Iron is a substance that is needed not only by humans, but also by plants. It requires significantly less than other trace elements. However, it is extremely necessary for normal growth and development of plants. Most importantly, iron should be available. Therefore, a universal drug was created - iron chelate. This substance can significantly improve the condition of plants. What is this drug?
Is it possible to do without him?
Iron chelate for plants is simply irreplaceable. After all, the microelement in it is contained in an accessible form. Many believe that you can do without this drug. However, this is not the case. Some housewives water their plants with rust water. Finding it is not difficult, given that the tap water contains a lot of iron. In this case, the microelement, once in the soil, does not dissolve and is not absorbed by the plant. That is why it is necessary to use iron chelate.
The second option is the unique composition of the soil. Many believe that if the plant is planted in the ground, which is composed of dolomite or chalk, you will not need to make additional fertilizer. Unfortunately, these are mixtures that have a weak alkaline reaction. Iron, having got into such a ground, will turn into insoluble salt. As a result, the plant will need enhanced nutrition. In addition, iron in an accessible form, in contact with oxygen, is oxidized and becomes inaccessible to form. Iron chelate allows you to avoid this and provide the plant with good nutrition.
When should I use the drug
When should iron chelate be used? The use of this drug is allowed for the following phenomena:
- The plant slows growth.
- Even young leaves become chlorotic.
- Young shoots are weak and stunted.
- The amount of harvest decreases.
If the plant is severely deficient in iron, then its leaves begin to turn white. Only along their edges remain green veins. It is worth noting that the iron from the old leaves in the young does not move.
Is it useful in the garden?
Iron chelate is necessary not only for indoor plants, but also for trees in the garden. Most often, apple trees, cherries and peaches are affected by the lack of trace elements. In addition, iron may also be deficient in grapes grown on re-limeed or carbonate soil. In this case, chlorosis is observed. Symptoms of this disease are reduced yields, lightly colored fruits, as well as poor flowering. In such situations, iron chelate is simply necessary for plants.
The cost of the drug ranges from 20 to 30 rubles per 10 grams. This is a fairly high price. For the same amount you can buy up to 400 grams of iron sulphate. However, it is worth considering that the consumption of these drugs is completely different. To achieve a positive result, iron vitriol requires more.
Iron chelate penetrates plant tissue better. Therefore, it needs much less. This drug nourishes the plant completely. Iron chelate is most often used for spraying foliage, since its cost is quite high. In this case, the treatment is carried out every 1-1.5 weeks. However, there are several recipes for the preparation of iron chelate. It costs much cheaper than buying it.
How to get iron chelate at home? This will require:
- Clean water, preferably boiled - 3.5 liters.
- Iron sulfate - 1 tsp.
- Ascorbic acid - 10 grams.
The process of making iron chelate is quite simple. The main thing is to follow all the rules.
To get started is to prepare all the components. Water is recommended to boil and cool. Ascorbic acid can be purchased at the pharmacy. To iron chelate turned out, it is not recommended to buy the drug in pills and with glucose.
In ½ liter of water it is necessary to dissolve a teaspoon of iron sulfate. After this, add ascorbic acid to the solution and shake well. The resulting mixture should be poured into a container with three liters of water and mix again. Such a solution is used not only to spray the ground part of the plant, but also poured under the roots.
It is worth considering that the resulting preparation has a significant drawback: iron gradually oxidizes and precipitates. Of course, exactly the same process takes place when diluting the finished powder. Therefore, the ready solution is recommended to use immediately. Store the drug in a diluted form is not recommended.
How else is iron chelate prepared? The preparation of this drug takes a little time. This requires:
- 3 liters of water boiled and cooled.
- Citric acid - 1 tablespoon.
- Iron sulfate - 1 teaspoon with a hill.
To prepare the fertilizer, pour water into a deep container and add citric acid. When the component is completely dissolved, you should add the vitriol and mix thoroughly. As a result of such manipulations, the solution should acquire a light orange shade. This indicates that the iron reacted with the other components, and iron chelate was formed.
The finished product is stored for a short time. Experts recommend using it within a few hours after preparation. It is worth noting that getting iron chelate is an easy process that even an amateur gardener can handle. In this case, you can save money. After all, 1 bag of vitriol is enough not for one year.
The benefits of iron chelate for plants
The peculiarity of the substance is that it is a chelated iron. This allows it to simply and completely absorbed by plants, providing them with balanced nutrition for proper growth. For greenery, iron is an intermediate. It is required not so much as macronutrients, but also not so few as microelements. Therefore, this element is an indispensable component for plants.
Iron deficiency is easily identified by the plant's appearance: a light leaf plate and typical green veins on it are all symptoms of chlorosis. The disease is formed against the failure of chlorophyll production in the foliage.
Chlorosis is manifested when there is a strong iron deficiency in the soil or as a result of violations in the plant's assimilation of the element in this form. To solve the problem, it is necessary to change the methods of agricultural engineering and apply fertilizer.
The main positive qualities of chelated iron:
- absolutely non-toxic
- allowed to be used simultaneously with mineral dressings,
- completely dissolved in water and easily absorbed by greens,
- not exposed to microorganisms
- good transport activity, high permeability through the leaves,
- can be used together with toxic chemicals,
- it is universal in application (it is used in the form of root or sheet top-dressing).
The main feature of the substance - accessibility for plants. Many believe that rusty water is also a source of iron, but this is a misconception. Yes, it is there, but in this form the substance does not dissolve and can have a detrimental effect on the plant.
In some cases, even the accessible form of an element may be useless. For example:
- If the composition of the soil contains dolomite or chalk. These two components reduce the access of the substance to the plant. Even if there is a sufficient amount of it in the soil, there will still be a shortage.
- As a result of oxidation, the available form of iron may become inaccessible. Such a reaction occurs due to the interaction of the element with oxygen.
Application for plants
Iron is one of the leading places among all trace elements for plants. It is a guarantor of timely chlorophyll biosynthesis and a reliable advocate for various diseases, including chlorosis. Promotes the proper development, growing season and activation of all life processes that ensure the full growth of plants.
Regular use of microfertilizers guarantees:
- sustainable immunity of plants to negative environmental factors,
- compensation of micronutrient deficiencies, which will lead to increased resistance to diseases,
- improvement of plant respiration and photosynthesis,
- good growth and multilateral development of greenery,
- increasing the amount of iron
- normalization of metabolism
- providing the right amount of chlorophyll in the leaves.
It is possible to apply this microfertilizer as top dressing at foliar and root tillage. With significant signs of iron deficiency of maximum action can be achieved using it for foliar treatment of diseased leaves.
Fruit trees - pear, apple, plum, peach, cherry, citrus trees, as well as grapes grown on poor soils - suffer from a lack of an element. Symptoms of the disease are expressed in poor yields, poor flowering and dim fruit color. The deficit also negatively affects vegetable crops - potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, corn, cabbage.
The first method is ascorbic acid.
This method will require ascorbic acid, which can be purchased at any pharmacy. The only condition is that glucose should not be present in the ascorbic acid composition.
Stages of cooking:
- Ascorbic acid (10 g) is added to a solution of ferrous sulfate (1 tsp. per 500 ml of water),
- the mixture is diluted with boiled water (3 liters), after stirring, an iron chelate is formed.
Everything, solution is ready to use. The concentration of this solution will be approximately equal to 0.5%, so it can be used for spraying.
The second method is citric acid.
For the preparation of this method uses citric acid, you can buy it at any grocery store. Production steps:
- In boiled water (3 liters) injected citric acid (1 tbsp) and iron sulfate (1 tsp),
- with thorough mixing, a light orange mixture is obtained.
The main disadvantage of making iron chelate at home is that it cannot be stored for a long time, since iron is oxidized and precipitates.
Instructions for use
As mentioned above, the solution is used as root or foliar feeding. Root top dressing is recommended for particularly severe cases of chlorosis, foliar - for the prevention of the disease. It is important to remember that iron chelate is a substance of the third class of danger to people, therefore when working with it it is necessary to use personal protective equipment.
By foliar treatment means spraying a solution of diseased trees or plants from a spray bottle. For prophylactic purposes spraying is carried out 2 times, while diseased plants are sprayed 4 times.
The first treatment is carried out after foliage deployment, the next - in 14-21 days. Fruit trees are preferably sprayed with 0.8% iron chelate, and vegetable, berry, field, ornamental crops and vineyards - with a solution of 0.4%.
At root processing apply 0.8% solution. It is used for watering the plant directly under the root or in the holes prepared in advance (20-25 cm).
Watering is carried out in the following proportions:
- 10–20 liters - per tree,
- 1-2 liters per bush,
- 4–5 liters per 100 square meters of vegetable or berry crops.
In the instructions for use of liquid brand or chelated iron tablets, you can read other dosages. This is due to the content of the ballast components in the solution or tablet. But when recalculating to the active substance, the concentration will still remain the same.
So, if the plants are sick with chlorosis or it is necessary to improve their photosynthesis, there is no better assistant than iron chelate. Ease of preparation, use and its cheapness are indisputable arguments in favor of its use.
Iron chelate is especially good in small areas, 6-40 acres. Here he is in capable hands can be a truly miraculous tool. Why is that? What kind of panacea is this?
Iron chelate for plants is an ideal supplier of Fe (II) required for the synthesis of chlorophyll. In fact, iron in the soil is always in abundance, and even in abundance, but - 3-valent Fe (III), which forms the well-known hydroxide - rust. Fe (III) plants are of little use and may even harm, in order to produce chlorophyll, you need Fe (II). This is explained by the fact that Fe ++ iron ions migrate much more actively and faster in plants. But the 2-valent iron very readily goes into the 3-valent, especially in the presence of oxygen and hydroxyl ions OH–. In the chelate form, Fe (II) can be in principle indefinitely, really - until the chelate complex itself disintegrates, see below. And what is especially significant for crop production, in natural conditions, chelates disintegrate at about the rate of absorption of Fe (II) by plants. That is, iron chelate feeds Fe (II) plants just in moderation, “according to appetite”. This is a common property of all chelate fertilizers, see also at the end.
Note: disintegrated chelate complex ballast does not, because in its composition, besides iron, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and sometimes nitrogen. The decomposition products of the chelate shell are carbon dioxide and water, which are not harmful to the plants and do not clog the soil.
What are chelates
Chelated iron is an ion of Fe ++, "packed" in a shell-ligand of residues of weak organic acids, on the left in Fig. For che ++ Fe ++, citric acid is used predominantly. There is no covalent bond between Fe ++ and ligand elements, therefore the iron ion in the chelate cell retains its valence until the ligant disintegrates: the chelate shell does not admit to it negative ions and active molecules capable of converting iron to Fe +++ form. But the positive charge of Fe ++ is enough to neutralize the weak acidic properties of the ligand, so it is difficult to achieve chemical burn of the plants with chelates overdose: you need to literally fill the plants with a working solution. Then the negatively charged residues of the decaying ligands will have time to burn the plants before they decay completely, but under the conditions of processing (see below) this is excluded.
Forms of release and workers
In powder form and in other pure solid forms, iron chelate is unstable in air and light, therefore it is marketed either in the form of tablets with binders and stabilizers, or vials with a concentrated mother liquor, in the center in fig. Those and others may be stored in the original packaging for up to a year. Opening the packaging does not reduce the shelf life if it was immediately clogged after taking a portion. The mother solution of iron chelate (which can be prepared independently, see below) is a dark brown liquid (on the right in the figure), the worker is light brown or orange. The mother liquor in a covered (not sealed airtight) or large container that is not completely filled, for example, a plastic bottle, is stored for 2 weeks; the working solution should be used immediately.
Chelate or sulfate?
An alternative supplier of Fe (II) to plants is iron (II) sulfate FeSO4. Cheapness is considered its advantage, but in reality this is not so:
- Iron (II) sulphate, uninformed buyers (and sellers) are often confused with 3-valent iron (III) (Fe) 2 (SO4) 3 sulphate - iron vitriol. It is iron (III) sulphate that is several times cheaper than chelate, but plants also get less benefit from it than hazards: when decaying (very slow) (Fe) 2 (SO4) 3, Fe ++ ions are formed in an insignificant amount, and highly active SO4 ++ ions are very harmful for plants. As for FeSO4, it is much more expensive than iron (III) sulfate,
- The rate of Fe ++ release during the decomposition of FeSO4 does not correspond to the rate of assimilation of 2-valent iron by plants, therefore most of the active substance from FeSO4 is lost,
- FeSO4 as a fertilizer gives a lot of sulfur ballast - much more than the plants need sulfur, therefore increasing the dose of iron (II) sulfate as a fertilizer results in poisoning plants with sulfur, and in combination with item 1 also a chemical burn,
- Iron (II) sulfate, in contrast to iron chelate, is not effective for plant nutrition on poor soils in the summer and under difficult weather conditions.
In the end, it turns out that, if we count on the amount of the active substance, absorbed by plants, then with the manual processing of small areas the iron chelate turns out to be cheaper iron (II) sulfate. Especially if homemade working solution is used, see below. The only possible exception is the treatment of an adult who has left for stable fruiting of a garden from 10-12 acres by an experienced gardener who knows how to spray tree crowns in hot weather. Processing gardens up to 12 acres and greenhouse crops with iron chelate is definitely more beneficial than iron (II) sulfate.
Chelates and their benefits
Iron is one of the constituent enzymes involved in the creation of chlorophyll. In case of its deficiency, the rate of photosynthesis in plants decreases, causing the development of a disease such as chlorosis. A clear manifestation is the presence of light yellow, almost whitish leaves on young vegetative organs. Примечательно, что старые листочки долгое время не теряют своей зеленой окраски, а новые начинают желтеть, болеть и в итоге отмирать.
With an insufficient amount of iron, the inflorescences become shallow and weak. In addition, there is a delay in the synthesis of auxins, garden crops are noticeably lagging behind in growth.
The most susceptible are tomatoes, carrots, potatoes, cucumbers, cabbage, grapes, fruit trees, corn, citrus, raspberries.
In most soils, iron index is 2-3%, which is very much, but it has a poorly digestible form, it is difficult for plant organisms to perceive it. Iron chelate, made on the basis of complexonates, is a highly effective agent in the treatment of chlorosis, as well as protection from pests of fruit crops.
Forms of release
Chelated fertilizers on sale are presented in the form of tablets. The composition contains binding components and stabilizers, because in pure form they are unstable in air. You can find bottles with concentrated mother liquor.
The storage period of such feeding is one year, but on condition that the container is quickly plugged after the required portion has been taken.
The iron chelate mother liquor is dark brown in color, and the working fluid is light brown or orange. If the container with fertilizer is not sealed tightly, the shelf life of the solution is only two weeks. It is recommended to use the prepared nutrient fluid immediately.
Iron as one of the main microelements in plant life ensures their proper development, vegetation and activation of all the required processes for full growth. If you regularly use micronutrient fertilizers, you can achieve the following results:
- Strengthen the immune forces of plants and resistance to negative environmental factors.
- To fill the missing amount of microelements to increase the level of resistance to diseases.
- Improve respiratory function and photosynthesis.
- Accelerate the growth and development of green mass.
- Increase iron levels.
- Normalize metabolic processes.
- Provide adequate levels of chlorophyll in the leaves.
To use such a composition can be at root and foliar soil treatment. In advanced cases, when signs of iron deficiency appear too pronounced, it is effective to conduct foliar irrigation of the affected leaves.
Description and chemical composition of iron chelate
To understand how microfertilizer acts, you need to know what iron chelate is. It is a powder of dark orange color, which has no smell and taste. The chemical structure of the complex is a bivalent iron atom, placed in a shell of molecules of weak organic acids (citric acid is used in most cases).
Given that there is no covalent bond between the Fe ion and the ligand, the chelated iron retains its valence until the ligand is held. Such a specific shell protects the substance from combination with other active molecules, which by virtue of its transfer to the trivalent form. When decomposed, chelated iron does not contaminate the earth and does not harm the environment.
Purpose of means
Fertilizer iron chelate, used for plants, does not have a wide range of uses.
Basically it is used for foliar fertilizing in the fight against chlorosis, when there is an active yellowing of the leaves due to the violation of the process of photosynthesis in them.
Grapes are especially susceptible to this disease; when it is grown, preventive measures should be more actively produced. Plantings that grow in adverse conditions (poor soils, sudden changes in temperature, lack of or excess UV) also need this microfertilizer.
Signs of chlorosis in plants
Thanks to iron, the process of photosynthesis in plant organisms proceeds in a normal way. If this element is contained in low concentrations, there is a violation of the synthesis of chlorophyll in the green mass, and this is the development of chlorosis. This condition depletes, inhibits plants, and they eventually die. To react in time, it is recommended to know the main manifestations of the disease:
- On young leaf plates between the veins, there is a change in green to yellow.
- The leaves are reduced in size, fall off.
- The shape of the buds and the color change, deform, unopened specimens also fall.
- The leaves on the edges begin to curl.
- Apical vegetative organs practically do not develop, they often dry.
- The root system is suspended in its development, in advanced cases it dies out.
It is recommended to gardeners, when detecting at least one of the listed signs, to put an iron preparation solution into the ground or spray it on the sheet.
But it is not necessary to use iron III sulphate for these purposes, since the rate of Fe ++ release does not coincide with the rate of assimilation of this substance by plant organisms, its part is simply lost.
Chelated fertilizer do it yourself
Iron-made chelate, unlike the finished product, is two times cheaper. Preparing it is not so difficult, just follow the recipe:
- In a suitable container pour 2 liters of warm distilled water.
- Citric acid (5 g) is dissolved in it.
- In the same volume of liquid dissolve 1 teaspoon of iron sulphate.
- Slowly pour the solution of iron vitriol into the container with citric acid.
- In the same way add 1 liter of water.
- The working fluid is ready for use.
In the process of dissolution of ferrous sulfate in water, the formation of Fe (II) and Fe (III) ions occurs. Citric acid acts as a chelating agent that captures ferrous iron and nourishes it with plant organisms. It is effective to use the product for the purposes of prophylaxis, but, given the high content of Fe (III), it is recommended to strictly follow the proportions of ingredients.
As a self-made chelated fertilizer, you need to apply it immediately. If the working solution loses its transparency and pronounced orange color, its usefulness is reduced to zero.
The best period for treatments - morning and evening hours. The preparation of iron chelate does not take much time, but the result of its use very quickly appears on green plants, they become stronger and more enduring.
Benefits of chelated mineral supplements
First of all, it is important to understand that nutrients are absorbed by plants only in a bioavailable form. Conventional mineral fertilizers (see → types of mineral fertilizers)before you begin to be absorbed by plants, often must undergo a series of transformations. Chelated substances are initially in a bioavailable state. Chelated fertilizers penetrate into plant cells better, due to which they are 90% absorbed. Conventional mineral compounds absorb only 40-70%.
In addition to this important advantage, chelated fertilizers have an impressive list of others:
- do not have phytotoxic action,
- do not affect soil acidity,
- do not accumulate in the ground, causing salinization,
- do not enter into a chemical reaction with other substances, forming undesirable compounds,
- perfectly soluble in water and well absorbed by the roots and leaves.
Being organic fertilizers, chelates do not harm the ecological state of the site and can be used on soils of any type.
Iron chelate: characteristic and purpose
Externally, iron chelate is a dark red fine powder. Molecules of this substance are complexes formed by the actual iron and chelating agent. The latter can be various organic acids:
As can be seen from the table, different iron chelates exhibit unequal stability in the external environment. For example, a drug chelated with EDTA will work well on acidic soils, but will disintegrate on carbonate soil. These nuances must be considered when purchasing.
The main purpose of iron chelate is the treatment of non-infectious chlorosis caused by a deficiency of this trace element. Also, the drug can be used for prophylactic purposes.
Tip # 1. Information about the chelating agent can be found on the product packaging. Usually it is given in the form of a Latin abbreviation.
Signs of iron deficiency in plants
Such crops as tomatoes, potatoes, cucumbers, raspberries, apples, apricots, cherries, cabbage, carrots, cucumbers, grapes and citrus greenhouse plants are most sensitive to the lack of iron in the soil. Their deficiency is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- the upper young leaves lose their color, the lower old ones remain green,
- between the veins appear chlorotic portions of a pale yellow, almost white color,
- the areas affected by chlorosis expand, seize the whole interveast space, leaving only the veins green.
The plant, being unable to carry out photosynthesis normally, slows growth, sheds flowers and ovaries. If new leaves appear on it, then they are chlorotic when deployed.
Non-infectious chlorosis in plants occurs because chlorophyll in the cells ceases to be synthesized and is destroyed. All the signs described are a signal for immediate feeding of plants with iron chelate.
Iron chelate do it yourself
You can prepare a working solution of iron chelate from a cheap ferrous sulfate. In this case, the fact is used that during the dissociation of ferrous sulfate in an aqueous solution, Fe ++ ions are partially formed, which are immediately caught by the chelating agent, it is not greedy for Fe +++ ions. The working solution is as effective as from purchased reagents, but it contains quite a lot of ballast, so they should be processed exactly according to the norm, and it is unsuitable for urgent treatment of chlorosis, but it is quite applicable for preventive dressings. Preparing a homemade iron chelate working solution next. in the following way:
- In 2 liters of warm clear water (preferably distilled) dissolve 8 g of iron sulphate,
- In a separate container in the same amount of water dissolve 5 g of citric acid,
- The solution of ferrous sulfate in a thin stream while stirring, is poured into a solution of citric acid,
- Also pour another 1 liter of pure water with stirring.
It turns out 5 liters of 0.5% solution, which must be used immediately. Indicator of the suitability of the working solution for use - transparency (sediment and turbidity should not be) and orange color. Dilute the finished solution can not, if you need more, increase the initial amount of water and reagents.
Note: if the plant has signs of copper starvation, copper chelate will help to quickly fix the matter. It is prepared as well, the dry component needs 20 copper sulfate and 40 g of ascorbic acid.
Properties of chelated iron
Fertilizer is a compound of metal ions of 2-valent F (II) iron with two or more free atoms of neutral organics.
This symbiosis is ideal for the intracellular transport of iron ions through the biochemical barriers of any plant.
The main advantages of iron chelate include:
- no toxicity
- compatibility with various complex fertilizers,
- works well on soils with different acidity,
- does not react with hardly soluble compounds,
- soil microorganisms do not affect fertilizer properties,
- easily soluble in water and almost completely absorbed by plants,
- can be used simultaneously with any toxic chemicals,
- Especially effective for foliar feeding.
The chelator introduced into the soil remains for a long time accessible for the root system to assimilate. After three days of active interaction with plant cells, metal cations are transferred to tissue metabolites, greatly enhancing the process of photosynthesis.
Fertilizer application for plants
Chelated compounds are much more stable than trace elements in the form of inorganic salts.
Most effective and affordable for plants. polyhelated amino acid concentrates of such metals:
Plant enzyme systems cannot function without iron. The lack of this trace element inhibits the conversion of carbon dioxide into organic matter, makes it impossible for oxidative and energy processes to precede the formation of chlorophyll. And as a result, the growth and development of the vegetative mass of crops slows down.
Plants need an average from 0.6 to 9 kg / ha of iron oxide (its formula is Fe203).
Basically, the soil contains a sufficient amount of this element - about 4%, but the hardly soluble form of the useful substance is absorbed very poorly.
Especially often iron deficiency is observed on carbonate, lime-rich soils.
The most sensitive to the lack of such a trace element culture: corn, grapes, potatoes, carrots, tomatoes and cucumbers, cabbage, raspberries, citrus and all garden trees.
Remedy for non-infectious chlorosis
Collapsing, chlorophyll makes the once green leaf pale, light yellow with a cream shade. At the same time, leaf streaks may not change color. These symptoms appear on the upper young shoots. The lower leaves still remain green, and the inflorescences become underdeveloped and small.
With a significant lack of iron the plants cease to grow and bear fruit, and after a while die.
Such signs are characteristic of a disease called calcareous chlorosis.
For the purpose of treatment and prevention of micronutrient deficiency - F (II) in the horticulture and agriculture use the drug - iron chelate.
For plants, according to the rules of agrotechnology, fertilizing with which fertilizer is obligatory and is carried out with certain frequency. This allows:
- In a short time, without fear of an overdose, treat iron chlorosis, even in very neglected cases. Processed in the evening, the discolored plants begin to turn green in the morning.
- Even novice gardeners and gardeners to prevent the appearance of chlorosis on their plantations, applying preventive treatment.
- To increase the plant immunity and increase their productivity, despite the unfavorable growing conditions - poor soil, extreme temperature conditions, lack of sunlight or drought.
The effect of this microfertilizer is enhanced in combination with boron for such capricious and significantly soil-depleting crops like radishes and strawberries. And the process of soil recultivation after them becomes less expensive.
What is iron chelate
Chelates are highly effective microfertilizers containing one or several microelements enclosed in a shell. As the shell disintegrates, beneficial elements are released and nourished by the plants. One of these fertilizers is iron chelate.
In the free form in the soil is III-valent iron - Fe (III). But its molecules are not very mobile and they bring practically no benefit to the plants, they are not absorbed. The ferrous iron (II) ferrous form is mobile, easily and quickly absorbed, but the problem is that such iron oxidizes very quickly, turning into the trivalent form (rust).
To prevent this from happening, Fe (II) is placed in a “shell” - a chelate complex, which consists of weak organic acids (most often - citric). Iron in a chelate shell can retain its II-valent structure for a long time, until the chelate complex disintegrates. The advantages of using iron chelate are that:
- chelates disintegrate at the same rate as the absorption of iron by plants, i.e. iron oversupply cannot occur, plants take as much as they need,
- The chelate shell breaks down into elements that do not clog the soil and are environmentally friendly - oxygen, hydrogen, carbon.
Chlorosis, its causes and treatment
Why do we need iron chelate plants? Iron is responsible for the normal course of the most important process in plants - photosynthesis. The lack of an element leads to the infection of plant organisms with chlorosis, i.e. disrupted chlorophyll synthesis in green leaves.
Plants seem to lose their vitality, weaken and may even die. This is manifested mainly in newly developing shoots as follows:
- the plates of young leaves between the veins become yellow, but the veins themselves remain bright green,
- leaves become small
- there is a gratuitous fall of foliage and unopened buds,
- the shape of the buds and flowers changes, bends,
- the edges of the leaves are twisted,
- apical shoots do not develop or shrink,
- development of the root system is slowed down or suspended, in the worst case, the death of the roots.
Even one of these symptoms indicates an insufficient amount of iron in the soil. To help the plants, it is necessary to make sub-root or extra-root fertilizing with a solution of the iron preparation.
What is better for plants - iron chelate or sulfate?
The most common fertilizers containing iron are chelates and sulfates. However, many gardeners are inclined to believe that iron chelate is much more efficient and safer than sulfate:
- the decomposition of the fertilizer Fe2 (SO4) 3 ferrous iron is released much less than the active ions SO4,
- скорость выделения Fe(II) и поглощения его растениями не совпадают, поэтому большая часть полезного элемента теряется,
- для достижения нормы потребления железа придется перенасытить растения серой, в результате происходит серное отравление,
- сульфат железа малоэффективен на обедненных почвах, в летнее время и в трудных климатических условиях.
The use of iron chelate for plant nutrition is much more effective.
How to apply
Fruit trees suffer most from iron deficiency - apples, pears, plums, peaches, cherries, lemons. In addition, microelement deficiency is noticeable on such fruit and vegetable crops as tomatoes, cucumbers, carrots, potatoes, corn, raspberries. The most effective foliar treatment of plants on the leaves, but the basal watering also give good results.
For indoor plants
Some types of home flowers are particularly demanding on the gland and other trace elements, as they have to stay in a closed substance for a long time. Iron deficiency experience:
If symptoms of chlorosis are observed in other plants, regular spraying the leaves with a solution of iron chelate will help to maintain a healthy appearance and the normal development of pets.
Preparation of the drug at home
At home, it is easy to prepare iron chelate with your own hands. When dissolving ferrous sulfate in water, ions of Fe (II) and Fe (III) are formed. A chelating agent (citric acid) catches ferrous iron and supplies it to plants.
The drug is effective for prophylactic treatments, but contains a large amount of ballast - Fe (III), therefore, when preparing, respect for the proportions is essential. It is necessary to use the working solution immediately, as long as it retains its orange color and transparency.
- in 2 liters of warm distilled or rain water (you can clean distilled water) dissolve 5 g of citric acid,
- in the same amount of water dissolve 8 g of iron sulphate,
- then pour the solution of vitriol slowly trickle into the citric acid solution, stirring constantly with a wooden stick,
- then pour 1 l more of water in the same way and immediately use the solution.
Proportions and consistency must be observed. Processing should be carried out in the evening or early cloudy (!) Morning.
Video instruction preparation
If there are signs of copper deficiency in plants, it is possible to prepare copper chelate according to the same principle, only the components are taken in proportion: 20 g of copper sulfate / 40 g of ascorbic acid.
Iron deficiency is most commonly felt on alkaline soils. Even if the content of the element is sufficient, for its assimilation it is necessary to maintain a weakly acidic soil reaction.
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Effect of iron chelate on plants
Iron plays an important role in the biochemical processes occurring in the plant cell:
- involved in the synthesis of chlorophyll,
- involved in the transfer of electrons during photosynthesis,
- participates in the construction of proteins that reduce nitrites and sulfates,
- involved in the synthesis of nucleic acids.
It follows that iron chelate can be used not only for the treatment and prevention of iron deficiency chlorosis. Treatment with this drug allows you to achieve the following goals:
- increase photosynthetic activity and cellular respiration of plants growing in the shade,
- improve the condition of seedlings in the absence of additional illumination with phytolamps,
- normalize nitrogen metabolism in cells and improve the absorption of other mineral elements,
- improve the quality of pollen, stimulate flowering and fruiting.
Thus, iron chelate indirectly affects the volume and quality of the crop.
Methods for the Use of Iron Chelate
One of the advantages of iron chelate is that this drug is equally well absorbed through the roots and through the leaves. This property allows you to use it for dressing by any means.
Most often, chelate solutions are used to feed on the sheet. To do this, the right amount of powder is dissolved in water. The concentration of the working solution is as follows:
- for feeding fruit trees - 5 g per 5 liters of water,
- for other crops - 5 g per 8 l of water.
It is possible to spray plants with iron chelate during the whole vegetative season. However, the greatest efficiency is observed when processing during the period of active growth - at the end of spring and the first half of summer. At this time, you need to make four foliar feeding with an interval of 2 weeks.
No less useful is the delivery of iron chelate with irrigation water. The solution is made the same as for spraying, only its concentration in any case should be 5 g of chelate per 5 liters of water. At 1 m 2 of soil for watering need to spend about 2 liters of working solution.
Important! If treatment with iron chelate is carried out for therapeutic purposes, it is necessary to stop feeding only after the disappearance of the symptoms of chlorosis. This can be done on the sheet, and at the root. If the growing leaves acquire a normal color, it means that the iron deficiency is replenished.
Iron chelate manufacturers and drug prices
Iron chelate in powder form can be purchased from different manufacturers of agrochemical products:
Iron chelate can also be produced in liquid form. In particular, it enters the “Hydroponics Kit Micro” solution, which can be used not only for hydroponic growing of plants, but also for watering the soil.
Self-preparation of iron chelate
Given that the consumption of iron chelate and working solution is quite high, and at least four treatments will be required to achieve the effect, this drug cannot be called cheap. Fortunately, iron can be easily chelated at home. To do this, fit the substances that are available to any summer resident:
- ascorbic or citric acid, apple cider vinegar,
These acids form unstable compounds with iron molecules, so home chelates should be prepared immediately before use. If stored for a long time, the solutions age, change color, and iron precipitates.
Citric acid has an important property that will allow not only to feed the plants with iron. In biochemistry, there is such a thing as the Krebs cycle. This is the basis of plant cell metabolism, through which it is supplied with energy. The chemical reactions occurring with this occur with the participation of citric acid.
To make iron chelate, you need to take iron sulfate powder and citric acid in a ratio of 1: 1.5 ⊕ Application of iron sulphate in the garden. For example, for the preparation of 1 liter of chelate solution
Self-chelating iron is a simple process, but the prepared solutions quickly lose their properties.
4 grams of acid and 2.5 grams of vitriol are required. First, the acid is completely dissolved in water. Then the vitriol is gradually mixed into the solution. The result is a lemon-colored liquid that contains 0.5 g / l of ferrous iron in the form of citrate.
If ascorbic acid tablets are taken for chelation, it should be clean, free of dyes and glucose. Tablets pre-ground into powder. On a half-liter jar of water will need 10 g of ascorbinki. After the acid has dissolved, 1 teaspoon of ferrous sulfate is added to the solution. Then everything is diluted with water - the final volume of the liquid should be equal to 3 liters.
Reviews on the use of iron chelate
Iron chelates are well mastered by Russian summer residents, and their use does not cause difficulties. On the effectiveness of drugs show positive feedback:
"We have a low-sun region, the summer is overcast, and the soil is poor, peat (learn → how to apply peat as fertilizer, how to breed). Tomatoes in my greenhouse are constantly chlorinated, until I began to water them with iron chelate. And now she has discovered “Ferovit”. It is an iron chelate mixed with urea. An even better combination. Chlorosis no longer notice "(Valeria, Leningrad region).
Indeed, iron chelate can be a component in complex fertilizers, which not only does not prevent it from performing its function, but also increases its efficiency:
“When the first signs of chlorosis appear on the tomato (pale green tops), it is necessary to spray the plants with a solution of“ Ferovita ”(1.5 ml per 1 l of water) every other day for a week. By the end of the week, chlorosis is completely eliminated. ” Learn also → how to apply Ferovit as a plant food
G.V. Permitina, author of the patent for the invention of the drug "Ferovit"
Iron chelate is also useful for aquarium and pond plants. Aquatic vegetation consumes no less iron than “land”, and there is nowhere to replenish the reserves of this element in a small volume of the garden pond or home aquarium. The same "Ferovit", according to reviews, perfectly supplies the plants with the necessary nutrition, and they acquire a rich green color.
Question number 1. Is it possible to feed iron chelate through a drip irrigation system?
Since iron chelate is highly soluble in water, it is suitable for use in drip irrigation systems. And since the drug does not enter into cross-reactions, it can be loaded into the tank along with other fertilizers. Practice shows that the slow supply of iron preparations directly into the root zone is much more effective than ordinary watering. Fertilizer consumption is lower.
Question number 2. Is it true that you can replace iron chelate with rusty water?
Indeed, according to the observations of room flower growers, rusty iron has a good effect on the condition of plants. Some deliberately insert nails into the soil or plant them in iron cans. There is also evidence that after watering water from a rusty barrel chlorosis disappears on the leaves of lilac and viburnum.
This phenomenon can be explained only by the presence of a large amount of organic acids in the soil. Perhaps they naturally chelate iron oxide, which we call rust. In this case, on alkaline or neutral soils, there will be no such effect.
Features of the use of antichlorosin
Top dressing on a leaf is irreplaceable in modern technologies of cultivation. On quality soils, when the lack of only a few macro or microelements can affect the yield, foliar application is the best option for fertilizer application.
Ideal for this type of treatment is anti-chlorozine (iron chelate).
Instructions for use spraying:
- Processing is carried out with the help of a spray in calm weather and preferably in the evening.
- For prophylactic purposes, 5 g of fertilizer is dissolved in 10 liters of water. Produce only 2 foliar feedings until flowering.
- For medicinal purposes, it is enough to spray the plant 4 times, regardless of the vegetation phase, dissolving 5 g of fertilizer in 5 l of water.
- It is advisable to carry out the first treatment after blooming of the first leaflets, the next after 2-3 weeks.
It is recommended that garden trees be treated with a solution in a concentration of 0.8%, vineyards 0.6%. Berry, vegetable and ornamental crops is enough - 0.4% solution.
The same proportions of the original solution are used for root feeding.
The amount of solution for preventive treatment will be:
- watering - 2n per 1 square. m
- spraying - 1 l per 10 sq. m. m
And, accordingly, for therapeutic purposes, consumption and concentration will be 2 times more.
Fertilizer, hitting the skin, can cause irritation in people sensitive to similar substances. Therefore, using the drug You must adhere to general safety rules:
- work only in protective gloves, changeable clothes and headgear,
- spray in goggles and gauze bandages,
- rinse off the skin of the face or eyes with plenty of clean water,
- After processing plants, wash hands with soap.
Keep iron chelate instruction recommends in a place protected from direct sunlight, inaccessible to pets and children.
When there is no ready preparation at hand, we can make iron chelate with our own hands. The plant is sick and it needs urgent rescue, for this we take:
- 1 liter of rain or distilled water
- 2.5 g of citric acid,
- 4 g of iron sulphate.
We cultivate the vitriol and the acid in separate containers and pour the vitriol into the citric acid solution.
Stir until smooth. The solution is ready.
We get iron chelate at a concentration of 0.5 g / l.
Or we can use 20 g of ascorbic acid per 10 g of iron sulphate.
We prepare using the same technology until all the components are completely dissolved.
So you can cook chelated iron at home and get a solution suitable for a single treatment. The mixture is not subject to long-term storage.
A large number of positive reviews of this fertilizer confirms its effectiveness and indispensability in the fight against chlorosis. The drug helps to wait out adverse weather conditions with minimal yield losses and at the same time stimulates the production of stable immunity to various external factors in plants.