Each owner of a personal plot would like to boast gorgeous juicy tomatoes grown on their own. Tasty and healthy vegetable contains many vitamins and trace elements, carries high nutritional value, it is used in a huge number of various dishes, and therefore it is grown everywhere where climatic conditions allow.
To get a really rich crop of tomatoes, it takes a lot of effort: to collect the seeds, properly prepare the soil for them, carefully care for the seedlings, plant them in open ground and organize the beds. This process is accompanied by regular weeding, dressing and watering. But all the hard work can be destroyed by disease in a matter of weeks, and sometimes even days. About what dangers threaten to negate all the efforts and diligence spent on growing tomatoes, and how to protect your crop from all kinds of misfortunes, will be discussed in this article.
Types of Tomato Diseases
Plants of the family Solanaceae are quite whimsical in care and are susceptible to the harmful effects not only of insects, but also of microorganisms. Diseases have such sources:
- fungal (late blight, fusarium, powdery mildew, black leg),
- nematodes (halogen-helminthiasis),
- viruses (mosaic, mottled leaves, spotted wilt),
- bacteria (stem stem necrosis),
- mycoplasma (stolbur)
- noncommunicable diseases (sunburn, nutrient deficiencies).
When the first symptoms appear take immediate action for the treatment of plants. It is better to remove the damaged seedlings immediately to avoid the spread of the pathogen. It is necessary to determine which type it belongs to and process it with suitable preparations.
Description of diseases of seedlings of tomatoes
It is very important to correctly identify the cause of infection, because some of the symptoms may be similar, and in case of an error, the incorrectly chosen treatment will be ineffective. A careful study of tomato diseases will allow you to determine the diagnosis as accurately as possible and take the right measures in a timely manner.
Plant Damage Fungal Diseases
Late blight(phytophthora rot) extends to all organs of tomatoes: leaves, fruits, stems, roots, causes vypryanie seeds. Infection manifests itself as moisture saturated areas irregular shape. Initially, they have a dark green color, quickly die off and become brown in color. The damaged zones gradually increase, and the plant soon fades and dies.
Phytophthora root rot begins with small roots and gradually shifts to the central stem, further spreading to the stem itself, reaches the soil line, as evidenced by the brown spots that appear.
When the fruit is infected, ripe tomatoes decompose for a short time due to the addition of additional pathogenic microflora, the green ones dry out and mummify.
Having a wide list of host plants, phytophthora is sufficient long (at least 2 years) saved in the soil and on infected vegetation residues. Spores can spread with irrigation water, agricultural machinery and equipment. The impetus for development are such factors:
- moderate soil moisture
- temperature is about 20 degrees
- excessive irrigation or heavy rainfall in combination with heavy soils.
This fungus cannot be cured, but with the help of fungicide treatment you can significantly reduce the damage caused by this disease. The best way to save seedlings is to prevent:
- use of raised beds,
- improved soil drainage
- three-field crop rotation with crops that are resistant to late blight.
Vypryanie (black leg) affects the stalk near the root. Seeds may also rot — even before germination. The disease is dangerous because in one day it can destroy the entire crop. After the emergence of seedlings at the base of the stem, the affected areas are formed, on which the fabric softens, shrinks, and the young tomato withers. Older plants are also prone to post-emergence drying, but in the process of development, seedlings become resistant to this type of fungus.
The most favorable conditions for the progression of black legs are excess moisture in the soil, excessive thickening of seedlings, damp and cloudy weather, poor ventilation. The spread of the disease contributes to the splashing of water during watering. As a result, spores move from diseased plants to healthy ones.
You can eliminate the excessive development of the fungus by conducting the following activities:
- seed treatment with fungicides,
- crop rotation with grain plants,
- avoiding over-irrigation,
- sterilization of soil prepared for seedlings.
Mealy dew andThere are a large number of species of alternative host plants, so it spreads rapidly. Light green or bright yellow spots on the upper part of the leaves indicate the appearance of the fungus. Later on, a mealy patina forms in their place, the affected tissues die off, and if no measures are taken in time, the seedlings die.
The fungus develops most quickly at a temperature of 20-27 ° C and air humidity of 85-95%. Disputes can be spread by wind over long distances. Most often, powdery mildew appears on tomatoes grown in greenhouses, as there is the most favorable microclimate for it.
If the infection of the seedlings did occur, then it can be treated with a solution of sodium humate or spray tomatoes with fungicides, biological preparations have proven themselves well.
Fusarium wilt develops both on young seedlings, and on adult plants. The fungus manifests itself by twisting and yellowing of the oldest leaves, later they wither and die off, but do not crumble. In the daytime, especially in the sun, there is an excessive extinction of shoots. Severely infected tomatoes die regardless of age.
The disease develops especially rapidly at high soil temperatures (approximately 28⁰ C). The excess micronutrients of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus in it are additional favorable factors for the occurrence of this pathogen.
Spread fungal spores can with water when watering, on agricultural machinery, sometimes infection occurs when the roots are tilled with soil tillage equipment. The main cause of wilting is the cultivation of tomatoes is unchanged on the same plot.
Fusarium can not be effectively treated, so to prevent its occurrence should use preventive measures:
- disinfection of soil before sowing seeds,
- warming and fungicide treatment of seedlings just before germination,
- periodic hilling of plants,
- pasynkovanie tomatoes not with his hands, but with the help of a secateur,
- when preparing the site for the winter, it is necessary to make its high-quality cleaning.
Microscopic worms (phytohelminths) are dangerous pests that settle in the soil and spread both inside the plant and outside. Infected seedlings lagging behind in development, quickly fade and perish. Nematodes are of the following types:
Tomatoes - one of the most preferred helminths in the list of cultivated plants, the list of which is quite extensive. The pest parasitizes the entire summer period, and during this time each female has time to lay about 200 eggs. Hitting the root system, nematodes gradually penetrate into the stem, and from there into the foliage and flower buds.
The first manifestations of the disease: seedlings begin to lag behind in growth, new shoots either do not form at all, or significantly slow down in development. Infected areas first turn pale, after which they acquire a brown color and die completely. Irregular swellings called galls form on the root system.
When a sick plant is found, it is necessary to immediately dig it up and burn it, since it is impossible to save it, destroying the parasite. Effective in the fight against nematodes are biological products, which include their predatory species. This tool is introduced in small portions into the soil at the root of the seedling. There, microorganisms take root and drive out pests, continuing to further protect the garden from parasites.
Plants can destroy nematodes ammobium, cumin, helihrizum. They do not tolerate the presence of marigold, calendula, mustard.
Parasites die at low temperatures, for which they use deep soil digging before winter. In enclosed spaces, it is possible to apply soil heating, this will also lead to the death of the pest.
Viral diseases of tomatoes
Tomato Mosaic transmitted mechanically, a symptom is the formation of light and dark green spots, randomly covering the foliage. Spreading on the fruit, causes uneven ripening or browning of their inner walls.
The virus can persist and develop on many plants that are alternative hosts. The cause of infection is often the uncleared remnants of the previous harvest. Illness is transferred gnawing insects, although they are not considered the main source of mosaic distribution.
Drug treatment does not produce the desired effect, even to alleviate the symptoms. Reduce damage to a minimum can only correct prophylaxis and agricultural engineering. Before germination, the seeds are soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate, which, during the growth period, also seedlings are watered several times. It will be useful to spray adaptogens and biostimulants every 2 weeks during the entire growing season. Also, resistant varieties are used to combat the pathogen, although species that are fully tolerant to the mosaic have not yet been developed.
Mottled leaves - A disease discovered only recently (1989). Symptoms are most pronounced in plants at an early stage of vegetation, and appear in this form: short stature and stunting, deformation, yellowing and twisting of the upper and middle leaves. Tomato seedling disease caused by this virus leads to significant crop loss.
The circle of leaves mottling carriers is rather small, but the pathogen spreads effectively by the whitefly. Outbreaks of the disease may well be associated with an increase in the number of this insect.
Periodic treatment of plantings with insecticides will help regulate the amount of the pest, and with it the spread of the virus.
Spotted wilting provokes the appearance of orange-yellow specks on the leaves. As the disease progresses, the affected areas darken, their area increases, and dark shiny stripes form along the stem. In the absence of treatment, the plants become stunted and stunted, on the fruits rotting areas and concentric circles of green, yellow and red color are observed. The tomato itself does not die, but the yield is significantly reduced.
Thrips from other plants that are also hosts of the pathogen spread the infection, therefore, by periodically destroying vectors and weeds, the occurrence of infection can be avoided.
Bacterial seedling disease
Necrosis of the stem core, As a rule, it infects a tomato at the beginning of fruiting during the formation of the first brushes. Well-developed tall plants suffer above all, the symptoms have the appearance of oblong, slightly depressed spots of brown-brown color located near the root part. After a short time, cracks form on the damaged areas, from which a viscous, creamy-white liquid flows. Wilting begins with the upper leaves and extends further to the whole plant, after which it dies.
The development of necrosis can be triggered by the following conditions:
- excess nitrogen fertilizer
- lower night temperatures
- excessive soil moisture.
When a tomato seedling is detected, the plant that has begun to fade is carefully removed to prevent the spread of infection. After that, the soil is treated with a 0.2% solution of the drug "Fitolavin-300". At the time it is necessary to limit the irrigation and the introduction of nitrogen-containing fertilizers.
Tomato disease infected by seedsTherefore, the most effective prevention will be the correct procurement of seed. Before planting in the ground, seedlings can be treated with the “Baktofit” biological product, this will significantly increase the resistance of plants.
Stolbur - this type of disease is not particularly dangerous, but can significantly reduce the yield and spoil the appearance of tomatoes. The most obvious symptom is an excessive increase in flower buds, which during flowering may not open, which leads to their bloating. Along the way, a lot of lateral shoots and primordial root buds are formed, the plant turns yellow, and small and irregularly shaped fruits are formed.
Mycoplasma persists not only on cultures that may become infected. The vector is any other species, and, as a rule, it is weeds. The disease is spread by gnawing pests. To fight with stolbur it is enough to weed the beds and treat them with insecticides.
It is not only bacteria and microorganisms that can harm future crops, but also external factors are lost.
Sunburn occurs, as a rule, on green fruits in the form of shiny white spots, on which black mold can later form.
There is a disease as a result of a sharp heating inside the tomatoes, the reasons for this may be the following conditions:
- leaf wilting due to disease
- the inclination of plants under its own weight
In order to prevent crop loss, the fruits of direct sunlight, do not remove excessive growth, do not allow the plants to wither.
Lack of nutrients most often observed on strongly acidic or alkaline soils due to the binding of chemical elements or because of the composition of the soil, characteristic of the area. It may also occur due to improper fertilization.
- Lack of nitrogen causes premature yellowing of old leaves, while young grow pale, seedling growth slows down.
- Potassium deficiency leads to internal browning and improper ripening of tomatoes.
- Low phosphorus content is manifested by a slow growth of foliage, the color of which becomes dull green, and on the inside becomes a red-lilac color.
- Calcium depletion causes fruit rot.
The disease caused by the lack of chemical elements is eliminated with the help of competent use of mineral fertilizers and bringing the PH of the soil to the required indicators.
Whatever misfortunes lurk on the way to getting really gorgeous harvest of beautiful homemade tomatoes, you always need carefully analyze the symptoms and time to take measures for the treatment of plants. It is important to remember that it is much easier to carry out prevention than to try to save your beds from attacking diseases.
Diseases of tomatoes can be felt suddenly. Although this plant is unpretentious, but for its successful cultivation you need to know some of the nuances associated with the care. Sometimes seedlings are sick even with a sufficient degree of illumination, normal temperature, watering and enrichment with nutrients.
A common disease called “mosaic” is a deviation that is characterized by viral nature. Mosaic is an unpleasant and complex defeat of vegetables. The leaves of the diseased seedlings change their color. Their coloring becomes motley, reminds a mosaic pattern. The leaf alternates between green and black. For fruits with a characteristic yellow spot.
Mosaic is difficult to treat. Therefore, when the first signs of disease appear, the affected vegetable bushes need to be removed. Most often, the disease develops in tomatoes growing in open beds. The main source of infection is the presence of infection in the seeds. For prophylactic purposes, it is necessary to dress them before planting.
In the pictures you can often observe bacteriosis, implying bacterial wilting of the plant. The fact that tomato seedlings are unhealthy is evidenced by the sudden withering of the bush at a rapid pace. Symptoms of the disease sometimes makes itself felt in one night. A healthy shrub completely fades, which alarm the gardeners. However, do not worry about not enough abundant watering. Humidity does not affect the situation.
If you carefully consider the vegetable culture that has died, in the stem you can see the void and the liquid. The internal tissue fibers of the tomato stem are brown in color. It is impossible to get rid of such a disease of seedlings of tomatoes with its progression. Damaged bushes are immediately removed. Next, they need to burn. The surrounding plants on the neighboring beds, which have no signs of illness, must be processed.
Для манипуляции опытные огородники советуют применять раствор Фитолавина-300. Концентрация должна составлять от 0,6 до 1%. Чтобы достичь положительного эффекта, под каждый куст выливают не менее 0,2 л раствора. Применяя указанную концентрацию, допускается использовать средство для опрыскивания овощной культуры. Such measures will not be able to cure infected bushes, but they will prevent the negative impact of pathogenic microorganisms and delay the damage for 14-21 days.
Dangerous late blight
Phytophthora, or late blight, is a very common disease, tomatoes suffer from it when grown on open ground. Phytophthora is considered a fungal disease. The best development of the dispute occurs in damp, wet places. Under what conditions does late blight develop? Its appearance is caused by sharp fluctuations in air temperature. Initially, blackening and drying of the leaves, then the vegetables themselves.
Effective disease control is carried out by experienced gardeners who have been able to delay the negative processes as much as possible, which makes it possible to harvest a large crop. Growing tomatoes can include activities for which empty plastic containers are used. They cut the bottom in advance. On the side of the bottle, make small holes with a nail or other convenient device. Next, the bottle is inserted into the soil near the root of the bush. This should be done with every bush. Watering will be carried out not on the surface of the soil, but in the bottle. From above each vessel is covered with a lid.
Performing these actions will facilitate the entry of moisture to the root system itself (moistening of the roots will be sufficient). At the same time the air does not become wet, the foliage in the lower part of the bushes will not be able to sweat. Because of this, there will be no favorable conditions for the reproduction of fungal spores.
Tomato protection against disease (late blight) in greenhouses and in open beds is done by regularly spraying seedlings with whey. It is enough to spray it every 7 days. Lactic acid will inhibit the development of spores. Effective means for the prevention of phytophthora:
Viral and fungal diseases
A significant threat to the culture is the necrosis of the stems. Ailment refers to the viral type. The first symptoms appear during the formation of brushes with fruits. Necrosis is noticeable on well-developed stalks of bushes. Below on the trunks you can see the cracks, initially their color is dark green. After some time, the beginnings of air roots begin to form on the deformed areas.
Subsequently, signs of necrosis may be:
- wither sheets,
- bush is located in the horizontal direction,
- the plant dies completely.
Necrosis fails to harvest, because tomatoes do not have time to keep up. Patients with a virus or infected soil provoke the development of the disease.
To avoid the development of necrosis, you need to plant a vegetable crop on a protected ground. Already diseased bushes ripped from the roots, then destroyed. The soil is disinfected with Fitolavin-300 solution. The drug is diluted in water so as to obtain a concentration of 0.2%.
Among the many ailments, attention should be paid to the disease of seedlings of tomatoes - alternariosis, or macrosporosis. This is a dry or brown spot. The disease itself is of fungal origin. There is a deviation from the normal state of various parts of the plant:
- fruits (relatively rare).
In this disease of the tomato, the foliage at the bottom of the stems first becomes ill. Characteristic spots appear on it:
- big size,
- Brown color,
- have concentric zonality.
When Alternaria such changes contribute to the death of the stems or provoke dry rot. Spots may occur on the fruit and stalk itself. Their color is dark, the surface in places where the spots appear is slightly dented. If tomato seedlings are watered abundantly at this time, then a high level of humidity will cause the formation of dark, velvety fungal spores.
The high temperature of the air contributes to the activation of such diseases of tomatoes. Especially dangerous is its increase to the levels of 25-30 ° C. Pathogenic fungi are able to survive on plant residues. If the culture grew in a greenhouse or greenhouse, the fungus can be found on the overlap. Sporulation occurs in copious amounts, which contributes to the spread of the fungus through wind and raindrops.
Prevention of these diseases in tomatoes is performed with the help of antifungal drugs that contain copper. How to sprinkle tomatoes if the first symptoms of dry blotch appear? Skor or Ridomil Gold will do.
These drugs of chemical origin have a strong effect. They can be used before the formation of the ovary. This is the optimal time, since immediately after processing vegetables cannot be eaten. It should take about 50 days. Against diseases and pests in the presence of ripe tomatoes using biological products.
Diseases and pests of tomatoes are complemented by chlorotic leaf curl. Affected seedlings are easily recognizable by their light green or yellow hues. She has:
- Chlorotic species.
- Curly tops.
- Short stature
The presence of such a disease of tomatoes is associated with tobacco necrosis viruses and tobacco mosaic. Infection of seedlings of tomatoes occurs through seeds or soil. These are serious diseases of tomatoes, and their control measures are similar to the mosaic elimination algorithm (soil and seeds are decontaminated). There are no tomatoes, they need to be removed.
A disease is known, in which tomatoes acquire a brown olive blotch, a cladosporiosis. It has a fungal origin. It can often be found if there is a cultivation of tomatoes in a greenhouse.
At the initial stage of cladosporia, the leaves are sick. On the outer surface, yellow and chlorotic spots are visible, which have a rounded shape. Over time, they merge into one. Bottom leaves will be covered with brown and velvety patina. This indicates the appearance of fungal spores. Next, the sheets will curl and wither. The manifestation of this disease of tomato is observed in the flowering period or at the initial stage of fruiting.
If the infection occurs at the beginning of the growth of the vegetable crop, then it represents a great danger. The flow of cladosporia is very acute under the following conditions:
- degree of air humidity is about 95%,
- light day is from 10 to 12 hours,
- low light level.
Damage to vegetables occurs in rare cases. This happens if there is no treatment at all. Otherwise, the tomatoes become dark brown in color, become soft. They can not eat.
Causes of Tomato Disease:
- Watering is carried out excessively cold water.
- The air temperature is changing dramatically.
- High humidity.
It is necessary to treat the plant by treatment with special preparations. Before starting treatment, the affected leaves should be broken off. A good protection of tomatoes from diseases is to use preparations containing copper, for example, Barrier, Bordeaux mixture, etc.
The disease is different in that it does not affect the roots, leaves, stems, but only affects the vegetable itself. When it appears on tomatoes visible round brown spots that are slightly indented. Then they are transformed (become watery, darken, size increases). In places where there are spots, the fruits begin to rot, liquid will be released from them. Vertex rot goes to neighboring, healthy vegetables.
Protecting tomatoes from disease initially implies a survey of each bush. All fruits that show signs of top of rot are removed. So the infection will not be able to spread.
Growing tomatoes should include preventive measures. If the tomato grows in the greenhouse, then it is worth paying attention to microclimatic conditions. It is impossible to overmoisten the soil. Condensation on the walls of a greenhouse or in a greenhouse is unacceptable. This disease sometimes appears with an excess amount of nitrogen or insufficient watering. It is not allowed to fertilize seedlings with excessively liquid organic fertilizer.
The appearance of apical rot may indicate a lack of calcium in the soil. Planting a plant on a protected ground will avoid negative consequences. Calcium-rich is considered to be a mixture of crushed eggshell, dolomite flour and ash. It is permissible to sprinkle the soil at the roots of one of these substances during planting, then pour it abundantly.
Salvation of tomatoes and their treatment is possible through the use of a mixture of onion peel and chicken eggshell. The composition is poured into the wells in the process of transplanting seedlings to a permanent place.
Damage to the stem of a tomato blackleg is often observed in greenhouses. Its severity depends on how well the quality of care for tomatoes. Fungal spores begin to penetrate the root of the neck. The color of the stem of the tomato becomes darker, the trunk itself is thinning and begins to rot.
Progression occurs under these conditions:
- on unprotected ground
- significant temperature fluctuations
- high humidity,
- thick crop,
- insufficient ventilation.
How to protect culture? It is necessary to change the place of landing of the vegetable every season. Before planting, a soil decontamination procedure should be carried out.
Among the various types of rot known:
Fighting with them should be carried out by loosening the soil, planting a layer of sand during planting, which will contribute to the drying of the soil, while additional roots can be formed. It is necessary to carry out liming, watering the soil with potassium permanganate. On 10 liters of water, approximately 5 g of the active substance is added to the solution.
Threaten a vegetable crop can:
- the appearance of silver spots on the leaves,
- leaf swelling.
It must be remembered that sometimes it is possible to harm a plant (hauling, excessive watering, failure to observe the rules of cultivation), therefore, before taking any action, it is necessary to accurately understand the condition and symptoms of plant disease.
Sometimes the soil phytotoxicity adversely affects the culture. This is a negative transformation of its properties. On the leaves first appear spots of purple, then the twigs dry. You should not get involved in dressing, use pesticides in copious amounts. The reason for the development of diseases and even the death of tomatoes can be an insufficient amount of incoming nutrients.
To determine the causes of deviations, it is necessary to find out where the problem is concentrated (in the upper part of the bushes, in small leaves, on the bottom of the stems). So you can guess the element that the bush lacks.
Although there are a lot of diseases of this culture, there is a resistance to every ailment. Fight against them should be carried out competently and in a timely manner, which will help avoid complete loss of the crop, wasted time and money.
The main diseases of seedlings of tomatoes
Diseases affecting tomato seedlings can be divided into: fungal, viral, bacterial and non-infectious diseases.
- The fungus is activated in conditions of high humidity and low temperatures.
- Viral diseases can occur due to poor quality of seeds, poor soil, through transmission through pests, as a result of weakening of the immune system by improper care.
- Approximately the same reasons are caused by bacterial diseases.
- Non-infectious diseases occur due to the unbalanced composition of the soil; they can be caused by both deficiency and excess of individual trace elements.
It manifests itself by the appearance of dark spots on the leaves, which then shrink. Stems become striped in color, can dry out, or rot. With similar symptoms, diseased specimens are removed and destroyed, and the remaining seedlings are treated with the preparation Barrier or Barrier, and after 2 weeks the treatment is repeated. After planting, the plants are sprayed for the third time with infusion of garlic with the addition of potassium permanganate crystals. There is a disease due to waterlogging, drafts and excessively thick plantings.
Spores of this fungus can persist in the ground. Under conditions of high temperature and humidity, the fungus begins to develop, leading to thinning of the stem and rapid death of the seedlings. At the first sign, diseased plants should be removed and destroyed by sprinkling the soil at the place where the diseased seedlings grew with wood ash.
Symptoms of the disease begin to appear on the lower leaves, gradually moving to the upper part of the foliage. At first whitish spots appear, then the leaves turn brown, dry out and fall off. You can save seedlings by treatment with a solution of copper sulphate (1 cup per bucket of water). Sick specimens are removed from the box, after which they spill the soil with a saturated solution of potassium permanganate and sprinkle with wood ash.
Arise due to waterlogging of the soil at a low temperature. The leaves change color, they form oozing spots. Then the foliage fades and falls. Diseases of this type are treated with copper oxychloride solution (40g per bucket of water). Diseased leaves are removed from plants. Before planting in the ground seedlings treated with trichodermin.
A common disease caused by a marsupial fungus. Manifested by the appearance on the foliage of white fluff spots. It is possible to prevent its occurrence by seed dressing in advance. At the first signs of the disease, spraying with Kvadris or Topaz is required.
Causes shredding of leaves and delayed development of the bush. Sick plants further produce small, deformed fruits that do not contain seeds. There is no cure. Unhealthy plants are destroyed.
The causative agent is a tobacco mosaic virus. Manifested by the appearance of brown strokes that are reborn into ulcers. In diseased plants, the top of the head disappears over time. There is no cure. Infected tomatoes are recommended for destruction.
Symptoms are the appearance of yellow-gray spots on the surface of the leaves, which gradually merge with each other, on the lower side of the leaf plates an olive bloom forms, turning into red over time. The leaves begin to dry and die. The affected seedlings are harvested, and the remaining seedlings are treated with copper-containing preparations. The soil should be watered with Bordeaux mixture.
Black bacterial spotting
Infection occurs through the soil, or is caused by high humidity. Manifested by the formation of small black spots on the leaves and stems of tomatoes, over time, the whole plant is affected and its death occurs. Sick seedlings should be removed from the nursery box as early as possible. The remaining seedlings are sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux mixture in 1 percent concentration.
Symptom of the disease is the appearance of translucent brown spots on the leaves with an oily surface. As it progresses, the disease causes the leaves to twist and fall off. Helps from spraying the disease with a solution of copper sulfate or Fitolavin-300.
Dangerous disease causing death of seedlings. Damage occurs to the vessels of plants, resulting in ulcers in different parts of the stems and leaves. The plant inevitably dies. In this disease, it is necessary to completely replace the soil. Pre-sowing seed treatment with formalin will help avoid bacterial cancer.
How to spray, treat tomato seedlings for prevention
Preventive measures should pay attention to the entire growing season of tomatoes, up to the stage of fruiting. Plants must also be regularly inspected in order to urgently take action in the event of something. Disease prevention is carried out at the stage of presowing treatment of seeds, when they are not just soaked, but pickled with potassium permanganate, hydrogen peroxide or a weak formalin solution, where it is enough to hold the seeds for 20-30 minutes.
It is also worth paying attention to the preparation of planting soil. To rid the soil of pathogenic bacteria and spores of fungi, it can be ignited in an oven or microwave. If this seems too troublesome to you, at least scald the earth with boiling water and spill the solution of potassium permanganate.
At the stage of growing seedlings, prophylactic spraying with solutions of industrial preparations can be performed using: Fitosporin, Baksis, Zaslon, Barrier, Ekosil. Processing plants on the windowsill for the first time produced a week before planting in a greenhouse or open ground. One week after disembarking, a second spraying is carried out with a solution of one of the preparations. Subsequent processing is carried out on the eve and after the mass flowering of tomatoes, and then during the period of fruit formation.
How to grow healthy seedlings, tips
In order for the seedlings to grow healthy and strong, it is necessary to fulfill a number of conditions:
- Choose the right seeds, pre-sow them and follow the recommended sowing dates.
- Pick up the soil, balanced in composition of nutrients, and disinfect it.
- When sowing, observe the planting scheme to avoid over-thickening of the seedlings, which often leads to diseases.
- Observe the light, watering and temperature regime required for tomatoes.
- In time to make a pick. At the same time to reject sick and weak plants.
- Harden the seedlings before planting in open ground.
If you adhere to these rules, the seedlings will get accustomed to the future and adapt quickly to a new place.
Грибковые недуги: фитофтороз, чёрная ножка, белая пятнистость
Заболевания томатов делят на категории в зависимости от возбудителей:
- неинфекционные, связанные в неправильным уходом за растением.
Грибковые микроорганизмы – самый опасный враг томатной рассады. Они паразитируют на растении, покрывая листья или стебли. The fungus can develop inside the green mass and at first be invisible to the eye. It feeds on young sprout tissue, breeding spores.
The most common such diseases.
Late blight. It manifests itself as dark spots with light edging on the leaves. The stem of phytophthora makes striped. Gradually, the affected areas dry up. If the weather is wet - rot. The fungus can live in the seed material or be transmitted through the soil, air or rain.
Fight against blight so:
- before planting, seeds are disinfected (within 15 minutes) and wells (1 g / 1 l of water for a couple of holes) with potassium permanganate solution,
- For safety net, spray the seedlings with Bordeaux mixture,
- isolate diseased plants.
White leaf spot. Malicious microorganisms infect the lower side of the foliage, which then becomes brown, covered with black dots and dies. Measures:
- for the prevention and control of the disease at the initial stage - treatment with Bordeaux mixture,
- in the later stages, remove the seedlings and disinfect the soil in the container where it grew.
Blackleg. Lives in the ground. The fungus sharpens and kills the escape from the inside. Measures:
- prepare the seedlings properly,
- process the land with copper sulphate solution,
- dive in time, do not allow a heavy landing,
- do not regret weak seedlings.
Fungal diseases: fusarial wilt and decay
The main way to fight fungal seedling diseases is to prevent them by disinfecting the soil. This technique is relevant for the prevention fusarium wilt. The pathogen lives in the soil. After defeat, the plant languishes, tissues lose their tone. In the section in the stem you can see brown rings.
Attention! Fusarium primarily affects poorly lit plants.
Black, white or gray rot also fairly common among tomato seedlings. Manifested by spots of the corresponding color on the green parts of the shoots. All types of diseases rise from the ground, infecting the lower elements first, and then all the others, destroying the plant. Prevention and treatment of rot:
- soil treatment with trichodermine,
- spraying of copper oxychloride,
- immediate removal of infected leaves.
Types of viral diseases of tomatoes
Pests attack the plant and carry viral microorganisms that provoke diseases. These diseases are difficult to determine with the naked eye in the initial stages, because they are often asymptomatic. Among the most common are:
- Mosaic. Some leaves darken, later turning yellow and frowning. The diseased seedlings will have to be removed, the rest should be disinfected with potassium permanganate. Another option is to treat urea.
- Aspermia. Another name for the disease is seedlessness. Shoots slow or stop growth. The leaves are deformed, become corrugated, while remaining small. The plant will give fruit, but in smaller quantities. Tomatoes will also be painful, deformed and small. There will be no seeds in the fruit. This disease is difficult to notice in the early stages, so it is pointless to treat. Only prevention.
- Strick or tobacco mosaic. Brown tints appear on green fabrics. In their place ulcers appear over time. The stalk becomes fragile, its upper part dies off. This disease will significantly reduce the yield of the bush.
Viral diseases are also fought mainly by preventive methods:
- Keep your garden clean. Remove weeds in time.
- Clean the soil. Process also the containers in which the seedlings will be located.
- Isolate the seedlings from diseased plants and locate them far away from the places where they were located.
- Organize pest control.
Diseases of bacterial and non-infectious origin
Bacteria live in the soil and infect seeds under certain weather conditions. Seedlings can pick up such ills:
- Black Bacterial Spot. Infection through humus. Catalysts - heat and humidity. Bacteria are on the seeds up to 1 year, and the material looks completely healthy. But the plant is then covered with black strokes.
- Brown leaf spot. With excessive humidity of air and soil, the risk of rapid spread of the disease is high. The leaves are covered with yellow and gray spots.
- Stolbur. Appearance: a greenish tint appears on the green, leaves become rougher.
Sometimes, external signs indicate not a plant infection, but the disadvantages of caring for it.
- deformed and brown leaves - lack of calcium,
- new leaves appear wrinkled - lack of potassium,
- seedling leaves turn yellow, while the veins do not change color - iron deficiency,
- leaves wither - lack of copper.
Ignore these symptoms can not. Weakened plants are more susceptible to viruses. Be attentive to the seedlings, so as not to lose the harvest in the first stage of cultivation.
What are diseases of tomato seedlings?
Having sowed tomato seeds, we are looking forward to when the first sprouts appear, however, with the first shoots the risk of seedling incidence of various diseases increases, which are caused by different reasons. Consider the types of diseases of tomato seedlings and their causes.
Diseases of seedlings can be divided into:
The first ones are caused by various fungi that occur with improper care of the seedlings (excessive watering, which results in stagnant moisture, and temperature changes).
The causes of viral diseases can be diseased seeds, lack of nutrients in the soil, pests that spread the virus, and unfavorable growing conditions.
Bacterial also occur due to improper conditions of keeping seedlings in the room: high humidity and air temperature. In addition, the cause of such diseases can be contaminated soil and poor quality seeds.
Noncommunicable diseases are associated with a violation of the mineral nutrition of the soil in which seedlings grow. Moreover, the disease can occur as a shortage of minerals, and if they are incorrectly made.
To select adequate methods of treatment, it is necessary to accurately determine the nature of the disease and the causes of it.
Fungal diseases include diseases such as:
- late blight,
- white leaf spot (septoria),
- fusarium wilt,
- rot - black, white, gray,
- powdery mildew.
The fungus that enters the plants through the soil. To provoke the onset of the disease can high humidity and high temperature. In the event of a disease, seedlings face imminent death within 24 hours. Symptoms of black legs appear on the stem, thinning it, which leads to the death of the germ. Such plants are removed, and the place where they grew, fall asleep with wood ash.
To avoid misfortune, before sowing seeds, soil is sprinkled with a mixture of copper sulphate (1 hour spoon) and ash (1 cup), and before planting in greenhouses, destroy all diseased and weak plants.
It causes soil fungus, which, penetrating into the roots of seedlings, contributes to its wilting, due to the fact that plant tissues lose elasticity. If you cut a diseased sprout, then on the cut you can observe a violation of vascularity in the form of bunches covered with brown rings.
To avoid problems, it is necessary to provide optimal lighting for plants, as well as to maintain sterility when planting seedlings in open ground.
Arise due to an excess of soil moisture at low temperatures. They are manifested by a change in the color of the leaves of the seedlings, the appearance of weeping spots with a coating of spores. As a result, the leaves wither and fall away.
At the first signs of the disease, the seedlings must be treated with a solution of copper oxychloride (40 g of the drug per 10 liters of water), and you also need to promptly remove diseased leaves. Before planting seedlings in the ground, it is worth treating it with a 2% solution of trichodermine a few days before planting.
Cladosporiosis (olive spot)
Most often occurs after planting seedlings in the greenhouse. The disease begins with the lower leaves, on which large yellow spots appear, and their lower part is covered with a velvety coating. These are fungal spores. Then the leaves curl into tubes and fall off.
The disease mainly manifests itself in the early flowering of tomato plants. The greater the humidity and the higher the temperature, the more intense the spread of the disease. Before treating the plants from cladosporia, remove all diseased and fallen leaves. As agents for treatment, use 1% Bordeaux mixture, Barrier or Barrier preparations.
Diseases of tomato seedlings: how to prevent and treat?
Every tomato grower in the greenhouse hopes for a bountiful harvest. But to achieve success in this seemingly simple matter is not so easy. The problem is that tomatoes are often sick. And not every gardener knows how to deal with a particular disease. If you do not take the necessary measures in time, then you can never dream of a good harvest. But how sad it is when the work invested does not bring the desired results! It is often even the case that a person who has failed only once, stops doing what he likes.
To lose such disappointments can only be armed with the necessary information that will help to recognize the enemy in the "face" and act correctly and immediately. Therefore, we should consider in more detail the diseases of tomatoes and seedlings grown in the greenhouse. After all, as you know, the disease is easier to prevent than to cure. This can be done by properly preparing tomato seeds before sowing.
Description of pathogens
Bacterial the species is caused by bacteria of the genus Erwinia. Microorganisms live in the soil, affecting potatoes and tomatoes. Tomatoes often fall ill in the early period of development. The pathogen enters the plant through the microcracks of the roots and the lower part of the stem, through the root hairs, as well as picking tomatoes.
Favorable factors for the development of the disease are high humidity, poor ventilation and thickened shoots.
The pathogen easily falls on neighboring plants with water, earth and air. Therefore, the bacterial species is extremely contagious, unlike the fungal form of the disease.
"Black leg" of tomato seedlings cause, also, pathogenic fungi. Spores of the pathogen overwinter, which persist on plant residues. The parasite enters the plant through root hairs.
The development of the disease is promoted by increased temperature and soil moisture.
Signs of defeat
Bacterial form. The source of infection is land taken from under the potato. Microorganisms infect the roots and the lower part of the stem. The disease usually extends to all the seedlings of tomatoes.
- The first true leaves turn yellow and fall off.
- The plant looks depressed.
- Black brown or dark green spots appear on the lower part of the stem.
- At the late stage of the disease, a black constriction appears at the bottom of the stem. Tomatoes fall and dry.
In the photo, the black leg bacterial form
The disease develops slowly and usually at home tomatoes look healthy, but weak. The full picture of infection appears after planting plants in the ground, although, in advanced cases, the stem waist may already form on the windowsill.
If the plant is pulled by the stem, the constriction is cut off and dark mucous contents flow out of it - the main indicator of a bacterial infection.
Fungal form. The disease develops very quickly and can destroy tomato seedlings within 1-2 days. It can affect the seedlings in the phase of cotyledon leaves, but most often gets into the plants after picking through damaged roots. But from one plant to another is transmitted only with the soil. And if the rest of the tomatoes are healthy and grow in a different soil than the diseased specimen, then they can get sick only when loosening one tool of sick and healthy plants, or when picking healthy tomatoes into infected soil.
- Roots die off.
- The lower part of the stem turns black. Further, the affected part dries out, becomes thinner, forming a constriction, as a result of which water stops flowing to the aboveground part.
- The plant falls and dries.
If you pull the stem, the plant is easily removed from the soil, because the roots are almost absent. Petiolus at the site of the lesion is not torn (unlike the bacterial form).
Black Leg Fungus Form
In the photo above, you see a seedling affected by the fungal shape of the “black leg”. If each plant is grown in a separate container, then the risk of spreading the disease throughout the seedlings is minimal.
Difference of bacterial form from fungal infection. With a bacterial infection, the waist on the stem is small and under it there is always a stump of a healthy stem. In the fungal form, the stem dries off the ground, but there are no stumps.
- Diseased plants are removed immediately.
- The rest of the seedlings shed raspberry solution of potassium permanganate and no longer watered during the week.
- After 7 days, if there are no new affected plants, the tomatoes are shed with a solution of Fitosporin or Trichodermine.
Effective folk ways from the "black leg" does not exist.
Conducting preventive measures allows you to avoid almost any disease, including the "black leg".
Processing soil before sowing seeds is required. It is frozen, keeping in the cold for several days, so that the earth is completely frozen. Then put into the room and give a good warm. When the earth becomes warm, it is brought to the frost again. The procedure is repeated 2-3 times.
You can ignite the primer in the oven. But if it is purchased with fertilizers added to it, then this method will not work, since the fertilizers decompose at high temperatures. In any case, after calcination, Fitosporin or Trichodermine should be added to the ground for planting.
We spill the soil with potassium permanganate
The simplest, but no less effective way is to spill the earth with boiling water with potassium permanganate diluted in it.
Other preventive measures:
- seed dressing before sowing,
- decontamination of seedling containers,
- thinning of thickened crops,
- rare and not very abundant watering,
- timely picks,
- good seedling ventilation.
With proper prevention, “black leg” will not appear.
How can you save seedlings?
If it is necessary to obtain seedlings at any cost, then the top of the affected plant is cut off and placed in a jar of water. After a while she will give roots. It is desirable to plant these tomatoes immediately to a permanent place. They come into fruition much later and their harvest is lower, but it will still be. This way you can save rare varieties.
How to treat a disease
Aggressive chemicals are used to treat tomato seedlings.
- Watering tomatoes with Previcur, Maxim summer resident or Vectra. After 7 days, watering is repeated.
- Watering dark pink solution of potassium permanganate.
Copper preparations against fusarium are ineffective because they do not penetrate plant tissue.
Seed treatment for the prevention of fusarium.
Pathogens are soil-causing pathogenic fungi. The photo clearly shows the consequences of such a disease.
Signs of the disease. Depending on the pathogen, they may differ, but root rot is common. Seedlings, as a rule, look healthy, but suddenly fall. When pulling out tomatoes from the soil, they are easily removed because the roots are partially or completely rotted. If you dig up the ground, then in the location of the roots you can find a lump of mucus.
Control measures only prophylactic, because tomatoes look healthy until the very last stage of the disease, and when they fall, there is nothing to heal, because there are no roots.
Prevention It consists in spilling tomato seedlings with a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate once every 15 days. Soil before sowing necessarily disinfect.
Folk remedies. Watering the culture with iodine solution (10 drops per liter of water).
How to recognize the disease
In the seedling period leaves infect, sometimes petioles.
- Brown spots appear on the leaves. In young seedlings, they are usually small, on the leaf plate there are 1-2 of them, located along the edge of the leaf closer to its tip. Gradually, they spread to the entire leaf plate.
- On the underside of the spot is also brown with a barely visible whitish bloom, which may not be.
- The spots quickly turn black, the fabric dries out.
- On the petioles appear brown strokes.
Young tomatoes quite successfully resist the disease and usually do not die.
Treatment of the disease
In the initial period of development tomatoes without much damage tolerate late blight. But, even if the symptoms of the disease disappear completely, the plants remain carriers of the pathogen and later on they become ill with late blight.
Therefore, if the young tomatoes are sick, then it is better to throw them away and not risk further harvest. If it is necessary to preserve tomatoes in spite of everything (for example, a rare variety), then they can be treated with any copper-containing drug HOM, OxyHOM, Abiga-Peak, etc., except Bordeaux mixture (it is ineffective with this disease). Symptoms of the disease may disappear after a single treatment. Но в целях предупреждения раннего развития фитофторы такие помидоры высаживают отдельно, а обработки препаратами меди в дальнейшем проводят раз в 10 дней.
Однако, симптомы заболевания могут остаться, но оно будет развиваться медленно. Такую рассаду лечить бесполезно, её выбрасывают.
Профилактика. Tomato seedlings and potato tubers should not be together in the same room. You can not put them together even in the greenhouse. Potatoes for germination can be taken out only in the greenhouse, where this year tomatoes will not be grown.
Septoriosis or white spot
Pathogen - pathogenic fungus. Disputes overwhelming vegetation overwinter. In addition to tomatoes, eggplants are affected, less often - potatoes. Favorable conditions for the development of the disease are the temperature of 15-20 ° C and high soil moisture.
The photograph shows a plant affected by septoria.
Signs of defeat. The disease often appears on the leaves, less often on the stems. In adult tomatoes, flowers and fruits may be affected. In both adult plants and seedlings, the disease begins with lower leaves. They appear small off-white spots with brown border and brown dots in the center. Gradually, the spots grow, coalesce, and spread throughout the leaf blade. The leaves turn brown, curl, dry up, and the disease progresses, rising up the stalk.
How to treat. With early lesion with septoriosis plants die. If late, if not treated, you can lose the harvest.
If septoria appears on the already grown seedlings, the diseased leaves are cut, and the seedlings themselves are sprayed with copper preparations. Repeated spraying is carried out in 10 days. If the tomatoes are sick at an early stage, then they are removed, because it is useless to treat them.
From the affected plants remove all healthy seedlings, not only tomatoes, but also peppers with eggplants.
Prevention. Mandatory disinfection of the soil and seed dressing.
Pests of tomato seedlings
In an apartment setting on young tomatoes a spider mite can parasitize. This pest extremely rarely affects tomatoes and can attack on seedlings only with its strong distribution and lack of food supply. It is often found in those gardeners who are fond of indoor flowers. In the photo below is a plant entangled in cobwebs
The main pest of seedlings of tomatoes is spider mite.
Pest description. The tick has microscopic size, greenish-yellow or orange color. The pest is extremely prolific. At home, a new generation appears every 8-10 days. Arachnids are very voracious and with a lack of food they can even affect those plants that are usually unsuitable for them.
Signs of defeat. Spider mite tomatoes are usually not affected. They are frightened off with pubescent leaves and tomato smell. But with a high concentration of pests in a small area, they also damage tomato seedlings. The pest eats leaves, sucking the juice out of them.
Numerous light points appear on the leaves - puncture sites, and grayish spots are the waste products of the tick. The plant is wrapped in a sticky web. Gradually, the leaves dry up and fall off.
Control measures. Typically, the tick does not cause serious harm to the seedlings of tomatoes, but with a strong defeat, young tomatoes can die.
Before processing, the spider's web should be removed, since it prevents drops of drugs from falling on the leaves.
Fight against spider mite
The simplest, but extremely effective method of dealing with a tick is to increase the humidity around the seedlings. To do this, tomatoes are well watered and sprayed with warm water. Then the seedlings are covered with a film, or some material that is not permeable to moisture, and put on a sunny place for 2-3 days. Ticks that cannot withstand high humidity quickly die. After 3 days, the seedlings are opened and thoroughly ventilated. Watering tomatoes is not necessary, so as not to provoke the appearance of disease.
If this does not help, then the seedlings are carried to the greenhouse or to the balcony and treated with Bitoxibacillin, Agrovertin, Akarin on the underside of the leaf.
Tomatoes at a young age are sufficiently resistant to diseases and pests. And their appearance is associated with gross violations in the cultivation of tomatoes.
Problems in growing tomato seedlings
- seedlings drawn out
- plants dry,
- tomatoes are weak with small leaves,
- yellow leaves with green veins.
With proper care problems with tomatoes does not arise.
Difficulties in growing tomato seedlings are much more common than disease.
Seedlings pulled out
In room conditions, tomatoes are always drawn out due to lack of light. Even with the backlight, but overcast weather the plants still stretch, although not so much. For the normal development of seedlings they need the sun, which nothing can replace. To enhance the illumination of tomatoes behind them put a foil, reflective film or mirror.
On the windowsill, seedlings are always drawn out.
Simultaneously with the increase in light, very moderate and rare irrigations are carried out. Plants on the windowsill are placed freely, because in cramped tomatoes stretch upward and, at the same time, emit substances that inhibit the growth of competitors. In such conditions, the seedlings grow frail and elongated.
If the tomatoes began to dry, but look healthy, then the reason is a lack of moisture. They haven't been watered for a long time. It is usually recommended to water the seedlings once a week, but it is necessary to proceed from the growing conditions. If the plants contain on a sunny window at a high temperature, watering is carried out more often. With cloudy weather and cool air, watering is reduced to a minimum.
Plants just haven't watered
The lower leaves of tomatoes as they grow always dry. If the plants dry only the lower leaves, but otherwise they look healthy, of normal color, then there is no need to worry - this is a natural process.
Seedling weak with small leaves
If tomatoes are healthy and grow in good conditions, then weak plants always speak of a lack of nitrogen in the soil. Plants frail, light green color with a yellowish tinge.
Tomatoes grow weak and frail
Tomatoes should be fed with potassium humate, or universal fertilizer for seedlings. You can use fertilizer for indoor plants, but you should never feed tomatoes with nitrogen alone. First, in the confined space of the container, it accumulates, and the plants begin to grow very actively, stretched out and weakened. Secondly, for such a small volume of soil it is difficult to find the optimal dose.
Tomatoes can be frail, and because of the too close location on the window. You should arrange them more freely so that they do not oppress each other.
The leaves may turn yellow for several reasons.
Sunburn. The plant itself acquires a light green tint. White spots appear on the leaves, the fabric on the burnt area dries out and begins to crumble. If the burn is small, the fabric dries and the sheet is deformed. If the burn area is large, then the leaf curls and falls. With severe burns, tomatoes can die completely.
To prevent the burning out of tomatoes, they are shaved from the bright spring sun.
Lack of trace elements. It is more common in seedlings grown on commercial soil that has a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction. Tomatoes need a weakly acidic soil reaction (pH 5-6), if it is higher, then the plants do not absorb trace elements. Often in the home is manifested iron deficiency. The leaves become light green in color, and the veins remain dark green. With a pronounced iron deficiency, the leaf becomes yellow with green veins, but it looks healthy, elastic, and does not deform.
To eliminate the causes of yellowing, the ground is watered with a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate. It simultaneously deoxidizes the soil and disinfects it. If this was not enough, then do fertilizing with micronutrient fertilizer.
With proper care of tomato seedlings, usually there are no problems and illnesses.
Alternaria or dry rot
Fungal disease, which is manifested by the appearance of brown areas on the reverse side of the seedling leaves. After some time, the leaves of the plants completely turn brown and fall off, and the disease goes to the stems of tomatoes. You can fight this disease only with the help of chemicals (fungicides) Acrobat, Ditan, Quadris. Processing should be carried out immediately, when it detects the first signs of illness.
Mosaic causative agent
The rod-shaped virus infects plants, most often when they are transplanted into open ground. The disease manifests itself in different shades of leaves. Dark green leaves are mixed with lighter, forming a mosaic. Then, they curl and fall.
Infection occurs through diseased seeds. To avoid illness, you should use planting material a year ago. Sick plants are to be destroyed, and the remaining seedlings are sprayed with either a weak solution of potassium permanganate or a 5% solution of urea.
Aspermia or seedlessness
Manifested by the shallowing of leaves, arising from the delay in the growth and development of plants. The affected seedlings bear fruit worse, giving fruits of small size. As a rule, they are of the deformed form, and the main feature of such fruits is the absence of seeds in them.
Diseased plants are destroyed. To avoid disease, it is worth carrying out prophylactic seed treatment, and also use only high-quality seed material purchased from reliable manufacturers.
Causes a tobacco mosaic virus. First, brown leaves appear on the leaves, on the place of which ulcers form later. As a result of this, the whole plant becomes fragile, and its upper part disappears.
This disease directly affects the yield, reducing it, and the quality of the fruit deteriorates. Sick seedlings must be destroyed, and, in order to avoid disease, it is recommended to carry out preplant seed preparation more carefully.
Black bacterial spotting
Appears due to the use of poor quality seed. Also, the virus often gets on plants through the soil, or increased humidity can provoke ailment.
Symptoms are small, round or oval, black spots on the leaves and stems, spreading over the whole plant in a short time, as a result of which it dies. Patients sprouts to be destroyed. Treatment - treatment of seedlings with 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture.
Dangerous bacterial disease, as a result of which the seedlings begin to fade for no apparent reason. In severe forms of the disease can be observed longitudinal brown stripes on the stems of plants.
Often formed aerial roots. The leaves turn yellow, the growth of seedlings is slowed down, and the resulting fruits are shallow and fall off. Sick plants must be destroyed, and healthy plants must be treated with a 1% Fitoflavin-300 solution.
Stages of seed preparation for sowing
Sorting seeds. Yield directly depends on the quality of planting material. Good seeds should be neat, symmetrical. Also of great importance is their size - the larger, the stronger the plant will be.
Having made such a treatment, you will not only be able to prevent many diseases, but also greatly increase the germination of seeds.
If you didn’t find the ash, you can replace it with the same amount of liquid fertilizer “Ideal” or a quarter of a teaspoon of sodium humate powder. The solution should be warm.
Next, the bags of seeds are placed in the solution and kept there for half a day. After this time, they should be dipped in clean water and left to warm for another day. This manipulation is of particular importance for seeds of tomatoes that are large in size.
- Seed hardening. It is necessary so that the tomatoes are not afraid of the cold. It also helps to grow stronger seedlings. To do this, bags of seeds must be placed in a cool place (for example, a refrigerator) and left for 2 days. As soon as the bags begin to dry, they need to be sprayed with water. Further, seeds cooled in such a way are sown and wait for fast friendly shoots.
The most common diseases of tomatoes in the greenhouse and how to deal with them
Diseases affecting tomatoes, there are many, and each of them need the right approach. The main pests are microscopic fungi, viruses, bacteria and also insects.
Consider each disease and ways to deal with it in more detail.
Phytophthora infection is the most common disease. This is a fungus that spreads almost throughout the plant.
- Stems and leaves are covered with brown spots.
- On the underside of the sheet there is a slight white bloom.
- Under the skin of the fruit spots appear brown.
Factors such as a large temperature difference and an increase in humidity help to spread phytophthora. The sharp reduction in the incidence of tomatoes contributes to the cultivation of hybrids.
- 3 weeks after transplanting, it must be sprayed with a “Barrier” solution. After another 3 weeks, it is necessary to re-process with another drug - “Barrier”.
- When the plant has already bloomed, it can be sprayed with garlic solution. Make a solution like this: grind 250 grams of garlic with a meat grinder and dilute with 10 liters of water and add 1 gram of potassium permanganate.
- Also positive results are given by the treatment of late blight with the drug Oxy, two tablets of which are diluted in 10 liters of water.
- For prevention, tomatoes should be processed before they bloom (when they are in the seedling stage) or when the symptoms of the disease are just beginning to manifest.
It is also a fairly common disease affecting tomato leaves in a polycarbonate greenhouse. To be able to recognize this disease, look at the photo.
- The appearance of brown-brown spots that have a velvety gray patina.
- They are located on the back of the sheet.
- Drying of the affected leaves, up to the death of the plant.
Ways to spread fungal spores:
- Transfer from one to another plant during watering.
- With the clothes of gardeners.
- Preserving them in the soil and on last year’s leaves.
- Low air humidity.
- Reduced watering.
- Temperature rise.
- Processing plants, including its seedlings with a solution of copper oxychloride, 30-40 grams of which is diluted in 10 liters of water.
- Spraying with Oxyhoma solution - two tablets per 10 liters of liquid.
- The use of bacterial preparations, such as "Barrier" "Barrier".
- Disinfection of the greenhouse, which is carried out, reaping the harvest. For this, a glass of copper sulphate is mixed with 10 liters of water and this solution is sprayed not only with old plants, but also with the soil and roof.
- Next year, growing tomatoes in the same greenhouse made of polycarbonate is not worth it.
- Growing modern varieties and hybrids.
Tomato mosaic is a very unpleasant disease caused by viruses, often leading to loss of crops and destruction of the bushes.
- Change the shape and color of leaves.
- The appearance of yellowish-green spots.
- The leaves curl and shrivel.
- The oppression of the plant, which leads to a decrease in tomato yield, yellowing and subsequent drying.
- Removal and burning of affected plants.
- Preliminary half-hour seed treatment in a one percent solution of potassium permanganate.
- Watering seedlings with the same solution several times a day at intervals of 3 weeks.
- Treatment of seedlings with a solution of skim milk every ten days. It is done like this: in ten liters of water dilute 1 liter of milk with the addition of a teaspoon of urea.
- For sowing preferably 2-3-year-old seeds.
- The disease is transmitted through the sap of plants. Therefore, it is not necessary to touch him, stepson tomatoes.
- It is better to choose mosaic-resistant varieties and hybrids.
- Early sowing seeds.
Gray Rot of Tomato Fruits
This is a disease caused by fungi. The defeat of the fruits of tomatoes occurs, as a rule, at the very end of the growing season, when it is cold and rainy.
- The appearance of fine rounded spots, which over time begin to increase and release a brown liquid.
- The emergence of gray mold on the stems, leaves and flowers of the plant.
If you notice gray mold growing tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse, you need to do the following:
- Remove affected fruit and other plant organs,
- Raise the temperature
- Spray the sick tomatoes with drugs such as Fundazol, Zaslon or Barrier.
Tomatoes root rot
It is characterized by wilting of plants, as their root neck begins to rot. This disease can also affect cucumbers.
- Disinfecting the soil with a solution of copper sulfate.
- Removal of the diseased topsoil in the greenhouse and adding fresh.
- Processing "Shield" and "Barrier".
Brown rot (fomoz) tomatoes
This is a disease caused by fungi. It affects only the fruits (on the picture).
- A small brown spot appears at the base of the fetus.
- Break green tomatoes, followed by their fall.
- Avoid high humidity.
- Не подкармливать растения свежим навозом и большим количеством азота.
- Дезинфекция почвы.
- Сбор и уничтожение пораженных плодов.
Макроспориоз или сухая пятнистость
Признаки заболевания (on the picture):
- Появление довольно крупных коричневых пятен.
- Отмирание сильно пораженных листьев.
- Темные пятна в основании плода.
- The appearance of black velvety plaque.
Control measures are the same as for phytophtoras.
It is not an infectious, but a physiological disease. The reason - watering the plant in drought with plenty of liquid at once. There is a rapid flow of water into the fruit and tearing of the cell walls of the tissue.
- Moderate watering.
- If you grow tomatoes in a greenhouse, then in the heat it should be sprayed with a solution of lime.
- In addition to the above diseases, which you can look at in the photo, tomatoes are often affected by insect pests.
- Medvedka is a rather large (up to 5 centimeters) brown insect that has large paws with which it can dig. She loves moist soil rich in dung.
- The use of the drug "Thunder".
- Mink infusion of pest infusion of hot pepper or vinegar.
Wireworms are yellow caterpillars that can damage the roots and stem of tomatoes.
- Help to get rid of this pest will help sticks. They need to strung vegetables and bury them in the ground so that the tips of the sticks stick out. After a few days, the sticks, in which wireworms have accumulated, need to be pulled out and burned.
- When digging the soil in the greenhouse, wireworms should be collected and destroyed.
- It is also possible to reduce their number when liming soils and applying mineral fertilizers.
Whitefly and scoop
Whiteflies are also quite common insects in the greenhouse. Their larvae are able to suck the juices from the leaves, and over time this can lead to the fact that the tomatoes die.
Control measures are treatment with Phosbecid or Citcore.
Underbite scoops are caterpillars of gray or black color that can greatly damage tomatoes.
To protect your crop grown in the greenhouse, you need:
- Destroy the weeds.
- Dig the ground deep.
- Collect caterpillars.
- Treat plants and their fruits with Strela.
As you can see, it is easy to get rid of diseases, it is enough to know the methods of dealing with them. And then the tomatoes will delight you with their juicy and healthy fruits.
Measures against diseases and pests of tomatoes
Like many other crops, tomatoes are susceptible to the harmful effects of diseases and pests. For this reason, tomatoes need agrotechnical protection during the entire period of growth - from planting seeds to harvesting.
If you do not take appropriate measures, infected plants may die before the ovary appears.
But, even successfully overcoming the entire path of cultural development, one cannot relax. Diseases and pests of tomatoes threaten to destroy not only the leaves and stems, but already almost ripe crops.
Leaf curling in viral diseases of tomatoes
Strick (streak). The stems and fruits of affected plants are covered with yellowish spots in the form of stripes. With this disease of tomato, the leaves become twisted and hung. Flowers and fruits from diseased bushes are showered. With extensive damage plants die completely. Insufficient light contributes to the development of the disease. To prevent the reproduction of this viral disease of tomato, the culture is not planted next to other plants of the family Solanaceae, observe the distance between plants during planting.
Verticillary wilting. The lower leaves on the affected bushes turn yellow, wither and fall before the deadline. With this disease, leaves curl, and diseased bushes are slowed down in growth and development, but remain viable. On the cut of the stems and leaf stalks, the brown contours of the vessels are noticeable. For the prevention of the disease, plant residues are removed from the beds, when growing tomatoes, the rules of planting and care are observed, and fertilizing is done in a timely manner to increase plant resistance to infection.
Tomato diseases and control
Cracking fruit. The cause of the damage of tomatoes is excessive watering, especially after drought. Most immature fruits are often affected. An infection penetrates into the cracks and the fruits rot or grow of poor quality. To save the crop, it is necessary to adjust the irrigation regime.
Late blight (brown rot). In this disease of the tomato, brown or brown spots of an indefinite shape appear on the leaves, stalks and fruits. The underside of the leaves is covered with white bloom. Gradually, the affected part of the fruit is increasing.
To prevent disease, tomatoes are not planted next to potatoes, follow the rules of crop rotation, feed phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
Young plants 3 weeks after planting for the prevention of late blight are sprayed with Zaslon, and a week later - Barrier.
Then with an interval of 1 week twice the tomatoes are treated with the drug Oxy. Effective in the fight against late blight garlic infusion.
Vertex rot. As can be seen in the photo, this tomato disease is characterized by the appearance of dark green weeping spots on the top of the immature fruits. The affected tissues darken and become hard, the fruits ripen faster. Sometimes signs of damage to the fruit are noted only on the incision. Low-lying fruits are most often affected. Plants are watered moderately and regularly. In the autumn, dolomite flour, lime or chalk is added to the soil in the garden beds to replenish calcium. In the spring, when planting, deoxidizing fertilizers are added to the wells.
Cladosporiosis (brown spot). Tomatoes on the lower side of the leaves in the lower part appear light gray blurred spots in the form of velvety plaque. Then the spots become brown in color and spread to the upper part of the plant. Leaves with signs of illness dry up and the plant quickly dies. For the prevention of the disease, seeds are planted before planting, watering is done moderately. For the treatment of tomatoes, when the first signs of cladosporiosis appear, they are sprayed with Xom and Oxy.
Fomoz (brown fruit rot). Tomatoes appear on the fruits of large brown spots with a diameter of 3-4 cm. Usually they are located next to the stem. The astonished place looks depressed. The rot spreads inside the fruit. The disease affects both mature and immature fruits. Excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers and increased environmental humidity contribute to the development of fomoz. Affected fruits destroy. For this disease of the tomatoes, the bushes are sprayed with Hom, Oxy and Bordeaux mixture solutions for their treatment.
Fusarium wilt. Affected tomatoes are distinguished by the appearance of yellow and fading leaves in the lower part of the plant. Then the leaves fade on all branches. On the cut of the stems, dark contours of the vascular pattern are noticeable. In the area of the root neck of tomatoes appears pink bloom. Excessive soil moisture and high nitrogen content in it contribute to the development of the disease. For the prevention of fusarium wilt, the rules of crop rotation are observed, the bushes are spud, sprinkling the soil to a height of 15 cm. To combat this disease of tomatoes, plants are fed with Barrier and sprayed with Hom.
Alternaria (dry spotting). At the beginning of the development of the disease resembles late blight and bacterial spotting. The underside of the leaves of tomatoes is covered with brown spots. They quickly grow in size and spread to the stems and fruits. The affected part of the surface looks depressed. On leaves and stems, spots are oval-shaped, and on fruits - round. Measures to combat the disease of tomatoes - spraying infected plants with the preparations Antracol, Consento, Tattu.
Bacterial spotting. Leaves and fruits of tomatoes are affected. First, small round brown spots appear on the lower surface of the leaves. Then they merge and take on an irregular shape.
On fruits, similar to the first spots become large and dark, and the tissue around them brighten, forming a border.
The affected leaves first fade and then the whole plant. Processing of tomatoes from this disease at the appearance of the first signs is performed by spraying the plants with a solution of Bordeaux mixture, copper sulphate, fed with fertilizers containing copper and nitrogen. Fading bushes destroy.
Blackleg. The disease usually affects seedlings and young bushes of tomatoes with improper care. At the bottom of the stem, the tissues turn black, thin and dry. The leaves of affected plants are covered with fine dark spots. Usually, tomatoes with signs of black leg die. To combat the disease, seedlings are watered sparingly, the room in which it is located is regularly aired. When protecting tomatoes from this disease, plants are watered with a solution of potassium permanganate (1-1.5 g of dry matter per 10 liters of water).
Tomato protection in pest control
Whitefly. This pest of tomatoes with two pairs of white wings causes spotty yellowing of the leaves. Gradually the leaves turn yellow completely and wither. The pest covers the plant with secretions on which soot fungi breed. As a result, the diseased plant turns black. For the fight against insects use the drug Confidor.
Slugs The pest eats leaves and fruits of tomatoes. Damaged plant parts are prone to rot. To combat the pest, sprinkle the soil around the bushes with a mixture of ashes, tobacco dust and lime, or spray it around the beds with quick-cooking lime. To combat these pests of tomatoes, the soil under the bushes is loosened after watering, sprinkled with ground bitter pepper (1 tsp. Per 1 m2).
Spider mite A small insect looks like a bright spot on tomatoes. It entangles the leaves with cobwebs and sucks the juice out of them. On the upper side of the leaves are visible punctures, which makes the insect. The affected tissues in their area turn yellow and blend into spots. Then the leaves dry out. To combat spider mites, tomatoes are sprayed with Malophos or infusion of garlic and dandelion leaves with the addition of liquid soap.
Medvedka. Large brown insect up to 5 cm long with powerful front paws and short sheaths. It makes moves in the root layer of soil and makes holes at a depth of 10-15 cm. Medvedka gnaws the roots of young vegetable crops and causes their death. To combat the insect pests use the drug Thunder, bitter pepper infusion or a solution of vinegar.
Wireworm. The pest is a larva of the click beetle. They are distinguished by a dense yellow body, do not exceed 2 cm in length. Wireworms damage tomato roots and sometimes penetrate into the stems. 3-4 days before planting tomatoes in the soil lay a bait for the pest. Sticks of carrots, beets or potatoes are strung on sticks 16-20 cm long and buried in beds. Before planting seedlings destroy the pest. To protect the tomatoes from these pests use the drug Basudin and lime acidic soil.
Gnawing scoops. The caterpillars of moths are dark gray or black, 3-4 cm long. They gnaw through the leaves and their petioles, as well as the stalks of tomatoes. To fight against insects, beds are weeded, the soil is deeply dug up in autumn, the pests are harvested by hand and destroyed. To destroy the tracks use the drug Strela.
Diseases of tomatoes
To grow a rich crop of tomatoes is a special pride of any owner of the garden plot. But in the cultivation of seedlings and the cultivation of adult plants are not uncommon diseases of tomatoes, and to cope with them, special knowledge is needed. The article provides tips on how to deal with attacks and protect plants.
As a rule, the planting time of tomato seedlings begins from February and lasts until March. At this time, there is sowing of seeds in special containers, which are located closer to the sun. Only by rising, the seedlings become vulnerable. After sprouting the seeds and picking them up, such diseases of tomato seedlings as black leg, white spotting are possible.
The black leg is called the thunderstorm thunderstorm, as it affects not only tomatoes, but also pepper and eggplants. The first signs appear on the seedlings. In plants, the subfloor knee begins to rot, and as a result they die. Black leg, like some other diseases of tomatoes, is an infectious fungal disease. Its pathogens are in the soil and weak plants are affected by their effects. In order not to miss the occurrence of the disease, the seedlings must be carefully inspected every day. If the root neck of a plant darkens and it fades on sunny days, this indicates the first manifestations of the black leg.
Seedlings at the very beginning of the development of the disease will help save the following measures. For watering plants, it is necessary to make a weak solution of manganese-acid potassium, spud them. As a preventive measure for seedlings, it is better to use fresh, well-frozen soil in winter. Before sowing seeds, prepare a weak solution of potassium permanganate and water it. Crops should not be planted thickly in a moderately moist soil, which is loosened around the plants. Room with seedlings tomato need to be aired.
Diseases of adult plants
There are such diseases of tomatoes that cause particular concern among gardeners. For example, a mosaic that is a viral disease causes speckled patches on plant leaves. Affected plants do not grow well and lose productivity.
To fungal diseases of tomatoes include white spot, brown spot, blight. They are characterized by the appearance of off-white or brown spots on the leaves of plants. Growing fungus reduces the yield, can lead to the death of plants.
Let us dwell on the disease of tomatoes, phytophtora, which is the most common and harmful. It affects plants during fruiting. Its development contributes to wet and wet weather. Fungal disease is spread by wind, dew and rain.
In order for the plant not to be affected by late blight, it is necessary to remove old leaves in time. Usually the disease begins to develop on potatoes, and then spreads to tomatoes. Its symptoms are the appearance of brown spots on the edges of the leaves and on the fruits. It is necessary to track the moment of its appearance, to urgently take action. During the fruit pouring period, tomatoes are fed with potassium and phosphorus in order to increase plant resistance to late blight. Watering should not be abused. In cloudy weather, it is enough to loosen the soil around the plants.
Sometimes people think of chemicals that are used to combat late blight. But gardeners, not trusting such drugs, are looking for and finding other ways.
For all gardeners who love tomato disease and the fight against them is a burning issue. In this case, listen to any advice and expert opinion. So, the specialist recommends treating the soil to remove bacterial and fungal infections. To do this, first remove the remains of last year’s plants and two to four centimeters of topsoil. Then pour fresh soil, shed beds with copper sulphate or copper oxychloride.
Alternariosis of tomatoes
Fungal disease affecting leaves and fruits.
- spraying with the “Alirin B” preparation and
- spilling the soil with a solution (2 tablets per 10 liters of water) for 1-3 days before planting or seeding, then at intervals in the open pound - 15-20 days, in the protected pond - 10-14 days, spending 10 liters of solution per 100 square meters . m
Gray rot on tomatoes
Fungal disease affecting all organs of the plant.
- reduce air humidity and soil
- maintain the desired temperature
- increase the ventilation of plants in the greenhouse.
I recommend to introduce into the soil when planting at a permanent place a biological product "Gliokladin" (1-2 tablets under the plant).
Works on caring for plants are best carried out in the dry time in the first half of the day, so that the injured areas can dry up in the evening.
Bacterial spotting (or tomato wartiness)
SIGNS: Symptoms on leaves may range from brown spots without edging to dark brown or black spots with bright yellow edging. It develops both in the open and in the protected ground. Plants are affected throughout the growing season, but the most susceptible are young tissues. Bacterial disease. The source of infection is infected plant residues and seeds. Bacteria penetrate through wounds from mechanical damage.
STATEMENT OF FIGHTING: use of 1% aqueous solution of Bordeaux liquid and 0.4% suspension of copper oxychloride. The first spraying is carried out 2 weeks after transplanting, the second - 10-12 days.
This is not all infectious diseases of tomatoes. With plants as with people: the more drugs, especially antibiotics, we use, the more infections fall on the head of humanity. Therefore, there is only one way - increasing plant immunity and the development of the protective properties of the soil itself, which we, too, have long weaned off fighting infection.
Now the so-called EM drugs, effective microorganisms that restore soil microflora, and those, in turn, actively fight germs, fungi and viruses, transferring their protective functions to plants. At the request of our readers, we describe in detail about these preparations in the article —EM Preparations: principle of action, methods of use.