The rare owner of a private house prefers not to plant fruit trees on his plot. The fruit garden usually wants to have everyone - in the spring the trees are delighted with beautiful flowering and aroma, and the fruits and berries from your own garden always seem much tastier than those bought in a store or on the market, besides you know that these are organic products. In the art of feng shui, the image of a blooming fruit garden is a symbol of abundance and well-being. Planning a garden is a responsible matter, and on how well you plant trees, their growth and the ability to bear fruit will depend, so this task should be treated with great attention.
If you want to grow vegetables in your garden as well, the layout of the garden and the vegetable garden should be considered together. It is better to take a place for beds at the southern border, from north to south, so it is better for crops growing in the middle belt. Some gardeners recommend placing beds from east to west. For vegetable and strawberry (strawberry) beds are located fruit bushes - currants, gooseberries. Trees are planted behind the shrubbery; the shade of the berries doesn’t hurt the berry bushes, and vegetable beds must be in the sun.
An example of the design of vegetable beds - they do not have to be square or rectangular, the original beds resemble flower beds
What you need to know before you start planning?
Before you start planning a garden, you need to take into account the following important factors:
- What size area can be allocated under the orchard. For trees with spreading crowns will need a distance of 4 sq.m.
- Terrain. For an orchard, flat land or a gentle slope would be ideal, cold air lingers in the depressions, excessive moisture, these areas are unfavorable for fruit trees.
- Soil analysis of your site. Fruit crops have a strong root system, soils must be fertile to ensure good nutrition. Stony, clay, sandy soil for the garden is not suitable. Negative impact on the growth of trees proximity to groundwater.
- The presence of heat and light. For most fruit trees, it is important that there is plenty of light and heat, in the shade they grow much worse and bear fruit. It should be said about the area with constant strong wind - the wind interferes with normal pollination, dries the soil, often damages the crop and breaks the branches of trees. Partly from the winds can protect a high fence or green spaces.
Planning begins with a chart on paper. If there is already a house on the plot, you should start planning from it. On the paper is applied to scale plot area, the contours of the house and other buildings, as well as places where trees are already growing.
This site is protected from wind by trees planted around it, which have already grown enough to provide protection.
If the site is not built up yet, a place is put on the scheme for building a house. Planning the garden on the site implies the presence of a front garden. The house should face the facade, in front of it remains a strip of land for the front garden. Its size depends on the area of the site - for someone it is just a meter, for someone - 6-8 meters. Flowers, raspberries and berry bushes are usually planted in a small front garden, decorative trees, flowers or several fruit trees are at the discretion of the owners in a large garden.
To large fruit trees - apples, pears, take a place in the northeast side of the site, between them and fruit and berry bushes - a place for smaller trees - cherries, plums.
An example of a garden and garden plan - the plot is divided into two parts. In the first - a house surrounded by a front garden and garden beds with vegetables, the second half - an orchard with trees planted in rows
In general, it will be convenient to draw a plan of the site, put on it all the existing buildings, the intended location of the garden and vegetable garden. On the plot you need to mark the holes for planting trees. Try to plant trees at a distance so that as they grow it does not overshadow each other. Heap growing bushes and trees in the garden grow poorly, in addition, conditions are created for diseases of garden crops. In fruit trees, the root system is powerful, it must develop freely.
Tip If your site is overgrown with wild shrubs, there are stumps on it that you need to uproot, do the necessary work and burn the tree remains. Collect ash in a dry place, it is useful when creating fertile beds.
Usually, the layout of the orchard involves planting trees in such a way that they do not obscure parts of neighbors, but it is not uncommon for a tree to grow near the fence itself, providing fruits for both owners and neighbors, while no one has any complaints.
Today it is fashionable to give the beds an original shape, for example, a pizza garden. The highlight is that from the round garden bed in the center, the rest of the rays diverge like chunks of pizza, forming a circle
Raspberry, blackberry or berry bushes are usually planted at the borders of the site, and they also bear fruit well when shaded.
Landscape and regular planning
Below are examples of garden layouts for lovers of order and clarity of form, and for those who like plants in the orchard to be planted according to the scheme, but create the impression of natural areas.
Landscape planning involves the location of trees and other crops in a free order, close to natural. In this garden, in addition to fruit crops, are widely used and decorative.
An example of a free plan of a garden is vegetable beds on the left and on the top, fruit trees are planted in groups in the center and on the right.
With regular planning, trees and shrubs, as well as vegetables in the garden, are planted in strict rows at the same distance. The landing pattern also has a strict geometric shape - a square for areas whose length and width are almost equal, and a rectangle for areas that are much longer than width.
An example of a regular garden layout with a garden is a clear geometry, the plot is divided into regular squares, rectangles, plants are planted in rows
Where is the best crop to plant?
These are trees and shrubs that grow well and bear fruit in your latitudes. For the middle band, these are pears, apples (it is advisable to plant several trees of different varieties), different varieties of plums and cherry plums, cherries. Cherries and apricots will ripen in warm latitudes. Berry bushes - all varieties of currants, gooseberries, blackberries, raspberries. With a small area of the site, shrubs are conveniently located around the perimeter.
If you plant several apple trees, among which will be summer, autumn and winter apple trees, the fruits will delight you at different times of the year.
An example of an interesting garden plan is that the paths, between which the beds are located, diverge from a square of slabs in the center, and different cultures are planted on each of the beds. It is convenient to approach any of them
On vegetable beds nearby, you need to plant crops that grow well in close proximity to each other:
- cabbage, cucumbers, peas,
- cabbage, dill, potatoes, onions, lettuce, celery,
- tomatoes, peas, carrots,
- horseradish, potatoes, beans, onions, cabbage.
When you draw a scheme, decide on which plants to plant and in what quantity, you can start marking the garden on the ground, buy seedlings and prepare the soil.
Before placing the beds, the gardener must solve several problems:
- determine the types of vegetables, and in what quantity you need to grow,
- calculate the size of the beds and their number,
- make a plan of the site with the image of all the beds.
This scheme will last for many years. It will help to follow the rules of the neighborhood of plants and adhere to the correct sequence of crop rotation, which will allow preserve soil fertility and increase the yield of the site.
To understand how to properly position the ridge on the site, you need to consider the following factors:
- All vegetables love light, so they are best planted on the south side of the site.
- Compatible vegetables. Potatoes get along well with cabbage, eggplants, peas, horseradish. Tomatoes grow well with basil, spinach, dill. Carrots get along well with onions, peas, beans. Cabbage will grow poorly next to tomatoes, cucumbers with potatoes, peas and beans with onions and garlic.
- Onions do not require a large amount of light for growth, so it can be planted along the fence or under the trees.
- Each culture has different requirements for the nutritional value of the soil. For convenience, you need to divide the area into 4 zones. In the first zone with very nutritious soil it is better to plant potatoes, cabbage, pumpkin, cucumbers. In the second zone, onions, carrots, beets, radishes and peppers will grow well. In the third zone it is best to plant beans, peas, beans. In the fourth zone perennials (berries and herbs) will feel good.
- The specific smell of some plants (onions, sage, thyme, dill, garlic) can protect nearby plants from pests and diseases. Dill protects cucumbers from diseases, and onions will scare a carrot fly. Sage is able to kill the smell of cabbage, and pests will pay less attention to it.
- On the same bed you can grow only those plants whose roots are located at different levels.
You can not plant the same culture every year in its former place. Proper alternation should occur as follows: first, you can plant fruit plants on one bed, on the second - root crops, on the third - legumes, on the fourth - deciduous. In the second year, the fruit should be transferred to the fourth ridge, the root crops - to the first, the legumes - to the second, the deciduous - to the third. Return to the original version is possible only after 3-4 years, as the root plants greatly deplete the soil, and it takes time to recover.
The location of the beds depending on the cardinal points
The greatest number sunlight and heat located on the south side of the plot. It is here that it is necessary to plant all the heat-loving plants.
The central part is also well suited for growing many crops. The sun will move across the sky, light every corner of the site and all the plants will receive the necessary amount of light.
The least amount of light and heat goes to the north side of the site. Here it is best to put farm buildings and plant trees so that they do not interfere with other plants to receive a sufficient amount of light.
Beds with low plants are best located in the direction from north to south. It is especially important to comply with this rule if the plot is in a lowland.
The beds, located on the sunny side of the site or on elevations, are better positioned in the direction from east to west. Plants will obscure the paths, therefore, the soil retains the greatest amount of moisture.
To determine the correct location of the beds, you must consider the region of the country in which the site is located. Residents of the northern and central regions, which are the most rainy, are advised to orient plantings from north to south so that the plants do not overshadow each other. In the gardens of the southern part of the country, where it is constantly hot, beds are recommended to be located from west to east. The plants plant will shade the ground between the rows, and it will retain more moisture.
The correct location of the beds on the site bears fruit:
- helps to reduce the number of diseased and undeveloped plants,
- all cultures receive the necessary amount of light and heat,
- Plants growing on well-arranged beds do not require frequent watering,
- helps to increase yields
- ripening period of some vegetables becomes less.
Kinds of beds
Before you begin to dig a bed, you need to decide what form it will be. Most gardeners prefer to make the beds in the form of a rectangle. But the bed can be absolutely any shape. The main thing - to rationally distribute the area of the site to grow more vegetables and berries.
Beds There are several varieties:
- High. Consists of several layers. The first layer is branches and twigs. The second layer is laid wood and plant residues. The third layer is peat. The last top layer is made of compost and earth. The beds of this type warm up much better, but dry faster, and therefore need frequent watering. They are very convenient to water, do not need to pile up and dig, just loosen.
- Hillock. They make it in the form of a hill with a height of about 80–90 cm. First, they dig up the earth along the entire length of the bed. Then they pour it into the center and make a depression of 10–15 cm.
- Bed by the method of Mitlider. It is 45–50 cm wide and 9 meters long. The gap between the beds of 90 cm. If you initially choose this variety for your plot, then there is no need to dig up the whole garden.
- Vertical. Widely used in small areas. Plants planted on such a bed are less likely to suffer from fungal diseases, but often require feeding, because their root system is in a limited amount of soil. These include multi-tiered, beds - pyramids, double-sided step beds, beds-cylinders, beds-barrels. They are especially widely used in the cultivation of strawberries, strawberries, herbs. Such constructions are best made portable in order to be able to hide the plants for the winter.
Each gardener himself decides what size his bed will be. The width can be any, but the most convenient is the width from 60 to 100 cm. The length of the beds can also vary depending on the wishes of the owner.
It is necessary to leave a distance of 90 cm between the beds. It is not recommended to make paths narrower, because vegetables will grow, and tops significantly reduce this area.
After the most successful location of the bed has been chosen, the shape and size have been determined, it is necessary to mark the area where it will be located. Then a bed is dug up, cleared of garbage, treated with solutions that protect plants from diseases. For processing, you can use a solution of blue vitriol or Fungicide Topaz. Further, the soil needs to be loosened and crushed large clumps of earth.
Features planting berry crops
Currants, gooseberries and raspberries are recommended to be placed in well-lit and moist areas of the site. First, be sure to dig the ground, remove weeds and sprinkle fertilizer. Nitrogen fertilizers should not be used in this case, because they make it difficult for plants to take root. Here phosphate fertilizers will go (only 15 g is enough for berry crops), potassium (15 g for black currants, 30g for all other berries). After the pit has been dug, it is filled with fertile soil and the above fertilizers. Instead of fertilizers, wood ash can be used. Next, add organic fertilizer and mix everything thoroughly.
Experienced gardeners advise locate currant bushes at a distance of 1.5 m from each other, and gooseberries at a distance of at least 2 m. Failure to follow this rule will lead to lower yields and a decrease in the life expectancy of these bushes. It is also necessary to keep this distance so that the beds are easier to process and harvest.
First, all seedlings must be carefully examined. If there are injured or dry roots, they must be trimmed.
Currant saplings must be planted at an angle to create favorable conditions for the emergence of new roots.
Raspberry and sea buckthorn planted separately in specially designated areas. The distance between the rows of raspberries should be at least 1.5 m. It gives a lot of root processes, and sea buckthorn grows long roots. If these types of shrubs are planted close to other plants, the root system of vegetables will be injured and they may die.
Strawberries can feel good and fruitlessly in one place for about 3 years without any problems. Then it must be completely eliminated. In its place you can plant vegetables and strawberries transplanted in place of vegetables. Currants, gooseberries and raspberries can stay in one place for many years and successfully bear fruit if they are properly nurtured (systematically cut, so that new young twigs grow and spray). And if you do not give them the necessary attention, they will wither away from disease. And then transplant them to another place would not make sense.
The location of trees on the site
To garden gave a good harvest, you should not have trees randomly, because it complicates the care.
There are several schemes with which you can Arrange trees correctly:
- Quadratic. They are planted in several equal rows. The distance between the trees should be at least 6 meters.
- In staggered order. Here the plot is represented as a chessboard, and in the center of each square is a tree. This scheme is used for plants with a small crown.
Fruit trees are best planted on a hill in the south side of the site. Если их несколько, то нужно сделать это так, чтобы высота стволов увеличивалась в северном направлении.
Нежелательно сажать деревья к дому ближе, чем на 5 метров, так как их корневая система может повредить фундамент. А также лучше не высаживать деревья вдоль садовых дорожек. Crohn's and falling fruits will interfere with movement.
Gardeners should always keep an eye on their plot. Of course, now all vegetables and fruits can be easily purchased in stores, but having your own garden not only saves the family budget, but also guarantees that all products were grown without the use of nitrates and other harmful substances.
The correct location of the beds, compliance with the rules and sequence of planting crops, timely care of plants will allow the gardener to grow a good harvest and provide his family with a full complex of all the necessary vitamins and trace elements until the next harvest season.
How to arrange the beds on the site
The correct location of all crops on the land will not only increase their productivity, but also significantly reduce the number of ill and dead plants. It will also provide an opportunity to reduce watering, and the ripening of vegetables, fruits and berries will occur much earlier. Many gardeners also noticed that crops grown in a properly located plot are stored much longer.
For proper zoning of the earth it is important:
- Make a schematic plan of the garden with the designation of all existing buildings, shrubs and trees.
- List all types of crops to be planted and determine the best place to plant according to their soil and climate requirements.
- Take into account the acceptability and priority of the neighborhood of different cultures.
- Schematically indicate on the plan the size of the beds and the plants that will be planted there.
Such work seems difficult to accomplish. For her, you can hire a specialist in the field of landscape design, who can easily make the desired project. But to carry out such calculations is not difficult and independently. And once you do this, you can forget what a bad harvest is.
How to position the beds in the cardinal directions
When deciding to position the beds correctly, taking into account the sides of the world, the first question arises, in which direction to make their length - from west to east or from north to south. Here it is important to consider the region in which the land is located:
- in the central and northern regions, the landing should be carried out from north to south. So for all the plants there will be enough light
- in the southern regions, the direction of planting crops should be from west to east. This will allow the plants to create a small shadow for each other and prevent overheating of the soil.
But the placement on the plot of beds, oriented to the cardinal points, is not always advisable. If the garden is located in the zone of regular occurrence of strong winds, landing should be carried out across the movement of air flow.
If the site has significant irregularities, the beds in these places should be located exclusively across the slope.
What plants can be planted nearby?
This is perhaps one of the most important points that should be figured out before planting seedlings. Compatibility of plants is called allelopathy. It is both negative and positive.
The best compatibility of fruit trees will be achieved if a plant of one species is planted next to it: apples with apples, pears with pears, cherries with cherries. But such a garden of the same type will look pretty boring. And therefore in our gardens there are trees of different types that are important to plant correctly. For example, a pear will feel great next to an apple tree and a red rowan, while a cherry or a peach will give it a lot of inconvenience.
In the case of positive allelopathy, trees in the garden can not only exist safely in the neighborhood, but also be mutually beneficial. Therefore, before planning planting in the garden, it is recommended to check the compatibility table of different crops.
The worst thing with the "neighbors" in the garden gets walnut. This tree is considered toxic and can inhibit almost all fruit crops. Therefore, if you are going to start such a plant in the garden, find a place for it on the outskirts of the site where it will not disturb anyone.
How to make a tree planting plan?
Choosing a site for the garden
Most trees prefer to grow in the sun. Therefore, the garden should be located so that the light-loving crops (apricot, pear, peach, plum, cherry, apple) are on the south or south-west side of the site. Here they will grow and bear fruit best.
If the area designated for planting trees on your site is small, the plants should be placed in steps: low - on the south side, tall - closer to the north.
Drawing up a plan for the garden, the first thing to do is decide what scheme will be planted trees. Allot 2 basic garden styles:
- regular (geometric)
- landscape (natural).
When planning regular garden, cultures must be positioned so that they organize symmetrical shapes (squares or rectangles). It is advisable to "arrange" the trees in a row, so that between them you can build direct paths. It is permissible to place the plants on the site and in a staggered manner - so they will receive more sunlight.
If the plot is on a hill, rows of trees should be placed across the slope.
Landscape style looks more natural - trees in nature grow chaotically. That is, you can place crops as you like (given the compatibility of plants and other factors affecting their healthy growth). This method of planting fruit crops is suitable for uneven areas with hollows and hillocks, since such "defects" of the relief will create the illusion of a natural, natural composition.
Selection of species and varieties of fruit trees
After you decide on the location of trees and planting scheme, you should think about how many and what plants should be planted. To do this, it is best to draw a rough plan of the site with all the buildings and large objects. Selection of species and varieties of horticultural crops should be carried out with the condition that they can pollinate each other.
For example, if you are planting apples, make sure that more than half of the seedlings belong to winter varieties. Their fruits will subsequently be stored until spring, or even until the beginning of summer.
Crop ripening is also an important criterion. It is advisable to plant varieties with different ripening terms - this will prolong the harvest period.
Distance between trees
In order for cultures to have enough space for harmonious development, they need to be planted at a certain distance from each other, as well as from buildings. So, cherries and plums should not be located closer than 3 m from the borders of the site (as well as from fences and buildings). Apple and pear, it is desirable to plant further away from them.
The average distance between rows of trees grafted on tall rootstocks should be about 5-6 m. In the rows between crops, a gap of 4-5 m should be left. If you plant fruit crops closer, they will begin to stretch ahead of time (they will reach for the sun ), their productivity will decrease, and the quality of the harvest will deteriorate.
If you plan to plant trees with a small-sized crown, the distance between them can be reduced by 0.5-1 m. With mixed placement of fruit trees and berry bushes, the distance between crops in rows should be increased by 1-2 m, and between rows - by 1- 1.5 m
Distance between rows (m)
The distance between plants in a row (m)
Where to plant trees, build a greenhouse, make beds
We continue with the soil scientist Pavel Trannua to draw a plan for the dacha plot, on which the owners can not wait to build a house and plant trees. Why not rush to planting apples, pears and other fruit trees? What is the best way to locate a greenhouse at the dacha? Where to place the beds, and where currants, raspberries, gooseberries? We understand where it is more profitable to plant in the garden plot.
How to arrange trees
So far we are only planning the place of the future orchard. Many make the mistake of planting fruit trees the very first of all plantings, guided by the wrong logic, that "they need the most time to grow."
On the contrary, as the most complex garden object, fruit trees are planted as the last thing. And this is not only because the place for them should be chosen most carefully, but also because the land should be the best in composition, and time is needed for its preparation. Fruit trees are not planted in acidic soil, and deoxidation will take at least 1-2 years.
How to choose a place for an orchard in a vast area of 10–20 or more acres, where in addition to a not-so-spacious sun front garden there may be other suitable places for fruit trees?
There is a clear rule: fruit trees can not be located in the lower part of the site, despite the fact that there will be better water supply with groundwater. The factor of damage to flowers in the spring frosts, as well as winter frosts, is more important for the Central zone. In the low place cold air accumulates, there is always colder a few degrees than near at a high place.
For fruit trees, the morning sun is much more valuable than the evening sun. Consequently, Let your future garden be better lit from the east than from the west. Try to plan the plot so that nothing blocks the morning sun from your best trees.
In addition, for the orchard, if possible, they try to choose a place so that "behind the back" of trees, on the north side, protection from the cold winter winds. In a cottage village, this factor is removed by itself, the winds are extinguished by buildings and high hedges, but in open areas, for example, on the shore of a lake or a wide river, it can be crucial.
On a fairly large area, in the presence of wind protection, fruit trees are best planted in a row or in two rows along the entire northern side (or, say, the angle on the north and west sides). This is done so that they do not block the sun from the rest of the landings, mainly the vegetable garden.
How to arrange the beds
All garden plants, without exception, are demanding of sunlight. All of them are both bigger and tastier in a sunny place than being shaded. For many of them starch - the main "constructive" material, and starch, as everyone knows from school, is formed in the process of photosynthesis by the light of the sun.
Crops in a sunny place consistently three times higher than somewhere in the pen in penumbra. For a vegetable garden, the sun is a decisive factor, so if there is a choice whether to have a vegetable garden at the bottom of the site and at the same time the sun, or at the top, but in the shade, the first option should be chosen. You just have to build higher beds in the valley.
Where to plant bushes with berries
Speaking pragmatically, in the case of living outside the city, the berry is more important than the fruit garden. This is so if only because the annual harvest from berry bushes is much more stable than the "jumping", irregular fruiting of pome fruit and stone fruit.
In addition, correctly selected berry crops in terms of fruiting provide us with fresh berries throughout the season from June to October inclusive, and this is not to mention their greater diversity. Ease of storage until the next harvest in frozen form is another advantage of the berries. Hence the conclusion: allocate the total area under the berry more significant than under fruit trees.
The berry is subject to slightly lower illumination requirements than to the fruit garden and garden, but still strawberries, raspberries, currants and other berries are obtained sweeter in the sun.
Most often, berry bushes scatter on the free places of the site. By types the following winning options are possible.
- Strawberries are allowed to grow with vegetables.
- Raspberry planting "understory" in apple trees.
- Grapes are often planted in the wall of buildings on the sunny side.
- Actinidia and lemongrass fade hedges and gazebos.
- Sea buckthorn, chokeberry, hawthorn, rowan can be used as a trimmed hedge.
How to arrange a greenhouse
Who has a well-established greenhouse, for the garden season comes in March, and ends in November-December, and when the device is heated, it turns into a winter garden even in the frosty months.
The lack of fruit change in the greenhouse, or the fatigue of the soil, under the same crop — tomatoes — is the cause of their severe phytophthora and whitefly lesions. The soil accumulates root excretions (slags), which do not have time to decompose by the next season and inhibit the plants of the same culture planted here again.
You can not grow something constantly from year to year in the same place for any explanatory explanations and protective measures. Partial change of soil, the use of manure with irrigation special microorganisms, thorough disinfection, autumn sowing of siderats - all this does not prevent soil fatigue.
With modern availability of relatively inexpensive polycarbonate greenhouses, it is more than reasonable to plan a complex of three short (4–6 m each) greenhouses on its plot. It will be adjusted especially for permanent suburban residence of fruit growers: solanaceous (tomatoes, sweet peppers, eggplants) - pumpkin (watermelons, melons) - green (parsley, onions, spring garlic, basil, dill, etc.).
These three groups of cultures will alternate from year to year, and thus, each will return to its former place in two years. When organic fertilizers are applied, this is completely sufficient to destroy the root excretions.
Even if we neglect the factor of fatigue of the soil, there is also a factor of overheating of the central part of the greenhouse ("dead zone" in the middle of the polycarbonate greenhouse, which even with all the doors and windows open in the sun is not fully ventilated), which dictates the rule: instead of one long greenhouse, it is better to buy three short ones with the same area. Instead of one greenhouse with a length of 8 m, it is better to buy two 4 m each, and even better, three 3–4 m each.
Let us return to the search for the most advantageous location for one or two or three greenhouses. Needless to say, the place must be sunny. Indeed, in the greenhouses only the most thermophilic crops are grown, for which warm soil is very important. Putting a greenhouse in the shade does not make sense, since in the spring the soil in the shade warms up very slowly, keeps the winter cold. The greenhouse is not only placed in a sunny place, but it is also ensured that the edge of the earth (or tiles) around it was exposed to sunlight during the day and thus the greenhouse earth inside was heated by the sun from all sides.
Greenhouses are traditionally located from north to south. Thus, the most advantageous solar illumination of the rows of plants inside it is achieved. At the same time in the background (northern) will be planted taller tomatoes, and in the front (southern) - eggplant and sweet pepper.
In addition, the greenhouse, located in this way, is more heated in the morning with the eastern sun and in the evening with the west, and in the afternoon its surface for the hottest southern sun decreases with the doors open and windows open.
A number of greenhouses with a height of 2–2.5 m (models with a pointed dome 50 cm higher) can simultaneously serve as a blind fence from the views from the east or west side of the plot. However, in this case gaps are necessary between greenhouses at least in 1 m.
The greenhouse must stand on a solid foundation. Often, timber is used for this, but it is short-lived (the surface of wet soil is the most "rotten" place for wood material). Cast concrete tape - means greatly increase the cost of the greenhouse. The tile laid out around the perimeter of the greenhouse is perhaps the most compromise solution.
The tile is positioned so that the frame of the greenhouse lays on its edge, and the main part of the tile turns out to be outside in the form of a circular path. This will make it more convenient to care for the greenhouse. The tile is placed on the leveled surface of the soil, spilled with sand in a layer of 5–10 cm: sand is poured from the hose before compaction. Thus, the fertile layer is preserved, and the roots of the planted plants will sprout into it. Unlike a tape-like concrete base, which cuts off the roots of greenhouse plants from the entire surrounding soil, halving their nutrition.
The frame is additionally attached to the ground with hammered hooks from a tube or some thick wire. The greenhouse has a large windage and the wind can move it with the destruction of polycarbonate.
How to reconcile all the pros and cons
Even with all the necessary information, the right solution can be difficult to find. You start posting, and it seems that almost everything was managed to be planned, but at the last stage it turns out that, for example, there is a bed for cabbage, on which this cabbage grew the year before last and also had a keel. So, it is impossible to plant it here, and everything starts all over again. Again, you have to redo the plan, look for a new solution and re-draw it.
Если вам знакома подобная ситуация и вы каждый год доводите себя до головной боли, планируя и вновь перемещая культуры по огороду, то попробуйте интересное решение, о котором я недавно прочитала (мне оно ни к чему, поскольку я все делаю на компьютере, но большинству огородников, наверное, очень пригодится). Правда, для использования данного подхода у вас должны быть близкие по размерам прямоугольные гряды, и каждый овощ нужно сажать на свою гряду (то есть не в компании с другими).
Планировать в этом случае можно так: берете прошлогодний план участка (а лучше планы за 3-4 года) и чистый лист бумаги. Draw this sheet on the same rectangles and write on them: potatoes, cabbage, carrots, onions, garlic, etc., listing all that you plan to plant. Moreover, if you always occupy two ridges with garlic, then, accordingly, there should be two rectangles with the name “garlic”, etc. Cut the paper into separate rectangles and start on your plan to collect a puzzle called "entertaining garden", placing the ridges, rectangles as necessary on the chosen places of your plan. To be mistaken here is not scary, because it's easy to fix it by moving the “wrong” rectangle to a new location. Try it, and this method will be much easier to play all the situations in your head and to re-draw your plan repeatedly and painstakingly.
What factors need to be considered when planning a vegetable garden?
The first - all vegetables love a sunny place. Only green cultures, which include onions on the feather, and perennial bows like chives and slizuna, partially put up with penumbra. This means that in a small shadow of a house, a fence, trees and bushes, you can sow and plant bows and some herbs. Although you will not get a big harvest in this case, you will still not grow anything else in these places.
The second - compatibility of vegetables: someone with whom it is good or, on the contrary, bad. Cabbage does not live with tomatoes and beans. Cucumber - with potatoes. Tomato - with fennel. Potato - with tomatoes and pumpkin. Peas and beans are very unpleasant onions and garlic, radish - hyssop. Only now the carrot gets on with everyone, although from the point of view of protection from the carrot fly, it is preferable to sow it in company with onions. This was about bad neighbors.
And good? Here are other examples. All vegetables of the celery family (carrots, parsnips, parsley, celery) are well combined with the onion family: onion, garlic, leek, shallot. White and black radish have a good effect on other vegetables. Radish grows very well between the rows of bush beans - it becomes very large, tasty and not wormy. Potatoes do not interfere with live beans, corn, cabbage, horseradish and onions. But individually, because in this group there are several irreconcilable couples.
Compatible with cabbage onions, celery, potatoes, dill and lettuce. Tomatoes can be planted next to green and cabbage crops, asparagus and beans. Peas can coexist with carrots, cucumbers, potatoes, radishes, corn. And so on.
Third rule no less important - it is necessary to take into account that the phytoncides secreted by some plants scare away the pests of other crops or prevent any diseases from developing. For example, onion phytoncides deter carrot flies, and carrot phytoncides scare onions. Dill protects cucumbers from diseases, and onions and garlic - tomatoes. If you plant around the cabbage strongly smelling plants, such as celery, thyme or sage, they drown out the smell of cabbage and make it less attractive to pests. And basil is nice to plant around beans to protect against bean weevil, garlic - about roses to protect against aphids, parsley - about asparagus.
When planning it is necessary to take into account also predecessorsThat is, whether the suitable vegetable grew last season at the place where you will plant another in the spring. And here again there are numerous schemes! And the most important thing to learn is that you cannot plant the same culture in the same place. And, moreover, you can not place the cabbage after any cabbage and beets. Beets - after beets, cabbage and tomatoes. Tomatoes - after all the nightshade and peas.
Fifththat you have to consider - dlong-term crop rotation, the prospect of 3-4 years. Here is even more difficult. Agronomy teaches to alternate vegetables based on their nutritional needs, in particular in organics. Conventionally, in the first year (i.e., on fresh organic), cucumber, zucchini, pumpkin, cabbage of medium and late ripening, leek, etc., are grown, that is, those crops under which organic matter needs to be added very much. In the second year they are replaced by onions, peppers, tomatoes, potatoes. The third is the turn of the root crops (carrots, beets, radishes, etc.), which have to add a fair amount of mineral fertilizers.
Features of garden planning
It’s still harder to get a garden, because we plant vegetables every year, and if one year your planning was unsuccessful, then maybe next year everything will be much better.
Trees and shrubs we place in permanent places for a long time, and once planted apple trees will provide you with the rest of your life. Therefore, when drawing up a garden plan, it is necessary to set aside separate permanent places for each tree species, for vegetables, for flowers and to calculate everything in advance correctly, where and what will grow in 10-20 years. And there are a lot of rules here too.
First rule is the presence of each group of crops (fruit trees, berry bushes, vegetable and ornamental crops) of a permanent place. A common mistake is a combined arrangement of crops when vegetables, strawberries, berry bushes are placed among young trees of apple and pear trees. At first everything turns out well: the trees do not take up much space, there is enough light and nutrition for other plants. But over time, the trees grow, and then intermediate crops fall into the shade, their yield becomes low. Therefore, the first rule of the site planning is to allocate a separate permanent place for each culture. Of course, you can temporarily grow berry shrubs, strawberries and vegetables among strong-growing tree species, but then, when there is a strong blackout, they will have to be removed and moved somewhere else, which you need to think about in advance.
Second rule is to provide for the possibility of updating strawberries, berry bushes, cherry and plum trees. Say, strawberries fruit well in one place for 2-3 years. On the fourth or, in extreme cases, the fifth year of fruiting, it must be completely eliminated. Therefore, one garden bed is annually released, so that next year it will grow vegetables here, and a garden bed from under vegetables will be planted with strawberries. Therefore, it is more convenient to attribute the strawberries not to the garden, but to the garden and to change strawberry ridges with vegetables. Currant bushes, gooseberries and raspberries theoretically in one place can bear fruit for a very long time, and it all depends on proper care. It is more profitable to take care of these crops (from the point of view of saving their own time) to take care of them and regularly cut and spray them, then they can bear fruit for 10, 15 years and more in the same place as a rejuvenating pruning. And everything will be fine. And if you care badly, then they will not last long, the bushes will weaken from diseases, pests, malnutrition and thickening, and you will have to look for another place and re-start to grow and shape.
The third rule of planning - respect for the rights of the neighbor. Your trees should not overshadow the adjacent area. The distance from the trunk of the tree to the interi should be at least half the generally accepted width between the rows: 3.5–4 m for strong-growing trees, 2.0–2.5 m for medium-grown trees. Currant, gooseberry, raspberry can be planted in the strip between trees . And in no case should not plant tall trees and shrubs 20 cm from the border, which, alas, is not uncommon.
Fourth rule layout - reducing the height of plants as they approach the house. In order for the housing to be dry and light, the lowest plants should be placed near the house - flowers, lawn grass, part of strawberries, vegetables, shrubs, and tall trees should be carried away, deep into the plot.
Fifth rule - Consideration of the features of certain plants. Of the berry bushes on the drier, but well-lit areas, it is better to plant red currants, gooseberries, and on lower, more wet (but not swampy) ones - black currants. Raspberries and sea buckthorn are planted separately in specially designated areas of the plot, as the first produces many root suckers, and the second develops long roots that hinder the growth and development of other plants, strawberries are planted in those places where snow lingers well in winter. Growing strawberries between fruit trees is undesirable.
Chokeberry and sea buckthorn look good when planted in groups closer to home. Lemongrass and actinidia are planted near the wall of the house so that there is protection from the wind and the possibility of creating reliable vertical supports. Barberry and lilac are planted away from all other cultures (somewhere apart), because their root secretions do not give life to other plants.
Svetlana Shlyakhtina, Yekaterinburg