The natural habitat of the "mountain pine mugo" species is the slopes of the mountain ranges. It grows in the alpine belt of the mountains of Central and Southern Europe. It is also found in the foothills. At home, the plant reaches a height of ten meters, but mostly shrub forms with branches that rise or crawl along the ground.
Pine Mugo Mugo is a tall shrub. Depending on the variety, the shrub acquires a pyramidal or spherical shape as it grows. The trunk has a gray-brown color, which is smooth in a young plant, and only with age becomes covered with scales in the upper part of the trunk. Dark green short needles, not more than two and a half centimeters, very hard and dull, has a slightly twisted shape around the axis. New shoots eventually change the greenish color to gray-brown. After six years, the pine tree mugo begins to bloom, and small buds grow on short legs, which ripen in the second year after flowering.
Application in gardening
Due to its unpretentiousness, mountain pine has become very popular and is used for landscaping cities and private properties, decorating alleys and alpine slides. It does not require fertile soil and an abundance of moisture in it, it grows in places unsuitable for agriculture. In addition, pine is resistant to frost, does not suffer from pests and air pollution. It is used to fix the soil on rocky slopes, where other trees do not grow. Due to its slow growth, it retains its decorative form for a long time. Many new varieties with different shapes and sizes have been developed.
Varieties of mountain pine
Very popular dwarf species of mountain pine.
- Pine Pinus Mugo belongs to the shrub species of mountain pine, its diameter reaches three meters with age.
- Variety "Pug" has a spherical shape with short shoots. The maximum height of the plant reaches one and a half meters, but differs in bush density and slow growth. Dark green needles reach a length of 2-4.5 cm with a width of two millimeters.
- "Mini Pug" is small in size. With a crown diameter of one meter, its height does not exceed sixty centimeters. Dense and sharp needles growing in bundles. The bush for the year grows two centimeters in height and three in width. It is recommended for a single landing or creating a group composition on a roller coaster. The grade is unpretentious to the soil, it is frost-resistant.
- Mugus pine, the photo of which is given below, is widespread in nature in the Balkans, the foothills of the Alps. At a height of one and a half to two meters the shrub is spread over the ground and belongs to the group of creeping ones. At the same time, young shoots raised up. Yellow-brown cones have the same size, sessile. The crown is friable and needs pinching of young shoots.
Pine Mugo: planting and care
Planting of mountain pine seedlings is carried out in the spring, when frosts on the ground are unlikely, or in early autumn. It is advisable to choose plants under the age of five, because young seedlings take root better. The place is better to choose a well-lit, although the plant tolerates partial shade. The roots of the mountain pine are long, so it is necessary to prepare a pit with a depth of at least one meter and with a width exceeding the diameter of the coma of the ground at the seedling. If the soil is clayey, or the groundwaters run close to it, the pit is further deepened, drainage from expanded clay is poured to the bottom, and peat or sand is added to the soil when backfilling the roots. This is necessary to prevent stagnation of water and rotting of the roots of mountain pine. Add lime to acidic soils.
When planting around the root system with a lump of earth, they fill in a planting mixture consisting of sand, compost and mineral fertilizers. The application of mineral fertilizers improves the survival rate of seedlings. It is necessary to plant seedlings at a sufficient distance from each other. Depending on the variety, it should be between two and four meters. When planting it is recommended to pay close attention to the root neck. It can not be deepened, it should be at ground level.
Care of seedlings
Pines differ from deciduous trees by the vulnerability of the root system, so they take root for a long time and can die if left untouched. The pine Mugo Mugo the first two or three years after planting needs attention and care. In summer, seedlings should be watered regularly. In order to prevent soil compaction, the soil around the shrub is loosened and mulched, which allows it to retain moisture in the soil. Although the plant loves lit areas, young seedlings are recommended on hot days to cover from the sun.
For winter, mountain pine seedlings need protection from frost and cold wind. A suitable material for harboring bushes is burlap or spruce branches (lapnik), straw. Strengthened pines do not need additional shelters. Young seedlings of the first years should be fed with mineral fertilizers. To do this, use complex fertilizers for conifers or other universal feeding at the rate of 40 grams per square meter. In order for the plant to have a beautiful crown, shoots are cut each year by the amount of growth.
Features of the cultivation of mountain pine Mugus
Pine Mugo Mugus, the planting of which has some nuances, is one of the most popular species suitable for cultivation in summer cottages. Consider the features of planting and care.
Like other types of mountain pine, seedlings should be planted in deep holes with drainage and the addition of a soil mixture of soil, sand and mineral fertilizers.
Pine Mugo Mugus does not survive in the shade, so it can be planted in well-lit areas. It is undemanding to the composition of the soil, but does not tolerate stagnant water and soil compaction. It is also not recommended to plant it in the fall, otherwise the seedling may die from sudden frosts.
Due to the slow growth of pine Mugo Mugus does not need annual pruning. A feature of this variety is the splendor of the branches, which are located along the entire length of the trunk. Especially beautiful are raised up the tips of the branches, giving the plant a spherical shape.
Reproduction is carried out by cuttings and seeds. Planting the seeds of mountain pine in a pot with drainage and putting a little attention and effort, you can independently grow a tree. Such a seedling is more endurance and survival.
In order to decorate your site with mountain beauties-pines, we recommend buying seedlings in special nurseries, where they are grown already acclimatized to a specific area.
Mountain pine description
Ephedra can be planted in a variety of places most often they can be found in country houses and country houses. In this article we will talk about one of the types of conifers - Mountain Pine, consider in detail care for the plant, methods of planting and reproduction, some species of mountain pine.
Mountain pine is multilateral shrub that is small in size. It grows in height by about 7–8 meters, sometimes it is also found 10 meters long. The bark is represented by a spherical type. It is formed by branched trunks ascending from the ground. Mountain pine has its own signs of difference from other types of conifers. One of them is the darker color of the bottom of the cortex.
The young branches of the branches of the shrub first have a light green color, later they acquire a dark brown shade, and then become purple-brown. As for the needles of the Mountain pine, it has a dark green color, shines a little, grows quite thickly on the shoots, and also has a slightly twisted shape inside.
Blooms Mountain pine in late May or early June. During this period, the plant becomes very beautiful and attractive. At the base, pink and yellow male spikelets begin to appear, which serve as a peculiar decoration of the bush. Female cones appear on the plant on a straight short leg. The seeds of the Mountain pine are small in size, presented in dark brown color, have a brilliant gray wing and an egg-shaped form. The length of the wing is 3 times the size of the seed itself.
Advantages of the Mountain pine:
- The plant tolerates cold and drought.
- It has a strong root system and that is why it is resistant to strong winds.
- The presence of strong branches that can withstand layers of snow.
- Undemanding to soil type.
- The plant is able to tolerate pruning.
- To a lesser extent compared with other types of pines, it is affected by various pests.
- Resistant to air pollution, therefore it can develop in urban areas.
- Lives for 1 thousand years.
How to care for pine?
Before planting a plant, it is necessary to add fertilizer to the soil with humus or a nitroammophoska. Within two years from the time a young bush is planted, the plant must be fertilized with mineral fertilizers. The desired dose of this fertilizer should be 35–45 g / m2.
The mountain pine is not afraid of any drought with them, it copes wonderfully, it does not need additional watering. And it does not need watering, since the pine has a thick coniferous litter, which retains moisture very well.
Realize watering Plants are recommended 3 times in one season. To do this, 15–20 liters of water per tree will suffice. If the soil is highly compacted, then it is necessary to loosen the soil. Periodically it is necessary to prune pine, it tolerates it well.
Young trees and saplings do not tolerate low temperatures, so for the winter they should be covered with lapnik branches. Mature plants do not need additional protection from frost, as they tolerate the cold season well.
How to plant Mountain pine?
It is best to plant Mountain pine on open because it loves a lot of space, it is also important for her to hit the sun's rays, since this type of pine tree loves sunshine very much. It is absolutely not important for a plant on what soil to grow, that is, it is not whimsical to soil types. If the ground where the tree grows heavy, then it is necessary to add drainage. To do this, you need to place drainage in the form of gravel or sand on the bottom of the landing pit, the drainage layer should be 5–20 centimeters.
When planting pine, it is important not to forget about the distance between plants, it should be 5-15 meters. Landing pit should be by the depth 1 meter while the root collar remains above the ground.
The Mountain pine has a developed root system for this very reason for it strong winds are not afraid of it and it is undemanding to frequent watering. Plants that are less than 5 years old are very well able to tolerate transplant. When transplanting an adult plant, the root system should be prepared in advance.
How to propagate Mountain pine?
Mountain pine can to multiply 3 ways:
- With the help of a seed.
- With the help of cuttings.
- With the help of vaccinations.
Often the plant is propagated exactly seed way, as it is the most successful. Double-coniferous species, as a rule, throw out their seeds in the spring time. Such seeds are able to germinate 1 month after the stratification process. If a coniferous plant of five-coniferous species, then it throws out seeds in spring or autumn. Such seeds can be planted after 5 months of stratification. Seeds ripen only after 2 years from the date of their pollination.
Attempts to propagate a plant with cuttings are almost always unsuccessful, therefore it is very rare to propagate the plant with this method. The cutting does not usually take root and disappears instantly. Highly decorative species are often propagated by plant grafting.
Types of Mountain Pine Varieties
Variety "Gnome". In height such a shrub can reach 2 meters. The crown of the Dwarf is spherical in shape, and the needles have a dark green color. Plant shrubs can be both singly and in groups. Dwarf grows well on rocky areas. Besides,
it can be planted in special containers on the roofs.
Variety "Pug". It is a dwarf shrub that can reach 1.5 meters in height. The diameter and height of the crown often have the same length. A pug is a densely bushy plant whose crown has a spherical shape. Pug needles are dark green in color and 2–4 centimeters long. This type of pine is often grown on rocky terrain.
Variety "Kolumnaris". Shrubs of this species can reach a height of 2.5 meters. The crown of pine has a narrowly conical shape. The color of the needles is dark green with needle-like ends. Landscape designers used for planting in gardens, mountain slopes and rocky areas.
Variety "Winter Gold". The pine of this grade has the small sizes. The crown of the plant is represented by a spherical shape. The main feature of this variety is that the plant is able to change its color depending on the time of year. In summer, the needles of Winter Gold have a light green color, and in the winter - a yellow-golden.
Variety "Frisia". Frisia grows up to 2 meters in height. The crown of this plant is thick with a large number of branched branches. Pine is used in landscape design, grows well on mountain slopes and rocky terrain.
Variety "Pumilio". It is one of the most common type of mountain pine, which is often used in landscape design. In size, this variety is small. The crown of Pumilio is spread across the ground and has a light green color.
Mugo variety. Also, this plant variety is called Mugus. Mugo has bright green needles, which is densely located on the branches of pine. Mugus refers to the dwarf species. In landscape design, this sort of pine is used to create rocky Japanese gardens.
Planting and care of mountain pine Dwarf
Needles should be planted on shady or sunny areas. Sunlight is very important for the plant, which is why it is impossible for it to be blocked by tall trees with dense foliage. Variety Dwarf is unpretentious. Seedlings should be planted when they reach 3-5 years of age.
In the first years after planting it must be carefully fertilized. Mineral fertilizers are often used as fertilizer. For a plant, 35–45 g of a substance per 1 square meter will suffice. Periodically, plants of the Dwarf variety must be moistened with various growth promoters. In case of drought, the pine tree does not need to be watered in addition, as it tolerates it well. Coniferous litter of the plant retains moisture in large quantities. In one season it is necessary to carry out watering up to 4 times.
Pumilio landing and care
After the plant is planted in the ground for several days it is necessary to water and protect from direct sunlight. The Pumilio variety needs periodic soil fertilizer. In winter, the branches of the plant must be tied so that they will not break under the weight of the snow. Pumilio breeding is best done by cuttings or grafting. It is necessary to water a pine tree 3 times a season using 20 liters of water. If in the fall it often rains and increased humidity air, the plant should be treated for fungal infections.
Mountain pine Mugus planting and care
Growing and caring for Mugus is simple. Before planting a plant, it is necessary to prepare a planting pit. At the bottom of the pit you need to put drainage in the form of crushed stone or clay brick and sand. The depth of the pit should be such that the roots of the plant do not touch the drainage. In the prepared landing pit it is necessary to fill in 1 bucket of clean water. After 1 year after planting it should be watered 2 times a week in the summer time and 1 time in spring and autumn. The amount of water for irrigation is determined by the height of the pine. Mugus should be fertilized periodically.
Planting and care
Mugus is a rather unpretentious plant that tolerates urban conditions well. It has a strongly branched root system. Resistant to severe frosts.
Mugus can grow on sandy and sandy, dry and wet soil, even if it is scarce for nutrients. The soil may also be acidic or alkaline, preferably acidic. If sand prevails in it, then it is recommended to dilute its content with clay. The ratio of components in the soil should be 2: 1 - turf, sand or clay, respectively. On heavy soils, drainage is important (20 cm layer).
The optimal time for planting Mugus: in the spring - the last days of April, in the autumn - from the last days of August to mid-September. When planting, it is important to observe the distance between the plants; for large varieties, the distance should be at least 4 m, and for undersized - about 1.5 m.
The root neck is at the same level with the soil level; for this, it is better to place the neck of large varieties a little higher above the ground so that it can land at the level of the soil. Then, the area around the trunk is recommended to be mulched, and then water it abundantly.
Mugus is not susceptible to diseases and pests. When a thick litter is formed, humus will accumulate and moisture will be better preserved.
Легко поддается формированию кроны, таким образом подрезаются и сокращаются годичные побеги, дабы получить более густую и плотную крону и замедлить ее рост.
Хвоя молодой сосны «Мугус» может страдать от солнечных ожогов из-за нежной хвои. Для защиты лучше использовать лапник, который убирается к середине апреля.
Размножение может производиться двумя способами – черенкованием и семенами. Seeds can be planted 2 years after pollination.
Propagation by cuttings occurs in the greenhouse. It is better to use cuttings from an adult plant (5-9 years) during the swelling of buds on it. The cutting is immersed in water, after which it is treated with anti-rot agents. In the autumn the root system will develop.
For more information about the nuances of planting mountain pine can be found in the training video:
Mugus in landscape design
To make your landscape play with new colors, sometimes it is enough just to decorate it with a small tree. Thanks to him, even the most ordinary garden will become more comfortable and beautiful. Especially popular for such purposes are coniferous trees, in particular, the mugus.
It is unpretentious and pleases with its ever-green needles of emerald hue all year round, and there is a well-known pleasant pine aroma.
Due to its miniature nature, the mugus looks even more advantageous compared to its coniferous “brethren”. Its dense crown covers the entire trunk, dark green needles successfully shade all that riot of colors of the plants present on the site.
Mugus is a long-lived, therefore, choosing it as a site decoration, be sure that it will please the eye for many years.
It grows slowly and in height can reach a maximum of 3 m, and the crown can grow up to 4 m. It is widespread everywhere.
This bright green accent in the form of a mugus is a must for lifeless rocky gardens, alpine hills and slopes. Can be used as a curb, hedge, longline compositions, etc.
Planted as a curb along the tracks, and its unpretentious, decorative and long-lived will make the path more refined.
Mugus is ideal for imitating mountain peaks, thanks to the creeping crown framing the stones. If you do not always have time to take care of the garden, do not worry - the mugus is able to survive even in adverse conditions, without losing its attractiveness.
To give a delicate composition of rigidity should be planted mugus next to fragrant roses and other flowering plants.
This plant, among other things, is perfect for group ensemble with other plants. Mugus can be combined with other types of conifers with a blue and golden crown, with larch.
In longline compositions, the mugus is usually used as the upper layer, where the lower level is moss, heather, lichen.
Pine is a remarkable plant in terms of its absence of any effect on the crops growing nearby. Good composition with ornamental herbs and cereals, flowering shrubs, dwarf maple, heather. One of the few reasons why Mugus cannot grow with a particular plant is the different demands of the species on the ground.
Mugus is often planted near water bodies, where it creates an original composition with weeping willows.
Mountain pine: description of the plant
The mountain pine (Pinus mugo) is a shrub species of thick pine, although it is trees that are more common in the wild. The height of the shrubs reach 4-5 m, and the trees - 7-8 m. Shoots at the mountain pine - short, creeping along the ground and curved to the top. The root system is superficial, strongly branched. The needles have a dark green color. The length of the needles is up to 4 cm. They are collected in bundles of two pieces, slightly twisted. Their lifespan ranges from 3 to 5 years. At six or eight, cones appear on a pine tree, which add decorativeness to the tree. They are cone-shaped, light brown in color, 3-6 cm in length.
Pine Pinus mugo has a number of advantages:
- has a good degree of winter hardiness
- drought resistant
- wind resistant due to strong root system
- has strong branches that do not break off under the snow cover,
- undemanding to the composition of the soil,
- tolerates pruning,
- fewer other types of pine trees are affected by diseases and pests,
- suitable for planting in urban environments, resistant to air pollution,
- long-liver - can live for 1000 years.
Mountain pine breeding occurs in three ways: cuttings, grafting and seeds. Slow growth rates are typical for the ephedra: the annual growth is 10 cm in height and 15 cm in width. At the age of ten, the tree reaches a maximum height of 0.6-1 m, with a diameter of 0.6-1.8 m.
Mountain pine has several subspecies and ornamental varieties, but we will now describe only some of the most interesting ones.Of the subspecies emit:trees, multilateral and elfin shrubs. In the gardens, the most common are shrub (mugus) and elfin (pumilio) forms. Both the first and second have many varieties. These are mainly dwarf and ground cover shrubs. They have different forms of crown (spherical, pillow, columnar, etc.), height (from 40 cm to 4 m), color of needles (bright green, dark green, gray, golden).
Variety "Dwarf". The shrub grows up to 2 m in height. It has a spherical crown. Needles - dark green. It is used in single landings and groups on the ground lawn, rocky areas. Also planted in containers, on the roofs.
Variety "Pug". Dwarf shrubs, reaching a height of 1.5 m. The height and diameter of the crown are usually the same size. The crown grows as a ball. Branches densely branched. The needles are dark green, straight, 2-4 cm long. Designers prefer to grow this variety as a tapeworm, in groups in rocky gardens.
Variety "Mini Pug". Presented by a dwarf shrub, 40-60 cm high. The crown grows up to 1 m in diameter and has a pillow shape. Needles - dark green, needle. Suitable for planting in light shade. Apply in single and group landings on stony hills.
Variety "Kolumnaris." The maximum height of the shrubs of this species is 2.5 m, the diameter of the crown is up to 3 m. The crown is narrowly coniferous, the needles are dark green, and needle-like. Suitable for planting soliter and groups, in rocky gardens, on the slopes.
Variety "Winter Gold." Dwarf shrub with a spherical crown. The needles change color depending on the season: in the summer it is light green, in the fall it is golden yellow. The plant reaches a height of 50 cm and a diameter of 1 m.
Variety "Compact". The original tree height of 4-5 m, multi-barreled. Crown in the form of a ball. The needles are painted in a dark green color, 2.5-3.5 cm long. Recommended for planting in alpine hills, singly and in groups.
Variety "Frisia". Reaches sizes up to 2 m. It has a dense, strongly branched crown and straight branches. It is used in single and group plantings on stony territories, and also as an interior plant.
Variety "Ofir." Interesting due to the shape resembling a pin. In size, this pine is miniature - 0.4 m high and 0.6 m wide. At the top, the needles are golden yellow, the branches located in the shade and the inside of the crown are bright green.
Seedling selection rules
When choosing a tree for planting, pay attention to the fact that its appearance in general speaks about health and normal development. The tips of the needles should not be dry or yellow. Before you plant a mountain pine, decide whether you will buy a seedling with an open root system or with a closed one. The last option is a tree in a pot that can better tolerate planting and adapt more quickly to new conditions.
For planting, it is better to choose young seedlings, up to five years old. With special care you need to inspect the root system of the seedling, as it should be free from damage and rot. If you buy a tree in a container, then it is important that it be grown in this container, and not planted in it shortly before it goes on sale. A simple method will help determine this: if the roots look out from the drainage holes of the container, then the plant has grown in it.
What should be the ground for planting mountain pine
Mountain pine can grow on any soil, even very poor. It does not pay attention to the acidity of the earth, but the most decorative and well-developed plant will be when planted in sandy and sandy sandy soils, with a weak acid reaction. If the ground for pine contains too much sand, you can add clay to it.
The scheme of planting mountain pine seedlings
Here is a diagram of how to plant a mountain pine. To do this, you need to dig a hole a little larger than an earthen ball - optimally 7-10 cm wide. The depth of the pit should be 0.8-1 m. The bottom is covered with a 20-centimeter layer of drainage from gravel, small stones, broken brick, expanded clay, etc. This is necessary to prevent root rot. Drainage poured soil mixture.
For planting pine seedlings use a substrate consisting of:
- turf ground - 2 parts,
- sand (clay) - 1 part.
Also in the pit you can make compost, rotted manure or 30-50 g of nitrogen (complex) fertilizer. The sapling, without destroying the earthy coma, is carefully placed in the recess and covered with earth, leaving the root neck on the surface. The ground must be slightly compacted, and the trunk circle must be mulched. Also do not forget to water the sapling plentifully. If you plan to plant several pines, they should be placed at a distance of 1.5-4 m from each other.
That's the whole technology, how to plant pine mountain in spring. The first time after planting a young bush will need to pritenyat from the sun's rays, using spruce branches or spunbond. Plants up to 5 years old usually easily tolerate transplantation, quickly take root in a new area, so for them you can change the planting place several times. Older specimens will take longer and more difficult to take root in a new place, so they need to immediately pick up an area for permanent growth. Otherwise, before transplanting you will have to prepare the root system in a special way or freeze it with an earthen clod.
Mountain pine care
Caring for the mountain pine will not make any special difficulties, because the plant is not demanding for irrigation and easily tolerates drought. The soil moisture level must be monitored when growing young plants. The first month they need to be watered once a week, using 1-2 buckets of water for one tree. In the future, watering will be required only in long, dry periods. With a strong compaction of the soil will need its loosening. However, it is necessary to take into account the factor that the root system of the plant is located quite close to the soil surface.
Rules for feeding mountain pine
Here's how to fertilize pine:
- nitroammofoskoy (40 g) or other nitrogen fertilizer during planting, is introduced into the pit,
- in the spring, in the first and second year of life, complex mineral fertilizers in the tree trunk circle (for example, “Kemira-universal”, at the rate of 30-40 g per plant).
Two years after planting, the pine tree will no longer need fertilizers, as it is able to use the nutrients that accumulate in the thick coniferous bedding under it.
Since the crowns of decorative pines are so beautiful, they usually do not require a special haircut. Neat form can be formed by trimming or pinching young shoots by one third. So the crown will become more dense, and the shoots will slow growth. In the spring remove frozen and dried branches. Mountain pine tolerates frost well, but young plants require shelter. Also in the first two years they should be covered from the sun, starting in February. Like all conifers, pine is subject to spring sunburn of pine needles.
How mountain pine breeds
Mountain pine propagated by seeds, cuttings and grafts. The simplest and most common way is to grow seedlings from seeds. These pines practically do not give in to cuttings. At least, so far it has not been possible to successfully plant a pine variety Mugus in a similar way. Therefore, when breeding plants, preference is given to other methods.
Seed propagation is the simplest and most acceptable way to plant a beautiful and healthy pine. With such planting trees completely retain their decorative. Briefly describe the process of reproduction of pine sowing seeds. They can be sown both directly in open ground and in boxes, and in the second case, the percentage germination will be large. Ripening of pine seeds occurs in the second year after pollination. Seeds of double-coniferous species would be better to stratify beforehand for 30 days, although it is possible to do without stratification. Planted better in the spring. Pyatikhvarnik sow in the fall, at least in the spring. Their seeds are amenable to longer stratification - for 4-5 months.
When sowing in closed ground, use boxes made of any materials. They pre-make drainage holes. The substrate should be light and loose. It is advisable to sprinkle peat on top of it in order to avoid the development of fungal diseases. Also, the soil must be kept in the oven for disinfection. Seeds are disinfected in a solution of "Fundazol" or "Fitosporin". In the boxes they are sown shallowly, at a distance of 5 cm from each other. Also, seed can be simply poured onto the soil, and then slightly loosened. Capacity cover with foil. Sprouts should appear within a month. After that they will need to be opened and watered regularly. In the open ground well-rooted seedlings can be moved in 1-2 years. When transplanting the root system is not exposed.
Mountain pine, however, as well as pine, reproduction by cuttings does not tolerate well. This happens due to the fact that with this method the tree is difficult to root. 7-10 cm long cuttings are taken only from saplings, from annual upright branches in late April. They are cut off along with a part of the bark of the trunk - the heel. Then for three days, it is advisable to hold them in a container with water and 12 hours in a solution that stimulates root growth. When breeding pines with cuttings, a container with a substrate of earth, peat and sand is prepared in advance. At the bottom is laid drainage. The cuttings go deeper by 4–5 cm. The distance between them is kept within 10 cm. Then it is necessary to organize a greenhouse with lower heating. At home, the temperature at the bottom of the tank can be maintained by placing it in a box with compost, manure or dry leaves. If the cuttings are planted in spring, then rooting should be expected only at the end of the autumn of next year. When grafting in open ground, the lower layer of soil is covered with drainage from gravel or gravel. The beds are laid in layers: compost, soil mixture, sand. The bottom of the cuttings is treated with "Zircon" or "Epin." Rooting occurs within 5-6 months.
High grades can be propagated by grafting, and four-year-old seedlings are taken for stock. It is quite difficult to carry out the vaccination, and one more article will be required for a detailed description of the process of how the pine reproduces by this method. The advantages of reproduction by grafting are that the young tree adopts all the varietal qualities of the mother plant. When used in landscape design, mountain pine is planted in rock gardens, when planting slopes, in hedges, and is also used to fix the soil. It looks beautiful both as a tapeworm and in group plantings. It goes well with birch, larch, spruce, Balkan pines.
Mountain pine Mugus: description, characteristics of interesting varieties and varieties
Mountain pine Mugus is a shrub culture, although under natural conditions it most often looks like a tree. The shrub is distinguished by its tallness — it can reach 4–5 m in height, and the trees, on the contrary, are not very high, the tops reach for the sky at a height of 7–8 m.
The shoots of the shrub are rather short, spread along the ground, the direction of growth is up. The root system is significantly ramified and is always close to the ground surface. The color of the needles is presented in a dark green range, the length of the needles can reach 3-4 cm. The life of the needles is about 6-8 years. After the shrub has reached this age, a small cone-shaped cones appear on it, reaching a length of 4-5 cm.
Pine Mugus is considered the birthplace of the Center and South of Europe, namely: their mountainous areas. Over time, the plant has spread widely as a garden crop throughout the world.
Pine Mugus is incredibly popular among gardeners due to certain of its features:
- the plant is not afraid of frost,
- pine is not afraid of the wind thanks to a powerful root system,
- the plant is not afraid of lack of moisture
- the plant is not affected by disease,
- unpretentious to the soil on which the cultivation is carried out,
- tolerates pruning,
- Pine is considered a long-lived - the plant is able to live to 1000 years.
The shrub species of pine (mugus) is one of the most common, represented by a huge variety of varieties, among which the following can be particularly emphasized (see below for photos of dwarf and soil varieties):
- Pug. Representatives of the variety are considered dwarf shrubs. The height can reach no more than 1.5 m. The diameter of the crown and its height are often identical. The shape of the crown is spherical. Thick needles have a dark green color. The plant is most often grown primarily as a tapeworm, but can sometimes be used in group compositions when creating a rocky garden.
- Mini Pug. Reduced version of the previous grade. В высоту кустарник редко превышает 0,5-0,6 м. Зато крона отличается невероятной пышностью и большим размером – в диаметре достигает около 1 м. Подходит для выращивания как в одиночных, так и групповых посадках. Любит небольшую затененность.
- Винтер Голд. Сорт-карлик с шарообразной кроной. Хвоя может менять свой оттенок в зависимости от сезона: летом она имеет нежно-зеленый цвет, а осенью – золотистый. The height rarely exceeds 0.5 m.
- Columnaris. The variety can reach a height of 2.5 m. Crohn has a narrowly conical shape. Needles - dark color. Suitable for growing soliter and as a group ornamental plants.
- Dwarf. Shrub reaches 2 m in height. The crown is spherical. Suitable for growing not only on lawns, but also on roofs, in containers.
- Ophir. Unusual dwarf variety, different miniature growth: in height rarely reaches half a meter. The shape of the crown is very similar to the pin.
Planting plants: basic rules
For the active growth of pine and its long life in the garden, the site for planting in the open field should be chosen very carefully. For the successful cultivation of pine Mugus it is important to have a large amount of sunlight. Therefore, the site should be properly lit and warmed by the sun.
The pine is not very demanding on the soil: it will grow well both on fertile soil and on soil devoid of nutrients. Not particularly important for plants and acidity. However, if there is too much sand in the soil, it is better to add some clay to the soil to make it stronger.
Tip The best option for planting pine is sandstone with a weakly acidic environment. It is in this soil that the pine can achieve an incredibly beautiful decorative effect and the maximum possible development of the root system.
The best time for planting is spring (throughout the entire period). But in the autumn, it is better not to plant a pine tree on the plot, since it will have too little time to sufficiently strengthen its root system.
Immediately before planting, a pit should be prepared: its depth should be about 1 m, and the width should be several centimeters larger than the earthen coma of the plant. A drainage layer (about 20 cm) of expanded clay, gravel, etc. is laid out at the bottom of the pit. The top is filled with a prepared soil substrate consisting of 2/3 of the sod land and 1/3 of the sand.
Now carefully place the seedling in the pit and fill it with the rest of the soil mixture, which needs to be slightly compacted, and then watered abundantly. Pristvolny circle necessarily mulch immediately after planting. If there are several pines, be sure to keep a certain distance between them - at least 1.5 m.
Reproduction of culture
Mugus pine multiplication is theoretically possible in 3 ways: seeds, grafting and grafting. In practice, only the first two are embodied.
The seed method is optimal: in this case, you can grow a full-fledged, healthy and very beautiful shrub. Within a month before planting, the seeds should preferably be stratified. While this process is taking place, prepare containers with nutrient, light soil (there must be drainage holes in them). From above it is desirable to sprinkle the soil with a small layer of peat, then disinfect it in the oven at a low temperature.
Seeds should be held in a disinfecting solution before sowing, then sown in a container with the ground at a distance of about 5 cm from each other. Cover containers with film. Within 20-30 days should appear sprouts. In the open ground planting grown seedlings carried out in a couple of years.
Reproduction by vaccination is a process so complex and rarely applicable in practice that a separate article would be required to describe it. We can only say that if you succeed, the young plant will be as beautiful and healthy as the mother plant.
Irrigation and dressing mode
Watering is not what pine needs for full development. Almost all its varieties live well without moisture. In addition, the intermittent needles play the role of a water-retaining layer. Unless the young plants planted in the spring, will need additional moistening in the fall (after a leaf fall). Watering will be necessary in order to protect the needles in the spring after the awakening of the shrub, because wet soil will not freeze so much as dry.
As for the dressings, they are necessary for the pine only in the first two years of its life. Preference is better to give mineral supplements with a predominance of nitrogen. In the future, the pine will not need any additional food: it is enough of the organic matter that it receives from the coniferous bedding under the tree.
Combination with other plants
Pine Mugus is actively used both as a main and as an auxiliary decorative element in landscape design. With the help of mountain pine often strengthen and green the slopes. Also, shrubs are often used in combination with birch, larch and other coniferous trees for landscaping plots, creating hedges and strengthening the soil.
Different varieties of pine Mugus are excellent for planting containers. You can use it in combination with small bush-like flowers when creating rocky gardens.
That's all, in fact, what you should know in order to successfully grow a decent representative of conifers in the garden plot. Good luck!
Description and growth of mountain pine
Under natural conditions, mountain pine is found in very large areas, and its habitat begins from the eastern Alps and ends with the Balkan Peninsula.
The root system is quite powerful, it develops slowly, but is able to withstand a tree up to 2 meters high.
Green mass is growing very slowly. In the year the plant grows 10 centimeters in length and 15 centimeters wide. The diameter of the crown of an adult plant reaches 3-4 meters. The green mass has a spreading shape and a dark green color.
The bark of a young plant has a light shade, but as it grows it becomes dark.
Pine branches can have a spreading, spherical or creeping shape. For example, Mugo pine has creeping branches and bright green needles. Due to the possibility of branches to move, it can be planted on a roller coaster, as a groundcover.
On the branches grow needlesthat are bundled. In one bundle 4-5 needles. The needles are located tightly, their length reaches 3-4 centimeters, and the width is 1.5-2 centimeters. Brown elongated buds, 5-6 millimeters long, are formed between the needles.
Due to the slow growth, the first cones on the coniferous tree appear only after 7 years. The diameter of the cones reaches 5 centimeters, and their length does not exceed 8 centimeters. Small seeds form in the cones, they are dark in color and are edible.
Choosing the right place
- Mountain pine can be planted on any soil. It will grow well on loamy, moist and acidic soils, on stony soils. It can even be planted on the sand. The only exception is the salt marshes, on such soils conifers simply will not grow.
- A place to plant should be sunny, but there are types of pine that will feel good in the shade.
- It is impossible to plant coniferous trees in the draft.
- Place for planting should be spacious, as the plant will grow and it will need a lot of space.
When a place for planting is chosen, you can proceed to the direct planting of a tree.
First you need to prepare the site. They dig it up and harrow.
Now you should dig a hole. The size of the pit should be at least half a meter wide and 60 centimeters deep. If the plant is initially planted in a permanent place, then the pit should be made 80 centimeters wide and at least one meter deep. Such a pit will be properly organized and the roots will grow well.
If loamy and heavy soils predominate at the site for planting, it is necessary to provide additional outflow of water from the roots of the plant. On light soils, the drainage layer can not arrange. To do this, a layer of rubble or broken brick is poured at the bottom of the prepared pit. This drainage layer must be covered with sand.
Now you can start planting. 15-20 centimeters of soil are poured on the drainage layer. One bucket of water is poured into the prepared pit, allowed to soak a little and put a seedling. Often, conifers sell with sackcloth-grown roots, sacking need not be removed when planting in their garden plot. If you start shooting burlap before planting, the roots are likely to be damaged, and if the plant is planted along with burlap, it will decompose after some time and will not interfere with the development of the root system.
The roots of the seedling must be carefully straightened, this is necessary so that the root system will settle down well and not be damaged during soil compaction.
The roots are carefully covered with soil and tamped a little.
When planting, it is important to ensure that the root neck is above the ground and does not penetrate. If the root collar is covered with earth, the plant will no longer receive the necessary nutrients and will soon wither.
When the pit is completely covered with soil, mulching is carried out around the plant.
Mulching will rid the surface soil from drying quickly and will help prevent unwanted weeds. Chopped bark, dry peat, fallen leaves, sawdust and other materials can be used as mulching materials.
After all procedures, the plants once again spill well, it is necessary for additional soil compaction and good root survival.
- Watering. In the first year after planting a young plant, it is necessary to pay great attention to watering. In summer, the plants are watered 2 times a week. In the autumn and spring periods, watering is reduced to 1 time per week. When watering it is important to consider the amount of water used for each plant. Under the plant up to one meter in height during each irrigation it is necessary to use 10 liters of water. When the plant grows to a height of one and a half meters, for each seedling falls from 15 to 20 liters. With a plant height of one and a half - two and a half liters, 20-30 liters should be poured under each plant, and 35 liters of water should be poured under a 2.5 meter high plant. In early spring, starting in March, the surface near the trunk must be cleared of snow and begin to be watered with warm water. This procedure will allow the pine to wake up early and start growing.
- Fertilizer. The first week after planting the coniferous shrub must be watered with a root-forming solution. Also, conifers respond well to foliar feeding, they are carried out by spraying with solutions of Zircon or Appin. Dilute the solution in accordance with the instructions. Spraying is carried out powerful, so that the solution begins to drip from the branches. In early spring, you can make complex fertilizer for conifers. Pine can not be fertilized with humus, urea and manure. These fertilizers are very strong for the root system of the coniferous shrub.
- In winter, the plant is not covered, as well as mountain pine is winter-hardy. But in February, young seedlings need to be covered with sunscreen film. This prevents damage to the plant by sunlight and also helps the soil around the seedling to melt faster.
- Crop. Pruning can be done in early spring, and thus form various forms and shapes of thick crown. You can cut off old branches that will not grow intensively. Crop should be no more than 1/3 of the total length of the branches.
- Transplant is carried out only if necessary. When transplanting necessarily keep the roots with a lump of earth. Such a transplant will help the plant to properly acclimatize on new soils, because along with the ground, in a new pit, certain microorganisms are transferred, which are very important for coniferous trees.
Mountain pine breeding
The reproduction of this plant can occur in three ways:
- Cuttings. This method is used infrequently, because it is quite problematic to achieve rooting cuttings. Therefore, when grafting, it is necessary to use a high-quality root-forming solution.
- Seeds. This method can be used only when cones are formed on the plant, that is, at the age of 6-7 years. But when planting seeds on a young plant, the properties and external signs of the mother plant will not be preserved. It is necessary to remember and not to apply this method for breeding rare varieties. Seeds are first harvested, sent for ripening, and only then can they be used for planting. Seeds are sown in early spring in nutrient soil. You can use the usual land for planting seedlings. The seeds are slightly pressed into the soil and watered. To create a good microclimate it is necessary to cover the landing glass. Crops periodically water and air. When the seeds germinate, you can remove the glass, and the plants themselves put in a more lighted place.
- Inoculation Thanks to this method, even the rarest varieties can be propagated. Inoculation of mountain pine is to grow a young twig on an adult plant. This method is laborious, requires certain conditions and knowledge, novice gardeners do not always succeed in such reproduction.
Mountain pine can be used in a variety of elements of landscape design. It will look great on alpine hills, in rocky gardens, slopes, as hedges and multi-tiered compositions. Also, the pine will grow well on the banks of reservoirs, both artificial and natural. And the mountain pine will not just look good on the shore of the reservoir, but it will also feel great. As for the landscape style, then this plant must be used in Japanese, classical and English style.