Cherry melkopilchataya Sakura - a type of plants from the family Pink. The height of trees of individual species reaches twenty-five meters. Their smooth bark is gray, with a brown or brown shade, and bare shoots are yellow. On the crust horizontal cracks of small depth are visible. Wood has the elasticity that resin gives. The crown is ovoid.
The leaves are of different shapes: ovate, elliptical, obovate. Their length reaches thirteen centimeters and more, and the width - five. The top of the leaves with serrate edges is drawn, and the base is rounded, tapered or heart-shaped.
Flowers are collected in racemes, each with two to four copies. Brushes are small, up to five centimeters in length. The flowers of small-cherub cherry sakura have different shades, but more often - white or pink.
Flowering is a fascinating sight. Delicate flowers bloom before the leaves appear. The flowering time and its duration of each variety is different. This process is influenced by the place of growth and weather conditions. In cool climates, cherry blossoms longer. Rain and wind are extremely unfavorable phenomena for the plant, the flowering time of sakura is significantly reduced.
The fruit of the cherry is drupe, round, ovate or ellipsoidal with a pointed tip. At the beginning of maturation has a purple-black color, and then becomes just black. Depending on the variety, the fruit is edible and inedible. The price of fruits suitable for consumption is very high.
Cherry decorative melkopilchataya Sakura Kiku Shidare
This plant is a variety of small-cherries. Kiku Shidare is a low tree, about four meters. Openwork crown lush, sprawling, its diameter is the same as the height. It has a flat-round shape and arcuate hanging branches, they are called weeping. Crohn has a tendency to thickening, so it must be formed by removing excess branches.
Cherry melkopilchataya surprises feature of elliptical leaves to change color throughout the vegetative period. In the spring, when the leaves just bloom, they have a bronze color. With the onset of summer, they become green. In the autumn they get orange-yellow color. The length of the leaves reaches nine centimeters, along the edges there are frequent notches.
Cherry blossoms in the middle of spring, in April. On the branches there is a huge amount of pink terry flowers that are collected in large brushes with a diameter of five to seven centimeters. The flowering period is short - a few days.
Growing conditions Kiku Shidare
Kiku Shidare cherry melkopilataya Sakura grows on different soils, but prefers wet lime soils. This cherry loves well-lit areas that are not blown by the wind. In order for the plant to bloom profusely, it is necessary to regularly and superphosphate the soil into the soil.
Unusual beauty tree used in gardening garden and park areas. The climatic conditions of the steppes and forest-steppes are suitable for Kiku Shidare. In these areas, its growth is comfortable.
Cherry Tai Haku
This ornamental plant is a type of small-cherries cherry. The British call it differently - Gorgeous White Cherry. Her homeland is Japan. The fine-cut cherry Tai Haku was taken out of the country in 1969.
This is a deciduous plant. Found in the form of a large shrub or small tree. Very strong branches are funnel-shaped, grow rapidly in the vertical direction. Plant height reaches seven-meter mark. The crown is magnificent, its width is up to five meters.
Characterized by the alternate location of very large leaves of melkopilchataya cherry Tai Haku. The description includes parameters such as length and width, which are respectively sixteen and ten centimeters. Leaves have the ability to change color. The newly bloomed leaves have a reddish-pink hue, and in the fall already large leaves turn yellow-orange.
White flowers have large sizes, their diameter is up to six centimeters. Blossoming is plentiful, but short. Decorative Tai Cai Haku Cherry unpretentious in growing, resistant to disease and frost. Used in vertical gardening.
Budding (vaccination) Sakura
It is held in May, in the middle of the month, when the time for the threat of frost will pass, but the heat will not be strong. It is necessary to make cuts on the bark and bend it. Then cut the peephole with a piece of bark from a cutting and insert it into a previously made section of the stock. The vaccination site should be rewound with a polyethylene tape. After a couple of weeks, the garter should be loosened. Under the condition of good survival of the peephole, the tree will start to grow rapidly. Flowering can wait two years.
Care for decorative cherries
For landing, a sunny, non-ventilated place is chosen. Sakura should not be planted in a hollow or on the north side, because the soil will warm up too slowly, and the planting dates will have to be postponed to a later time.
Sakura prefer moist, well-drained soil of any composition, except for heavy, clay. Swimming soils need to be improved, for which they make baking powder: deoxidized peat, compost, vermiculite, manure, sand. But the greatest preference is melkopilchataya cherry still gives fertile and light soils.
Just planted plants are very sensitive to drought. Therefore, at first they should be watered more often, so that the soil is always wet. Care for decorative and other cherry blossoms is the same, except for trimming. Young trees of small-crested cherry blossoms undergo only sanitary pruning in a sparing mode.
Small-cherries are susceptible to gamble. Prevention is better than cure. Therefore, as a preventive measure, trees are sprayed, watered and fed regularly and in a timely manner.
Wintering of finely camouflaged sakuras
In order for the fine-cherries to successfully overwinter the cherries, at the end of the summer, every additional feeding of trees with fertilizers containing large amounts of nitrogen ceases. But phosphorus and potassium will help to move the winter easier. Therefore, fertilizers with their content need to be applied. Before wintering it is necessary to saturate the soil with moisture. To do this, tree trunks plentifully watered. As soon as the first frosts come, the stumps and crowns are tied. For this, covering material is used.
To protect the trunks from sunburn and cracks, they need to be whitened or tied with agrofiber. With the onset of spring, while there is no movement of the juice, it is necessary to prune the branches in order to rid the crown of thickening. The tool and sections are sanitized. When the wounds dry up, they should be treated with brew.
the hit of the season
Cherry melkopilchataya widespread in Japan, there these trees adorn parks and squares, which during the flowering period look just gorgeous. In Russia, small-cherries are much less widespread, but now interest in cultures of the decorative plan is growing like an avalanche. Usually decorated with melkopilchatoy cherry areas of private households.
Thanks to the work of breeders, a fairly large number of varieties of finely cherched decorative cherry plan has been created, such plants bloom in spring, when sometimes there are no leaves or they are just starting to develop.
Flowers in new varieties are usually terry, this is a fad, they literally cover shoots, it is fascinating to see, it seems as if the flowers are floating in the air. The diameter of each flower can reach 6 cm, they, contrary to popular belief, are not only pink and red, but also white, yellow, peach and even green!
Before transporting to the house, ask the seedling roots to be dipped into a clay talker, then pack them in a plastic bag (a large garbage bag) and only after that take the seedling to take it home.
It is important - when planting, try to root root was at the level of the soil (or 1-1.5 cm higher), in the case of small-cherished cherry it cannot be buried, it may begin to rot, and the tree will simply die.
The choice of land for planting finely cherry
A plant can grow for a long period (up to 30 years) in one place and delight you with its magnificent appearance, but only if you choose the right place and the right care.
It is better to choose a well-lit area, heated by the sun, without stagnant thawed or rain water and always protected from the north by the house wall, fence or a tall bush with a dense crown (shad). Hollows, slopes of northern orientation are not suitable, as well as areas with a groundwater level closer than one and a half meters to the soil surface.
With regard to the type of soil, it is best to choose a plot with a nutrient, fairly moist, well-drained, breathable soil with a pH of 5.0-6.0. If the soil is dense and clay, then it is necessary to loosen them, adding a bucket of river sand (or compost, vermiculite, well-rotted manure) per square meter of soil. If the soil pH is higher than 6.0, then it is advisable to add peat in the amount of 8-9 kg per square meter to the area under digging.
Selection of small-sized cherry seedlings
We advise you to buy seedlings in the spring, as well as plant them, as this is a stone fruit culture that nobody recommends planting before winter. When choosing a seedling, inspect it thoroughly, there should be no damage on the roots, they should not be torn off, dried.
The aerial part should also be alive, not dry, without damage to the bark. Take a closer look at the root neck, for a melkilov cherry this is a weak point: is it there? signs of decay. Only when you make sure that the sapling is “alive and well” can you acquire.
As for landing, there is nothing complicated. In the soil, make holes, 25-30% larger in size than the volume of the root system, be sure to put a drainage (pebbles, broken bricks, expanded clay) in a layer of 3-4 cm at the base, and throw a couple of nutrient mixes on top (one portion of peat , river sand, humus, topsoil and a tablespoon of nitroammofoski).
Water the hole, pouring out a bucket of water, and place the root system of the seedling in wet soil, gently straightening the roots. After that, fill the hole with soil, thoroughly seal it, pour a bucket of water and grumble the surface with peat or humus a couple of centimeters.
Small-cherries cherry - care
Further care is not complicated at all. In the first 2-3 years, it is important to loosen the soil in the stalk zone to a depth of 2-3 cm, remove weeds, water the plant in drought with water at room temperature and make additional feeding.
Top dressing can be carried out three times per season - in the spring, you can loosen the soil in the forest near the trunk by pouring out the wood ash (150-200 g under the tree) or a tablespoon of nitroammofoski in the spring. During the flowering period, pour in a teaspoon with a hill of superphosphate and potassium chloride into the near-stem zone, add superphosphate and potassium chloride to the soil again in the fall, but already a teaspoon without a hill.
Pruning finely cherry
It is important for finely cherry cherries and its varieties and pruning. Considering that we grow a plant for the sake of beautiful flowers, the shoots should be treated carefully, only dry shoots should be cut out, diseased, frozen, too thin or growing deep into the crown, which will lead to its thickening. Pruning is best done in early spring, about a month before bud break. After that, cover all places of the cuts with a garden pitch heated to a viscous state in a water bath or, which is better, with a garden red, if this is not done, then gamma therapy cannot be avoided.
The second pruning can be done in October, this month you need to assess whether all the shoots have matured, woody. If the tips of the shoots are still green, they should be cut to the woody part of the shoot, because in the winter they will freeze.
In addition to pruning in the fall (end of October - November), you can carry out water retention irrigation, pour 20 buckets of water into 2-3 doses in a barrel circle.
Watering will contribute to a better wintering of plants. Pour the water slowly, it should be absorbed, not spread on the site.
Young plants of small-cherries in the first 4-5 years need additional protection from frost. For this, the base of the shtambov, before the first branching, must be covered with a nonwoven covering material. On top of it, it is advisable to place a plastic mesh to protect against rodents. Ideally, the grid height should be at least half a meter.
It is easy to propagate finely grained cherries by sowing seeds, and varieties are well propagated by rooting green cuttings in the greenhouse (planting in early June, digging in mid-September) and grafting (cutting in spring, kidney in mid-summer) on fine-grained cherry seedlings.
In early spring, it is desirable to protect the trunk from sunburn. To do this, immediately after removing the covering material, the trunk should be painted with garden red or whitened.
It is allowed to use agrofibre, however, try not to accumulate water in the space between the agrofiber and the trunk, otherwise various kinds of rot may occur.
Popular varieties of cherries
In the end, we give examples of the most interesting and most common varieties of small-chery cherries, all of them are suitable for the south and center of Russia.
Cultivar "Amanogawa" - A tree with a dense crown, a height of about three to five meters, with a crown width of about two meters. Flowers bloom in the last month of spring, they are light pink, double, reach a diameter of five centimeters and are arranged in bunches.
Kanzan variety - a tree with a pyramidal crown, pleasing the eye with chic bright pink flowers, gathered in inflorescences of 4-6 pieces. The flowers are terry, the first bloom at the end of April, and the last can be seen at the end of the last month of spring. Wonderful plant for single plantings.
"Kiku Shidare" - an elegant tree with weeping shoots and an openwork crown. Plant height is about four meters, crown diameter is up to three meters. The flowers are pinkish, and the diameter reaches six centimeters, the petals are double. Flowering is always abundant. The variety loves open spaces, always protected from the north.
Royal Burgundy - the form of the crown of this tree is oblique, flowers with double petals, rich pink in color, reach 5 cm in diameter. The flowers literally hang down from the shoots due to rather long pedicels and are collected in bunches.
Professional look at sakura ...
Hearing the word "Sakura", almost anyone represents Japan.
Sakura blooms roll throughout Japan from south to north, and then the gardens, mountain slopes stand shrouded in white and pink foam ...
The image of cherry blossoms is minted on a 100-yen coin (about 50 rubles). The image of a sakura flower is used to indicate the insignia of the military, as decoration on students' headdresses, in the numerous patrimonial emblems of the Japanese nobility, and now on the emblems and emblems of the Japanese national defense police. A message about the wave of flowering of cherry blossoms indulges in the news channels of Japanese television as the main news. The Japanese cultural tradition of admiring the flowering with Hanami is associated with the flowering of cherry blossoms, and the cherry blossoms play a leading role in it. And since 1992, an official holiday has been introduced in Japan - Sakura Blossom Day.
Over the past centuries, hundreds of sakura varieties have been developed with varying degrees of flower terry, different crown shapes — pyramidal, spherical, umbrella-shaped, and weeping. And the inflorescences and fruits (saku rambo) of sakura in Japan are salted and pickled.
Admire the sakura bloom is available not only to residents of Japan. In a mild climate sakura able to fascinate many people on our planet. For example, the United States capital Washington is famous for the alleys of sakur, and festivals of cherry blossoms can be visited in Denmark (the Copenhagen cherry blossom festival in 2017 is scheduled for the end of April), and in Vancouver in March-April, where 37,000 cherry trees are blooming and Macon (Georgia, USA), where, according to the organizers, you can enjoy the flowering of 300 thousand plants.
And what is Sakura from the point of view of botanical science? Let's try to figure it out.
So, according to the literature, to the true sakura are such types of stone-flower Rosaceae, as Prunus jamasakura, Prunus serrulata, Prunus subhirtella, Prunus lannesiana, Prunus sargentii, Prunus glandulosa, Prunus sieboldii, Prunus yedoensis, Prunus campanulata... Despite the common generic name of Prunus (plum), accepted today in the West, in our long-standing traditional terminology, there are plums, cherries, cherries, and even bird cherry according to our long-standing traditional terminology!
The main thing is the riot of flowering and the falling of the inflorescences as a whole (with a few exceptions), which retain their freshness for some time later, already on the ground.
In our conditions, they winter and bloom reliably for a long time. Sargent cherries (Cerasus sargentii)which can be seen in the exposition of the Japanese Garden of the GBS RAS. In addition, they have an amazing autumn color foliage! Есть и некоторые другие виды и сорта, о которых чуть ниже.
В качестве заменителей истинной сакуры вполне подойдут такие устойчивые в средней полосе России и при этом растущие и в Японии культуры, как вишня сахалинская (Cerasus sachalinensis), вишня железистая (Cerasus Glandulosa) – особенно ее сорта Альба Плена и Розеа Плена, а также махровые формы миндаля, известные также как лUiseania (Louiseania triloba) or three-lobed almonds (Amygdalus triloba), Rexi ordinary cherry (P. vulgaris f. Rexii) and some others.
Classic sakura in bloom, despite the severity of the climate, can be seen in the already mentioned Japanese Garden of the GBS RAS and in its other territories, in front of the main building of Moscow State University on the Sparrow Hills (about 50 Tisima trees) and in the Ekaterininsky Garden near the metro station Dostoevskaya ”(7 specimens of small-cherries Kanzo varieties), in the Biryulevsky dendropark near the Tsaritsyno Museum-Reserve (in the park about 40 Ezo sakura trees planted in 2010) and in several corners of the capital (according to rumors, sakura in Moscow bloom in some promz ONET, near CHP and around a certain college).
Thus, it is hoped that after all these sakura can grow in our suburbs as well. You only need to choose a favorable place. Avoid areas subject to strong winds, as well as heavy, dense soils. Ideal slopes of the southern exposure. And we should not forget about watering, because in May-June in Japan there are seasonal rains, called “plum”, i.e. coinciding with flowering plums and other stone fruit.
And of course, they should be visible from the house, gazebos, from the veranda - after all, this is a true decoration of the garden.
© Author: Remarkable Specialist Nikolai Khromov. Photo by the author.
This cherry is a tree exclusively decorative. Unlike ordinary cherries, it has very small and sour fruits that are unsuitable for food. However, in Japan, wine and jam are prepared from them, and sakura leaves are salted and pickled. Also, vagasis, traditional Japanese sweets, are wrapped in these leaves.
Homeland cherries are such countries like China, Japan and Korea. We have this tree can be found in Primorye and Sakhalin. Wild species usually grow in mixed forests and on mountain slopes.
For the first time to use small-cherries as an ornamental steel plant in Japan. There she belongs to a group of plants, which is called one common word - “Sakura”. It is planted in parks and gardens, it is decorated with streets and squares.
It is important to remember that sakura is not the name of a particular plant. So in Japan they call not only small-topped cherry, but also a whole group of flowering trees and shrubs belonging to the Rosaceae family.
There is an ancient tradition in Japan itself. admiring the flowering of sakurawhich is called "hanami." These days, employees of Japanese enterprises are provided with an additional day off so that they do not miss such a delightful spectacle. The faded tree is no longer called sakura.
Sakura in the middle lane
Cherry blossoms only 10-15 days. Usually the flowering period is at the end of April - mid-May, but this depends on the variety. And although the flowering does not last long, impressions from this spectacle last for the whole year. It is not surprising that many gardeners from the temperate strip, too, dream to get their own cherry blossoms.
The problem is that the cherry is a very thermophilic plant and does not stand the cold below -15 ° C. It is still better to grow in the southern regions of Russia or in greenhouses.
However, you can increase the winter hardiness of the tree, if you graft it on a wild, tickle cherry, as some breeders do. There are also several frost-resistant varieties that are suitable for temperate climates.
Today, there are more than a dozen varieties of finely cherry cherries. They differ in the shape and color of the flowers as well as the color of the leaves. These varieties appeared not only due to breeding, but also in the result of natural mutations and crossbreeding.
Here are some varieties that can be grown in the middle lane:
This is a tall tree growing to 12 meters. The crown width is 5-6 meters, with the main branches looking up, and the lateral branches slightly hanging down. Young cherry bark red-brown, and in adult trees, it acquires a grayish tint and becomes covered with small cracks.
Kanzan has glossy elliptical leaves, reaching 12 centimeters. Their color depends on the season. The newly blooming leaves have a bronze color, but closer to the fall they become fiery red.
Kansan blooms in late May for 10-15 days. Flowers are large (up to 6 cm), forming inflorescences of 2-5 pieces. The shade of flowers - purple-pink.
Kansan is well suited for both group and single landings. Best of all, it looks great in parks and alleys.
In height, this cherry reaches 10 meters. Her crown is spreading with a flat top.
Schurofugen leaves oval, slightly pointedup to 12 cm long. In spring they are crimson-bronze in color, in summer they are green, and in autumn they get orange-red shades.
Flowering begins in late May. Just blooming flowers slightly pinkish, but over time, their shade becomes more saturated.
Shirofugen is also suitable for group and single plantings. In landscape design they often make out lawns and ponds.
This is a small tree up to 6 meters high and with a crown width of up to 4 meters. In young trees, the crown is funnel-shaped, but with age it becomes more and more rounded. The main branches dominate the arcuate shape.
Royal Burgundy Leaves elliptical, slightly pointed. Leaves take on shades from bronze to violet-purple.
Flowering begins in late April and continues until the end of May. Flowers bright pink and large, collected in compact inflorescences.
Royal Burgund is used to decorate the alleys or as an accent element in landscape design.
This is a small tree that rarely reaches a height of 2.5 meters. The krone is compact, with dark green large leaves.
Fukoband blooms very copiously from about mid-April to early May. Flowers are light pink, about 2.5 cm.
Most of all this variety is suitable for small landscape compositions and courtyards. It can also be used for bonsai.
This is a very small tree, almost a shrub. The maximum height does not exceed 1.5-2 meters. It blooms from April to May. Light pink flowers with terry petals.
Regardless of the variety, the first flowering begins only one or two years after planting. The fruits of small-crested cherry are small and sour, and some varieties do not give fruit at all.
How to choose seedlings
Theoretically, sakura can be grown even from seeds. But this is very troublesome, so most gardeners prefer to use seedlings.
It is necessary to acquire small-cherries saplings only in large and proven nurseries. This will not only avoid fakes, but also provide an opportunity to consult with a specialist.
When buying you need to pay attention to seedling origin and its appearance. For Russia, the best seedlings from Hokkaido, which is more in line with our climate. For planting you need to choose one-year crown seedlings with a height of about 0.7 meters.
The best time to buy seedlings is autumn. First, at this time they are cheaper. Secondly, since the leaves are already falling off by this time, it will be easier to evaluate the appearance of the tree.
It is not worth planting small-crested cherries directly in the fall, since the one-year tree may not survive our winter. Therefore, it must be preserved until spring.
The best way to store seedlings is prikop. For this you need to choose a sunny high place in the garden, away from the rest of the trees. Here you need to dig a hole 0.4 meters wide and about 0.6 meters deep. At the same time, we make the north side of the fossa strictly vertical (for protection from the north wind), and the south side - at an angle of 45 °.
Before planting in a prikop from a sapling it is necessary to remove the remained leaves and to place it in warm water approximately for 12 hours. Then you need to carefully examine the roots and cut off all damaged and rotted roots.
Seedlings are placed in a prikop so that they are from each other at a distance of about 20 cm. The trees are placed in a hole with their roots to the north, and with their crowns to the south. After that, they are sprinkled with loose earth or sand 20 cm from the root collar. If the weather is dry, the seedlings need to be watered.
Immediately before the onset of frost saplings sprinkled a mixture of sawdust and loose earth, and the top is covered with spruce branches. It is better not to use synthetic materials, as this leads to rotting of the shoots.
How to choose a landing site
It is important to remember that trees aged 4-5 years are almost impossible to transplant. Therefore, you need to carefully plan where exactly sakura will grow. It is necessary to make an amendment to the fact that ornamental cherries on average live 15-30 years.
Landing should be well lit, however permissible and light partial shade. It is important that there be no drafts here, let alone a colder north wind. For protection, you can use the features of the landscape: dense shrubs, walls of houses or high hedges.
The groundwater level should not come closer to the surface than 1.5 meters - this will lead to rotting of the roots. It is also not recommended to use lowlands and northern slopes.
How to cook a plot
Sakura cherry roots do not tolerate competition with weeds. Therefore, before planting, you need to dig the whole area 30 cm deep, carefully selecting all the roots.
Ideal soil acidity for sakura - 5-6 pH. If the acidity is greater, it is necessary to add limestone to the soil at the rate of 400 grams per 1 m² of land.
To prepare the soil for planting, on 1 m² of soil contribute:
- 10 kg of compost
- 50 g of superphosphate,
- 30 g of potassium chloride.
Pit for planting and the substrate is prepared in the fall. Due to this, the substrate will have time to be structured, and the tree will absorb it better.
The depth of the pit for planting - half a meter and the same each side. To prepare the substrate, you need to take topsoil from the pit and add to it:
- 10 kg of rotted manure,
- 30 grams of potassium sulfate,
- 200 g of superphosphate.
If the soil is too clayey, it should be mixed with river sand. In order to prevent moisture stagnation, expanded clay or crushed stone is laid at the bottom of the pit with a layer of 20 cm.
Planting finely cherry
Planting seedlings carried out in early spring, even before the movement of juices begins. The ideal time for planting comes when the soil warms up to + 5 ° C and there is no threat of frost.
Overwintered seedlings are taken from the prikop and carefully inspect the roots. If rotten roots appear, they need to be cut to healthy tissue. Before planting, the roots are dipped for 24 hours in a growth stimulator (for example, heteroauxin).
Landing should be carried out in five stages:
- Set at the bottom of the pit 2-meter count for subsequent garter tree.
- To form from the substrate the hill in the center of the pit.
- Spread the seedling roots on the soil surface.
- Carefully cover the roots with substrate and compact.
- Water the planted tree with warm water (20 liters).
The root neck of Sakura should rise 5 centimeters above ground level: after shrinking the soil, it level with the surface. If in the end it turns out to be higher or lower than the surface, it needs to be corrected, otherwise the tree will develop poorly.
Sakura is tied up only after it has been adapted. For garters use only soft materials that do not damage the bark.
After planting sakura, it will take another 2-3 years of thorough care. The older a tree is, the more resistant it is to cold and disease.
Caring for small-cherries
In the first year, sakura should be regularly. If you allow a strong drying of the soil, the tree can become sick and die.
Therefore, in dry weather, it is necessary to water small-cherries at least once a week. A young tree needs 10 liters of water for one watering, and 20-30 liters for an adult, depending on its size. Between watering the ground around the sakura need to loosen and weed.
In the first year the plant is not fed - he has enough of what was in the substrate. An adult plant is fed several times a year:
- Before flowering and after blooming buds - urea (30g per 10 liters).
- After flowering - compost or manure (5 kg per 1 sq. M.)
- In the fall - the mineral complex to improve the winter hardiness of the tree.
In addition to feeding, in the fall do water-charging irrigation. The ideal time for this is the end of October, when dry weather sets in. Under each tree poured 20 liters of water. This should be done gradually so that all the water has had time to be absorbed.
Pruning of decorative cherries is done twice a year - in spring (before bud break) and in autumn, when the tree is prepared for winter. In the spring, formative pruning is carried out, and dry and thin branches are also removed. Autumn need to prune branches that have not yet become stiff (green tips). But here it is important not to overdo it, otherwise there will be nothing to bloom.
For cutting only a sharp garden knife sterilized in alcohol is used. The resulting wounds are covered with garden pitch.
Fight against diseases and pests
Unlike ordinary cherries, melkopilchataya cherry is sick less often. However, with improper care, it can also be attacked by fungi and bacteria. And this leads to disruption of development, poor flowering, leaf and bark deformation.
For the prevention of diseases, it is necessary to clean the bark of Sakura every fall. from lichen and mach. After that, you need to clear the space around the tree from the fallen leaves and branches, which usually get fungi and other pests. It is also useful to conduct an autumn weeding of the earth around the tree in order to eliminate the eggs and larvae of insects dangerous for sakura.
After sanitary procedures, wood is treated with insecticides. Usually it is enough to use the infusion of pharmaceutical chamomile or such a solution:
- 10 liters of water
- 400 grams of ash
- 50 g of soap.
If the tree is seriously infected, chemical insecticides can be used.
From the fungi melkopilchatuyu cherry treated with a solution of 1% Bordeaux fluid. For a tree under six years old it will take 2 liters of solution, and for an adult up to 10 liters. You can repeat the procedure in the spring before the buds began to blossom.
Preparation of melkopilchataya cherry for wintering
Preparing for winter is especially important for young trees that are not yet four years old. But this procedure can be begun only after carrying out the sanitary procedures described above.
First you need to pour around the trunk 5-inch layer of mulch (sawdust, peat or compost). After that you can start whitewashing.
The easiest way to buy a ready-made mixture, but you can prepare the composition for whitewashing and yourself. For this you will need:
- 1 kg of clay,
- 1 kg of lime,
- 300 g mullein (from rodents),
- 200 g of copper sulfate (for fungal diseases).
The resulting mixture is diluted with water to the consistency of thick cream.
Before the onset of frost sakura trunks wrapped in a warm non-woven. Young seedlings can simply bend to the ground and covered with spruce branches. After the onset of warm weather, all the insulation should be removed immediately to prevent the scavenging of shoots.
Brief information about the culture
Cherry melkopilchataya - deciduous ornamental tree. The natural habitat of the plant is Japan, China, the Korean Peninsula, Primorye and Sakhalin Island. Here you can find wild cherry species growing on the slopes of mountains in mixed forests.
Cherry as a home decoration
The historical homeland of the plant is Japan. Here, small-cherries cherries are included in a group of plants called “sakura”, which are common in park areas and on the streets.
Sakura is not the name of a single plant. This is a peculiar way of flowering, which is part of the han tradition of Japan over the centuries - “admiring the flowering”. It is noteworthy that after the end of flowering, the tree is no longer called sakura.
The flowering of finely cherry cherries on average lasts only 10-15 days. Depending on the variety, it may be the end of April or the middle of May. Despite the short duration of an unforgettable spectacle, growing trees in Russia occupies the minds of many gardeners.
However, it is extremely heat-loving plants. They can withstand a decrease in temperature only to -15 ° C, therefore, recommended for cultivation in the southern regions of horticulture and greenhouses.
Selection and storage of seedlings
Of particular importance for the successful cultivation of finely cherry cherries is the choice of seedlings. This is a rather exotic plant that requires the most detailed information about the origin and assessment of the appearance of planting material.
Therefore, you need to purchase a seedling in reputable nurseries or garden centers. Additionally, you can get detailed expert advice.
The best planting material is a croned annual sapling with an average height of 70 cm. It is important to pay attention to the quality indicators.
This is a developed fibrous root system with an average length of 20-25 cm with no traces of mechanical damage and rot, the integrity of the bark.
The sales consultant needs to learn about the adaptation of the stock and the graft to the planting region. Most suitable for the Russian climate saplings with origin on about. Hokkaido
Adult cherry barrel
Planting material purchased in the fall. Purchases during this period are economically advantageous and coincide with the time that leaves fall naturally. This makes it possible to evaluate the external characteristic of the tree.
Since the planting of heat-loving plants in the fall is accompanied by the risk of freezing in the very first winter, seedlings should be stored until spring. To do this, in the garden make a place for prikop.
Для прикопа выбирают высокий и солнечный участок в отдалении от других деревьев. Выкапывают канавку в направлении с запада на восток шириной 40 см и глубиной 60 см. Северную стену ямы делают вертикальной, а южную под углом 45°.
Before prikopka at saplings remove all leaves and immerse in warm water for 12 hours. After that, inspect the roots, damaged or rotten pruned to healthy tissue.
Seedlings are placed in a hole at a distance of 20 cm from each other. The roots are located to the north, and the crowns to the south. Seedlings sprinkled with loose soil or river sand to a height of 20 cm from the root collar. When dry weather prikopannye plants watered a little.
Saplings cover for winter after soil freezing to -3 ° C. For this, plants are sprinkled with a mixture of loose earth and sawdust; It is not recommended to use other covering materials, the risk of shoot shoots is high.
The participation of cherries in landscape design
The roots of melkopilchataya cherry compete poorly with aggressive weeds. Therefore, the selected area is dug up to a depth of 30 cm, carefully removing the remnants of the roots of other plants.
During digging in 1 m2 of soil contribute:
- compost 10 kg,
- superphosphate 50 g,
- potassium chloride 30 g
The optimum acid-base soil level is 5.0-6.0. 400 g of lime should be added to 1 m2 of strongly acidic soil.
The average size for the landing pit 50x50x50. It is desirable to prepare it in the fall, at the same time preparing the substrate for its filling. To do this, the top layer of soil from the excavated pit is mixed:
- rotted manure (10 kg)
- potassium sulfate (30 g),
- superphosphate (200 g).
River sand is added to heavy clay soils. At the bottom of the pit lay a 20 cm layer of fine crushed stone or expanded clay.
In a well prepared pit, natural shrinkage will occur, the substrate is structured, mineral substances will take on forms that are easily digestible by the roots. This contributes to the rapid adaptation of the seedlings to a higher percentage of survival.
The small-crested cherry enters the growing season early, therefore the dates for planting the tree are extremely tight. Planting is planned when the temperature of the soil will be equal to + 5 ° C and the threat of return frost is over.
Saplings excavated from a prikop are once again inspected. Damaged roots are cut to healthy tissue and immersed in a solution of growth stimulant (heteroauxin) for 24 hours.
- setting cola (2 m) at the bottom of the pit,
- forming a mound from the substrate,
- distribution of seedling roots on the surface of the soil mixture,
- backfilling of roots with substrate and compaction,
- watering with warm water (20 l).
The root neck of the cherry should remain 5 cm above ground level. Thus, after natural shrinkage, it becomes equal to the ground. If, however, the location of the root collar is broken, it needs to be corrected, it should always be on the same level with the soil.
Cherry crawling on the ground
Immersion of the root collar or its high location will adversely affect the development of the tree, contributing to rotting or disrupting the nutrition of the vegetative mass.
The garter of a tree to a stake is made only after its full adaptation. To do this, select a soft material, nevredvayuschy bark seedlings.
For 2-3 years, the tree should be closely monitored and carefully looked after. As they grow older, small-grained cherries gradually increase their winter hardiness and resistance to diseases and pests. Therefore, mature trees do not require much effort from the gardener.
In the first year after planting, the plant will need regular watering. Even minimal drying out of the soil can lead to a weakening of the plant. Therefore, in the dry season, trees are watered at least once a week for 10 liters per bush.
Mature trees are watered as the soil dries at 10 cm. Water consumption depends on the size of the plant - from 20 to 30 liters. Between irrigation, loosening and weeding of the stem are carried out.
The fruits of the cherry in the summer
In the first year, additional fertilizing will not be necessary; the fertilizers introduced into the planting pit are sufficient for the full development of the tree. Subsequently, trees are fed several times during the growing season.
- the introduction of a solution of urea (30 g / 10 l) before flowering and after blooming,
- fertilizing with organic matter (manure, compost 5 kg / 1m2) after flowering,
- introduction of the mineral complex (PK) in the fall.
The purpose of the autumn fertilizer is to increase the winter hardiness of the plant. For the same purpose, water-charging irrigation will be useful. It is made when establishing dry weather in the third decade of October. To do this, under each adult tree shed up to 20 buckets of water. Irrigation is carried out gradually, pouring water in portions, waiting for the moisture to be completely absorbed.
Disease and pest prevention
Every autumn, finely cherry cherries are cleaned of lichen, moss and peeled bark. From planting circle clean and dispose of all plant waste.
Blooming cherry park
Significantly reduces the risk of pest damage by surface digging around the wheel circle. Often, you can find eggs laying or the pests themselves, settled in the soil for wintering. They are destroyed by hand.
After that, the trees are sprayed with insecticides. To do this, you can apply the oil-soap solution (400g / 50g / 10l) or chamomile drug infusion (10 kg / 10l). In case of severe damage by pests, chemicals are used.
Fungicides will help protect against fungal diseases. For spraying finely cherry cherries apply 1% Bordeaux liquid. Consumption for trees under 6 years old - 2 liters, for older trees up to 10 liters. Re-treatment with fungicides is carried out in the spring before bud break.
Preparing for the winter
After all the sanitary and preventive measures, the cherry is sheltered for winter. This is especially important for trees under 4 years old.
First of all, you need to cover the near-stem circle of 5-7 cm with a layer of mulch. For this you need loose material: peat, sawdust or humus.
Peeled boles must be whitened. For this purpose, ready-made means are used: “Protection” or “BC-551”. The protective mixture can be prepared by yourself.
- clay 1 kg
- lime 1 kg,
- mullein 300 g,
- copper sulphate 200 g
The components are dissolved in warm water to the state of thick cream. This mixture provides versatile protection: the smell of mullein scares rodents, copper sulfate inhibits the development of fungal spores, lime and clay prevent sunburn.
A week before the frost, the shtamb trees are covered with warm non-woven fiber. Young saplings bend down to the ground and cover with spruce branches. Covering material is important to remove after sustained warming. Prolonged exposure to a warm material leads to the subsidence of shoots and roots.
While watching the video, you will learn about cherry care.
Selection work and studies of finely cherry cherries are carried out constantly. The purpose of these works is to increase frost resistance and winter resistance, expanding the range of cultivation. Perhaps soon the plant can be grown in the middle regions of horticulture.
Characteristics and varieties
This culture refers to heat-loving plants, for which a decrease in air temperature below -15 ° C is destructive. Only some varieties bred by crossing the most winter-hardy species can withstand more severe frosts. It is also possible to increase frost resistance by grafting sakura on wild spicy serrated cherries.
In Russia, the most winter-hardy varieties cultivated both in the southern and temperate climatic zones are very popular:
- Royal Burgund,
- Kiku Shidare
- Sakura Payan,
Sakura blooms in spring, the duration of flowering, depending on the type of decorative culture, can vary from two weeks to two months. During this period of time, the branches of plants are abundantly covered with unusually beautiful flowers of red, pink and crimson colors. Also, it should be noted the exquisite aroma of sakura during the flowering period.
According to the descriptions of ornamental and fruit crops, Sakura differs from ordinary cherries in a wide spreading crown with strongly branched shoots. The crust with numerous cracks of different depths is painted in a saturated red-brown shade.
Planting and care
Novice gardeners are interested in how to plant a sapling of finely serpentine cherries and organize further care of the saplings so that the plant can be actively developed. For planting sakura it is better to give preference to well-lit and ventilated areas of the garden, which are located on an elevation.
The optimal place for planting decorative cherries is the near-wall option, where there is no stagnant moisture during the rainy and flood periods. Next to sakura can grow various fruit crops (cherry, cherry, apple or plum). Between plants withstand a distance of 1.5–2 m.
It is better to buy saplings of frost-resistant sakura varieties in specialized nurseries or from gardeners with a good reputation. Choose grafted seedlings.
Immediately before planting the tree, apply fertilizer to the soil: sulphate-potassium solution, superphosphates, or complex top-dressings. During planting, ensure that the vaccination site remains above the ground surface. At the end of the process, water the tree well and mulch the soil in a circle around the tree.
At first, you need to carefully monitor the condition of the young tree: water in a timely manner, trying not to re-moisten the soil, quickly remove weeds and do not forget to loosen the ground in the near-stem circle so that the root system can receive oxygen.
Diseases and pests
Unlike fruit crops, decorative cherry is less susceptible to various diseases and invasions of harmful insects.
However, with improper care, the immunity of the ornamental culture weakens, plants infect fungus and bacteria. In the future, there is a slowdown in the growth and development of the tree, deformation of the leaf plate, a decrease in flowering density, formation of growths on young shoots, stratification of the bark. To the plant did not die, it is necessary to immediately take measures to eliminate the disease:
- process the affected areas with sulfur-carbon powder,
- remove the growths on the branches, the formed "wounds" cover garden pitch,
- collect all the fallen leaves and burn,
- dig up the soil in a wheel circle.
If melkopilchataya cherry suffers from a fungal infection, Bordeaux liquid (1%) will come to the rescue. In the fight against malicious insects can not do without special insecticidal agents.
Advantages and disadvantages
One glance at the Japanese cherry during the flowering period is enough to understand that this stone fruit has no flaws. After examining carefully a lot of reviews gardeners, we can note the fact that some varieties and varieties of sakura is still difficult to cope with the harsh Russian winters.
Another disadvantage of this plant is small and sour fruits that our compatriots did not like.
We turn to the positive qualities of melkopilchataya cherries. The first thing to note is the appearance of these plants. Undoubtedly, thanks to its appearance, Sakura will be the main decoration of your garden plot. Also, the advantages of this decorative cherry include a slight whimsicalness to the growing conditions and the flexibility of the crown to the formation.