Unpretentious herbaceous perennial, which flaunts in the beds of gardeners - vervain. The flowering period of the plant, with proper care, lasts until the frost. In the northern regions, verbena is grown in open ground as an annual, which is explained by the low level of frost resistance. It grows well in tropical and temperate climates. Verbena came to Europe in the XVII – XVIII centuries, at that time it was considered sacred grass, church ministers used it to cleanse the altar. Breeders brought a large number of varieties of different shades.
Types of Vervain
This flower is a perennial strongly branching plant from South America, which belongs to the verbenaceae family. Depending on the type of plant height varies from 20 to 100-125 cm. Stems can be straight or creeping, leafless and with lowered edges. The foliage is shaggy, round or oval in a light green color. Small flowers are collected in complexes inflorescences. The root system is compact, so the plant is perfect for growing on a balcony or windowsill in flower pots and pots.
There are more than 250 varieties of vervain, each of which has its own characteristics:
- Hybrid Verbena - the most common variety in gardeners. Compact, with creeping, branched stems, up to 55 cm high. This variety is divided into Compact and Large-flowered subspecies.
- Canadian verbena is an annual plant, characterized by thin stems up to 25 cm high. The bush is densely covered with pink, purple or white flowers.
- Rigid vervain is distinguished by small lilac flowers in inflorescences, creeping tetrahedral stems.
- Buenos Aireskaya verbena is a tall variety, the bush grows up to 125 cm. The stems are straight, rigid. The flower is characterized by the simultaneous flowering of many small amethyst-colored flowers, which are collected in small inflorescences.
- Ampel verbena is an annual fast-growing plant that is used for growing in hanging pots. The stems grow up to 70 cm in length, so they effectively hang down.
- Drug and lemon verbena are perennial bushes whose inflorescences have healing properties, and therefore are used to normalize blood pressure, eliminate spasms, and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Oil from such verbena has an antiseptic effect.
The flower bush will take root in almost every corner of the garden, but the most beautiful flowers will grow on a plot with good lighting - foliage and inflorescences do not fade under the scorching sun. Fertile loam is suitable soil for growing a flower, but it will grow on other loose and permeable soils. It is recommended to use a drainage layer of broken brick, stone, crushed stone or expanded clay, which will protect the roots from possible decay with an excess of moisture.
Preseeding preparation of planting material is not needed, when grown in this way, but there are some nuances:
- On the prepared soil mixture evenly distribute the seeds, without digging. At an air temperature of 23-26 degrees, the seeds hatch after 2 days. After this, the future seedlings should be placed in a cooler room, since the plant does not like excess heat. The best time for sowing seeds is February – March.
- Verbena for seedlings requires moderate watering, for young shoots, excess moisture is destructive.
- Plants in open soil can be subject to sustained heat. If there is a risk of night frost, it is better to postpone this process. The plant is able to tolerate frost minus 3 degrees, but lower temperatures will quickly destroy the plant.
- To get seedlings with a powerful root system, you can swoop down on special cups.
Reproduction by cuttings
It is necessary to harvest planting material for reproduction in this way since autumn. Before the first frosts, the flower bushes are dug together with a large amount of land, transferred to a cool place - basement, cellar, storeroom with air temperature not more than 10 degrees. Reproduction features of verbena cuttings:
- Shank - neatly cut off the tip of the shoot with 5-6 leaves. Cut the stalk is treated with ash or crushed charcoal. Lower leaves are recommended to be removed, leaving only the top two.
- Grafting is recommended in early spring.
- Rooting cuttings recommended in a mixture of peat and sand. Deepen the lower sliced leaves (1-2 pieces). On top of the container with the cuttings covered with polyethylene, to maintain the required level of humidity. In 20–30 days each cutting will have its own root system.
This flower is not fastidious, it is not susceptible to viral diseases and is rarely affected by garden pests, therefore, care for it is simple - timely watering, loosening, feeding, mulching and weeding. It is important to prevent thickening of crops and excess moisture. If the plants are planted in groups, then we need to fight with weeds only for the first time, because the bushes quickly grow and weeds are clogged. With a single planting, the plant needs timely weeding throughout the entire flowering period.
In conditions of heat, after abundant watering, the soil must be loosened in order to provide air to the roots. To protect the soil from drying out and compaction, you can use mulch - rotten leaves, sawdust, straw, or special material - spunbond. Regular watering is a prerequisite for active growth and abundant flowering; it is necessary to moisten the soil as needed to prevent the development of diseases. As a top dressing, you can use mineral fertilizers or organic matter - compost, humus, but not more than 1-2 times per season.
Varieties and types
Not many species of this plant are cultivated.
Verbena Buenos Airesca or Bonar - in the wild is a perennial. The height of the stems above the meter, the leaves are lanceolate. Flowers form spikelets, have a slightly purple hue.
Verbena officinalis, popularly called iron box, Juno's tear, dry nehvorosch - It is a perennial reaching 50 cm tall. The leaves are opposite, serrated. Flowers are collected in ears, lilac coloring.
Verbena hybrid - most often grown with us. Stems are creeping and straight, reaching half a meter in length. Leaves oblong, covered with down. Inflorescences form umbrellas of different colors, depending on the variety.
Lemon Verbena - grows above 70 cm tall. Stem erect. Leaves resemble lemon. Flowers are not bright purple, form a panicle.
Verbena planting and care in the open field
Planting vervain in open ground and care for it are quite simple, but it is necessary to comply with these wishes.
Verbena requires constant watering during the period of green mass and flowering, after which watering is reduced. Sometimes you need to loosen the soil. Do this procedure in hot weather, after watering. Get rid of weeds, but if you have several bushes of a plant, they will soon choke the weeds.
Growing vervain, it is necessary to carry out fertilizer mineral and organic fertilizers. For the season, you need to feed once a moderate amount of organic matter, since with an excess of verbena does not bloom, and fertilize three times with mineral dressing.
Verbena bloom is very beautiful, if the time to pruning withered flowers, the flowering will last much longer. In our weather conditions, verbena is grown as an annual plant, so no transplant is performed. In November, the flower is disposed of, and the soil is dug up.
To collect the seeds of verbena, you need to wait for the seed boxes to become brown. Inflorescences with testes dried on paper, sometimes turning, to avoid the appearance of mold. Further, the seeds are simply collected and kept in a paper convolution.
In our belt, only verbena straight can winter and grow as a perennial plant. To save it in winter, you need to cut the stems to the ground, and warm the area.
Verbena seed growing
Verbena is simply propagated by seed, but some species need to be stratified, as they have a thick shell. Seeds of such species are wrapped in a damp cloth, put in an opaque bag and left in the fridge for 4 days. Seeds after cold treatment are simply sown in the soil, but the material can also be sown on seedlings.
For seedlings sow the material you need in early spring in the sand or humus soil. Seeds cover a little with humus and covered with glass, sometimes ventilated.
Germination temperature should not exceed 20ºC. After three or four weeks, the seeds will sprout and they will need to be placed in another place with a temperature that will be even lower by a couple of degrees. Sprouted flowers should be sprayed with water when the soil dries out.
When they form two or three leaves, the plants dive into separate containers. 15 days after the dive, vervain must be fertilized with mineral fertilizer.
For the formation of a bush in ampel varieties, it is necessary to pinch above the fifth leaf (but in low varieties branching is already so good).
Reproduction of verbena cuttings begins in the fall
Before starting the frosts, the plants should be dug out and, without removing the soil from them, placed in a cool place (maximum 10ºC). The tops of the cuttings for cuttings are cut off in the spring, but if you want to grow a flower in a pot, you can do it whenever you want.
The cuttings should have no less than 4 pairs of leaves at the top, and those below should be removed. Places of cuts sprinkle with coal.
For rooting, the material is planted in sand mixed with peat. Place the stalk in the soil to the level of the lower cut leaf. Next, seedlings need to form greenhouse conditions, after about a month your verbens will have roots.
Diseases and pests
- If you take good care of vervain, then it should not be affected by pests and diseases.
- But if the plant gets too much water, then it can get powdery mildew, which is determined by the white spots on the leaves.
- Too much moisture can also cause rot. In this case, there may be a spotting, as well as a high probability of black legs.
- If the verbena leaves dry and turn yellow, then, most likely, on the contrary, it lacks moisture.
- If fertilizer is too abundant with nitrogen fertilizer, verbena will not bloom well or this process will not start at all.
Vervain tincture has a wide spectrum of action. It is taken to eliminate insomnia, with migraines, thrombosis, loss of strength, it has a tonic effect, reduces inflammation, helps reduce the temperature.
It can not be used during lactation, pregnant women, as well as with too much sensitivity to the components of the tincture.
The plant belongs to the whole Verben family and includes about 250 different species that feel well in the tropical and subtropical climate of the Mediterranean and the Americas, from where it has spread throughout the world.
In Russia, verbena, planting and caring for which do not present difficulties, grows as a herbaceous plant or shrub, either annual or perennial, due to its low winter hardiness. Depending on the variety, it has different stems: erect, creeping or prostrate, which may be smooth or slightly rough.
Verbena leaves are dark green in color, slightly pubescent, edges depend on the type: dentate, dissected, or pinnately incised. Located on the stem in turn or, on the contrary, in pairs. In the inflorescence, usually there are 30-50 small flowers 1.5-2.5 cm in size, collected in corollas with 5 petals.
Depending on the variety, proper planting and care, verbena flowers (photo below), painted in a wide variety of shades of white, blue, yellow, dark red and blue. They are able to bloom for a long time, from June to November. Pollination is usually carried out by moths, however, due to the commonness, self-pollination is also possible.
In the open ground, verbena can safely winter only in the southern regions, where it grows to a shrub 1 m high. In conditions of central Russia, the plant stuck exclusively as an annual.
The history of vervain and its medicinal properties
The origin of the name Verbena takes its roots from ancient Rome, in Latin “verbum” means “word”, where the beauty of its flowers was personified with the goddess of love, Venus. In Egypt, they were considered the tears of Isis, in other countries - drops of blood of Mercury, the grass of mercy or holiness.
Ancient Christians consider verbena to be the baptized blood of Christ because it was first discovered on Mount Calvary and used to stop the bleeding from his wounds. Since then, she was credited with the possibility of aversion of evil and healing of wounds.
The verbena and the Druids, who were in awe of this plant, did not ignore their attention, endowing it with the qualities of healing diseases, reconciling sworn enemies and stirring up the fire of love.
Verbena a couple of tea, or medicinal (Verbena officinalis) refers to perennial plants with a height of up to 0.8 m, has a long stem and oblong leaves with short petioles. Coloring flowers with 5 petals, collected in panicles: light purple. For therapeutic purposes, use all the above-ground parts, the roots are not harvested.
Verbena properties are used to treat vegetative-vascular dystonia. These are antispasmodic and blood circulation improving features in the vessels. Due to this, they relieve headache and dizziness, stabilize blood pressure. Also, the plant is used to treat gastric diseases and diarrhea, for diseases of the throat.
Sowing seeds and seedling preparation
Verbena is planted and propagated in 3 ways: by seeds, cuttings and dividing the bushes. Important issues when growing verbena: planting and care when sow. Photos of seeds clearly show that they are very small and have an oblong shape.
For the cultivation of vervain seedlings for planting should be carried out no earlier than the end of March - beginning of April. When buying seeds in a store, you should definitely pay attention to the shelf life (3-5 years) and take into account that hybrid varieties have a lower germination rate than others. Vervain seed, harvested from his garden, does not always repeat the varietal qualities of the mother plants.
The soil is prepared light with the obligatory content of humus. It is recommended to stratify the seeds, i.e. hold in a damp cloth in the refrigerator for 3-4 days at a temperature of + 2ºС- + 4ºС. Then spread out on the soil surface, lightly sprinkled with a layer of humus no more than 5 mm thick, friendly shoots appear after 20-30 days, at room temperature - after 2-3 weeks.
Be sure to take into account that young seedlings do not like waterlogging due to the possible rotting of the roots, so the boxes covered with glass should definitely be ventilated. In the stage of 2 leaves, small vervains dive into separate pots. After 2 weeks, make the first fertilizing complex fertilizers, ready seedlings can be transplanted into open ground in May.
Reproduction by cutting and dividing the bush
There are varieties of vervain that do not give seeds. For their reproduction using cuttings. As a preparation, the necessary plant is put in advance for the winter in a cool room with a temperature of up to + 10ºС.
The procedure is carried out in February or March, for which the top part with 4-6 pairs of leaves is cut from the top of the plant. At the bottom of the cutting should be the tip at a distance of about 1 cm from the sheet, the lower cut is sprinkled with crushed coal. Leaves all you need to remove, except for the top.
The soil for rooting is taken sand-peat (in equal proportions), sand or perlite. A match is made fossa, in which the stalk sits, the top box covered with glass or polyethylene. Root system development usually lasts 2-4 weeks.
The method of reproduction by dividing the bush can be used only for verbena drug.
Verbena: planting and care in the open field
These flowers are often planted to decorate the gardens, they take root on any soil and prefer areas with bright sunlight. For planting, loams are ideal for good moisture penetration after frequent loosening. When planting on heavier soils they add sand. From below it is better to make a training apparatus of expanded clay or fragments of brick.
Prepared seedlings are planted in the open ground at the end of spring with a distance of about 25 cm, preferably in rainy weather. With dry soil, 0.5 liters of water is added to each well, then a young plant is planted, covering the roots and pressing it slightly.
For vervain, planting and care (photo below) is simple and includes loosening, watering and dressing. Be sure to avoid excess moisture and plant thickening. Weeding must be done regularly. Later, when the bushes grow, it is no longer needed.
To avoid drying out of the soil, it is better to mulch it with a layer of rotted foliage. In the active growth phase, watering is recommended often, and in the second half of the summer - less often.
Подкормку необходимо проводить комплексными удобрениями. It should be borne in mind that an excess of organic matter can reduce the number of buds and increase the growth of green parts due to the large amount of nitrogen, therefore manure and compost can be applied only once per season. With proper planting and care, verbena flowers (photo below) will delight with their bright colors for several months.
In conditions of central Russia, a plant can only be grown as an annual, as it does not tolerate frosts and cold snaps below -3ºС. However, there is a single variety that can withstand such climatic conditions - is upright verbena.
When preparing for winter, the stalks of vervain, planting and care in the open field, behind which allowed her to get stronger and grow well, are recommended to be cut to the ground level, then covered with spruce from above. In the spring, new shoots from the preserved root will grow.
Variety of species and varieties
Over the past years, breeders deduced many varieties of vervain, planting and caring for which do not pose any difficulty. There are erect and creeping plants, ampelous and hybrid.
The following plant species and varieties are most common:
- The straight line (Verbena stricta) comes from the countries of North America, where it grows in the form of perennial up to 1.5 m high, the foliage has a gray-green shade, the flowers are blue-violet, the inflorescences reach 40 cm in length,
- The moon river (Moon river) is a creeping plant variety up to 30 cm in height, the flowers are gathered in umbrella-shaped inflorescences in the form of a “fir-tree”, the shade is dark purple,
- Verbena Buenos Airesca (Verbena bonariensis) - comes from the countries of South and Central America, in our conditions it is planted as an annual, represents upright bushes up to 1.2 m, has elongated leaves and small flowers of the color "amethyst", collected in large spikelets , flowering time: summer and until the end of autumn, the seeds in the form of nuts ripen by the end of September.
Ampelnye varieties of vervain
Covered with bright flowers, hanging from flowerpots or boxes on the balcony, verbena plants can be a wonderful option for decorating a home or garden. Ampel varieties are distinguished by endurance, drought tolerance and a variety of colors that are slightly smaller in size compared to other species.
Popular varieties of ampelous vervain:
- The Snow Queen - has inflorescences of 5 different colors (purple, blue, pink, red, etc.), most often planted in balcony drawers or pots, the length of the hanging stem can reach 0.6 m,
- Tapien - different openwork leaves and long shoots, abundant flowering and colorful,
- Quartz XP Silver - undersized plants (up to 25 cm), having large inflorescences of light lilac color with silver,
- Empress Peach - shoots in length grow to 25-50 cm, the color of flowers - pale cream.
Growing of ampelous varieties from seeds has its own nuances: at the stage of 5-6 leaves, the plant should be pinched, which will stimulate its active branching. When planting seedlings on a balcony or in pots, an open and sunny place is picked up, which is usually done in May-June. On average, plant 2-3 plants in each pots with a capacity of up to 5 liters. 40-50 plants per square meter can be planted in open ground. m
When growing ampelous vervain, planting and care consist in loosening the soil during the growth period, regular morning watering every 2 days, mulching with leaves, fertilizing with organic matter and mineral complex fertilizers. During the flowering period, it is necessary to remove wilted buds, which stimulates the laying of new ones.
Hybrid varieties are very popular in ornamental gardening, which breeders have been breeding since 1830. Their main difference is the presence of a peephole in the center of the flower, as well as its correct shape, as seen in the photo vervain. Planting and caring for plants is quite simple. Numerous flowers of hybrid form are collected in large inflorescences up to 50, the colors are very diverse: from white to bright scarlet and purple.
Most popular hybrid varieties:
- Wrinkled - decorated with delicate lilac-lilac flowers,
- Canadian verbena has bright red hues,
- Defiance grows with creeping shrubs up to a height of 30 cm, has inflorescences of 4-5 cm with a bright red hue, in the center is a greenish-cream star-shaped eye,
- Etna (Etna) is a small shrub up to 50 cm tall, inflorescences up to 6 cm, umbrella-shaped, with 45-55 alo-red flowers with a cream eye up to 2.7 cm in diameter,
- Julia - is decorated with dark purple flowers with a white middle,
- Schneekenigin (Schneekenigin) - a bush with pure white flowers with a light salad peephole up to 2 cm in diameter.
The use of vervain in landscape design
This plant is multifunctional and widely distributed in home gardens and cottages. The only drawback is the impossibility of planting it in an apartment, where even with proper planting and caring for flowers, it will be problematic to provide her with a lot of light, air and night coolness.
A variety of species allows using verbena in different situations to decorate and improve decoration, not only on the site:
- the formation of bright borders along the paths in the garden of low-growing varieties,
- application in flowerbeds and flower compositions, for which it is recommended to select the color of flowers in one shade,
- mass plantings will create the maximum decorative effect, differing in multicolor, it may be combined with asters, cereals and marigolds,
- decoration of a garden, arbors or a balcony with the help of ampelous species of vervain.
Bright colors and variety of vervain varieties, planting and caring for which are available to both beginners and experienced gardeners, will allow this plant to become an ornament to any garden or country cottage, as well as a balcony in a high-rise building.
Common types of vervain
Today, verbena is one of the most common plants among growers. Many gardeners, making beds on their plots, opt for this particular flower. Such popularity is justified beautiful and long flowering, unpretentious care. The most famous types of verbena are considered to be:
Let's tell about them in more detail.
Canadian verbena is a beautiful garden plant with long open leaflets and delicate buds, pink, purple, purple and white shades. The inflorescences of this species consist of small flowers, which form complex umbrellas. Canadian verbena rarely grows above twenty centimeters.
This species is perennial, but is grown in Russia as an annual plant. It may bloom all summer and during the two autumn months, but this is individual and depends on the climatic conditions of the growing region.
Verbena hybrid is a species that includes various hybrids and varieties of vervain, bred in the early nineteenth century. It belongs to the herbaceous perennials, but is grown as an annual plant.
Verbena hybrid is a highly branching garden plant. Its stems can reach fifty centimeters in length and be standing or creeping. The leaves have an oblong or triangular shape, depending on the variety and are covered with a light fuzz.
Inflorescences are complex, in the form of umbrellas, consist of thirty to fifty small neat buds. The color scheme is very diverse, the flowers can be painted in different colors from white to dark purple. In some species, inflorescences are drawn into the spikelet.
Verbena is tough
Verbena tough is grown in Russia as a grassy annual plant, but in fact is a perennial. It has strongly branching stems, which can be creeping or erect, depending on the species. It has a hard, elongated leaves with pointy edges and fluff on the downside. Inflorescences lilac, collected from small flowers.
Verbena Buenos Airesca
Verbena Buenos Aireskaya - is considered one of the largest members of the family. Its stems can reach one hundred twenty centimeters in length. This bushy perennial consists of a pronounced central stem and a variety of lateral shoots covered with thin, elongated leaves with jagged edges.
The inflorescences of the verbena of Buenos Airesa look like magnificent umbrellas, which are formed from delicate lilac flowers gathered in spikelets.
All varieties of vervain can brag fairly long flowering period from June to October. Then from the inflorescences are formed fruits in the form of nuts. From nuts, you can get a large number of seeds that are able to survive for at least two years.
Preparing for planting flowers
Although vervain and extremely light-loving plant, it can feel good in the shaded part of the garden, as well as delight with its bright and long flowering. It tolerates temperature fluctuations well, but still recommended to land it in open ground only when the risk of frost return is almost minimal.
This garden plant is best planted in a moderately fertile calcareous soil, but it can take root on almost any soil. If the land in the place where the placement of the verbena is planned is too dense, then it should be diluted with a small amount of sand. Experienced growers recommend to cover the bottom of the wells for seedlings with a layer of drainage material.
After the flowering period, the plant starts to shape fruit. They are very reminiscent of nuts, within which seeds ripen. They can be collected and used for growing seedlings for the next year. To do this, rely on the following tips:
- For harvesting planting material, take only mature fruits. They can be recognized by dark brown color.
- When the fruits ripen and dry, carefully cut them and place them on the newspaper so that they are completely dry.
- So that the seeds are not moldy, the fruit should be turned over periodically.
- After the nuts have dried completely, cut and remove the seeds.
- Seeds best keep in paper bags.
- Planting material collected independently, does not preserve varietal characteristics and quality. Therefore, the collection of seeds from plants of hybrid varieties does not make sense.
Growing seedlings from seeds and cuttings
Growing seedlings from seeds is quite simple, even beginning gardeners can handle it. The best time for sowing seeds is the beginning of spring. In winter, the plant germinates very long and reluctantly, but in March it rises quickly, within ten to twenty days. If you want to accelerate the emergence of seedlings, then before placing the seeds in the ground they should be soaked in a special preparation - a growth stimulator.
Sowing seeds for seedlings are as follows:
- Prepare the soil and pour it into the tankwhere you plan to grow seedlings.
- Spread the seeds evenly over the ground surface. Powder or deepen crops are not required.
- To speed up the germination process, you can create greenhouse conditions for seeds. To do this, cover the container with food film, plastic bag or glass.
If you maintain the necessary temperature in the tank, namely twenty-five degrees of heat, then the first shoots will appear in three to four days. After that, the container with small verbens should be removed in a cool place. Young animals do not like too high humidity, so watering should be carried out moderately.
Another way to get new young plants is cutting, it is also carried out in spring.
To propagate vervain Using this method, follow the steps:
- Carefully trim the top shoots of the mother plant. The resulting cutting must have at least four pairs of leaves.
- Remove the lower pair of leaves, remember where they were located and embed the cutting into the soil at this level.
To use this method, take the sand-peat soil. For the cuttings to root quickly, for the first time, provide them with greenhouse conditions. To do this, cover the box with future seedlings with a transparent film or glass. The average time of root formation is a month.
About a month after the appearance of the first shoots, the seedlings should have the first true leaf. In this situation, it will need to dive, and after two weeks to fertilize with nitrogen-containing feedings. If you grow varieties with tall stems, pinch the top of the seedlings. This will further help you get neat and lush bushes.
It is best to plant seedlings in open ground in early June. So that she got accustomed well and transferred her first night under the open sky, before planting, temper the seedlings. To do this in the spring in warm weather, leave it for some time on the balcony or open veranda.
When planting verbena, keep in mind that the plant will grow in the future, so there should be a distance of twenty to thirty centimeters between the bushes. If disembarking takes place in rather dry weather, be sure to moisten the wells well.
The soil around the vervain should be periodically loosened, especially after the rains. You will also need to remove all weeds that grew in the flower bed. If you do not like to mess with weeds, then you will be interested in the trick that many growers use. When planting seedlings, place the bushes in the garden quite close to each other, at a distance of twenty to twenty-five centimeters. When the flowers get stronger and grow, they will cope with all weeds themselves and in the future, they simply will not let them grow again.
Watering and feeding
Verbena requires regular but moderate watering. It is very simple to determine whether a plant needs moisture: if the ground around the bushes is completely dry, it’s time to take a watering can, if it is wet, the plant does not need watering at the moment. It is especially important to take into account these moments in rooting verbena period. From mid-July, watering can be done less often.
Too hard to feed these garden flowers is not worth it. For the entire summer period, they will need three or four fertilizer procedures. Organic supplements are made only once for the whole season. In general, you should be careful with fertilizers, because there is a risk of overfeeding vervain, and in such cases it will go into active growth, but it will bloom very badly.
Verbena is a perennial plant, but it is not able to survive the harsh Russian winter and therefore it is grown here as an annual. In the fall all the bushes are removed from the flower beds, and the earth is dug up. But many growers use a method that allows them to save these plants until next year.
For this, before the winter cold comes, a bush is carefully dug out of the ground with all the roots and transplanted into pots. Thus, you can move the verbena to the apartment, where she can easily spend the winter. It is best to keep it in a bright but cool room. Sometimes verbena begin to bloom in winter. In such cases, should remove the buds and prune too long shoots.
In early spring, the plant is pruned and planted back on the garden bed. Verbena will immediately begin to actively grow and bush. The flowering period in such plants will begin much earlier than in young plants grown from seeds or shoots.
Disease and Prevention
With proper cultivation and care, verbena is quite resistant to various diseases. But with too much watering the plant can be affected by powdery mildew. Recognizing this disease is quite simple - verbena leaves. get purple tint. To get rid of powdery mildew, infected leaves should be removed and sprayed all the bushes with a solution of special preparations to combat diseases of flowering plants.
Excessive watering can wilt vervaina. The main symptom of this disease is the rotting of the root system, leaves and stems. To save the plant will need to stop watering and process the bushes with fungicides.
Verbena is attacked by some insect pests. These include miners flies. They eat the leaves and stems of plants, which leads to a violation of substances and slow wilt and death. To get rid of these parasites, verbena sprayed with against garden pests.
In the cultivation of vervaina is nothing complicated, the information from our article can help novice gardeners in the initial stages.
What is this plant?
The birthplace of the flower is South America. In the open field they grow a plant as an annual. It can survive only in the southern regions, as it has a low resistance to frost.
The minimum height of a bush is 20 cm. Leaves are shaggy, oval or rounded in shape, have small notches. Sheet plate light green. The root system has a compact size. Small flowers are collected in complex umbrella-shaped inflorescences. Depending on the type of vervain, its flowers can take the following color:
Plant blooms from June to October. At the same time on one bush can bloom up to 30 inflorescences.
Then you can see the photos of perennial flowers:
In the open ground
Verbena tolerates a slight decrease in temperature (-3 degrees). Но вот продолжительные холода скажутся на растении плохо. Так что посадку в грунт лучше всего проводить в мае, когда на улице установится теплая погода, а вероятность возвращения заморозков отсутствует.
Порядок действий при посадке:
- На подготовленном для посадки месте нужно перекопать грунт. В процессе перекопки внести 5 кг перегноя на 1 м2 и 40 г комплексных удобрений.
- В подготовленном грунте выкопать лунки. Their size should be identical to the size of the earthy coma. Between the holes should be maintained distance, it is determined based on the type of vervain. If it is compact bushes, then the distance will be 20 cm, medium - 30 cm, and large - 40-50 cm.
- Moisten the wells before planting by adding 0.4-0.5 liters of water. Shrub set and cover the hole with earth, much compacting it.
- After transplantation in open ground, if the summer is hot, then the young plants should be regularly irrigated until rooting occurs.
One of the most common types of verbena, which feels good on the open field, beautifully and long blooms and looks great in boxes and pots on the veranda or in the garden - this is verbena finely dissected. We told about it in another article.
At home, verbena is planted in hanging containers:
- Choose a spacious tank with drainage holes.
- Fill it with a drainage layer (use expanded clay, thickness 2 cm).
- Lay the substrate.
- Posting seeds or cuttings with roots.
- Add soil, compact and moderate water.
This representative of the decorative flora at home can be grown using, for example, a hanging pots. Not bad, she will feel in the usual pot.
The procedure for winter and early spring at home:
- On the surface of the moistened soil in a container with drainage holes lay the seeds with a distance of 3-4 cm.
- Sprinkle with a thin layer of humus. Cover the container with plastic wrap, due to which the seeds begin to germinate faster.
- Set the capacity of seedlings in a semi-shaded place. As soon as the seeds begin to spit up (1-2 weeks), provide them with full coverage and daily ventilation. To do this, remove the film for 10-15 minutes.
- Then it is important not to overdo it with watering. Otherwise, the plants get sick with a black leg. When watering do not allow the ingress of water on the tender shoots. Pour only on the edge of the pot, so that the liquid glass on the rim to the bottom.
- When all the seeds have risen, the shelter can be removed altogether. Aftercare consists of regular watering.
- As soon as 3 true leaves are formed, a pick should be carried out. To do this, use separate cups. Care must be taken not to injure the roots.
- Young plants need feeding. It is better to use liquid complex fertilizer. You need to make it once a week. For branching and abundant flowering, plucking of the growing point above the 4-5th leaf is carried out.
- If you grow low-growing hybrids, then they do not make sense to form a bush, as they perfectly branch independently. Read about hybrid verbena here.
- Before planting in the open ground (10-12 days), seedlings have to be prepared by exposing her balcony so that she gets used to the sun and fresh air. Such a “walk” should first take 2 hours, but with each day this time should be increased by 30 minutes. And when the weather is warm, leave the sprouts to sleep on the street.
Vervain transplant in the spring. It is very easy to do this by transferring earthen coma. Even during flowering, the plant tolerates this procedure very well. The following recommendations will help in this:
- If the transplant is carried out in a container, then lay quality drainage at the bottom. Its thickness is 2-3 cm. Use expanded clay or pebbles.
- Prepare a loose and fertile substrate. If you cook it yourself, then mix 2 parts of fine sand with 1 part of peat.
- Fill the container with 1/3 nutrient primer, cross the earthy clod with a flower and add the remaining substrate.
- Water the plant and leave it for 2-3 days alone, not watering it and protecting it from direct sunlight.
How to care?
Plant care should include:
- Lighting. Verbena grows well and grows if you plant it on a sanctified site. At the same time create protection from drafts and wind.
- Temperature. Verbena is a heat-loving crop. It is grown at a temperature of 16-20 degrees. With the onset of cold plant will die, so that in Russia it is used as an annual.
- Humidity. Verbena feels great in conditions of moderate humidity. Also, periodically you need to spray the leaves of the plant with cool water.
- Watering. Regular moistening is an important event in the period of active growth and flowering of vervain. In the second half of summer, the amount of moisture will be reduced. Use only separated and soft water. Water 2-3 times a week.
- Fertilizers. For feeding plants are well suited complex drugs. You can use not only mineral compounds, but also organic (compost, humus). But they do not need to be abused.
Diseases and growing problems
The following problems may occur when growing vervain:
- Root decay. The main reason lies in excessive watering. This can be prevented if you take care of quality drainage.
- Of the parasites attack the plant mites and aphids. To combat them use insecticides. A good result can be obtained with irrigation with tar water (5 drops of birch tar per 10 liters of water).
- If the plant is hit mining flies, then bite marks are noticeable on the leaves. To fight using the following insecticides:
- Prevention. Verbena is sick extremely rarely. But preventive maintenance is still necessary. She suggests avoiding excessive soil moistening, due to which the plant can infect blackleg and other viral diseases. Save the flower is no longer possible, so you have to get rid of it.
Grow any vervain under the force of any florist, even a beginner. The main thing is to properly prepare planting material, soil and create full-fledged conditions for the growth and development of the flower. And only then verbena will thank for its lush flowering and beautiful views.