Beans are among the top ten most useful vegetables, so when choosing crops for growing in their garden, it always has a place. In order for the time and money spent to be rewarded with a generous harvest, it is necessary to become familiar with the basic rules of agricultural engineering, planting and care during cultivation in open ground.
When can be harvested in open field
Planting beans plan on May month. Should focus on the weather conditions and the correct temperature in the soil, which is indicated by 12-15 degrees (at a depth of 10 cm). According to the folk calendar, this period coincides with the flowering of chestnuts.
First you need to plant upright varieties, and after a week you can start climbing species. Shrub species bean plan to plant in early July. This can be done on the beds from which harvests of early ripe vegetables have already been harvested.
Experienced gardeners perform planting work in several stages: from mid-May to early July with an interval of at least 10 days.
Spray bean varieties need to be sown in the soil in early July
Is the frost bean afraid?
Beans are heat-loving culture, so the landing is better to do in spring in the second half of maywhen the threat of frost has passed. Young shoots are afraid even of cold winds, which is why many gardeners find its place under the apple trees or along the fence.
The minimum temperature that can sustain bean seedlings does not exceed the mark -3-4 degrees. If the frosts were short, the beans will survive, but their development will be slowed down and yield will be reduced.
Agrotextiles or films used for construction will help to change the situation. temporary shelter.
Moscow white green hand 556
Plant mid early the ripening period, from sowing to harvest, passes 100 days. The bush is only 25 cm tall, the fruit has a parchment layer, but very thin. The culture is unpretentious, resistant to wet environments and droughts.
Curly variety mid early ripening. The ovoid bean has an ocher color with a pale purple pattern. A fruit without a parchment layer and fibers, which makes the structure soft and soft. The plant is tolerant to anthracnose, gray rot.
For the Urals and the middle band
She R - early maturity ripened beans 80-90 daysrecommended to plant in the country in central Russia. The height of the bushes from 35 to 56 cm, the fruits have high taste.
Harvesting begins through 65-85 days after seed germination. Curly bush reaches a height of 3 m, and therefore needs support.
Marble-pink beans do not contain a parchment layer and fibers, which gives them a delicate structure. On the fruits are visible purple streaks and strokes. The application is universal, in any form of beans retains a unique taste.
Bean growing conditions
In general, the beans are unpretentious in the care, but still differs in some special requirements for growing conditions. Due to the fact that the beans - the culture is extremely thermophilic, most varieties are very badly damaged by late frosts. Once is enough to freeze, then all spring labors will go to pieces. At the same time, the beans can tolerate short-term cooling to –1 ° С.
The optimum conditions for the growth and development of this legume culture is considered to be the temperature of 20-25 ° C. Fruits begin to form already at 15 ° C. Too cold weather, wind and rain provoke the precipitation of flowers and the appearance of fungal diseases. A significant increase in temperature, like cooling, is also undesirable for beans. With hot and dry air at 30 ° C, the flowers fall off and the fruits are not tied.
Soil for beans
Haricot grows well on limy light soil, does not tolerate acidic, heavy, moist, overdensed soils. Indicators of soil acidity for beans are recommended in the range of pH 6.5-7.0. Sandy loam and light loam with deep groundwater are suitable.
The soil at the site should be cultivated and heated, fertile, but without an excess of nitrogen. In view of the fact that the nodule bean bacteria themselves take nitrogen from the air and saturate the soil with them, the excess mineral nitrogen fertilizer can lead to the development of a powerful green mass to the detriment of the fruits. Therefore, when enriching the soil, it is necessary to take into account the composition and rate of fertilizer application and to think, first of all, about the application of phosphorus and potassium.
In order to correctly determine the timing of planting beans, you need to take into account the period of occurrence of the alleged last frost and plant seeds no earlier than a week before a possible cooling. Therefore, in a specific climatic region, the time of planting beans is calculated individually. At the same time in the southern warm countryside, where summer is long, warm and sunny, the harvest of beans can be obtained several times per season.
Beans are planted in open ground starting from April in colder regions (Ural, Siberia, Far East) - not earlier than May 15-20. In determining the timing of planting is best to focus on the temperature of the soil. Bean seeds begin to germinate at a soil temperature of at least +10 ° C. If you plant the beans in cold, cold soil, seed germination is sharply reduced. They may rot at the stage of swelling, in the seedling phase. There is no such danger in the heated soil, so plant the beans when the soil at a depth of 5 cm warms to 12-14 ° C. It is necessary to calculate the time of planting so that the shoots appear when the threat of return frost is over. Harvests beans just 7-8 days after sowing.
Place of landing beans
When choosing a place for planting beans, it is necessary to take into account its biological features. Haricot is a short day plant, but light-requiring. Therefore, it needs sunny areas, because lack of lighting leads to the stretching of plants and a decrease in yield. Therefore, it is recommended to plant it in an open place where the sun is shining all day long and away from tall crops that can shade it.
Cultivated areas with a southern slope that are well warmed and protected from the wind will be suitable for beans. For a better warming of the soil, especially in lowlands, places of excessive moisture, it is better to make bean beds better. Beans can be planted along the fence in one row, and the harvest will be enough.
In one place, the beans are recommended to grow no more than 1 time in 3-5 years. In this case, do not forget to pay attention to what crops were grown in beds up to beans. Cucumber, carrots, beets, potatoes, lettuce, and tomatoes are good forerunners.
Beans in joint plantings
Curly and semi-growing varieties of beans are often used as a compactor for other plants, planted at the edges of the garden or ridges. Beans enrich the soil with nitrogen due to nodule bacteria, so it is useful to use it in mixed plantings. The cultures compatible with it are cabbage, beet, carrot, potato, cucumber, tomato, pumpkin.
Next to other legumes, beans should not be planted, it will provoke the spread of pests such as pea moth. It can immediately go to a large area, then crop loss can not be avoided. It should be avoided and the neighborhood with onions, garlic and fennel.
Soak bean seeds before planting
Soaking bean seeds before planting may have several objectives. If soaked in saline solution - check for full weight and sowing qualities. If we use potassium permanganate - we disinfect the planting material. Also soaking in clear water promotes faster seed germination.
Preparation of bean seeds for planting
To get guaranteed yields, you need to sow only high-quality bean beans, so before planting beans in open ground, you need to prepare the seeds: select suitable ones, eliminate lethargic, empty and diseased. To do this, they must be sorted by density. In order to properly select the full-weighted seeds, they are immersed in a saline solution. To prepare it, dilute 5 g of salt per half cup of water. Seeds are immersed in the solution and thoroughly stirred. Seeds that float after some time are empty, they can be thrown away. Weighted seeds will settle to the bottom - they are washed from the salt under clean water, dried and used for sowing. However, this method is good for checking the weights of fresh seeds. The seeds that have been stored for several years dry up and float even while maintaining the sowing qualities. Always observe seed storage conditions or use ways to revitalize old seeds.
Most plant diseases are transmitted through planting material, therefore it is recommended to disinfect seeds before planting. They are placed in a solution of potassium permanganate for 30 minutes, after which they must be washed and allowed to dry. Also, for the disinfection of seeds, they can be treated with fungicides immediately before sowing. To protect against nodule weevil, bean beans before planting can be briefly immersed in a warm solution of a mixture of ammonium and boric acid.
To speed up seed germination, they are soaked on the night before planting in clean (thawed) water for 15 hours. Also, to improve germination and improve seed germination of beans, they should be warmed up. Seeds can be poured into a thermos with hot water (temperature not more than 45 ° C), tightly screw the lid and leave for 10-12 hours. Under the influence of high temperature, the seeds will swell, and the beans will sprout faster and more friendly.
The procedure of hardening the seeds is very useful for the beans, allows you to get the seedlings before. Soaked bean seeds are placed in a fridge on a shelf with a temperature of 2 ° C and kept there for 5-7 days, preventing the seeds from drying. Contrast hardening can also be performed. Seeds to swell at a temperature of 18-20 ° C, while making sure that they do not have time to germinate. Then again, place in the refrigerator at a temperature of 2-3 ° C for 6 hours and repeat this procedure several times.
Bean planting scheme
Beans are planted in rows so that the distance between them is 50-60 cm, and between plants about 25 cm. When planting by the square-nested method, the holes are made at a distance of 45 cm from each other. The seeding rate of bean seeds depends on the weight of seeds and germination. On wet soils, seeds are planted to a depth of 3-4 cm, on dry soil - 5-6 cm. After sowing the beans, the surface is tamped to improve seed germination and retain moisture. The soil can also be mixed with a layer of 3-4 cm.
The thickening of the crops is equivalent to their shading, so it is better to sow the beans less frequently. If all the same there was a thickening, it is better to thin the beans so that each plant received enough light.
When to plant?
It should be noted that, although the beans are rather stable, at a young age they cannot stand the cold. It is necessary to plant seeds on a bed only under the condition of complete cessation of return frost.
Shoots can survive lowering the temperature only to 0 degrees, not lower. And even if the sprouts do not die from minor short-term frosts, the plant will grow much less well and will yield a lower yield.
Thus, for most regions, the best time for planting beans in open ground is May. By this time, the snow is already completely gone, the earth is thawing, and the probability of return frost is significantly reduced.
Specific dates will be different for different regions. Each gardener should, first of all, be guided by the weather conditions of the area, the degree of soil heating.
By the way, by the time the beans are planted, the ground should warm up to + 12-15 degrees to a depth of not less than 10 cm. If you focus on folk signs, then the beans are planted on the street during the flowering chestnut.
It is recommended to plant first upright varieties, and after a week to plant the curling beans. Legumes of bush varieties are planted much later - around the beginning of July.
Often the string beans are planted in the place where the already harvested early vegetables were grown. Thus, all the landing work takes from May to early July: the interval between the stages must be at least 10 days.
Landing time by region:
- in Siberia and the Urals, it is recommended to sow in the second half of May and early June, not earlier,
- beans are planted in the central part during the May holidays,
- in the south you can land in April,
Tip: if it is necessary to plant early, and the soil has not yet warmed up sufficiently, you can preliminarily cover the bed with foil.
Gardeners today can grow beans, based on the huge varietal diversity. However, when choosing a plant type, it is recommended first to take into account the climatic features of the region and the stability of the culture.
The degree of ripening is also important: you can choose both late-ripening beans, and medium ripening, early.
Note that for regions with a cold climate, early varieties are preferable, since they will have time to mature even in conditions of a short summer. Late varieties ripening from 100 days or more should be left for warm regions.
There are also different types of plants in taste:
- Shelling suitable more like animal feed or siderata,
- sugar used in food
- semi-sugar have a universal purpose.
Further we will get acquainted with the most popular varieties for various Russian regions.
For the middle band and the suburbs
It is a curly variety of medium early ripening. In total, 100 days will pass from the moment of planting to harvest. Bob matures egg-shaped, yellowish color with dark spots.
Culture has high taste qualities: fruits are tender, non-fibrous, soft, easy to boil soft. Note the resistance of this variety to fungal diseases.
The early variety ripening in 65-85 days - the optimal time for the Urals. The culture is curly, needs support. Fruits turn out a pink color with violet divorces, soft, tasty, gentle, have universal application.
Early beans, having a ripening period of 80-90 days. Growing it is also possible in the middle lane. The bush fruitful variety, reaches in height of 35-56 cm. Fruits have excellent taste.
How to choose a place?
For cultivation of beans in the open ground is best suited well-lit area, not blown by winds and drafts. Note that the beans are not grown in a rassadny way: even in the north, the seeds are more often planted directly into the ground.
For planting beans pick up the area on which the following garden crops were growing:
The composition of the soil for this culture is not critical, however, it is not recommended to grow beans in dense soil, consisting mainly of clay. A dense substrate has poor permeability, which is why rotting of the roots, and even the seeds themselves, is possible, until they germinate.
A bed before planting bean seeds is digging up - approximately to the depth of the spade bayonet.
Simultaneously with digging fertilizer is applied:
- compost or humus - 4 kg,
- ammonium nitrate - 1 tbsp. spoon,
- Dolomitic flour - 2 tbsp. spoons
- superphosphate - 2 tbsp. spoons.
Proportions are calculated per 1m2. If the acidity of the soil is high, the volume of dolomite flour can be increased.
After digging up the bed, loosen and smooth with a rake. If the soil is excessively dense, add sand when digging.
How to prepare the seeds?
In order for the bean seeds to quickly germinate, to root safely and bring a good harvest, it is recommended to prepare them before planting
- First, sort the planting material, sort it out and remove the spoiled beans, rotten, weak, deformed.
- Next you should soak the planting material in a solution of potassium permanganate. The duration of the procedure is 20 minutes. Processing with potassium permanganate has an antibacterial and disinfectant effect.
- After potassium permanganate, the beans are washed and soaked in a wood ash solution. This treatment lasts 2 hours.
- To make the seeds come up faster, it is recommended to wrap them in a damp cloth the night before planting.
- For 5 minutes before placing in the ground, lower the planting material into a weak solution of boric acid, which will protect the seeds from pests and increase their resistance to the fungus.
Do you need a soak?
It is recommended to soak the seeds for swelling when planting later varieties of beans, as well as, if necessary, to get the seedlings as soon as possible.
But if you are going to soak the seeds, know that you will have to land after the procedure anyway, regardless of the weather. Therefore, soak, only if you are fully confident in the absence of unexpected cold spells or urgent matters in the near future.
If the planting of swollen beans does not immediately implement, the material will be damaged. In addition, it is important to consider the possibility of watering the beds after planting. If this is not possible, it is better to plant dry beans.
Вместо ночного замачивания семян некоторые огородники непосредственно перед посадкой запаривают их горячей водой (70 градусов) на короткое время. Выдерживать в этом случае посадочный материал нужно не больше 10 минут, а эффект такой же, как от традиционного замачивания.
Отметим, что кустовую фасоль и вьющуюся высаживают по разным схемам.
- семена заглубляются на 5-6 см,
- между лунками делают дистанцию 20-25 см,
- between the rows - 40 cm.
- depth of 5-6 cm
- between holes 25-30 cm
- between the rows - half a meter.
Go through the procedure of landing:
- The wells in the garden are dug in advance according to the above schemes.
- Pour warm water into each hole to prepare the soil. It is also recommended to pour some compost.
- In one well immediately planted 5-6 seeds. This makes yields higher.
- It is desirable to lay a mulch layer of sawdust or dry grass on top of the bed, which will protect the soil from moisture evaporation.
- The bed is covered with polyethylene, which creates a humid and warm microclimate, thereby accelerating seed germination. When the average night air temperature exceeds the mark of +12 degrees, the need for shelter disappears.
- After the emergence of shoots, a couple of seedlings are removed from each group, so that about three shoots remain - the strongest and strongest.
Important: with a dry planting method, all actions are the same, only water is not poured into the wells, and the seeds themselves are not steamed.
How to care?
Let's get acquainted with the peculiarities of care for the beans in the open field.
Beans love water very much, so you can not neglect watering in any case. Watering is especially important during the period of pod formation. The average frequency of moisturizing procedures - once a week.
It is important not to allow the soil to dry - maintain a constant moderate humidity in the garden. If the rain has passed, the next watering can be transferred to a later time.
After the emergence of seedlings to water the beans in the garden should be quite abundant. When 4-5 leaves are formed, watering is recommended to temporarily stop and resume when the beans start to bloom. Water consumption should gradually increase as culture develops.
Use separated and not cold water: it is recommended to heat it under the sun to about + 18-20 degrees.
Haricot loves competent top dressing and gratefully responds to it.
Agrotechnics concerning the cultivation of legumes, recommends the introduction during the growing season at least 3 dressings:
- The first time fertilizers are applied after 3-4 weeks from the moment of emergence of shoots. The first top dressing should consist of phosphorus and nitrogen mainly. You can make and superphosphate (30-40 g per 1m2).
- After the first application, three weeks pass and the second feeding is carried out. This time, potash fertilizers are selected for abundant fruit formation. Usually they make salt potassium at the rate of 10-15 grams per 1m2.
- Three weeks after the second application, fertilizing is carried out for the third time - often this introduction becomes final.
You should not exceed the number of fertilizing and the recommended amount of fertilizer, as this can provoke a rapid growth of tops to the detriment of the formation of fruits.
Attention: Some gardeners do not feed the beans with nitrogen, because this mineral culture can be synthesized independently.
This procedure is necessary only for beans of climbing varieties, some species of which can reach a length of 3 meters. The garter is carried out to the supports, trellis, as which you can use a fence or wooden slats.
The height of the support must be at least one and a half meters and have both vertical and horizontal elements. You can also drive next to the plant number, on which the shoots will climb.
Recommended procedure after irrigation and rain. Beans need permeable soil, so loosening allows you to break a solid crust on the surface of the soil.
Along with loosening and hilling spend. The frequency of the procedures is as follows:
- the first time shallow loosened when shoots reach a height of 7 cm
- the second time, loosening is carried out together with hilling a couple of weeks after the first procedure,
- the third time before the closing of the rows - loosening + hilling.
Protection against diseases and pests
To the joy of gardeners, we note that the beans are relatively rarely sick and are affected by harmful insects. If the pests attack the plant, it is usually slugs. They get rid of slugs with the help of traps. They also carry out preventive measures and carefully weed out the weeds in which insects are found.
Occasionally, the beans are also affected by caterpillars, grains. Dangerous and scoops: these insects lay on the tops of beans and eggs, and the emerged larvae actively devour the leaves, buds, ovaries and fruits. From these insects helps preventive insecticidal treatment.
As for diseases, the beans can be affected by the fungus: most often by anthracosis, powdery mildew. There are bacterial and viral diseases: mosaic, bacteriosis.
Bacteriosis is especially dangerous for a plant, since it is likely to lead to the death of a significant part of the crop. In addition, the causative agent of the disease can remain viable in the soil for several years, threatening each subsequent crop.
A dangerous disease affecting the beans at the fruiting stage is ashokitosis. Pathology manifests as black blurred spots on the leaves. It is impossible to treat, it is necessary to dispose of the diseased plant urgently, and to disinfect the ground after it.
Of the fungal diseases can be affected by powdery mildew. This disease is easily recognized by the characteristic white bloom on the leaves and fruits. It is possible to get rid of it by spraying with copper-containing preparations.
The fungal disease, tractosis, also poses a serious threat to beans. This fungus manifests itself as the appearance of spots on the leaves, the gradual browning of the tops, dying off. Virus mosaic appears as necrotic spots on the leaves.
It is useless to treat viruses - the affected plant must be destroyed with its roots. It is possible to get rid of the fungus with the help of fungicides, and bacteriosis, too, if it has not yet had time to progress.
An effective measure of prevention is respect for crop rotation. It is undesirable to plant the beans in one place two years in a row: the plot must rest from the legumes for four years.
Warning: most often infected beans through planting material. To avoid this problem, sort the seeds and poor quality, rotten, damaged reject. In addition, it is recommended to initially choose varieties resistant to disease.
How to harvest and store?
Collect beans in the time provided for a particular variety. We recommend not to perederzhivat plant in the garden, as this will lose the taste, the fruits become rough, dry, hard.
This is especially true for asparagus beans. If the harvest is planned to be mothballed, let's say the harvest is not fully ripe fruit.
All the pods in one day, do not tear, especially if aging is uneven. Collect first ripe fruit, and leave the green and unripe fruits for another day or two to hang.
Peeling beans, especially if there are a lot of them, is better not by hand, but with a stick. With this simple device, it is possible to quickly and effectively “knock out” beans from the pods. Beating with a stick, however, should not be done directly over the beans, but after covering the crop with a veil.
After peeling, the pods are no longer needed; they can be thrown out or sent to livestock feed.
Fruits need to be dried, in dry weather, wipe in the wind. It is recommended to store the harvest of beans in a dry and ventilated place. Frostbite fruits are not afraid, therefore, the storage place is not necessary to heat.
So, we learned how to grow beans in the open field, went through the whole procedure from planting to harvesting. As you can see, there is nothing difficult: even a beginner can get good results, especially if a stable and unpretentious variety is chosen.
Landing has many advantages, for example:
- When planting and cultivation occurs in a greenhouse, it often suffers from fungal infections. It is especially strongly affected by the fungus, when the greenhouse is not ventilated,
- A climbing plant needs freedom. When growing from seed occurs in a greenhouse with a low ceiling, it is not possible to install supports of a suitable height. She goes down to the ground, and her whips can rot,
- Vegetable does not like excess moisture, and in any greenhouse high humidity,
- Plant care is much easier than when it grows in a greenhouse.
However, some gardeners believe that it grows much better in greenhouses than in open ground. In the conditions of the Russian Central Band and more northern regions, this is true. However, in those regions where the climate is warm and dry, it is best to plant from seeds into the ground. The main thing is to provide the plant with the right care after planting. Proper care is the key to a good harvest.
Useful properties of beans
Some gardeners believe that planting green beans on the plot is optional, as it is commercially available in the vegetable departments of large supermarkets.
but there is nothing better than vegetables from their ridgesto, grown on environmentally friendly technologies. Anyone who wants to be healthy and eat right, knows that it is rich in vitamins, minerals and other useful substances.
Also vegetable contains a lot of proteintherefore, it is an ideal meat substitute product for those who observe Orthodox fasting. However, on the shelves of supermarkets, it appears already frozen. Despite the modern technologies of “shock freezing”, which allow to keep a large number of useful substances in frozen vegetables, it is frozen, it loses many useful properties.
Therefore, it is best to use vegetables from your own summer cottage to prepare hearty and tasty dishes. Young beans of some varieties are used together with green pods, tearing it at the very beginning of ripening. Mature cleaned of pods. Regular consumption of beans helps to strengthen the bodya, because:
- It quickly creates a feeling of saturation, so the dishes from it must be periodically included in the menu for those who are "sitting" on a diet,
- This vegetable normalizes digestive processes,
- Contains a high concentration of fiber,
- Also contained in pods and beans antioxidants - beneficial substances that effectively fight the aging of the skin and internal organs.
This product must include in your diet people doing heavy physical work, as this protein-rich vegetable helps to rejuvenate. Dishes made from green beans have a pleasant taste. However, canned, especially the one that is sold in stores is not as useful as fresh.
If the gardener received a large crop, it is best to dry it and store in hermetically sealed containers or in a canvas bag. And you can make homemade canned food using an autoclave. Plus homemade preservation, as compared to the store, is that in the home canned food there is definitely no excess salt, hot spices and chemical flavors of industrial production.
How to plant beans: seed preparation
You can choose seeds for planting from your own seed. However, many gardeners prefer to buy seeds for planting in specialized stores, as they want to grow different varieties. In some cases, using your own material is not recommended.
If she has suffered from fungal or bacterial infections, it is better to purchase seeds for planting in a store or from neighbors gardeners.
It is very easy to recognize the infection: when the vegetable is ripe, brown, dark brown and black spots in the form of concentric circles may appear on the pods. Seeds from such pods should never be used for planting. Pods with signs of infection should be burned. Seeds are prepared for planting in open ground as follows:
- During harvest, you need to carefully remove the ripe pods and spread them out, for example, on a table or on a newspaper. It is advisable that they do not touch each other, because the contact of the pods leads to their early decay,
- When the pods dry out a bit, you can proceed to the extraction of seeds. To do this, take the pod in one hand and gently break it with the other hand. It is only necessary to break the pod with your hands in order not to damage the seeds there,
- Further, seeds are extracted from the pod with a slight movement - beans,
- After all the pods are cleaned and the beans are gathered in a canvas bag or in a plastic container, the selection of beans for seeds begins. Seeds are selected for the largest beans,
- It is not necessary to save deformed beans and beans of irregular shape on seeds, since deformation can be a sign of congenital malformations,
- The beans selected for seed should be germinated,
- Germinated seeds are planted in a greenhouse or in open ground.
Choosing seeds, you should pay special attention to their color. White beans are suitable for those who like to eat right. Dishes from it are often included in various diets. Red fresh contains toxic substances, so eating fresh red beans is by no means impossible. It is eaten only after conservation or prolonged heat treatment.
Black is rich in protein and other nutrients, but black bean dishes are quite heavy food. It is best to plant in the garden ordinary, the most common white beans. It ripens quickly, gives a good harvest and has excellent taste.
Beans: planting and care
When planting beans in open ground, the gardener should keep in mind that this vegetable crop loves the sun. Excess moisture and high humidity, on the contrary, are detrimental to legumes.
In case of long torrential rains, shoots may start to rot. If curling beans grow on the site, it needs to be supported. On this support, it will curl up.
When a legume grown in an open field grows, it becomes necessary to garter belt. For this, thin pegs are stuck around the perimeter of the plot. The plant is tied to these pegs on a thread. It is best to use a nylon thread, as it is well kept, securely tied and keeps the rapidly growing shoots perfectly.
After watering, it is imperative to loosen the soil so that moisture does not stagnate in the soil. When it grows intensively, and its whips fill the whole area, it is necessary to loosen the ground very carefully so as not to touch the leaves and roots.
Plant very loves sunshinetherefore, it is advisable to plant it closer to the sun. For feeding you can use mullein or mineral fertilizers. It never hurts to put ground egg shells into the ground.
What can be prepared from beans grown in the country
A summer resident who has managed to get a good harvest in the open field should know what can be prepared from thisamazing vegetable. At home, the beans can be cooked:
- Georgian or Armenian lobio,
- Garnish for main dishes.
If used for cooking dried beans, it should be pre-soaked. Boil it should be quite a long time, until soft. In the Caucasus, it is customary to cook bean dishes with cilantro grown on its own plot, as cilantro gives the beans a very bright taste. Russian summer residents also eagerly grow cilantro, so this herb can be safely added to bean dishes. If you cook the beans correctly, it retains all the beneficial substances: vitamins, minerals, proteins and antioxidants.
It is not recommended to give bean dishes to young children, as well as to nursing mothers, because it can cause bloating and accumulation of gas in the intestines in young children. But older children should definitely offer this dish, since it contains a lot of protein-building material for the children's body.
Grow beans in a greenhouse or in open ground is definitely worth it. If the summer is dry and sunny, it will grow well and will not be infected with dangerous infections. If it is quite cold at night, you can cover this culture with film for the night. Boiled green beans - an indispensable dish for diet food. Growing beans on a plot will help save a substantial amount on buying vegetables. Perhaps for the first time a big harvest will fail, but the skill comes with experience.
Planting beans through seedlings
To get a harvest of beans 2 weeks earlier, it is recommended to grow it through seedlings. Then, from the end of April in the phase of two true leaves, seedlings are planted in open ground and covered with polyethylene to protect from low temperatures.
Culture is different high yield and nutritional qualities of the fruit. The length of the pods is about 30 cm, the beans are large. Cold resistance and strong immunity make it possible to cultivate and grow a plant in Siberia.
Peculiarity: whips with beautiful fiery red flowers can be used as a decorative hedge.
Features of the structure, growth and development
Beans are a vegetable of the legume family. Surprisingly, this vegetable has many varieties and varieties. The size and color of a bean - depends on a concrete grade. All varieties of beans are divided into three groups:
- Asparagus varieties (sugar),
- Universal varieties (semi-sugar),
- Grain varieties (shelling).
Asparagus or sugar varieties - do not have a dense structure and a fibrous layer. These varieties of beans are more often grown for human consumption. Сахарные бобы считаются самыми вкусными, так как они собираются в стадии ее технической зрелости Стручки уже выросли на присущую для сорта длину, а бобы внутри мягкие и нежные. Такие бобы, как правило не больших размеров.
Полусахарные сорта также употребляются в пищу и используются как семена, поэтому и считаются универсальными. Обычно они дают более плотные стручки и бобы в них чуть крупнее.
Varieties of shelling beans are more often grown for grain. Such beans are large and medium in size. When the beans of these varieties reach their maximum size, the pods dry out and are very easy to peel. Mature pods are yellow, white, purple, green, and also have specks and divorces.
The shape of the plant beans are divided into: bush and curly.
Spray Beans less whimsical in growing and more convenient for manual harvesting. These varieties of beans begin to bear fruit and ripen earlier. The height of the bushes reaches from 40 to 60 centimeters.
Curly beans can curl in height to five meters. For such a vegetable need special supports. Regardless of the type of beans, sometimes it is used for decorative purposes - for gardening fences, walls and other surfaces.
Favorable conditions for the cultivation of beans
Beans - a vegetable that loves warm and moderate, regular watering. For planting, choose a place protected from the wind, with constant access of sunlight. Beans love to grow on the slopes, where the earth is warming well.
Growing beans at home and in the country:
Choosing a plot, you can safely sow the beans, where they were cultivated tilled crops. The soil should be prepared from the fall, well dig and loosen.
For a good harvest:
- You can make compost or humus with the calculation of 5-6 kg per square meter,
- Superphosphate fertilizers or ammonium nitrate, if your site is slightly saturated with minerals, but not more than 1 tbsp. l (35-40 grams) per square meter, since only greens can grow, and the pods will be weak,
- Potassium chloride (20-25 grams).
Planting time, preparation and sowing of seeds
First of all, you need to make sure that the heat has finally arrived and there will be no frost anymore. The most optimal time is the end of May. The soil should warm up to + 12-15 ̊C. Curly varieties of beans, sown a week later.
It is not advisable to plant beans in the area where they were previously grown:
At such a place, the beans can be sown no earlier than three years.
Bean seeds are prepared as follows:
- We select only whole and healthy grains of beans,
- We warm the beans in the sun for 3-5 days (if it was kept at room temperature, then it is not necessary to warm up),
- Selected seeds are soaked in water (room temperature) for 1-2 days. We make sure that the water does not cover the beans higher than 5 mm.,
- Before sowing, pour the swollen seeds with a weak solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes.
Spray varieties of beans are planted in holes 5 cm deep at a distance of 20-30 cm between bushes and 30-40 cm between rows. We make holes in a checkerboard pattern and put 5-6 seeds. When the beans come up, leave the three strongest shoots, the rest can be transplanted.
Curling beans are planted less frequently. The distance between the bushes should be at least half a meter and 50-60 cm between rows.
If you are afraid of frost, you can cover the beans at night with a film.
Cultivation and care
The first shoots of beans appear about 10-15 days after planting and 3-4 weeks develop slowly. During this period, make 2-3 weeding and spud bushes. For climbing grades, install supports. When the plant reaches two meters, you need to cut the tops, so that the beans began to ripen faster.
Growing beans at home:
Preparation of the site under the beans
2-3 days before planting the seeds, the ground should be dug up and raised with a rake so that it becomes crumbly. Too viscous soil should be lightened with sand - half a bucket per square meter.
If necessary, the soil is fed by adding wood ash, compost, biohumus or rotted manure. Feeding and digging up the ground is disinfected with a weak warm solution of potassium permanganate.
It is necessary to engage in loosening the soil immediately after germination. The main thing with this - caution. It is very important not to tear out a sprout and not to damage its roots. When the beans grow older, loosening the row spacing can be combined with weeding.
The first time the beans are fed about a month of age. To do this, use a complex mineral fertilizer (40 g per square meter). This procedure is carried out together with loosening, mixing the fertilizer with the soil. To compensate for the lack of nitrogen that occurs in beans in dry weather, you can feed it with fermented bird droppings.
The second time fertilizers are applied in 20 days. At this time, they are needed to form the beans that most need phosphorus, magnesium, and potassium (this set contains wood ash).
Proper cultivation of beans in the open field involves abundant watering, because legumes are very fond of water, especially during the formation of the pods. The land should always be slightly wet, while the rate of irrigation is determined by climatic conditions and the composition of the soil.
Before flowering, it is recommended to water the beans every 7 days, using 5-6 liters per square meter. In the period of flowering and the formation of pods, this number is doubled.
It is best to pour rainwater between the rows. Drops on the plant should be avoided to prevent the development of fungal diseases. Watering must be done in the morning, so that by the end of the day the ground has time to dry.
Fight against diseases and pests
Most often, the beans are affected by anthracnose and downy mildew. Also the enemies of culture are slugs. The development of diseases is hampered by the observance of crop rotation, the burning of residues of infected plants, the liming of acid soils, and the disinfection of seeds. Copper preparations are effective against fungal and viral infections.
To prevent the appearance of slugs, weeds should be destroyed in time, soil moisture should be observed. When they appear, the best way to fight is regular removal.
To get a good bean, planting and grooming must be coupled with a high pollination ability of its flowers. For this, the presence of insect pollinators is necessary on the bed. A good bait is sugar syrup or boric acid solution, which should be regularly sprayed blooming beans. You can also arrange containers with honey diluted in water.
During the flowering period, it is not recommended to spray the gardens and kitchen gardens with toxic chemicals to avoid the death of insects.
The first harvest of beans (paddles) can be collected after two or three weeks from flowering.
It should focus on the type of beans and its further use. From the bush varieties, you can remove all the pods at once. They ripen unevenly on curly beans, so they are broken as they ripen.
Asparagus beans lose their value when dried, because it is customary to use green along with the pods. It is removed unripe.
The beans intended for storage for the winter are harvested after they turn yellow and the beans for preservation are picked a little earlier.
If the cultivation of beans in the open field is produced in a massive way, it is often collected all at once.
In this case, the best option is the harvest, when the pods become mature, but still remain green and not completely dried. To check the maturity they are broken in half - there should be no fibers on the fault.
Varieties and types of beans
To date, more than fifty known types of beans. It has high taste and nutritional qualities, and also has a healing effect. Due to such characteristics, this plant is very popular all over the world.
The most common is white and red beans. In addition, there is green, yellow, purple. It all differs in shape and size.
There are also bush and climbing varieties.
All varieties of beans are divided into three groups:
Shelling (grain) varieties give only grains, since their flaps have a parchment layer that is unsuitable for consumption. In central Russia, such beans are not grown, because they do not have time to ripen, and in an immature state are not subject to use.
Semi-sugar bean types have a weak or late-developing parchment layer, and also have coarse fibers that should be removed before use.
Sugar (asparagus) beans without the parchment layer and most of them without hard fibers are considered the best. In such a bean there are a lot of proteins and vitamins.
In terms of ripening beans is:
- early maturing (matures in 65 days)
- medium early (65-75)
- medium (75-85)
- mid-season (85-100)
- late (more than 100 days).
In order to always have green beans on the table throughout the season, cultivation should be carried out evenly, using different varieties and several sowing terms. To get a big harvest of beans in a small garden, it is better to prefer curly. Bush varieties take up more space, but they are more convenient to grow, they do not require props, they are more resistant and precocious.
In general, beans - an ideal culture for growing on your site. As a product, it is very useful and even healing. As a plant, it does not require special conditions and special care. Therefore, it is not only expedient to engage in beans, but also very pleasant.
The overall care of the beans includes the same basic principles as the care of other legumes: peas, beans, and piggy. With care, special attention should be paid to irrigation - water loves beans, but in moderation. It is imperative to remove weeds on the bean plantations, loosen the upper layers of the soil, feed and disinfect the plants in time.
Loosening and hilling beans
When caring for beans, it is important to prevent the formation of a crust. Therefore, during the growing season, do not forget to loosen the soil and break the crust, otherwise the shoots, making their way to the surface, will break. The seeds of the beans are buried in the soil when planting is shallow, so plantings need hilling. Thanks to this procedure, the plants get support, they stand more steadily and do not lie down after the rain and wind. The first time the beans are spud to the base of the first leaf, the second time - slightly higher.
Haricot - culture unpretentious, most often enough fertilizers made during planting. Manure under the beans do not make, nitrogen fertilizers add 20 g / m², phosphate and potash - 30 g / m². With weak growth it is possible to conduct dressings.
Haricot itself absorbs nitrogen from the environment with the help of nodule bacteria on the roots. Does not need special dressings, but will be grateful for the introduction of organic and mineral trace elements. When applying fertilizer should be careful not to burn the plant. Make sure that dry fertilizers or solutions do not fall on the leaves of the beans - even if you quickly wash off the remnants of clean water, it will not prevent burns. Dry fertilizers lay at the very surface of the soil, watering fertilizers in between rows through a narrow spout watering.
Excess and lack of moisture in the soil also leads to growth inhibition and yield loss. The greatest demands on water - during the period of fruiting. Although the beans feel comfortable at high temperatures than other grain-legume crops, it does not tolerate heat and drought. At high temperatures, buds, flowers and even young ovaries fall off. The same thing happens with a lack of moisture during flowering and tying the beans. Therefore, watering in hot dry weather is required.
Diseases and pests of beans
In order not to lose the crop, you need to carefully monitor pests and diseases that affect the beans. First of all, weeds should be carefully removed, especially euphorbia, in the rhizomes of which the rust pathogen can winter. If you find signs of this disease during the growing season, the plant can be sprayed with a solution of 1% Bordeaux mixture.
The main diseases of beans are bacterioses - any bacterial disease that spreads through the body of beans. Often there are various spots, rot. This mainly occurs when grown in greenhouses and greenhouses. Since the bean is a heat-loving culture, many summer residents try not to freeze it and clean it up for a whole season. This is not very correct, because the beans as a result of poorly ventilated and very quickly affected by bacteriosis.
One of the worst pests of beans is a sprout fly. It gnaws the foundation of young shoots, they begin to dry quickly, and you can lose all the crops. As a preventive measure, it is necessary to observe crop rotation, do not plant beans over beans, since the pest accumulates in the soil in the form of laid eggs and hibernating larvae. It is not recommended to make fresh humus compost, because it is in it that there are a lot of germ flies.
Prevention of this pest is to collect beans before their cracking. Harvested grains are placed in the refrigerator for 15-17 hours or in the oven at 60-70 ° C for the same time.
Prevention of the fight against pea moth is to observe crop rotation and joint planting. It is not necessary to plant the beans at the place where other leguminous plants grew and next to them.
Freshly cut green beans are not stored for a long time, because the beans consume moisture very quickly and become unsuitable for food and processing. To preserve the taste qualities of the beans should be stored in the refrigerator with a relative humidity of 85-90%. Green pods are amenable to freezing and canning.
Cut bean bushes can be stored in special vegetable storehouses, simply hanging them in whole bunches directly from the stems to the ceiling. So the mouse will not get to them, the beans will be very well ventilated, and less likely to be affected by harmful pathogens.
Watering and feeding
After germination, the beans need watering as needed. More often this once a week. When the plant has released the first four leaves, we stop watering until flowering begins. From drying out of the soil, the color may fall off, therefore we regularly water the beans under the bushes and do not forget to loosen the aisles.
Over the entire period of growth of beans, dressing can be done 2-3 times.
Ways of feeding:
- Fill a little more than half of the bucket with weeds and cover with water. Insist approximately 10 days. Add 1 l to the bucket of water. infusion and water beans. To this solution, you can add a little chicken manure,
- Superphosphates are fed in the amount of 40 grams per 1 square meter,
- Wood ash sprinkled under the bushes beans right before watering,
- A solution of boric acid in the proportions of 10 grams per 10 liters. water.
Pest Control and Bean Processing
Beans can be damaged by the following pests:
- Sprout fly - lays eggs even in the period of climbing plants and damages them. Try to create conditions for the speedy ascent of beans,
- White fly - an insect that infects the leaves, which can lead to the death of the plant. You can spray it with water or special chemicals.
- Gourd Aphid - first of all, take care to prevent weeds. If the aphid does appear, it is recommended to collect the affected leaves and weeds and burn them. Treat with Carbofos or sulfur containing products.
- Slugs - they can simply be harvested from the bushes beans. Leave on the site a few piles of stones, slugs like to gather in such places.
In addition to pests, beans are affected by the following diseases:
- Bean Mosaic - plants are covered with dark spots and are lagging behind in development. Use the same drugs as aphid protection,
- Mealy dew - white bloom that hits the pods. Spray with sulfur-containing drugs
- White rot - softens the stems and swells the pods. Shrubs powder with charcoal or chalk,
- Root rot - damages the root system. Affected plants remove and disinfect the soil,
- Anthracnose - plants are covered with brown spots and begin to rot pods. This disease can be transmitted after other plants, as well as infected seeds. Treat the beans with copper oxychloride or Bordeaux mixture.
Hand-made beans do not need a garter.
For curling beans we put supports up to 1, 5 m high. These can be wooden stakes with horizontally stretched wire, along which the beans will curl. When the plant has reached full growth and the "hat" has become very lush - tie its tops with a rope.
Often varieties of curling beans are planted with corn, which happens to be an excellent support and does not require a garter. Seeds are sown at the same time or a week after the planting of corn.
Growing and caring for beans:
Scheme and depth of landing
Bush varieties of crops planted according to the scheme:
- depth of laying seeds - somewhere 5-6 cm,
- the distance between the holes in the row - 20-25 cm,
- interrow - 40 cm.
Curly varieties are planted a little differently:
- depth of laying seeds - 5-6 cm,
- the interval between the holes in the row - 25-30 cm,
- interrow - 45-50 cm.
5-6 seeds are immersed in each well. After forming, one seedling on the seedlings should be left with only 3 seedlings, the rest should be removed or carefully transplanted.
According to lunar calendar for 2018 It is recommended to plant beans:
- March - 20-23 numbers
- April - the numbers 6-9, 19, 20, 23-26,
- May - 7-10, 19-24,
- June - 4-7 numbers.
Sprouting bean seeds
Bean seeds begin to sprout later 7-10 days after disembarkation. Если температура воздуха и почвы ниже рекомендуемых показателей, то первые ростки прорастут спустя на 5-7 дней.
Ускорить процесс прорастания можно если замочить посевной материал в стимуляторах роста дома. Также этому способствует укрытие грядки плёнкой.
Молодые побеги необходимо окучить для придания им устойчивости.
Irrigation rules and conditions
The plant loves water, so you should not break the watering regime. It is especially important to moisten the soil during the period of pod formation.
The rate of water on the bush is determined by eye, the procedure is carried out Once a week, the main thing is not to let the soil dry. The best irrigation fluid is rainfall. Experienced gardeners use distilled water, the temperature of which not below 18 degrees.
Beans like water, so you should not allow the soil to dry
What dressings to use on the bed
The culture is responsive to fertilizer. After preparing the soil for planting will need to make at least 3 dressings.
The first procedure is performed after 3-4 weeks after germination. Ideal to use complex fertilizer, rich in nitrogen and phosphorus. Also suitable superphosphate at the rate of 30-40 grams per 1 m2.
After 3 weeks you need to feed a second time, it is necessary for the formation of fruits (10-15 grams. Potassium salt per 1 m2). The third time nutrients are administered after 3 weeks.
Pests and Prevention
Beans are one of the few crops that do not attack pests. Can appear unless slugs.
It is possible to prevent their invasion by timely weeding, as the weeds grow and create a favorable habitat for the parasites. When slugs are detected, you can install several traps, from which you need to periodically remove insects for disposal.
The correct timing of the harvest in the country or garden
Harvest time depend on varieties and types culture. Asparagus beans should not be overdone on the beds, in dried form, the product loses its value.
If it is planned to preserve the harvest of legumes, then you can use any immature fruit. But for winter harvesting it is better to wait for the pods to dry out. The main thing is not to be late, so as not to collect beans from the ground.
Do not pick all the pods at the same time in one day, if among them there are completely dry and greenish. In the shade of their own tops, some ovaries might have developed less; they should be left to ripen.
To quickly extract the beans from their "houses" does not necessarily have to sort each by hand. The stick will cope with the work you can knock the harvest.
To do this, only dried pods are laid out on the bedspread, which you need to walk with a simple tool with moderate effort. It only remains to remove the dry part of the beans. Selected beans are still drying and only after sorting is sent to storage.
The agrotechnology of the beans is simple, even a novice gardener can sow and grow it in the Moscow region, Ukraine, the Urals or Belarus. Performing all the procedures in a timely manner, preparations for the winter are provided with an incredibly useful and nutritious product, which also diversifies the menu.
Planting Beans in the Open Ground - Step by Step Guide
It is best to start work in the middle of May, the main thing is to monitor the temperature - it should be above +15 degrees, and sudden night frosts should also be excluded. Also remember that the climbing varieties of this crop should be planted 7-10 days later than the shrubs.
Preparatory work with soil and pips
Before you plant, you should carefully prepare the seeds. Reassemble them, soak overnight in water so that they swell. Before planting, dip the plants in a solution of boric acid, mixing 2 g of the product in 5 liters. This will protect the plants from diseases and pests in the future.
When growing beans, one should choose clayey soil - water will pass more slowly through it, because excessive moisture damages this crop. For planting it is worth choosing areas that are well lit, protected from wind and drafts.
A couple of days before disembarking, dig up the area and loosen using a rake. If the soil is too viscous, mix the soil with sand (5 kg of sand per square meter of land) and, if necessary, feed the plants with wood ash, add compost and biohumus to the soil. Additionally carry out disinfection using potassium permanganate solution.
Pests and diseases - what will you face?
Beans are interesting to many pests. Among the most famous include:
- Cabbage or garden scoop. The pest lays eggs on the plant, causing them to infect the leaves, the fruits of beans. To protect the culture from the pest, be sure to treat the planting with bacterial preparations such as Gomelin or Bitoxibacillin solution.
- Another well-known pest is a bean weevil that gets into the ground during planting. The weevil destroys the kernels from the inside. To protect the seeds, be sure to treat the planting material with boric acid.
- Slugs usually appear on too moist soils. In the fight against this pest, monitor the level of humidity and be sure to remove all weeds.
There are a number of diseases that you may encounter when growing beans.
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These include diseases such as:
- Viral disease anthracnose, which very quickly affects the green part of the plant - the leaves are covered with dark spots. For the purposes of prophylaxis, it is worth using a solution of Bordeaux liquid.
- White rot - in this case, the stems turn white, become softer. To fight white rot, use the appropriate preparations, which includes honey.
- Mosaic. In this case, the leaves are covered with motley "dots" that form a mosaic. The leaves wrinkle, the beans themselves stop growing, which is why the plants look dwarf. This disease can not be treated, because only you can warn. When the bean bushes reach a height of 15-20 cm, it is worth to process using Fitosporin.
When to harvest and how to store beans harvest?
If you planted sugar or semi-sugar varieties, they are eaten whole. To do this, you need to form newly formed pods, hanging on the plant for no more than 7-10 days. Harvesting is better in the morning, as the green pods begin to wilt quickly, losing attractiveness.
If we talk about shelling varieties, then you need to wait for the beans to fully ripen. It is best to harvest from July to the end of September, when the leaves are already starting to dry out, and the appearance of the pod changes, as does its color.
Beans are grown on a support
However, some varieties of beans do not change color after ripening, so it is necessary to take into account the recommendations indicated on the package with seeds.
When picking beans, plants should be pulled out by the root and placed under a roof on burlap or foil to preserve all the beans that fell on the floor after the pods opened. After drying, you can get all the beans from the pods.
String beans are stored for about one and a half weeks in the refrigerator, but if you want to consume it in food in winter, you should freeze the harvest. Before placing the beans in the freezer, it should be washed and cut into pieces about 3 cm long. Before packing, be sure to flip the beans for a couple of minutes, and then put them in containers or bags.
Before storing the grain beans, you need to dry, remove the damaged beans, and then put them in a vacuum package, for example, in a glass jar.
Beans are the ideal crop for planting in the country. The main plus is that its cultivation and care are fairly simple, because this plant is not capricious and does not require serious effort on the part of the gardener. A huge variety of species and varieties will allow you to easily choose the best option for you.