Marsh Marsh is a perennial grass with tall, pointed leaves. It grows in marshland, in quiet backwaters of rivers and lakes. Reaching a meter or more in height, it quickly absorbs free territories. It has a developed root, which is of interest for official and traditional medicine. It has a proven antispasmodic, antiseptic action. It is used to treat diseases of the respiratory system and the gastrointestinal tract, to heal wounds and improve appetite. Relieves toothache, helps with hair loss.
The first mention of the common air refers to the two thousand year BC. The plant, the natural distribution area of which is India and China, was originally used as a spicy spice with a characteristic burning taste and persistent aroma.
Irn root gained popularity in Turkey in the Middle Ages, where sweet desserts were made from it. The Turks hid the recipe of the original sweetness, and it was considered a great success in Europe to get it. In the middle of the XVI century, the rhizomes of the plant were taken to the Vienna Botanical Garden, where for the first time an attempt was made to cultivate it on European territory. Despite the difference in climatic conditions, the calamus settled down, but acquired some differences from plants growing in the natural environment.
Common air. Botanical illustration from the book of O. V. Tome Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz, Gera, 1885.
Common grass, growing in the East, reproduces, like most plants, through pollination of flowers. It bears fruits with multi-seed, leathery berries of red or green flowers. In Europe and Russia, the fruit does not bring, as there are no insects that pollinate this culture in its natural habitat. In our area, the "iris" has acquired the properties to multiply by spreading root debris.
A close relative of the calamus calamus is the reed. With him, they look alike. The long and sharp leaves of rich green color reach a meter in height. They are attached to a three-sided straight stalk, on which they grow together, forming bunches.
The root of the plant is brown, often yellow-green, the diameter reaches three centimeters. Long, can grow up to one and a half meters, it is seated with numerous thin processes in the form of cords. The inner part of the root is spongy, white with a pink shade. It has a strong, spicy aroma and burning taste.
Reproduction in Russia and Europe occurs during periods of floods of rivers, ice drifts. Fragile roots are torn with minimal mechanical action and melted with water into new territories. There they are fixed, and grows a new plant. Air is unpretentious, but requires high soil moisture. When the cultivation areas dry up, it dies off.
Like most cultures known to man for many centuries, the plant and rhizome of calamus is overgrown with folk beliefs. It is believed that it grows exclusively in clean water, and from sources on the banks of which green thickets of irroot are observed, one can safely drink water.
This belief has a historical justification. In the XII-XIII centuries, the Tatars, conquering new lands in the west, carried with them the aira root. They believed that he was able to clean the reservoirs, so they threw him into the floodplains of rivers and lakes. The unpretentious plant got accustomed, and the local population called it Tatar sabelnik.
Properties of calamus root
The beneficial properties of the calamus root were first described by Hippocrates. The scientist recommended the use of the plant in diseases of the stomach. Mention of it can be found in the writings of the ancient Greek scholars Dioscorides and Pliny the Elder. They interpreted it as a remedy for diseases of the spleen and liver, biliary tract.
Modern medicine confirms the ability of the root of the swamp calamus to affect the work of the gastrointestinal tract, which is ensured by its chemical composition.
In the rhizome of the plant is up to twenty percent of saturated essential oils. They are rich in substances that affect the smooth muscle tone. They contain azarone - a volatile aromatic substance that has a spasmolytic, sedative effect with a mild analgesic effect.
Also, the healing properties of calamus root are provided by the content of the following substances.
- Glycoside Acorin. Stimulates the work of food recipes and stimulates the production of gastric juice, improves appetite and digestion. It bears the name of "natural bitterness", gives a peculiar rhizome a taste.
- Isoazarone, camphene. They have a tonic effect, have a positive effect on the work of the heart and blood vessels, strengthen their walls and reduce the risk of blood clots. Thanks to the toning of the cerebral vessels and eyes, one can speak of the positive effect of calamus on memory and vision.
- Ketones (tannins). They have an astringent effect that helps to fight diarrhea, bleeding gums.
In pharmacology, the so-called galenic forms of the drug are used, that is, essential oils purified from impurities. In this form, calamus is effective in the treatment of diseases of the biliary tract, has a choleretic effect. There are drugs based on powder of calamus root: its use in “Vikair” and “Vikalin” preparations provides a gentle tonic effect on the gastrointestinal tract and facilitates the course of gastritis, duodenal ulcers.
In folk medicine, the use of calamus calamus in the form of a dried root is allowed. It is collected at the end of autumn - the beginning of winter; it is at this time that the water level in natural waters decreases, and the bushes can be easily extracted from coastal silt. The plant is uprooted, trying to preserve its main part. The leaves are cut, remove cord processes.
Calamus root for hair, teeth, treatment of gastrointestinal diseases at home can be prepared as follows.
- Rinse the rhizome in cold water and dry. Leave outdoors for four to five days.
- Cut into pieces up to twenty centimeters long. If the rhizome is thick, it is allowed to split it along.
- Lay in a well-ventilated room for drying in a single layer. If the drying is carried out on the street, follow the protective cover from precipitation. Allowed to dry rhizome using electric drying. Set the temperature to thirty degrees and periodically check the root for readiness. A higher temperature during the preparation period will lead to the destruction of the complex of essential oils and a marked decrease in the therapeutic effect.
- Monitor readiness. When the root becomes brittle, while retaining the whitish color of the spongy content, it is ready for use. If it bends and does not break, you should dry it for a few more days.
Application of calamus calamus
In folk medicine, the use of the herb calamus is recommended for the treatment of many diseases. They can be divided into groups.
- Gastrointestinal tract. Used with loss of appetite as a stimulant. Recommended for flatulence, indigestion, bowel problems, diarrhea, colic.
- SARS, flu. It is used for bronchitis as an expectorant and for the prevention of viral infections.
- Nervous system. Recommended as a mild sedative for nervous disorders.
- The cardiovascular system. Used for pain in the chest, to improve the tone of blood vessels.
Calamus rhizome is used in the form of infusions, decoctions, powder. Chew it in its pure form to strengthen the gums when they bleed. This method of traditional medicine also offers those who want to quit smoking. Chewing the root can stimulate a gag reflex, and essential oils create an unpleasant taste in the mouth and aversion to the cigarette when you next try to smoke.
To normalize the work of the gastrointestinal tract, it is recommended to use the aira root independently or in a complex of medicinal herbs. The combined drug for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders may additionally contain mint leaves and nettle, valerian root, buckthorn bark.
With a reduced acidity of the stomach, flatulence, diarrhea, other disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, prepare medicinal decoction.
- Pour two tablespoons of chopped root with a glass of boiled water.
- Boil, stir over low heat for 10 minutes.
- Take 50 ml four times a day.
This broth can adjust the work of the gastrointestinal tract, will have an astringent, anti-inflammatory effect.
It is allowed to use calamus root for teeth as a means of emergency care before visiting a doctor. The presence in the home first aid kit alcohol tincture will help reduce the severity of pain, reduce inflammation of the gums.
- Pour two tablespoons of crushed calamus root with a glass of vodka.
- Cork tightly, leave in a dark place for two weeks.
- Take 20 drops three times a day before meals.
The use of alcoholic tincture of calamus is also effective as a mouth rinse. Mix a tablespoon of infusion with half a glass of warm water and rinse the painful area. The drug will have a disinfectant and moderate analgesic effect.
Also, when the pain of the teeth is effective tincture of calamus and propolis. Prepare it from a mixture of alcoholic infusions. The first component is calamus tincture as described above. The second component is propolis infusion. To prepare it, pour 20 grams of propolis with a glass of vodka and leave for 20 days. Mix both infusions in a tablespoon just before use, add half a glass of warm water and rinse the affected area. Means well relieves pain and heals the gums.
The rhizome, pounded into powder, will help improve the condition of the gums, relieve unpleasant smell from the mouth. Mix a small amount of tooth powder with a similar amount of aira powder, apply it on a toothbrush and brush your teeth twice a day. This remedy heals the mouth well.
Aira root is used in powder form. It improves the passage of bile, normalizes the acidity of gastric juice. It is recommended to use a small amount of powder three times a day. Hold the mouthpiece at the tip of the knife for five minutes, then swallow and drink down with water.
Hair calamus, according to reviews, helps stop their loss, heals the scalp and stimulates growth. Use an infusion of powdered root (a tablespoon), filled with a glass of cold water. Insist means eight hours, strain. Rub the scalp three times a week for two months.
Prevention, treatment of cold
Essential oils have a bactericidal effect, reduce the risk of colds infections and heal the respiratory tract during illness (tonsillitis, bronchitis). For treatment, it is required to cut off a centimeter-wide piece of root and chew in the mouth.
Contra indications of calamus exclude the possibility of its use in case of individual intolerance and the following conditions:
- pregnancy, lactation,
- hypotension due to the risk of pressure reduction,
- bleeding of the gastrointestinal tract,
- increased secretion of bile, gastric juice.
If used correctly, the infusion and decoction from the rhizome of the calamus root will support the work of the gastrointestinal tract, improve the condition of the gums and teeth, and help stop hair loss. Additionally, it has a calming and spasmolytic effect, which has a positive effect on the condition of patients suffering from pain in the stomach and oral cavity.
Collecting and harvesting calamus swamp
Today, not everyone can find and collect calamus, but many still find it and make from it blanks. To make it easier for people, special farms that grow calamus are created. From the beginning of autumn to the beginning of winter, calamus is made: it is pulled out of silt with the help of a rake or fork. Then, the already collected roots need to be washed from dirt, cut off the remaining leaves. After that, the roots should be wilted, leaving the plant in the open air. Next, you need to cut the roots into pieces, the length of which is 10–20 cm. And if the root is very thick, then it should be split along.
They dry the raw materials under an iron roof at a temperature of + 30–35 degrees, it is impossible to raise the temperature, as the essential oil evaporates quickly. Rhizomes are considered well dried when they are easily broken. Essential oil in the rhizome of calamus about 5%, it also contains tannins, ascorbic acid, resin, copper, starch.
Calamus dried billet are spongy pieces of roots that are very light. Untreated roots have an oblate shape, slightly curved, the outer color is yellowish-brown, having a reddish or grayish-green tint. In most parts, the dried roots are split. Peeled and split plant roots at the fracture and from the outside should be white or pinkish. Dried raw materials smell peculiar and have a spicy-bitter taste.
Beneficial properties of calamus
People have long known that calamus calamus has many healing properties. This plant is very often used in traditional medicine. From the roots of calamus swamp produce a tincture of vodka, which is used for medicinal purposes. A decoction of calamus calamus helps with liver diseases, diseases of the bladder, nervous system, and tuberculosis. And also tincture of calamus calamus is used for rheumatism. If a person has heartburn, then here he will be helped by calamus root, which you just need to chew.
A decoction of the roots of calamus marsh used by people who want to strengthen the hair on the head, as well as suffering from deprive. Female diseases can also be cured with the help of calamus calamus - it is necessary to make a douching with its broth.
Putrid wounds are powdered with powder from calamus of the marsh. People complaining of pain in the stomach can take aira's broth inside.
The roots of the plant have an effect that increases the appetite, improves digestion, and also enhances the reflex separation of juice in the stomach.
Today, marshland calamus is used in medicine as a remedy for ulcer disease. And in veterinary medicine, the roots of calamus calamus found application as a gastric remedy.
Chemical composition of calamus
Calamus root contains: essential oil, tannins, acorin glycoside and calamine alkaloid. Calamus leaves also contain tannins and essential oil. Essential oil consists of a mixture of terpenes, sesquiterpenes, and the smell carriers are azaryl aldehydes.
Also in the roots of calamus there is a little unscented soap, and in the root of the calamus of the marsh contains vitamins, starch, protein, minerals - all of them are related substances.
Application of calamus
The use of calamus in alternative medicine is quite diverse. Fresh roots are used to disinfect water. Decoctions prescribed for diseases of the teeth and gums. Effective calamus swamp with biliary tract and liver diseases, kidney stones. For leukemia, a medicinal herbal preparation is used, which includes calamus root, nettle, and elecampane. Useful calamus to improve digestion and increase appetite.
Calamus rhizomes are sometimes used in diseases of the central nervous system. Pounded into powder, they help with heartburn, diarrhea and unpleasant smell from the mouth. Preparations of calamus reduce blood pressure and increase the separation of sputum. They are useful for taking with gastritis with low acidity of the stomach. The plant is also used for quick healing of wounds. In gynecology, decoction of calamus is used in cases of coccal and trichomonas etiology, secondary amenorrhea, and ovarian function insufficiency.
Many people know about the bactericidal properties of calamus root. In traditional medicine, alcohol tinctures from it are recommended for improving appetite, for gastrointestinal diseases, and also as a good expectorant and tonic. In case of children's rickets and diathesis, baths are made, the main components of which are calamus.
The calamus root is much wider used in traditional medicine. From it prepare various broths and spirit tinctures. It is part of a variety of medical fees and teas. Powder from the root of calamus is used as a powder for purulent ulcers and wounds. In addition, it is a good smelling agent for treating a cold or sinus headache. It clears the airways, promoting sneezing.
Air is an effective remedy to neutralize the destructive effect of drugs, in particular marijuana. If with marijuana to smoke a pinch of small chips of the root, then calamus completely suppresses the toxic effect of the drug. In fact, the root of the calamus can neutralize the side effects of all hallucinogens.
If you take a pinch of powder with half a teaspoon of honey in the morning and evening, then this tool improves memory and cures heartburn. Broths and infusions of calamus root in the form of sessile baths help with gynecology. In addition, calamus has an analgesic and tonic effect, increases the secretion of gastric contents. Его принимают для улучшения зрения, при лечении гепатитов и холециститов.
Аир почему-то не пользуется большой популярностью в домашнем цветоводстве, а ведь он очень вынослив и неприхотлив. Растение особенно подходит тем, у кого мало времени для ухода за цветами. Нужно только следить, чтобы почва у растения была всегда влажная, так как этот цветок произрастает, в основном, на болотах. A pot with a plant can be put on a tray with water and add it as needed.
Air is unpretentious in terms of temperature, it feels good at 6–16 degrees, grows well in the shade and does not tolerate direct sunlight. Loves rooms with moist air. Soil fertilizer is not required. Air multiplied by dividing the bush throughout the year. The flower can be used for medicinal purposes with blood pressure, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, with hair loss.
Perennial herbaceous plant of the family of the wild. It has a long, thick rhizome with multiple additional roots. It is covered with remnants of leaf sheaths. The rhizome is greenish brown, inside it is white, with a burning smell and a bitter taste. The stem is erect, not branching, up to 120 cm high, with a sharp edge. The leaves are long, up to 1 m, 3 cm wide, conical, flat.
Inflorescences are located obliquely on the stem in the form of a cylindrical cob of 3-14 cm in length. Fruits - multi-seed oblong berries of red color. Calamus blooms from late spring to July. Vegetatively propagated. In Ukraine, it grows everywhere in the swamps, muddy banks of water bodies, forming large thickets.
The rhizome and root of calamus have therapeutic properties. Harvest rhizome in autumn or early spring. In alternative medicine, AIR has been used for a long time. Prescribe preparations from calamus in diseases of the liver, malaria, rickets, kidney and bladder diseases. They have a tonic effect on the depressed state of the nervous system, improve hearing and eyesight. Act as a bactericidal agent during epidemics of influenza, cholera.
Due to its expectorant properties, calamus cures bronchitis. This plant is also used in chronic diseases of the spinal cord.
For the treatment of frequent sore throats it is necessary every day to chew 5-6 times just a small piece of calamus root. And he must be in the mouth for 10–15 minutes. So it takes 6 months to be treated - and after the full course you will forever forget about a sore throat.
If you have chronic tonsillitis, then Napar calamus root roots will help. Need to take 2 tbsp. l roots of calamus swamp and pour them with boiling water in the amount of 200 ml, close the lid and leave in a water bath for 30 minutes. After this time, strain napar. This napar should gargle: the more times, the better.
With anorexia (loss of appetite), spastic pain in the intestines and stomach, they take an infusion of calamus rhizomes rhizomes. To make it, you need to take 2 teaspoons of calamus root roots and pour them with one glass of boiled hot water, leave it all in a thermos for infusion. This infusion should be drunk warm with 50 ml 3-4 times daily. Take the infusion is necessary for half an hour before meals.
From impotence will help infusion of roots of calamus swamp on vodka. Take 1 liter of vodka, add 100 grams of calamus root to it, and leave for 14 days to insist. The room where this infusion will be located should be dark and the air temperature should be room temperature. Take ready infusion need daily, 30 ml three times a day.
For the treatment of gonorrhea, in addition to the main treatment, they also take a hot bath from the decoction of calamus roots. The infusion should be made on the basis of 1 liter of 30 grams of calamus roots of the marsh. This content must be infused for an hour. This bath must be taken every day.
To improve digestion, it is useful to drink a decoction from the roots of calamus swamp. You should take 15 grams of roots and pour 500–700 ml of water over them; all this must be boiled for 15 minutes with the lid on. Every day you need to drink this broth 3 cups.
From heartburn will help powder from the root of the calamus calamus. Three times a day you need to drink one teaspoon of powder from the roots of the calamus swamp - and heartburn will no longer torment!
Useful tincture of herbs calamus for epilepsy, hysteria, memory loss. It improves eyesight and digestion. Tincture is used to treat gastric ulcer, chronic gastritis with low acidity and diarrhea.
Recipe 1: 20 g of calamus must be mixed with 100 ml of vodka, insist 2 weeks in a dark place, drain and store in a glass container. Take the tincture should be 15-30 drops before meals three times a day.
Recipe 2 for toothache and vomiting. Finely chopped dry leaves of rhizome need to pour 70% alcohol, insist a week in a dark place and take 20 drops three times a day before meals.
Air during menopause
Herbal treatment is very popular during the transitional climacteric period. To bring in the normal hormonal background using calamus. Grind through the grinder root should be taken on 1 teaspoon during meals.
Broth roots. The crushed calamus rhizome should be filled with cold water, infused for about 7–8 hours, then boiled in a water bath for 25–30 minutes, cool and drain. It is recommended to accept means on 1 glass twice a day for half an hour to food.
Air in case of sore throat
Infusions and decoctions of calamus is prescribed in the form of rinsing with angina. They have expectorant, anti-inflammatory and disinfectant effects. If you chew calamus root 5–6 times a day in a small piece, holding it in your mouth for 15–20 minutes, then in six months you can get rid of any sore throat. You can prepare various mixtures of tonsillitis with the addition of rhizome of calamus and oak bark. Also, the root is useful to chew and for the prevention of angina.
Air is an excellent remedy for toothache. From the root of calamus make a decoction, which they drink or rinse their mouths. If a tooth ache, it is necessary to lubricate the gum tincture of calamus - and the pain will quickly pass. Air penetrates deep into the diseased tooth and acts as an anesthetic on the root.
Recipe. 20 g of dry calamus root should be finely chopped, pour 100 ml of vodka, let stand for two weeks in a dark place, shaking occasionally, then strain and keep in a dark cool place, in a tight container that does not let the sun through. For toothache, rinse your mouth with tincture for 5–10 minutes, then spit. If the pain persists, it is recommended to repeat the procedure.
Calamus rhizome chewed to strengthen the gums.
The oil is obtained from the rhizome of calamus by distillation with water vapor. It is a viscous dark yellow or brown liquid with an original woody smell and a spicy taste. The chemical composition of the oil may be different. This is explained by the fact that the plants are collected in different geoclimatic conditions. The main active ingredients of the oil: limonene, linalool, cismethylisoeugenol, azarone. Calamus oil is used to flavor strong alcoholic beverages.
Due to the spicy aroma of calamus they create oriental-type perfumes. It effectively fights various infections, including staphylococcus. The oil is often used to treat respiratory diseases, especially cough. It is recommended to take for the treatment of duodenal ulcers and gastritis with low acidity. Also, oil is an excellent natural product that improves the process of metabolism.
Calamus oil increases appetite, stimulates the secretion of gastric juice. This is an effective tool for the prevention of urolithiasis and gallstone diseases. The systematic use of oil has a beneficial effect on the state of the musculoskeletal system, it contributes to less muscle fatigue and strengthens bone tissue. For several centuries, calamus oil has been used as a natural aphrodisiac, which increases sexual desire and sexual activity.
Recipe 1. One teaspoon of calamus rhizomes must be stirred in 250 ml of hot boiled water, insisted for 20 minutes, then filtered and taken half a cup a day half an hour before meals. The tool works effectively with infectious mononucleosis.
Recipe 2. Dry rhizome of calamus should be crushed, pour in a glass of cold water, insist 20 minutes. Take the infusion is recommended one tablespoon three times a day before meals.
Recipe 3. When stomach cramps make infusion calamus with the addition of flowers and berries of mountain ash. Air and mountain ash pour a glass of warm boiled water, insist for an hour, after which the infusion should be brought to a boil and cool. After filtering through several layers of gauze, take a warm drink of half a cup 2-3 times a day before meals.
Decoction of calamus root
A decoction of calamus root normalizes sleep, improves the functioning of brain cells. Broth is used to strengthen and grow hair.
Recipe 1. Boil for 20–30 minutes in 250 ml of water two tablespoons of dried, chopped root, leave to cool completely, then strain and add boiled water to the original volume. The decoction is used in the form of lotions and washings for the treatment of wounds and ulcers.
Recipe 2. 6 g of raw material should be boiled in 200 ml of water for 30 minutes in a closed container, strain and add boiled water to the initial volume. Take three times a day after meals, 2 tablespoons. spoons broth. The tool has a positive effect on pneumonia.
Recipe 3. Three teaspoons of finely chopped rhizomes pour 400 ml of water, boil in a sealed container for 15 minutes. and take half a cup before meals.
Contraindications to the use of calamus
Air can not be used for any bleeding, it is strongly recommended not hypotonic. You can not take it with high acidity of gastric juice. If, nevertheless, it is necessary to use a drug from calamus, it is necessary to include plants in its composition, which reduce the production of hydrochloric acid. Do not recommend taking calamus in the acute phase of a stomach ulcer. It is contraindicated in pregnant women.
It should be remembered that the use of natural medicines should be moderate. If doses of calamus are increased, this will lead to vomiting.
Education: A diploma in medicine and treatment was obtained at the NI Pirogov University (2005 and 2006). Advanced training at the Department of Phytotherapy at the Moscow University of Peoples' Friendship (2008).
The plant reaches a height of 0.6 to 1 meterits rhizome with a diameter of up to 3 centimeters is located horizontally, differs in its sinuous form, grows up to 11.7 meters. White branches in the form of a cord grow from it to the sides. The rhizome itself is covered with remnants of a leaf-like shell, brown or greenish-yellow in color, its inside is pinkish or white.
The leaves above the surface are double-row, alternate, narrow in the form of a sword, with a bright green color, grow from rhizome branches, reach a length of 1.2 meters and are collected in bunches. The aboveground and underground parts have a pleasant persistent aroma. The inflorescence is a fleshy tilted ear in the form of a pointed cylinder with a length of up to 12 centimeters. Aurus marsh plant blooms with small flowers of a yellowish and greenish color scheme, then the fruit develops as a red berry with numerous seeds.
Calamus blooms rarely in the period from late spring to mid-summer, the fruits almost never ripen, the plant propagates by rhizomes in a vegetative way. The stem is straight, without leaves, ends on the cob, combined with a green long covering sheet - spathe.
Medicinal raw materials
In folk and official medicine apply the roots of calamus swamp. The chemical composition of rhizomes:
- essential oils make up to 5% (camphor, elemen, borneol, pinene, acoron, calamen, neocarone, isoacorone),
- substance akorin glycoside bitter taste,
- lucenion glycoside,
- tanning components (alkaloid calamine, choline, ascorbic acid, resin, starch).
Glycoside acarid, getting into the human body, stimulates the nervous taste endings, enhances the formation and secretion of gastric juice and hydrochloric acid, activates the gallbladder and liver, increases diuresis, reduces inflammation. Used in the form of bitterness to increase appetite, normalize digestion. The use of drugs improves mood, improves the tone of the nervous system, helps with cholecystitis, hepatitis, gastritis with low acidity, increases the flow of urine and bile.
Forms of application in traditional medicine
Distribution received such types of funds:
- for an infusion of rhizomes, take 2 tablespoons of crushed raw materials and infuse in a glass of boiling water (200 g) in a water bath for about 20 minutes, cool with a cake for 45 minutes, squeeze, filter, add boiled chilled water to the initial volume, it is recommended to drink a fourth of glass for half an hour before eating food in the form of heat,
- make tincture on alcohol (40%) at a concentration of 1: 5 (rhizomes and alcohol),
- complex tincture is prepared from calamus (2 hours), gentian (4 hours), centaury (4 hours), water trefoil (1 hour), wormwood (1 hour), mandarin peels (1 hour) and alcohol 40 % strength (6 hours),
- in the treatment of many diseases, powder from dried root is used, it is taken orally, washed down with a small amount of liquid, or used as a powder for wounds,
- decoction is made from 3 spoons of small raw materials, which is boiled in 0.5 liters of water for half an hour, filtered and squeezed, drink half a cup three times a day before meals,
- decoction for the bath is prepared from 300 g of rhizomes, which are boiled in 5 liters of liquid for 5 minutes, filtered, squeezed and added to water, the same solution is made for lotions,
- Fresh juice from dried roots is obtained on a juicer, applied externally and internally.
Preparation of a medical root
It is produced in the summer and autumn period (June - the end of September) during the decrease of the water level in the swamp due to drying. To extract the roots, use a shovel, a plow, if the soil is wet, then the roots are pulled out with a rake. The collected raw materials are cleaned of soil and layers, slightly dried in the shade in the air, then divided into segments up to 30 centimeters long. The resulting pieces are sent to dry in a ventilated area with a temperature not exceeding 35 ° C.
It takes about three years for a new plant to develop at the gathering place, therefore all overgrowths are not removed on the square, but only selective copies in an amount of not more than 30% of the total mass. When cleaning in the total mass, non-standard copies are left in the amount of:
- brown and brown roots on a break not more than 5%,
- with layering of leaves and residues of roots no more than 1%,
- small pieces of roots (up to 20 cm) not more than 2%,
- soil and sand impurities not more than 1–2%.
The dried roots of calamus are stored in a wooden container, lined with paper for up to three years, then the raw material loses its properties.
Medicinal properties of the plant calamus swamp
Due to the presence in the chemical composition of many active ingredients, calamus grass helps a person to alleviate many diseases and has healing properties:
- produces a sedative effect, calms the nervous system,
- has a disinfectant and wound healing effect,
- reduces inflammation,
- tones and normalizes the work of internal organs,
- dilates blood vessels
- improves cough sputum,
- relieves spasms with pain.
In folk medicine in different countries, the root found use in such diseases:
- For the treatment of scurvy, heartburn used powder from the dried root, it is used for suppurating ulcers and wounds, drinking for diseases of the joints and colds. Helps sputum discharge with prolonged cough, relieves inflammation of the renal pelvis and ureters. During typhoid and cholera epidemics, powder is used as a prophylactic or chewed root.
- In the case of toothache, rhizome chewing helps a lot, the same method is good for getting rid of heartburn and weakness of the gums, a daily procedure will prevent the tooth row from being destroyed. When chewing occurs gag reflex, which makes it possible to get rid of harmful smoking.
- Arthritis, renal diseases and inflammation of the ureters recede when using tinctures and decoctions of the plant. The use of decoction before eating will enhance the formation of bile and normalizes the bowels and stomach. Broth disinfect wounds and washed for healing, rinse the mouth to get rid of bacteria.
- Broth drink with anemia, allergies, gout, malaria and rickets as a restorative and restorative drug. Pulmonary abscesses and inflammations require the use of infusion root. Nervous convulsions are reduced with the use of infusions of calamus, with their use they make massage of diseased joints with arthritis, rheumatism, polyarthritis, gynecological diseases are treated with sedentary baths with decoction of rhizomes.
- A decoction or infusion is drunk with fever and flu, the preparations replace cinchona tree preparations, and with pediatric epilepsy, a decoction of calamus root with milk helps. A small amount of juice helps to improve the quality of vision and memory. Fresh juice from snake bites simultaneously applied externally and taken orally.
- Broths are used for pain during menstruation, to get rid of whiter, with endometriosis, colpitis, vaginitis, gonorrhea, in addition make douching infusion or sitz baths. Gargle, dissolving a teaspoon of tincture in half a glass of water.
Contraindications to the use of drugs from calamus root
Like any plant, calamus can cause undesirable side reactions in the human body, it has been established that it cannot be used in the following diseases and conditions:
- while carrying a child
- if the patient has external or internal bleeding of unknown etiology,
- в период обострения почечных недугов,
- при гипотонии (низком артериальном давлении),
- если кислотность желудочного сока повышена,
- есть свежие обостренные язвы в кишечнике или желудке,
- при состояниях, когда рвота нежелательна, так как отвар может вызвать стойкий рвотный рефлекс.
Препараты официальной медицины с добавлением травы и коня аира
Urogran, a drug made in Poland, is a granule that contains the active ingredients of horsetail and scouter grass, birch leaves, calamus roots, lovage and chicory. Used to render antispasmodic, diuretic effect, saluretic, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory action. He has proven himself in chronic inflammatory diseases of the ureters, kidney stones, uric acid diathesis.
Arcalen Polish producers go on sale in the form of an emulsion with thickened extracts of flowers of calendula and arnica, this includes the essential oil of the plant calamus and esculetin. The main effect of the drug is anti-inflammatory, in addition, there is the effect of tissue regeneration and granulation process. As an external remedy, it is used for wounds, burns, bruises, contusions, inflamed boils and frostbite.
Depuratum® French pill dispensers have a rich composition:
- birch leaves - 1.53 g,
- the roots of the warden are 0.76 g,
- calamus roots - 0.76 g,
- juniper (fruits) - 6.12 g,
- rosemary (leaf) - 2.3 g,
- herb drug rolls - 0.76 g
- rhubarb root - 1.53 g,
- aloe juice - 1.53 g,
- Senna - 3.07 g
- buckthorn - 1.5 g,
- thyme - 1.75g.
It is recommended for use in dyspeptic conditions.
Gallexier® of German manufacturers is produced in the form of a solution, used to increase hunger, normalize gastric and intestinal functions, and liver function. The composition includes fructose, as well as decoctions of dandelion (grass), turmeric, artichoke leaves, wormwood, thistle, thorny Benedictine root, clover, yarrow, fennel fruits, calamus roots.
Gastrol®, a German-made product, is used in the form of droplets containing gentian root, chamomile flowers, caraway seeds, lemon balm leaves, and basil. They use coriander, St. John's wort, wormwood, calamus rhizomes, quinn bark, juniper, turmeric. Applied in the treatment of gastric neurosis, putrid and fermentation dyspepsia, gastrocardiac disease.
Jouvence de l'Abbe soury® made in France in the form of tablets is used when there is insufficient blood flow to the internal organs and a general violation of its circulation. The drug contains witch hazel powder, calamus root powder. In addition to tablets, pharmacists offer a solution for oral administration, it includes calamus, viburnum, witch hazel.
Sedovent® from Germany is sold in drops, contains alcoholic extracts of brown and cinchona bark, orange, yarrow, calamus root, gentian. It is used to normalize the work of the intestines and stomach, increase appetite, enhance the release of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Means I drink on 15–20 drops before the use of food.
Stovalid® is sold in a pharmacy in the form of dropscontaining extract of peppermint, wormwood, Roman chamomile, fennel fruit, anise, cumin, angelica root, gentian and calamus. It is prescribed for the treatment of diarrhea, heaviness in the stomach, strong flatulence. Accept after eating 20-25 drops or before eating as a gastric preparation.
It is a complex composition consisting of plants:
- peppermint (oil),
- purified turpentine,
- calamus oil,
- olive oil,
- purified sulfur.
The drug in pharmacies is sold in the form of capsules weighing 0.5 g. It is used in official medicine for the prophylactic use of the formation of stones in the kidneys, gall bladder and its ducts. In the work of the drug is used anti-inflammatory, choleretic, diuretic and antispasmodic effect.
The action is similar to foreign medicines Rovatin, Rovakhol and Enatin. To get rid of calculus Olimetin used 2 tablets twice a day for a long time. After the stones come out, I drink as a prophylaxis 1 capsule per day for half a year.
The preparation contains bismuth nitrate, magnesium carbonate, magnesium bicarbonate, calamus root powder, rutin, buckthorn bark, kellin. The drug produces astringent and antacid effect, mild laxative effect. It is prescribed for chronic ulcers of the intestine and stomach, gastritis hyperacid form. Drink 2 tablets three times a day, it is recommended to crush the tablet before use and drink it with water after swallowing. Treatment takes from 1 to 3 months, can be repeated after a month of rest. The effect is enhanced while maintaining a diet.
Similar to the action of the drug is Vikair tablets, indications for use are the same as those of Vikalin.
Its therapeutic effect of calamus is due to the wide range of substances included in its composition. For medical purposes used rhizome. Harvest it in the fall. To do this, the root is dug, washed, cut into separate small pieces and dried. This is done under sheds or in a drying cabinet.
Air marsh in the form of various dosage forms is used. It is used in tablets, which are called "Vikair", gastric fees. The main indications for use are problems with the digestive tract, improvement of appetite and stimulation of digestion. The medicinal plant has the following types of actions:
- With the use of calamus swamp expand vessels.
- Taking the herb can eliminate pain, so the plant is used as a painkiller.
- The herb has an antispasmodic effect. Sometimes the cause of pain is a spasm of the internal organs. The plant is able to eliminate pain by relieving spasms.
- The herb has an antimicrobial effect, inhibiting the growth and development of microbial microflora at the cellular level.
- Taking the herb can calm the nervous system. This is achieved by the presence of a sedative effect. When excessively excited, the nervous system after the application of compositions based on calamus comes in order.
- Calamus Marsh is used to stop bleeding with various hemorrhages.
- The herb has a diuretic effect, increasing the excretion and outflow of urine.
- The plant is famous for its astringent effect and is able to increase the overall tone of the body.
When is calamus swamp applied?
- In Russia, aira powder has been used for the treatment of purulent wounds for a long time, sprinkling a wound surface on them.
- In the form of infusions, decoctions, it is used to correct conditions associated with problems of the digestive tract.
- With its use, the bladder improves its work and digestion is improved.
How to prepare a plant for future use?
Those who need the help of calamus calamus, you can prepare it yourself or buy it in a pharmacy in finished form. It is sold packaged in cardboard packs or in the form of tablets "Vikair." In fact, this is the same calamus calamus.
Those who decide to stock up on their own, you need to know that the time of its collection is late autumn. Roots must be carefully cleaned and rinsed. Then they should be a bit of a whirl They are dried not entirely, but cut into pieces. If the drying process is carried out by force in an oven, the temperature should not exceed 40 degrees. Otherwise, the root will simply lose its healing properties.
A sign of sufficient drying is that the roots begin to break well. The raw material has a bitter taste and a peculiar smell with a pink or white tinge on the rift. Externally, the roots are brown in color. Store harvested raw materials in a dark dry place in paper or cloth bags. Shelf life is 2 years.
We treat diseases with airs
The root of the calamus calamus can disinfect water. To do this, it is enough to place a few dried roots of a plant in a carafe of water. The use of infusions and decoctions of the plant can improve appetite, stimulate the digestive tract. Therapy based on calamus can even improve memory.
Air can lead to improved blood circulation. The same herb is used if it breaks its work:
- Respiratory system.
- The activity of the heart and its vessels.
- Nerve structures.
- Urine excretion system.
Air in the form of decoction will improve gastric secretion, reduce pressure, eliminate pain. The plant will remove the conditions associated with depression of the nervous system.
Marsh marsh can eliminate many unpleasant phenomena in the gynecological field. For this purpose, a woman takes a sedentary bath with a swamp air. The tool contributes to the dilution and sputum discharge. Wounds and cuts heal quickly under his influence. Save the plant from flatulence and diarrhea.
Vegetal bitterness is a good anesthetic. It will come to the rescue if there are cramps in the stomach. The plant in the form of an extract is used as a diuretic. With it, you can restore the sensitivity of the nerve endings of the spinal structures. Used plant with problems with the liver and gall bladder.
Cooking funds from calamus swamp house
- Cooking infusion. Dry raw materials are subject to thorough grinding. It is filled with water and boiled for a quarter of an hour on fire. After that, the composition should be filtered. It should be taken before meals for half a glass.
- Cooking alcohol tincture. Calamus root is filled with alcohol. Day he must insist. Reception is carried out in 25 drops. You can replace the alcohol with vodka. Dry raw materials should be one tablespoon, and vodka 100 ml. Before use, the tincture is diluted in half a glass of water. Its use will help with joint pain, migraine, digestive problems. The phenomena of flatulence and gout disappear.
- Cooking candied fruit. First, the preparation of the usual syrup is required. Cut into the roots, which must be cooked in syrup for 5 minutes. Then for 12 hours, the composition is left alone. Then it must again be brought to a boil. Then again the agent is infused for 12 hours. After that, the roots are dried as candied.
- Use powder. They are treated for wounds and ulcers. To do this, they powdered. If you have overcome a cold, then you can clear the nasal sinuses by inhaling calamus powder with your nose. If you add honey in it, then the reception of such funds will help improve memory. It is added to improve the taste, because the plant is bitter.
AIR for gums
To strengthen the gums, it can be applied in two ways:
- Use the infusion, which is prepared by adding a teaspoon of chopped root to a glass of boiling water. Exposure time is 2 hours. Then the composition should be filtered. Cooked infusion should rinse your mouth.
- Tatar cowl in the form of powder mixed with propolis. This composition is used to clean the teeth instead of paste.
Get rid of smoking
If there are no contraindications, then a fresh root should be chewed after a smoked cigarette. There is a feeling of nausea up to vomiting. This effect is based on the use of calamus calamus against smoking.
If there is a keen desire to smoke, you need to mix peppermint with a marsh airwood. They are taken in equal volumes of 1 teaspoon. The mixture is filled with a glass of boiling water. The tool is indicated for oral administration.
We strengthen hair
The hair roots will become stronger if you use a mask, which includes calamus calamus and burdock. From them is preparing a decoction, which acts as a means for rinsing.
- To get rid of fibroids will help the composition, which includes honey in the amount of 100 g, calamus root in the amount of two spoons and aloe juice 50 ml. The tincture is aged for three days and taken three times a day for a reception.
- In case of hormonal disorders, the medicinal raw material is placed in cold water and infused for 8 hours. After this 30 minutes the composition should be in a water bath. Use the tool in a glass before taking food.
- In menopause, it will be useful to use the powder of calamus root calamus. One teaspoon to the reception will be quite enough.
The plant belongs to the natural aphrodisiac, able to enhance sexual desire. Such properties are particularly pronounced in oil derived from plants. In relation to the reproductive system, it exhibits a pronounced tonic effect. This leads to an improvement in the quality and quantity of seminal fluid. It is often introduced into the complex therapy for the treatment of male infertility. One hundred grams of roots poured vodka. Take the composition must be on a small spoon for two weeks.
The height of this semi-aquatic, perennial herbaceous plant reaches 120 cm. The stem is upright, the leaves are xiphoid.
Leaves often have a groove along the entire length, slightly offset from the center. One edge of the sheet is wavy, figured. Their width is 2 cm. They grow directly from a creeping rhizome and form a rosette.
Flower is a cone-shaped inflorescence, located on a flowered trihedral stalk. It is covered with greenish-yellow, bisexual, pleasant-smelling flowers that bloom in June and July. But they are extremely small and inconspicuous. The ear moves away from the stem obliquely and upwards. From the base of the inflorescence comes a green covering leaf, which looks like a continuation of the flowering stem. The length of the cob is 3-8 cm.
Fruit - tiny brown pyramid capsules. Contain about four seeds. Ripen in July and August.
Rhizome cylindrical, knotty, spongy. Creeps over the muddy soil, clinging to it with small, fibrous roots. Covered with scales already dead leaves. The length of the horizontal root reaches 1.5 meters, and the diameter is 3 cm. The brown-looking rhizome on the cut is white, with a pink tinge. The taste is bitter, the flavor is spicy.
Collection and preparation of raw materials
Harvesting calamus swamp produced in early spring or late autumn. The roots are removed from the sludge using special tools and washed. They must be healthy, without damage. Clean roots are cut into pieces and dried in the open air. Perfect drying is drying without exposure to high temperatures, in the shade or in a ventilated room. Only in this case, the maximum amount of useful essential oil is maintained. Dried root loses 70% of its original weight, but its smell and taste improves.
You should not peel the root, since all useful substances are concentrated on its surface.
Infusion from calamus swamp
20 g of crushed calamus roots pour cups of boiling water (200 ml), cover and place in a water bath. Heat for 15 minutes. Remove from heat and leave for an hour. Infusion strain. Bring the volume to the original boiled water. Take 50 ml during the day.
Infusion will help with gastritis, gastric colic, sore throat, toothache, while reducing hearing and vision.
A decoction of rhizomes of calamus swamp
For the preparation of broth, 3 teaspoons of chopped raw material, pour a glass of water (200 ml) and boil under a lid for 15 minutes. Take 100 ml before meals. Decoction taken with menstrual disorders, endometritis, neurosis, migraine.
Rinsing the hair with a decoction of the roots will save them from falling out and restore their density.
Appearance and composition
Air does not have the ability to self-pollination. At home, pollination occurs through the efforts of specific insects, whose analogues do not exist outside of India.
The reproduction of the plant occurs vegetatively, that is, new shoots are formed in the rhizome and are separated independently.
The height of this grass ranges from 50-70 centimeters. Calamus root is thick and creeping, on the outside covered with a crust of a reddish hue, and inside is white.
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The internal structure is spongy, contains many knees wrapped in fibers. It has a strong smell: quite peculiar, but not repulsive.
The rhizome of the plant has the highest therapeutic value. It contains a whole range of useful substances:
- compound essential oils,
- organic acids
- vitamins necessary for the human body.
Collection and preparation of medical raw materials
The collection of calamus rhizomes begins in the last days of August and ends in early September. Fresh raw materials:
- cleaned of adhering earth
- wash thoroughly under cold water
- then begin to carve.
Future blanks should be cut into pieces, each of which is 15-20 centimeters in length. The cork layer remains intact..
Then the plant is dried in the shade, after which it is cleared. Next, the roots are dried under a canopy or in special dryers, but the ambient temperature should not exceed 30 ° C.
The leaves of calamus collected in July and August and dried in the same way. Blanks are stored in bags in a dry room for up to 3 years.
Rhizome in folk medicine
Calamus root marsh is considered an assistant in the treatment of many diseases, so it is readily used in traditional medicine.
The plant has the following effects:
- wound healing
- pain killer
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Его настойки используют для лечения туберкулеза, бронхита, грибковых поражений кожи, пневмонии, легких форм гастрита и язвенной болезни (диета и список продуктов).
Спиртовой настой справляется с болезнями печени (лечение загиба желчного пузыря), холециститами, поносами, выводит камни из почек, а также улучшает самочувствие в целом.
As a medicine, it is taken in 10-30 drops three times a day.
Having become popular, Ayurvedic medicine finds Air Marsh an effective remedy.
Followers of this direction use herbal preparations for:
- memory impairment
- frequent headaches
They substantiate their recommendations by the fact that the plant helps blood circulation in vessels and is effective for cleansing the body (how to make kvass from oats) from toxins.
Finely chopped dry billet is poured with vodka or alcohol in a 1: 5 ratio, respectively. The resulting mixture is removed in a dark dry place for one week.
The powder from calamus is drunk with heartburn, and fresh cuts and festering wounds are sprinkled with it. In the first case, take 1/5 teaspoon of the mixture and wash it down with water.
Application and treatment
With nasal congestion, polyps and other seasonal diseases helps inhalation of calamus powder.
It helps to clear the airways, so it can be used with a sudden loss of consciousness - strictly in small quantities.
To blunt a toothache, a special decoction is prepared, which can be taken internally or used for rinsing the mouth.
Chopped root pour hot water, let it brew for 10-15 minutes.
Then calam leaves and flowers are added to the root and put on a large fire for 5-7 minutes. When the decoction has cooled, you can begin to use it.
In the fight against hepatitis helps decoction of rhizomes of calamus, immortelle, and hypericum. All ingredients are mixed in equal shares.
Prepare a decoction in the ratio of 1 cup of water to 1 tablespoon of the collection - boil for 5 minutes and cool.
Drink 0.5 glass before each meal every day (3-4 times).
Gastritis, colitis, Gastric and intestinal colic are treated as follows.
One teaspoon of finely chopped calamus root is mixed with a whole glass of hot boiled water.
The medicine is infused for a third of an hour and is cleared of herbs.
Take 3-4 times a day for 0.5 cups, maintaining an interval of 30 minutes before the main meal.
A similar recipe is used. with diarrhea (how to take castorca as a laxative is written here), only calamus powder is taken as a healing ingredient. The waiting time of the finished infusion is increasing - 2 hours. The size of one serving is ¼ cup.
Serious intestinal infections retreat after a two-day course of calamus, cooked in rice water.
Two glasses of water pour into a mixture of 10 grams of finely chopped calamus and 1-2 tablespoons of rice, washed beforehand.
The medicine is boiled for 1/3 hour over high heat, then filtered. Used as a substitute for food - the broth should be drunk warm, 0.5 cups several times a day.
Sharp pains in the stomach remove tincture from the roots of sabinnik and flowers, fruits of mountain ash.
2/3 tablespoon will take rowan, the rest falls on calamus - this mixture is poured with a glass of cool running water.
An hour - brewed alone, after it is boiled, cooled and filtered - this is how the broth is prepared, which is taken when heated to a 0.5 glass before each meal.
Pancreatitis treatment It takes a long time, during which 1-2 tsp a day drink 1-2 teaspoons of the following folk remedies.
All ingredients must be dried:
- dandelion roots (for weight loss) and calamus (50 gr each),
- Thyme herb
- peppermint leaves,
- nettle roots,
- hop cones (all 25 grams).
All mixed and crushed into powder.
Five tablespoons of the mixture are added to natural honey or jam (200 gr. Any), mixed and stored in the refrigerator.
Bitter glycoside, contained in the roots of calamus, is one of the most important reasons due to which traditional medicine practices the use of this plant.
Hemorrhoids sessile baths help, if calamus rhizome is added to water (at the rate of 30 g. billet per 1 liter).
To strengthen tooth enamel and gums, on the toothpaste poured root powder - 0.5 grams per application.
If you pour a full teaspoon of well-crushed rhizomes of the sabelnik with 1.5 cups of boiling water and infuse herbal water for 2 hours, you can relieve inflammation of the gums and mucous membranes.
The resulting warm infusion should rinse your mouth every day.
With acute respiratory infections, sore throat, periodontal disease, stomatitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, you can use two recipes at once.
Oak bark and calamus used in equal parts.
Two tablespoons of raw materials are poured into a liter of hot water, mixed and boiled for a quarter of an hour.
Then added leaves of sage and nettle (each for a whole tablespoon).
The infusion languishes for another 20 minutes, then filtered.
Means for gargling is ready.
Cut calamus root into small pieces, boil for five minutes in sugar syrup and remove from heat.
Leave it alone overnight (10-12 hours), and then boil again. Roots pull out, dry and dissolve, if necessary, cure the throat.
Decoction of calamus root calms the nervous system, stimulates the brain (cleaning vessels with folk remedies), normalizes sleep and relieves tension.
Fresh juice of this plant buried in the eyes, having previously diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10.
Recommended for people suffering from inflammation and retinal detachment, starting to lose sight. A good prophylaxis will be smearing the eyelids with fresh calamus juice.
Official medicine confirms the therapeutic properties of calamus, including it in the composition of drugs.
However, more often - this plant is produced in the form of medicinal teas and herbal.
Doctors recommend taking drugs on the basis of calamus to patients:
- gastritis with low acidity,
- diseases of the kidneys and bladder,
- suffering from colic,
- for expectorant,
- carminative and disinfectant action.
Positive effect during treatment genital diseases both women and men.
When appetite upset and the digestive system use essential oil and calamus extract on alcohol.
Diabetics prescribe to use the young leaves of the plant, and for the thyroid gland heal (for a review on the use of white Potentilla, read here) - collection with calamus rhizomes.
Biological description of calamus
A water or coastal plant with a thick, long (sometimes up to 50 cm or more) creeping, spongy rhizome with a pleasant smell, burning taste. Leaves are erect, unbranched, triangular, with a sharp flowered stalk, with a groove one edge. In the European part of Russia, adult plants reach a height of from 50 to 120 cm.
The whole plant calamus has a pleasant spicy smell. It blooms in June - July. Small flowers bisexual with yellowish-green perianth are collected in inflorescence - the ear of 4-12 cm long, rejected from the stem. From the base of the peduncle, on the one hand, there is a long green sword-like veil that resembles a leaflet and as if directly continues the stem. Leathery fruit.
The pollen is carried by insects that live, as mentioned earlier, within of natural the spread of calamus, in Europe there are none, so here the calamus does not bear fruit (does not give seeds), but rather intensively reproduces vegetatively.
Leaves of calamus bright green, narrow linear, fleshy, xiphoid, alternate, 2-5 wide and 60-120 cm long, on the one hand grooved, on the other - with a sharp edge, are located in separate tufts on the tops and lateral branches of rhizomes. The stem is green, unbranched, upright, like leaves. The leaves grow together with each other, surrounding the main stem, so that the inflorescence seems to come out from the middle of the leaf.
Calamus rhizome oblate-cylindrical, spongy, thick, sinuous, horizontal, creeping, up to 3 cm in diameter, up to 1.5 m long, brownish or greenish-yellow outside, white inside with a pink tinge, seated at the bottom with numerous cord-shaped roots up to 50 cm long, arranged in one row in a zigzag manner, on top is covered with remnants of leaf sheaths. Rhizomes are located almost at the surface of the soil, less often at a depth of 10 cm. The taste of rhizomes is bitter-hot, spicy, tart, the smell is strong, pleasantly spicy.
Flowers greenish-yellow, small, bisexual. Perianth is six-leaved, regular, simple, inconspicuous, its leaflets are film-like, with their tips slightly curved inwards. The flowers are collected in cylindrical-conic cobs with a length of 4 to 12 cm and up to 1 cm in diameter (with fruits up to 2 cm), tightly pressed to each other on the fleshy axis of the cob. From the base of the cob comes out in the form of a cover green deeply-grooved, similar to the other leaves, a long (up to 50 cm) covering sheet ("blanket"), which is, as it were, a direct continuation of the flower stem. The stem with a covering sheet (veil) is approximately equal in height to the leaves. Ovary is upper, almost triangular, almost hexagonal. Stamens six, they are opposite to the tepals, one pistil, stigma sedentary. The flowers first ripen the stigmas, and the anthers are opened only after the loss of the stigmas ability to perceive the pollen.
The fruits of calamus ordinary - Multi-seed leathery, dry (dry) oblong berries of red or greenish color, surrounded by perianth residues from below.
On the territory of Russia and Western Europe, this plant reproduces only vegetatively - pieces of fragile rhizomes, which are massively formed during ice drift and river flooding, they float in water until it reaches the shore, where they germinate.
Where is growing (distribution and ecology) common air
Scientists suggest that motherland of calamus is India and China, but already in antiquity, together with man, the plant spread throughout Asia.
The modern habitat of calamus is clearly divided into four zones:
- asian - India and Southeast Asia,
- European - Europe and the European part of Russia,
- Siberian - Ussuriysk region, the south of Siberia and the Far East,
- the american - Brazil, southern Canada and the USA.
In Russia, calamus is scattered. In the European part, it grows mainly in the south, penetrating north to the southern part of the forest zone, and east to the Volga, and further to the east it occurs in Siberia from the Irtysh to the shores of the Pacific Ocean, reaching the north of the central part of Yakutia.
In the Middle East, the trade of air came about 4,000 years ago. From the East in dried form, he got to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. In the Middle Ages, the sweet root was brought through Turkey to Europe only in candied form as an oriental sweetness, and the Turks carefully guarded the secret of the origin of this “reed of incense”. However, in 1574, the Austrian ambassador to Turkey managed to send K. Kluzius (director of the Vienna Botanical Garden), a package with aromatic rhizomes suitable for planting. It turned out that for Eastern Europe it is not at all an exotic plant, but it has long been known as “Tatar grass” or “Tatar potion”.
From the 16th century, common calamus as a medicinal plant was grown in Western Europe. The plant reached North America in 1783. Today the plant is cultivated in Western Europe, India, China, Myanmar, Indonesia, Brazil, Belarus and Ukraine, mass harvesting is also carried out in Kazakhstan (in the Irtysh flood plain).
Nomads and traders linked the spread of calamus with the suitability of drinking water, therefore, crossing water barriers, scattered its roots. The Tatars brought them to Russia in the 12th-13th centuries. They thought that the roots of calamus cleaned the reservoirs, and such water can be drunk without risking sickness. To do this, the Tatar horsemen carried with them pieces of living rhizomes and scattered them in all reservoirs in their path.
What is part of the calamus ordinary
Rhizomes calamus ordinary contain about 5% of the essential oil, which includes a number of sesquiterpenes - Azarone, β-pinene (1%), β-calamen (10%), calamendiol, calamenone, isocalmendiol, sesquiterpene alcohol calameol, and D-camphene (7% ), D-camphor (8.7%), borneol (3%), eugenol, methyl eugenol, elemen, karyofillen, curcumen, proazulen, acoron, isoacorone, acolamon, neocarone, calarin, acetic and valeric acid, phytoncids and other substances. The content of essential oil in diploid plants is about 2.2%, in triploid - 3.1%, in tetraploid - 6.8%.
The main component of the essential oil is azarone, a derivative of phenylpropane. It is present in the form of two isomers: β-azarone (cis) and α-azarone (trans), usually their total content in the essential oil is about 10%. However, the essential oil of some varieties of calamus contains up to 75% β-azarone. The oil obtained from triploid and especially tetraploid plants contains up to 90% β-azarone.
In addition to the essential oil, the plant’s bitter glycoside acorin, acoretin bitterness, as well as lucienion glycoside, alkaloid calamine, tannins - catechin tannins, resins, mucus, acoric acid, ascorbic acid (up to 150 mg%) and palmitic acid, were found in the roots of calamus, starch (up to 20%), choline, vitamins, iodine (1.2-1.9 mg%). The source of the smell is asaric aldehyde.
Substances present in the rhizomes of calamus swamp, mainly essential oil and bitter glycoside acorin, acting on the tips of taste buds, strengthens appetite, stimulates the secretion of gastric juice, improves digestion. Calamus roots also have wound healing, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, sedative action. Air tones the heart, strengthens the blood vessels of the brain and thereby improves memory, enhances vision.
It has been experimentally confirmed that preparations based on calamus have some antispasmodic effect and, due to the content of terpenoids in the roots of the plant (Azaron, proazulen), have bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory properties. Galeric forms of calamus have a beneficial effect on the tone of the gallbladder, stimulate bile secretion and diuresis. There is evidence of a calming effect of calamus rhizomes and a slight analgesic effect.
When to collect and how to store common air
Collect the calamus rhizomes in the fall or spring, digging forks. The harvested roots are washed in cold water, the shoots and the leaves are pruned, kept in the air for several days. After that, the long roots are cut into pieces with a length of 15-20 cm, too thick - split along and dried under a canopy, spread out in one layer.
Heat drying can also be used, but at a temperature of no more than 25-30 ° C, since the essential oil, which is part of the rhizomes, evaporates at a higher temperature, as a result of which the quality of the obtained medicinal raw material is reduced.
Well dried pieces of calamus rhizomes should not bend, but break. At the break they have a whitish-pink color (less often with a yellow or greenish tint). Raw material usable for 2-3 years.
Calamus rhizomes - recognized medicinal raw materials included in the I-XI editions of the Russian Pharmacopoeia. Included in the preparations of vikalin, vikair and olimetin.
In scientific medicine, calamus essential oil and alcohol extracts are widely used to enhance appetite and improve digestion, in gastrointestinal disorders, in diseases of the liver, spleen, gall bladder, kidneys, as a tonic, expectorant and bactericidal agent. The substances that are part of the rhizomes of calamus, mainly the bitter glycoside acorin, increase sensitivity to taste stimuli and reflex secretion of gastric juice. Also used as part of the collection for children's baths with rickets and diathesis. Broths and infusions of rhizomes are effective when washing purulent wounds and boils.
Use in traditional medicine
In Chinese medicine - with rheumatism, epilepsy, as bactericidal and antipyretic with cholera, to aggravate and improve hearing.
In indian - as a bactericidal agent, fighting tubercle bacilli.
In korean medicine - as a flavoring and tonic gastric remedy, as well as memory loss, dystonia, chronic gastritis, impaired vision, pain in the abdomen, abdominal distension, indigestion, loss of appetite, rheumatoid arthritis, cardio neurosis, and in the form of powder - with furunculosis and abrasions .
In Bulgarian folk medicine - with anemia, as a means of regulating menstruation, with liver disease and gallbladder, kidneys, with hysteria and stomach cramps.
In tibetan - as an effective remedy for gastroenteritis and ulcers in the throat.
In Russian folk medicine the use of drugs from calamus is very voluminous:
- Calamus rhizome is chewed with toothache, heartburn, for the prevention of influenza, protecting the teeth from destruction, strengthening the gums, also this process enhances the gag reflex, which was often used to get rid of the habit of smoking tobacco.
- powdered dried rhizomes are used in scurvy, heartburn, to accelerate the healing of suppurating wounds, ulcers, dropsy, joint pain, colds (sputum choking), inflammation of the renal pelvis, during epidemics as a means of preventing typhoid and cholera.
- tinctures and decoctions of rhizomes are used for arthritis, diseases of the liver, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract and gall bladder, used as a wound healing, painkiller and disinfectant, bactericidal agent for rinsing the mouth and strengthening the hair, with anemia, heartburn, allergies, gout, rachitis and малярии , как отхаркивающее и антисептическое средство при воспалении лёгких и абсцессах , болезнях нервной системы, которые сопровождаются судорогами, при ревматизме натирают больные суставы, при женских заболеваниях делают спринцев ания отваром или сидячие ванны.
- настой, отвар – при лихорадке (как замена коры хинного дерева), гриппе. Отвар с молоком дают детям при эпилепсии.
- сок – как средство, способствующее улучшению памяти и зрения .
Previously, soft succulent stems and rhizome of calamus swamp chewed for the purpose of prevention during epidemics of typhus, cholera, influenza.
The use of calamus swamp in traditional and traditional medicine (recipes)
Fine powder from calamus root take with severe heartburn on the tip of a knife 3-4 times a day.
With nasal congestion, polyps and catarrhal diseases sniffing powder calamus. In microdoses, it can be used to revive when you lose consciousness: this powder clears the airways.
With slow digestion take a decoction from the roots of calamus (15 g of rhizomes for 2-3 glasses of water). Cook for 15 minutes in a dish covered with a lid. Drink 3 cups a day.
With toothache and for mouthwash use calamus decoctionWhich is prepared as follows: chopped rhizomes are poured with boiling water, let it brew for 10-15 minutes, then flowers and leaves are added calamus and boil for another 5 minutes, cool again and drink immediately.
With hepatitis are cooking decoction of a mixture of rhizomes of calamusimmortelle and hypericum - taken in equal parts. 1 tablespoon of the collection is poured with a glass of water, boiled for 5 minutes, cooled and drunk 3-4 times a day before meals, half a glass.
With gastric and intestinal colic, gastritis and colitis can brew shredded calamus root (1 tsp) a glass of boiling water, let it stand for about 20 minutes, strain and drink half a glass 4 times a day, 30 minutes before meals.
With diarrhea air is brewed as in the previous recipe, but they take 2 teaspoons of powder and draw for 2 hours longer. Then they squeeze and drink a quarter glass 3 times a day half an hour before meals.
AIR is often included in the medicinal fees used to treat bladder inflammation and cystitis.
For stomach pains use infusion of calamus root with flowers and fruits of red rowan. Take 1 part of calamus, 2 parts of mountain ash, pour 1 tablespoon of the mixture with a glass of cold water, leave to stand for an hour, then bring to a boil, cool and filter. Use warm, 2-3 times a day, half a glass before a meal.
With oral diseases, cracks and swelling of the tongueaccompanied by chills and difficulty swallowing, mouth rinsing with a mixture of calamus with other natural medicines has a good effect: calamus root - 10 g, oak bark - 10 g, sage leaves - 8 g, large nettle leaves - 10 g per 1 liter of water.
Pancreatitis for a long time they take the powder of the following collection: calamus and dandelion rhizomes (50 g each), thyme grass, peppermint leaves, hop cones, nettle roots (all 25 g each) - all this is taken dry, ground 2-3 times in a coffee grinder . Then 5 tablespoons of this powder is mixed with jam, honey or jam (200 g), and eaten 1-2 teaspoon 1-2 times a day. The prepared means is stored in the refrigerator.
In traditional medicine, the decoctions and infusions of calamus root have been successfully used for a long time. with gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, as well as diseases of the gallbladder and liver: Acorin, a bitter glycoside that stimulates the secretion of bile and improves the tone of the gallbladder, is part of the rhizomes of calamus.
With hemorrhoids Prepare a decoction of calamus rhizomes (30 g of raw materials per 1 liter of water), and take a sit-down bath, to improve condition.
Women for treatment of fibroids You should mix 2 tablespoons of fresh chopped calamus root (or one spoonful of dry) with aloe juice (50 ml) and honey (50 g). Insist for 3 days, and take 1 tablespoon before meals, 3-4 times a day.
Strengthen teeth and gums it contributes to the addition of powder of calamus root to the toothpaste (you can simply sprinkle a moistened toothbrush) - about 0.5 g at a time.
With stomatitis, periodontal disease, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, acute respiratory infections, sore throat helps rinsing from calamus and oak bark. The ingredients are taken in equal parts, pour 2 tablespoons of the mixture with hot water (1 l) and boil for 15 minutes. Then add nettle and sage leaves (1 tbsp each), and leave to infuse for 20 minutes, then strain and use for rinsing.
With the same diseases use calamus rootsboiled in boiling sugar syrup. The root, cut into small pieces, is boiled for 5 minutes in syrup (as for jam), removed from the heat, left in the syrup for 10-12 hours, then re-brought to a boil, the roots are removed, the syrup is drained, and then dried, candied, and used for resorption in the mouth.
A decoction of calamus rhizomes normalizes and soothes sleep, improves the functioning of brain cells.
Fresh juice of calamus root is used in the treatment eye diseases: it is buried in the eyes, mixed with water in a ratio of 1 to 10 - while reducing visual acuity, inflammation and retinal detachment. You can also simply lubricate the eyelids with fresh calamus juice - this improves vision.
For baldness, poor hair growth, dandruff it is recommended to wash your head with calamus infusion for 2 months or rub it into the scalp 2-3 times a week. For cooking crushed calamus roots (1 tbsp.) Pour with cold water (1 cup) and allow to infuse for 8 hours. You can also wash your head 3 times a week with a decoction of a mixture of calamus, hop cones and burdock.
Good to know.
As a spice plant common air It has been known since the times of ancient Jews and Persians, and as a medicine, ancient Greek and Roman physicians began to be used. In particular, Hippocrates left descriptions of drugs from the irradiated root (calamus).
The ancient Greek physician Dioscorides made recommendations to use this plant for diseases of the spleen, liver, respiratory tract, and also as a tonic and diuretic. The ancient Roman physician and scientist Pliny the Elder gives descriptions of calamus and medicines from it in his writings. Avicenna used calamus as a diuretic and as a cleansing for diseases of the stomach and liver.
Waterfowl like to hide in the thickets of calamus. Muskrats and muskrats actively use calamus rhizomes in their diet, and ducks readily eat seeds (where they are tied and mature).
Calamus dried rhizomes are quite suitable for replacing spices such as bay leaf, nutmeg, ginger and cinnamon.
Many people use calamus in the process of preparing fruit soups, sweet dishes and fruit salads, as a flavoring confectionery, bread. Rhizomes are boiled in syrup and candied for confectionery. Essential oil and root are used for the production of various beverages.
Calamus tea is made from calamus, which effectively stimulates the appetite, fights heartburn and stimulates the normal activity of the gallbladder. In small quantities, they are added to the preparation of various soups, sauces, broths, fried meat, cabbage and potatoes, and to canning fish.
In Poland, calamus leaves are often added to the dough to give the bread a special flavor.
In Turkey, candied rhizomes of calamus are a valuable delicacy