essence of vaccination is to engraft the cuttings of one plant on another. This procedure may be relevant in cases where it is necessary to rejuvenate a tree that has become less fruitful, or to get a harvest of different varieties from one tree.
Is it possible to inoculate conifers?
Grafting of coniferous trees and shrubs is not only possible, but also effective. With its help, you can settle in the garden a large number of ornamental plants.
Conifers vaccinated in spring and autumn (recommended August - September). Most often used copulation.
The basic rules are the same as for fruit plants: healthy plants of the same species are selected, cuttings are stored for no more than 2 weeks, work is carried out as quickly as possible.
- it is better to cut the cuttings from the upper tier,
- the optimum air temperature at the time of vaccination is + 15 + 22 degrees. In areas with a cool climate, the plant must be put on the package.
An important point: with a scion cleaned all the needles, leaving only the tip. The appearance of new needles is an indicator of success and a signal that it’s time to take a package.
Graft time of fruit trees
Plants can be planted throughout the year, but spring grafting of fruit trees is most natural and effective. Cuttings for inoculation are harvested in advance (in autumn) or cut right before the procedure (before the kidneys swell).
The best time for grafting trees in the spring - from March to early June, when active sap flow occurs in the stock, is a plant to which the graft of another plant will be grafted. The scion, on the contrary, must be at rest during the inoculation (the kidneys must still “sleep”) in order for the accretion to be successful.
Stone tree species (apricot, cherry, plum) are recommended to be planted at the end of March - beginning of April, and pome fruits (pear, apple, quince) - at the beginning of April - mid June.
Tools required for vaccination:
- garden knife (to cut thin branches),
- bone knife (to separate the bark from the wood),
- pruner (for cutting cuttings),
- garden saw (for trimming thick branches),
- flat screwdriver (can be used as splitting wedge),
- garden pitch (for processing cuts),
- electrical tape (for tying the vaccination site),
- alcohol (for disinfecting garden tools before each vaccination).
- For the spring inoculation, the air temperature should “fix” at a level of at least 10 ° C during the day and 0 ° C at night.
Tricks and wisdom of the gardener
To improve the results of vaccination work, these tricks and wisdom from professionals will help:
- An even cut of the cutting is a test for novice gardeners. In addition, you need to make a cut at once. Therefore, before gardening works, it is advisable to practice on the pear branches: they have solid wood.
- A good garden water should soften in the sun without heating.
- Use a special, sharp, serviceable tool, treated with alcohol.
- Before work, wash the cuttings with water and keep in a damp cloth.
- Avoid prolonged contact of the inoculum with air and do not touch it with your hands.
- Sections of the bark and cambium on the scion and stock should be the same as possible.
- The greater the length of the slice, the more successful is the accretion.
- At the bottom of the graft, it is recommended to remove 0.5 - 1 cm of bark to increase the area of accretion.
- It is desirable to have a healthy kidney over the cut in the graft, because it stimulates the development of the branch. In addition, if the stalk breaks, a new varietal shoot can be grown from this bud.
- Garden pitch is desirable to process not only the end of the stock, but also the upper cut of the graft. This reduces evaporation, thereby ensuring a better survival rate. In addition, the package can be put on the place of accretion. Blooming buds will show when you can remove the package from the vaccination.
- The tool for separating bark can be made from a standard 100-mm nail. To do this, you need to grind it at half the thickness and 2 cm length, and then sharpen the tip.
- If a few sticks towering over the graft are tied to the graft, it will save the birds from escaping from the birds who like to sit on the twisted twigs.
Planting grafted seedlings
Grafted trees are planted in the ground as well as normal. Here we touch only moments related to vaccination.
There are different opinions why it is impossible to bury the vaccine in a seedling. The most innocuous: the graft forms the roots, which reduces the winter resistance of the plant. Also write that vaccination will die. The most correct answer: the vaccine is above the root collar. So, if you graft the graft, then the root neck will be filled up, and this will cause the death of the tree.
Which way to plant a tree by grafting does not matter much. One has only to pay attention to the location of the skeletal branches of the sapling. They need to be sent to the north or north-west, because in the future the main development of the branches will go from the south side.
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Grafting trees in spring - time and time
The timing of grafting trees depends primarily on weather conditions. In central Russia, it is better to conduct the procedure in April-May. During this period, buds swell, sap flow begins, so the survival rate of crops will be maximum. In summer, the air will become drier, which will have a bad effect on the development of the grafted graft.
Also, the time of vaccination depends on the type of plant. Apricot, cherry, sweet cherry, plum is better to plant in late March - early April. Pear and apple - in early April-mid June.
Morning or evening is the best time to graft trees in spring. It is desirable that the weather was warm, without rain and wind. Prepare everything you need in advance:
- graft - a stalk or bud that is grafted onto a tree-stock,
- pruner or knife for grafting trees
- binding material, for example, polyethylene film,
- garden pitch
Grafting trees in the spring for beginners and experienced gardeners may require other materials that are not listed.
Selection of stock and scion
The success of the procedure depends on the choice of stock and scion. A good stock, on which a new crop will be planted, must be disease resistant. Pay attention to its location, check the fertility of the soil. For vaccination, it is better to choose low winds of the crown, which are well illuminated by the sun.
As for the graft, fruit cuttings are mainly used for vaccination, less often - buds. To ensure survival, stop the selection on proven combinations of varieties. For example, in a homemade apple plant new resistant varieties of homemade apple. If you already have experience of successful vaccinations, you can experiment and plant a pear on a mountain ash or plum on an apricot.
The right graft is harvested at the beginning of winter, but you can do it later. The main thing is that the kidneys are not swollen on the handle, and it was at rest. It is best to store the prepared stalk in the basement or in the refrigerator.
For cherries, cherries, plums and other stone fruit crops, choose long and thick branches, where there are not so many buds. Cut the cuttings into a pair of buds longer, because the lateral buds are often flowering and do not form new shoots.
Garden equipment for grafting trees
Grafting tools should be as sharp as possible so as not to injure the plant. Smooth cuts take root better than ragged and crumpled ones. In principle, you can use any sharp knife that exists in the country, but if you want to improve the technique, try special tools.
Newbies like it graft prunerwhich can quickly make the same cuts on the stock and graft. This tool will be indispensable for those who have a large orchard and do not have time to fit the slices. Thanks to the figured cuts, you will be able to accurately fit the sections of the scion and rootstock.
- does not require special skills,
- cuts branches up to 13 mm thick,
- provides the perfect connection of plants and rapid accretion,
- reduces the time for surgery, because slices do not need to be customized.
- designed for shoots of the same size,
- not suitable for thick branches,
If you are masterly able to vaccinate or you have a small garden, and there is no need for frequent procedures, you can use graft knife. It makes perfectly even and smooth cuts. There are two types:
- for budding (kidney vaccinations) - with a sharp rounded end,
- for copulation (grafting) - with beveled end.
- makes long cuts easily,
- suitable for branches up to 25 mm thick,
- has a protrusion to separate the bark.
- requires work skills and sharp sharpening,
- if there are many trees, it can quickly become blunt,
- when working you need to make more physical effort to make a cut.
All tools before the procedure, thoroughly wash and treat with alcohol, so as not to infect the infection.
If the tree is old, with coarse bark, it is worth re-grafting. To do this, cut a branch and make splits. For stability, drive wedges into the wood. Insert the finished cutting into the cleft by joining the cambium rootstock and graft.
When grafting on bark or splitting, apply the cutting in such a way that its edge protrudes by 1-2 mm, then the cut on the stock will take more time and the vaccination will be more reliable.
With the help of graft bridges, trees damaged by rodents or frosts can be saved. It is also effective for sunburn. Trim the damaged bark with a sharp knife, then prepare the cuttings: cut them longer than the lesion and split on both sides. On the bark, make cuts and insert a cutting into them with both ends. The design will resemble a bridge (stalk), which towers above the affected place. In case of a large damage, several such bridges can be made.
When placing the cutting, make sure that it does not turn upside down (buds should be directed upwards).
Tree care after vaccination
Vaccination is a stress for rootstock and scion, so provide good care to the plants. Places of vaccinations must be bound with polyethylene. Treat the slices with garden piping to prevent infection. After a month, the bandage can be loosened and, if the graft is held firmly, removed.
To prevent the wind and birds from disturbing the vaccination site, secure the shoot with a support 15-20 cm longer than the cutting.
Shoots that grow under the graft, remove, so that they do not interfere with the graft to develop and do not take all the nutrients. Do not forget to protect the tree from pests, for example, set the hunting belt.
Grafting trees by cuttings - tricks
And now we will share with you some tricks that will allow you to properly vaccinate and speed up survival:
- make a cut opposite the kidney, because in this place the nutrition of the branch is improved,
- plant at the same time 2-4 cuttings, then you can remove or shorten the extra scions, so you will warn the dying of the tissues on the rootstocks,
- when processing garden pitch, make sure that it does not fall between the rootstock and graft, otherwise the cutting will not take root,
- a regular plastic bag will protect the graft; if the weather is too hot or windy, wind it tightly around the cutting, and when the shoot begins to grow, cut the bag to ventilate the plant, and remove it completely after 3-4.
Grafting garden trees will help increase their yields, improve their crowns, and even save a damaged plant. If you have never performed this procedure before, follow our recommendations. Observe vaccination time in the spring - and your grafts will take root well, and soon you will be pleased with the long-awaited harvest. Experienced gardeners, please share your successes in the comments - write what plants you planted, what difficulties you encountered and how you overcome them!
Grafting fruit trees over the bark
Cherenkov inoculation for the bark is performed with a significant difference in the thickness of the stock and graft. Often it is used in relation to seedlings, overgrown after failed budding or for re-grafting.
The timing of grafting fruit trees - from the beginning of the movement of the juice to its active stage.
The base is cropped under the stump of the stock. For grafts take shoots in the stage of rest or awakening. They are trimmed to 2-3 buds.
On the stump in the place of inoculation, an incision of the bark is made 2.5-3 cm. The lower part of the scion is cut off under the bevel and put behind the bark. After this, the place of accretion is tied up and covered with garden putty.
To improve contact, sometimes in the graft, in addition to the longitudinal incision, a horizontal one is performed - the so-called saddle, with which the cutting sits on the stump.
2-3 shoots can be grafted onto one base.
Grafting fruit trees in the side
Technology, little used in nurseries, but of interest to amateur gardeners. Grafting is done in the stock of any thickness and provides a good accretion. The operation is most often performed to improve the yield of an already fruitful garden, replacing the top of the old tree.
Work time - winter, spring and summer.
On the trunk of the tree is cut a side, tapering downwards. A graft with 2 kidneys is cut from two sides under a bevel with the formation of a sharp edge and wedged into the cut. Next is strapping and putty garden pitch.
Graft fruit trees
Widespread technology in the past, known as a clothespin. It is used in cases where the stock has a rough bark or is damaged by unsuccessful attempts at grafting in other ways. As a rule, already mature trees with a developed root system are used, which provides good protection against frost. For scions harvested larger than cutting other cuttings with up to 5 buds.
The operation must be performed before the start of sap flow. Grafting fruit trees in the spring ensures good plant development in the summer. Stone rocks are grafted from mid-March, pome - from the beginning of April.
The stock is cut at a height of 10-12 cm from the ground and trimmed with a garden knife. Further, a hole is cut in it with a hatchet and temporarily wedged. Grains are cut from two sides under a bevel about 4 cm and inserted into the slot, after which the wedge is removed. It turns out a reliable clamp, almost not requiring strapping. But putty garden pitch all cropped and steering parts with this method of grafting fruit trees is required.
If the diameter of the stock allows, then it is recommended to plant 2 cuttings on it from different sides.
Of the many types of this method of grafting (with a tongue, with a saddle, simple, etc.), the improved copulation of fruit trees is the simplest in execution and at the same time effective.
Ее проводят ранней весной, до того, как набухнут почки на побегах. Подходит для:
Оптимальный диаметр подвоя – 0,7-1,5 см, привоя (черенка) – 0,7-1,5 см. Алгоритм действий такой:
- Make a cut of the same size at an angle of 25-30 ° C on the graft and the basement, make one longitudinal incision (tongue) 1 cm long in the middle of both sections.
- Connect the graft with the stock so that the tongues catch on each other, and the cambial layers (cambium - a thin green layer between the bark and wood) coincide.
- Wrap the vaccination site with tape (sticky layer out), put a plastic bag on top of the grafted cutting.
Why is it so important to choose the right time?
Often, the basis for the propagation of a garden tree is not a seed or a stone, but a cutting, that is, a small segment of a stiff young branch (not an shoot) with buds. Moreover, planting and rooting do not always give positive results, and if a tree grows, then it will not start to give harvest soon. That is why grafting is the fastest way to get a strong fruit tree.
Grafting a fruit tree
However, it should be remembered that this operation requires not only a graft (the same stalk), but also a stock, that is, a stem or stem with a good root system. And the vital rhythms of both parts must coincide, otherwise, how many do not add, they will not take root. That is why optimal terms for different types of fruit trees and their individual varieties have been tracked for a long time.
For example, stone fruits, such as cherries, plums and apricots, awaken in the spring before seed, and therefore you should start working with them first. But if we talk about grafts, the stocks also need to be chosen according to the time when the juices in the cambia (fibers under the bark) start moving, which becomes green during this period. If the graft is grafted before the roots start to feed nutrients along the trunk, it will most likely not take root.
The right time for grafting cherries and cherries
As mentioned above, the movement of juices in the trunks of stone fruit crops starts very early, so it is very important to inoculate at the very beginning of the awakening of fruit trees before the buds are swollen. The best time for this is considered to be the beginning of March, when you make sure that the thaws are already confidently removing snow from the ground.
But this does not mean that the inoculation of stone farms can be carried out exclusively in early spring, these are only the most suitable days, especially since the movement of juices can start earlier or later and last until April. Cuttings should be brought into the room with the usual room temperature the day before the vaccination was planned, they must be updated with sections, in addition, they should be placed in the lower part in warm water.
In general, sweet cherry, like cherry, can be propagated by cuttings and in the summer, it all depends on the method of grafting. So, it is best to carry out the budding in the butt closer to August (and up to its middle), at this time the crust exfoliates no worse than in early spring, but there is no risk that frost will return. The budding can be done both in early spring and in summer, from July to August. On the contrary, it is better to do copulation only at the beginning of spring, when the trees on the cuts actively release gum.
We choose the time for plums
Breeding dates for plum varieties are much wider than the period when grafting of cherry and cherry trees is possible, although all these trees belong to the stone trees. What is interesting, it is possible to plant plum cuttings not only in spring or summer, but even in winter, although this method has some subtleties, which we will discuss later. In the regions lying closer to the south, where the winter is warm enough and comes late, the autumn inoculation can be practiced, but its reliability depends solely on the climatic features of the area. However, we consider the first three methods, the probability of survival of cuttings in which it is much higher.
The most common - spring vaccination, because at this time in the same way and other plants multiply. Like other stone fruits, plum starts to enter the growing season early, so depending on the region, it is possible to begin grafting cuttings to the rootstock at the end of February, if the weather permits. It is time for vaccinations for plums to end usually in mid-April. There are many ways, but copulation in the split and in the butt, as well as behind the bark are most popular. Moreover, the first 2 options need to have time to perform before the trees awaken, that is, from late February to early March.
Spring graft plum
Summer vaccination is best done from mid-summer to the first decade of August, inclusive, that is, after harvest. At this time, the movement of juices is particularly strong, since the tree does not need to supply its fruits with nutrients. It is very convenient to carry out budding by buds, which are born to eject shoots for the next year. They are cut with a shield of bark and cambium, and immediately superimposed on the exact same cut, made on the rootstock. Based on the fact that the plum is aging rather quickly, it is better to cut off the buds from two-year-old trees and plant them on plum, which does not grow for more than a decade and is more tolerant of diseases.
But the most interesting way - inoculation of plums in the winter, also by budding. For this purpose, annual seedlings of suitable fruit trees are dug in advance; young saplings purchased in the autumn can also be used. Those and others are placed in a cold cellar until the day of grafting along with cuttings. Choosing the time between the end of December and the first decade of February, inclusive, you need to cut off the peephole from the cutting with a sufficiently wide flap and attach it to a similar cut on the trunk of a seedling or on a trunk of a young root growth.
Then it remains only to wrap tightly with plastic tape, smear with garden pitch and put the connected parts of plants in a box covered with a film, then sprinkle with moistened moss. We leave the box for 7–8 days in a warm room, then transfer it to the cellar before planting.
Apricot vaccination - when is it best to do it?
Apricot grafting, like in other fruit trees, is most successful in the spring, when the movement of juices is most active, but other grafting periods are possible. It is best to start breeding cuttings from the end of March and during the first decade of April, making sure that the warm days have finally replaced the frosts. At the same time, it is better to choose on cloudy days, when it is not too hot and the air humidity is high enough (but cloudy weather is not suitable, as the probability of rain is too high).
If you are late with the spring vaccine, you can start it in the summer, when there will be no frost. It is better to start in July and continue until the first week of August inclusive. Whether to increase this period depends on the geographical location of the region, if the frosts can begin in early September, the cuttings may not take root completely and will certainly die. As with spring inoculation, it is better to choose cloudy days, and after securing the scion, it is imperative that the stock be watered well, usually plum, plum or apricot seedling is used.
Fixing graft on apricot
In the extreme case, if the climatic zone allows, you can try to perform an autumn inoculation, but only if frost does not come every year until mid-October. In this case, the stalk is fixed in the second decade of September, and before the cold it will surely have time to settle down, especially if the cambium layers of the graft are connected to the rootstock. It should be remembered that even sheltering for the night will not help if the temperature starts to drop dramatically in the dark, creating a sharp drop with the warmth of the daylight hours.
Bud budding in apricots is rarely done, because the cuttings of this culture are more viable.
The right choice of terms for pear
Like most fruit trees, pears are best propagated by cuttings in the spring. But, due to the fact that seed breeds wake up from winter dormancy later than stone fruits, the period from the last decade of April to the first week of May is considered optimal for inoculation using the budding method. It is at this time that the active sap flow in pear varieties.
Of course, the dates may shift depending on the climatic zone, the most correct way is to determine the readiness of the stock to take the cutting according to the ease of separation of the bark and the green color of the cambium. Test cuts should be done carefully, try not to pick up the bark on a large segment and not immerse the knife blade deep into the wood. All wounds immediately cover with clay or gloss over with garden pitch. The pears can be grafted from spring to autumn, but, again, the best time will be when juices can supply the graft with the most active nutrients.
That is, it is the period from the moment of awakening of a tree to its flowering, as well as from summer to autumn, the period from harvest to active fall of the leaves. In these terms, any methods of copulation are allowed, the main thing is that the kidneys on the handle do not begin to awaken before the onset of frost, and in winter, with warming, the graft with the rootstock will take root well. By the way, during the winter period, it is also possible to inoculate prepared cuttings (as described above for the propagation of apricot), and you can use different methods, except for the variant “behind the bark”.
We make in time an inoculation of an apple
Almost all fruit trees need to be propagated strictly during the growing season, and apple trees are no exception. The cuttings prepared from autumn engraft on the stock mostly in the spring, less often in the winter. In the first case, it is necessary to choose the period from April to May, mainly in the last and first decade of the indicated months, respectively.
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As for the winter vaccination, ideally one-year sapling should be in a warm room, and rooted in the container. On such a stock, both a kidney and a cutting can be planted, especially if the latter is suitable in diameter (so that the cambium layers coincide). It is noteworthy that it is quite difficult to inoculate an apple tree on a pear, whereas a pear on an apple tree takes root very well.
In summertime, sap flow is maximally beneficial for scion cuttings only after the branches of the trees are freed from the fruit. Therefore, in early August, when pruning of some branches that did not yield the harvest begins, it is possible to fix the cuttings on the ground with the sawn cuts of young apple trees or cotone killer or chokeberry (also known as black chokeberry). However, it must be remembered that on summer days the air is rather dry, even if it is cloudy, therefore it is recommended to water the stock during the cutting period.
Why do you need a vaccination
- To get planting material. During seed reproduction, varietal qualities are lost, and cuttings root poorly.
- To eliminate unwanted qualities. For example, own-rooted cherries give a lot of shoots, and those grafted with growth form one stem.
- To increase the drought resistance and winter hardiness of the tree, adapt it to the soil conditions of the growing region, increase resistance to pests and diseases. For example, planting a heat-loving variety in the crown of a winter-hardy tree can produce a harvest of southern fruits in an area with a cold winter.
- To update the old fruit tree and get the harvest in 3-4 years. This is done when the quality of the fruit of the tree begins to deteriorate.
- To correct the defects of the crown of the tree. After trimming, you can change the shape of the crown.
- With the right choice of stock, you can get a dwarf tree on which the fruit will ripen faster.
- To save space. On one tree, you can grow two or three varieties.
How to plant trees
For a positive result, you must follow the basic rules. They are the following:
- Plant only a healthy tree without damage.
- Stone fruit rootstock should be no older than 10 years. Apple and pear inoculated of any age.
- If several varieties are grafted onto one tree at once, it is necessary that their maturation be simultaneous.
- The stone tree is planted before the seed tree.
- Stone fruit inoculate on the stone, and pome - on pome.
- Cuttings should be taken only from a healthy tree. You can prepare them in the fall from the end of October to the end of November, store in a cold basement or cellar in the sand, as well as in the snow.
- In the spring the stalk is cut to the appearance of leaves on it and immediately grafted.
- The graft on the graft is preferably taken from the middle of the south side of the tree.
- It is necessary to inoculate quickly so that the light and the air act on the fresh incision for a short time.
- Both the stock and the graft cambium layers must match perfectly.
- Hands and tools, as well as the junction of the tree with the handle should be clean, it affects the survival rate of the cuttings. Therefore, from time to time it is imperative to wipe the instrument with a clean rag or alcohol solution, if it is possible to sterilize it beforehand. Vaccination site boiling water for the destruction of pests.
- Apply two types of knives: okulirovochny and grafting. The dormant knife has a special “bone” and is great for separating bark from the stock. The graft has a long blade and a straight blade, it is easy for them to make even and long cuts. As an alternative, you can use a razor blade, but the main thing is that the working tool is sharp, otherwise you will not be able to make neat cuts and there will not be an accretion of the scion and stock.
- It is better to perform work on a dry cloudy, not a rainy day at any time of the day.
- It is necessary to securely fix the vaccine. In addition to fixation, the material for the garter must have such properties as to retain graft moisture.
- It is necessary to consider the compatibility of trees. Both trees should be similar. For example, a varietal apricot is grafted onto wild apricot.
The timing of the year
It is best to conduct the vaccination during the period of active sap flow. Grafting trees in spring is the best time to work. Inoculation of trees in the summer is done if the climate in the area is dry and warm. Stone rocks are best to vaccinate from late March to early April, seed from early April to mid-June. Often gardeners use the lunar calendar to select the most appropriate day for vaccination.
It is not recommended to inoculate in the autumn or winter, as there is a possibility that the stalk will not have time to settle down before the frost hits. But there are ways of winter grafting of trees that are not applicable to all types of trees. It is best suited for apple, pear and plum.
For winter vaccinations, they pick up a game in advance and grow it indoors at an average temperature. Herself vaccination is done from January to March. After that, the grafted tree is again placed in the room. until the outside air temperature rises, and in the spring they are already sown in the ground. It is necessary to wait for the day when the temperature will not drop below zero at night, in order not to freeze the cuttings. Small frosts will not affect much.
It is important to inoculate before blooming buds on the stock, as there is a high probability that later vaccinations will have a strong gum treatment (brown or amber sticky thick liquid will stand out on the trunk and branches), and, as a result, the tree will lower its winter hardiness and growth will slow down .
Care of graft trees
A month later, the result will be known by the appearance of the kidneys. The vaccination site should be sealed, so as the growth grows, the harness will need to be loosened so that it does not over-press the barrel. Squeezing the bark leads to obloma. It is necessary to maintain the humidity of the grafting site, but so that moisture does not fall into the gaps between the stock and the graft. In order not to overdry or soak, the junction is tied with a ribbon and smeared with garden pitch. Several times a week it is necessary to check the tightness of the coating, as temperature fluctuations occur and the cut may dry out.
The inoculation should be protected from direct sunlight, since it is undesirable to overheat and overdry newly formed tissues so as not to lead to their death.
This can especially happen in the first year. Favorable when the vaccination site is in the shade. You can make an awning from the sun. When young shoots appear on the grafted branch of its feathers
iodically tied to props to prevent a bummer. In the process of growth, it is necessary to remove the germinating buds below the junction so that they do not take moisture from the roots. With the successful inoculation of several cuttings on one branch, leave only one.
Vaccination for bark
The method is used when the stock is thicker than a scion. The advantage of this method is the minimum trauma of the stock.: The incision is quickly tightened and the cutting sticks well. The best time to complete this vaccination is the period of active sap flow (from the middle to the end of spring). On the stock, you can immediately plant 2 or 3 cuttings, but leave only one at the end. By doing
grafting graft bark is cut under 30 degrees, the bark is cut into the rootstock and the cutting is inserted into the center of the rootstock in contradiction
For better contact additionally, a horizontal incision is made in the graft and get a saddle in which the stalk is held securely. The stock with graft is firmly fixed, and the site of the vaccination is smeared with garden pitch. Данную прививку лучше выполнять, используя специальный копулировочный нож. А также желательно, чтобы ниже прививки был побег, который в первые месяцы будет обеспечивать питанием черенок.
Прививка в боковой зарез
Вбоковой зарез выполняется в подвой любых толщин и даёт хорошее срастание. Данную прививку часто используют для улучшения урожайности путём замены верхушки старых деревьев. Выполняют такую работу зимой, весной и летом. A slit is cut out on the side of the tree trunk. The graft with two kidneys is cut from both sides under the wedge and inserted into the slot. Then perform strapping and putty garden pitch. With the help of side grafting, you can change the direction of growth of the branches, thus forming a crown.
Tree grafting time in spring
Terms of grafting apricot in spring fall at the end of April - beginning of May. The most commonly used vaccination is in splitting, behind the bark (at the beginning of sap flow) and the bridge (during active sap flow).
The timing of grafting apple in spring: March-April (grafting cuttings), April - early May (budding, or grafting by the eye).
Timing of pear inoculation in spring: before bud break (graft over bark), the beginning of sap flow (graft bridging), beginning of April (split), from mid-spring (sideways)
The timing of grafting cherries in the spring is the time of active sap flow. Summer vaccination is also possible, but in this case (especially in late summer) there is a risk that the graft will not take root.
Vaccination of plums in the spring, the terms of which fall on its beginning (in some regions - the end of February), is carried out at the same time, in splitting and behind the bark.
The timing of grafting cherries in the spring - with the beginning of sap flow. Also, vaccinations are carried out during the summer and until September.
The timing of grafting a peach in spring is from mid-March (with the establishment of warm weather). At the end of March, the vaccination site must be covered with a film, and in May the film must be exchanged for paper.
Available and clearly grafting of fruit trees is shown in the video below:
If everything is done correctly, then the grafted tree will delight you with a harvest already for the 2-3rd year after the inoculation. Even if the cutting didn’t catch on the first time, you shouldn’t give up - keep experimenting!