Spicy and medicinal herbs

Types and features of herbaceous plants

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send


Herb plants in the forests of our country are much more common than shrubs and trees combined. The length of their stem, as a rule, is small, although there are quite high ones — banana, cane, corn, etc.

The characteristic that characterizes grassy plants is a soft or succulent above-ground stalk. It is believed that these types of grass are the result of the evolution of tree representatives of the flora. Scientists have come to this conclusion by comparing their anatomical structure with the anatomical structure of one-year-old branches of related tree species.

Herbaceous plants for the period of existence are divided into several types: annual, biennial and perennial.

The annuals include those whose whole lifespan is one growing season, i.e. one season that is favorable for their growth. As a rule, the seeds of such plants germinate in spring, then they reach their normal size, bloom, bear fruit, and then die off completely. These are millet, cucumber, tomato, corn, aster blooming, petunia, wild quinoa, cornflower, wood louse, etc.

Biennial herbaceous plants have two periods of vegetation: in the first their vegetative organs are formed, after which the leaves die and the roots remain, and in the second year shoots grow from the buds, the plant bears fruit and then dies. These are beetroot, cabbage, carrots that we know that they cannot tolerate cold on their own, so gardeners usually dig them up and store them in basements or cellars in order to plant seeds that have been previously selected in the spring. Wild biennials - is burdock, thistle, cumin, chicory.

However, the vast majority of species known to us are perennial herbaceous plants, many of which do not reach the flowering period either in the first or even the second year of their life, and five to ten years after the germination of the seed. Their flowering and fruiting period is repeated up to twenty years. Every year, new ground shoots are formed from buds, which by the end of the growing season die, however, not entirely: only the upper part dies, while what is at or below the soil level remains. Sometimes shoots are spread on the ground, pressed against it covered with plant residues.

Almost all the herbaceous plants of the forest are perennial, many of which hold their place for a long time, while due to their long roots and land shoots, they spread in different directions, capturing new habitats.

This variety is poorly propagated by seeds, because in the forest the soil is almost always covered with a thick layer of fallen needles or leaves, which makes germination difficult, and this litter is not a hindrance to the vegetative propagation method.

In the forest grows many types of winter grass, which are safely hidden under a thick layer of snow. They are shade-tolerant and tolerate a lack of light.

However, the forest is not the only habitat of perennial herbaceous plants. Many of them grow well in meadows, glades, and in general in any open space. Here they, as a rule, grow much more magnificently, and they bloom and bear fruit much more abundantly.

Grassy plants of the forest are always very sensitive to soil conditions: the presence of nutrients and moisture, so they can be called a kind of indicator of the state of the forest land. That is why many of them are closely related in their distribution to the type of forest: some grow among deciduous, others among coniferous trees.

However, it is useful to note the fact that among the herbaceous plants there are also those that have a very wide area of ​​distribution, independent of the type of soil. These are the so-called indifferent plants.

Cornflower blue

The second name is Cornflower. This example is an annual, distributed on soils rich in minerals. Often found on steam fields.. Flowering period from May to July.

  • It is a herbaceous plant, reaching a height of 50-60 centimeters.
  • It has a well-developed root system, upright trunk.
  • The leaves below the plant lobed, form a rosette.
  • Stem leaves are linear, whole at the top.

Cornflower blue is used in pharmacology. Antipyretic, diuretic, diaphoretic drugs are made from it, it can be used as a means of improving the functioning of the digestive system.

Field mustard

Widespread in the Black Earth, European part of Russia, Ciscaucasia, southern regions of the Far East and Siberia.

This annual is a low herbaceous plant, with a branched stem up to 60 cm, covered with hairs.

Mustard belongs to the cruciferous family, flowers of yellow color with lowered petals. The mustard fruit is a pod.

Mustard seeds have a lot of healing properties, and is also widely used in cooking. The structure includes:

  • vitamins
  • essential oils,
  • carbohydrates
  • squirrels,
  • flavonoids,
  • calcium,
  • magnesium,
  • phosphorus and many other trace elements.

Mustard is used in pharmacology. Thanks to seed powder This herb is produced by mustard plasters, which contribute to the removal of sputum during coughing.

In cosmetology, mustard is used in anti-aging creams. This plant found great use in folk medicine.

The first remedy for colds is hot foot baths with mustard powder.

Meadow clover

It prefers a moderately humid climate. well lit and warm terrain.

  • It grows in meadows, meadows, forest edges.
  • Erect, branched stem of clover height from 15 to 50 cm.
  • The root system is branched.
  • Clover flowers resemble a ball.
  • It blooms from May to October.
  • After flowering, fruiting beans.

Clover is a real pantry of beneficial trace elements, vitamins, acids.

Due to its beneficial properties, clover is used in traditional medicine. Brewing it as a tea, take to normalize blood pressure, to improve the bowels.

Clover has a healing property, contributes to the speedy tissue regeneration in case of injuries of the skin. In cosmetology is used in the composition of funds for burns and psoriasis.

The red clover, having a different name - trefoil, is used as a fodder crop as hay.

Forest Cove

Got its name from the habitat. Mostly kupyr is found in the forest zone, but can also be found on meadows and roadsides.

  • Perennial can reach a height of 2 meters.
  • It has a thick root and a well-developed basal rosette of leaves.
  • The stem is ribbed, the leaves of the plant resemble a feather-like triangle.
  • The flowers are collected in inflorescences - umbrellas, white or yellowish.
  • It blooms from mid-May to August and this is its melliferous value.

As a medicinal plant, the forest wildflower is not indicated., however, has many useful properties.

  • By attaching the sheet of the cave to the wound, it is possible to achieve a speedy healing.
  • Infusion kupyrya help from burns if you wet them with a bandage.

However, the bubble can be dangerous.as it has many similarities with poisonous plants. An example of such a herb is hemlock, very similar in appearance and flowering period.

Buttercup creeping

  • A low perennial, the flowers of which have a bright yellow color, gathered in a semi-sunshade,
  • Petals are rounded.
  • Stem creeping, has short hairs.
  • Buttercup belongs to the shade and moisture-loving plants, distributed along the banks of rivers and lakes, in marshlands and vegetable gardens.
  • It blooms in the summer months since May.

Buttercup creeping refers to poisonous plants. It is able to excite the nervous system, affect the heart, digestive organs. Eating this plant inside is dangerous, it can lead to serious poisoning and loss of consciousness. A hit of buttercup juice on the skin can cause a burn. With all the dangers of this plant, it has found its application in traditional medicine.

If it is used topically and in small dosages:

  • You can increase the content of red blood cells,
  • stimulate the nervous system and even rid the body of staphylococcus.

However, without knowing how to use it, you should not use it for medicinal purposes. Buttercup creeping can be grown simply as a beautiful ornamental plant in a flower bed.

Low-growing plant refers to perennials. It is an erect flowering stalk with trifoliate long leaf. Bone-stone flower pentagonal, assembled in racemes. Flowering period from May to June, after which it begins to bear fruit. The fruits of this plant are large bright red drupes. Hence the name of the plant.

Kostyaku can be consumed raw, as well as produce compotes, fruit drinks, juices, jams and jellies. Fruits are rich in vitamin C, pectin.

In folk medicine, not only berries are used. this perennial plant, but also the leaves.

  • Decoction from the leaves will relieve the lack of iron in the blood, headache and heartache.
  • During the period of an epidemic of colds, the bone tree can be used to increase immunity.
  • Juice berries perfectly removes toxins and cholesterol.
  • If we smear the place of the wart with the juice of the gnarlings, there will be no trace of it.

But with all the variety of useful properties of this plant is not recommended to use during pregnancy and breastfeeding, as well as with caution should be used with thrombophlebitis and hypertension.

Kostyak grows in coniferous forests, but is also found on stony areas, therefore it is sometimes called stony.

Nightshade bitter

Nightshade is a perennial plant.

  • The height of the stem can reach two meters in height.
  • The leaves are arranged alternately along the entire length of the climbing stems. Flowers of nightshade lilac, bisexual, gathered in panicles.
  • It blooms in the summer months.
  • Beginning in July, the nightshade bears bright red berries.

Moreover, the nightshade has a name of bittersweet, it is not worth figuring out its taste.

This poisonous plant has many other names in the people. It is called wolf berry or wormhole.

Not only berries, but also the leaves and stems of the nightshade contain poison - solaninethat can cause fever, nausea, vomiting, difficulty breathing, decrease in motor activity. At the same time, bittersweet nightshade is used in traditional medicine.

If you properly use its properties, you can get rid of eczema and psoriasis. A decoction of sweet-bitter berries will ease the condition after an epileptic seizure, relieve a headache.

Celandine large

Celandine is considered a medicinal plant, at the same time it has toxic properties and is dangerous for livestock and poultry.

Celandine is a perennial with a high upright stem, a large, branching root. The single flowers of the plant have a bright yellow color, the leaves are ovate, velvety to the touch. Stem celandine highlights milk yellow. Flowering period - from May to October. This herb is common on clay and stony soils in forest areas, often found along the walls of a garden or vegetable garden.

The healing properties of celandine are used to treat skin diseases, all kinds of rashes, and childhood diseases. Decoction of plants added to the bath for bathing babies, so that the skin of a newborn is cleared faster. Papillomas, warts, growths, celandine will cope with such problems. However, its name speaks for itself and enumerates skin diseases, in which celandine is indispensable indefinitely.

Herbs are very diverse in their names, properties, features of growth and flowering, habitat. Can be used in pharmacology, agriculture, cooking, plant growing, beekeeping, cosmetology. In addition, herbaceous plants, both annual and perennial, can without having any healing properties just please their beautiful, bright flowering in a flower bed or flower garden.

Early flowers

Under the influence of the spring sun, the bark of red svidiny becomes saturated-bright, the aspen bark acquires a greenish tint. In trees and shrubs, active bud swelling begins, and in green plants, green pigments are renewed.

At this time, early representatives of perennial herbaceous plants begin to look modestly from under the snow cover. Their name speaks for itself, associating with the first thaw: snowdrops. These wonderful flowers are listed in the Red Book. In urban conditions, they can be found infrequently due to compacted soil and lack of litter. Unfortunately, these representatives of perennial herbaceous plants are an attractive object for fees for the purpose of further sale, and therefore are endangered.

On vacant lots, slopes, near construction sites, you can also find early "wild" flowering herbaceous plants. These include white anemone (oakwood), liverwort, yellow anemone (buttercup), goose bows, and crested insect.

Yellow inflorescences of coltsfoot appear a little later. This is a perennial pioneer plant, the first colonizing new territories. In early spring, only floriferous shoots grow in mother-and-stepmothers, but closer to the middle of summer, large beautiful leaves with a smooth surface appear.

At the same time with the coltsfoot such a perennial herb, as butterbur, blooms. At the very beginning of spring, his shy inflorescences with dark red petals appear on the soil surface, and he also prefers to unfold wide leaves in the middle of summer.

What do grass plants look like?

The most common feature of this life form is the fact that they lack a perennial ground part that can survive an unfavorable season or season. However, this criterion applies only to those plants that live in a variable seasonal climate: “summer-winter”. Perennial herbaceous plant growing in the territories of the southern tropics or deserts, gets a very impressive size. Such growth is achieved precisely because of the presence of a perennial above-ground part.

In this regard, in order to distinguish the grassiness, biologists apply another criterion - the fact that there is no lignification of the ground part, which must be juicy, fleshy, incapable of secondary thickening, and also strongly diluted with soft tissues. But even these signs do not always work. The fact is that trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants are divided among themselves by a multitude of intermediate forms. In addition, lignification in varying degrees is characteristic of many types of herbs.

The structure of the herbaceous plant includes the root system and the shoot. The shoots form the leaves, the stem and the floral part.

Let's look at the main types of herbaceous plants.

Variety of species

Perennial grasses have underground or creeping stems that have existed for several years. In above-ground shoots, the lifespan is much shorter: they tend to die off completely in a year. In their place are renewed buds, from which new shoots grow.

Herbaceous annuals by the end of the growing season or at the end of flowering and fruiting completely die. Next season they reappear from seed. Annual plants include the following types of herbaceous plants: white mar, dill, wild radish, and ryushik sowing. Thus, during one season they manage to complete the whole life cycle.

The genus of perennial herbaceous plants includes herbal biennials. Justifying its name, this species lives for two years. During the first year, a shoot is formed, which has rosette leaves and taproot. Only in the second year, the flowering shoot begins to develop. At the end of the flowering and fruiting phase, the whole plant dies off.

The genus of herbaceous biennial plants differs from annuals by the remnants of last year's leaves on the basis of the stem, and from perennials by the absence of rhizome, tuber or bulb. In addition, the biennial no traces of last year's dead stalks.

A perennial herb also tends to die off at the end of the growing season. Despite this, a significant part of the plant remains alive under the ground during the breaks between seasons. With the beginning of the warm period, new roots and a young stem begin to develop from living tissue. Similarly, such forms of underground shoots as bulb, corm, rhizome and tuber develop and grow. All perennial herbaceous plants have this characteristic feature. Examples of this are parsnips, carrots, mint, peony, ferns. Perennial grasses are divided into four groups: superearly, early, medium, late. Sign of differences is precocity, or the length of the growing season.

Grassy plants differ from non-grassy plants in the absence of an above-ground stalk, which remains alive throughout the rest of the rest season. In trees, shrubs and vines in the new year shoots grow from the aboveground part.

Of particular interest are fast-growing herbs. Описание их выражается в одном лишь названии: растения-пионеры. Эта форма жизни первой заселяет новое место обитания, определяя анагенезрастительный вид.

There are places where very tall herbaceous plants grow. Examples of this are the Sikhote-Alin Mountains, where the height of vegetation reaches from three to three and a half meters. In the Sayan Mountains of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, the average size of the grass is two meters. Separately, it should be noted the giant herbaceous plants, whose names are larkspur high and fireweed narrow-leaved. The size of their stems is on average from three to four and a half meters. Umbrella, grass, aster herbaceous plants are also prone to gigantism. Their names are on our ears almost every day, and an example of this is the banana. Due to the impressive height (about fifteen meters) it is often called a tree, which is an erroneous assessment. A powerful banana stem is not a stem, therefore it belongs to grassy plants.

If you do not take into account such a sign as the degree of lignification, the highest vegetation is bamboo. Its stem is a long straw that grows up to thirty-five meters.

Use and application

It has long been plants and herbs used by man to meet their own household and household needs. Their cultivation has also developed, aimed at use as feed for domestic animals. Widespread and demand deserved spicy herbaceous plants used in the food industry. Examples of this are rosemary, thyme, basil, oregano. As a rule, in cooking, herbs are used to improve the taste of food. Such seasonings include dill, parsley, mint, cumin, garlic.

At all times, medicinal herbaceous plants have been widely used in medicine. Lavender flower to this day is used as a sure remedy for insomnia, colds, helps hypertensive patients and hypotensive to defeat pressure drops. Sage as a remedy for colds and infectious diseases of the upper respiratory tract is used for the manufacture of tinctures and solutions for rinsing. Mint, chamomile, wormwood, calendula, plantain and many other meadow herbs are mentioned in the writings of doctors who lived thousands of years ago.

The use of herbs to decorate the area

Grassy plants near the house, planted to enhance the landscape, belong to the group of ornamental plants. There are many options for beautiful design of the territory. This is the creation of different flower beds, flower beds, borders, groups and arrays, modular flower beds, single landings, parterres and bosquets, as well as the creation of thematic gardens consisting of one-, two-, multi-color flora representatives.

Grassy plants near the house are used to create various compositions that bloom in a certain period: in spring, summer or autumn. Such flower beds are made on the basis of the object's conditions: light, soil composition, air temperature, and so on.

The design techniques are very different: carpet planting, a color spot on the lawn, a decorative wall, a design of a tree trunk, flower towers, and a balcony.

Grassy plants near the house, planted to enhance the landscape, belong to the group of ornamental plants. There are many options for a beautiful design of the territory. This is the creation of different flower beds, flower beds, borders, groups and arrays, modular flower beds, single landings, parterres and bosquets, as well as the creation of thematic gardens consisting of one-, two-, multi-color flora representatives.

Grassy plants near the house are used to create various compositions that bloom in a certain period: in spring, summer or autumn. Such flower beds are made on the basis of the object's conditions: light, soil composition, air temperature, and so on.

The design techniques are very different: carpet planting, a color spot on the lawn, a decorative wall, a design of a tree trunk, flower towers, and a balcony.

Grassy plants near the house, planted to enhance the landscape, belong to the group of ornamental plants. There are many options for a beautiful design of the territory. This is the creation of different flower beds, flower beds, borders, groups and arrays, modular flower beds, single landings, parterres and bosquets, as well as the creation of thematic gardens consisting of one-, two-, multi-color flora representatives.

Grassy plants near the house are used to create various compositions that bloom in a certain period: in spring, summer or autumn. Such flower beds are made on the basis of the object's conditions: light, soil composition, air temperature, and so on.

The design techniques are very different: carpet planting, a color spot on the lawn, a decorative wall, a design of a tree trunk, flower towers, and a balcony.

Grassy plants near the house, planted to enhance the landscape, belong to the group of ornamental plants. There are many options for a beautiful design of the territory. This is the creation of different flower beds, flower beds, borders, groups and arrays, modular flower beds, single landings, parterres and bosquets, as well as the creation of thematic gardens consisting of one-, two-, multi-color flora representatives.

Grassy plants near the house are used to create various compositions that bloom in a certain period: in spring, summer or autumn. Such flower beds are made on the basis of the object's conditions: light, soil composition, air temperature, and so on.

The design techniques are very different: carpet planting, a color spot on the lawn, a decorative wall, a design of a tree trunk, flower towers, and a balcony.

There is a conditional division of ornamental plants into flowering and decorative leaves. In the process of selection of the assortment, priority is given to flowering flowers, in particular, the timing, duration and color of flowering. Some meadow grasses and large-flowered plants can be attributed to flowering plants, and grasses, ferns, and mosses to foliage plants.

There is a conditional division of ornamental plants into flowering and decorative leaves. In the process of selection of the assortment, priority is given to flowering flowers, in particular, the timing, duration and color of flowering. Some meadow grasses and large-flowered plants can be attributed to flowering plants, and grasses, ferns, and mosses to foliage plants.

Crops

Herbaceous plants used for utilitarian purposes are distinguished into a separate group. As a rule, for their planting and cultivation is allocated a separate zone on the site. With such an arrangement, it is more convenient to take care of them, as well as to carry out general preventive treatment for diseases and pests with the help of chemicals. This group of plants has an attractive appearance, so their planting is organized in such a way that they look decorative. To do this, equip walls, spirals, slides and other structures.

Plants for ponds

In this group, the green inhabitants are divided into deep-sea, floating, coastal, oxygen generators and marsh. Oxygenerators live under water all the time, only occasionally picking up flowers to the surface. In the first case, the root system of the plant is located in the soil at the bottom of the reservoir, and the leaves with flowers are at the top. In the second case, the entire green body floats on the surface of the water. Coastal herbaceous plants are rooted in underwater soil, and the stems with leaves grow in the air. For marsh representatives of the flora, it is important to be constantly on the shore of the reservoir in a moist land. It must be remembered that each of the above groups of plants performs certain functions that may affect the state of the general environment of the reservoir. In this regard, the issue of choice of the range must necessarily take into account these factors.

Landing technology

Annual herbaceous plants in the spring are planted in the ground with seedlings or seeds. It is better to postpone the planting of heat-loving species and wait for the end of all frosts. The overwhelming number of annuals transfers a transplant both at the beginning of the summer and during the flowering period.

Shrubs usually plant a perennial herb. It is better to place the flower on a permanent place in spring or early autumn. The plant, which blooms in spring, must be replanted in the fall. You should know that after the transplant, each plant begins a period of recovery and rest, during which care should be taken for it to be more thorough. It lasts for annuals of one to two weeks, for perennials - from one to two growing seasons.

The best types of herbaceous plants

At the time of the extraordinary diversity of these representatives of the flora, choosing the appropriate species is not an easy task. Below is the best dozen of perennial herbaceous plants that bloom profusely over a long period, moreover, they are relatively undemanding to external conditions and most resistant to diseases and pests. They will respond to a small amount of complex mineral fertilizer with lush flowering and rapid growth.

  1. Geranium Rozanne. This hybrid pleases with large blue flowers and massive soft foliage. This is the only geranium species that blooms throughout the summer period. In height, such instances reach fifty sentiments. With regular watering it blooms very well and grows on the sunny side, but on dry land it is necessary to provide it with partial shade.
  2. Pulavka. This, at first glance, an ordinary plant, in fact, is not so simple. Such a tender creature is constantly pleased with an abundance of yellowish inflorescences that continuously replace each other all summer. Pulyvka is officially recognized as one of the most long-flowering perennial herbaceous plants. The conditions for keeping are sunlight and not too wet soil. The maximum height of an adult plant is sixty centimeters.
  3. Kotovnik Fasena. This hybrid has a garden origin. With his appearance, the remaining varieties are no longer needed. Gray leaves appear in early spring, and beautiful inflorescences of purple-blue hue delight the eye from May to the first frost. Very suitable for hot and dry climates, the only condition is to prevent getting wet. It grows up to sixty centimeters in height.
  4. Echinacea. Today, this species is very common. Fatal Attraction is one of the best representatives of its family. Abundant flowering pleases the eye with pink buds on black pedicels. Feels great in the sun in the soil of medium fertility. The size of an adult plant reaches eighty centimeters.
  5. Astrantia. Being long-lived, this variety is not too picky about environmental conditions. Duration of flowering is not inferior to annuals. Planted preferably in pritenennoy place, carefully monitoring the soil moisture. It grows up to one hundred centimeters.
  6. Dubravny sage. One of the most undemanding plants, which has many varieties, differing shades, height and shape. The most common are the classic Mainacht, Viola Klose, Caradonna. If you cut off the flowered inflorescences in early summer, you can achieve re-flowering. Optimal conditions for growing - the sunny side and moderately fertile land. The combination of large arrays of oak sage looks very impressive and makes an unforgettable impression.
  7. Veronikastrum virginsky. A modest resident of the prairies, recently this flower has become a favorite with gardeners. Looks great in the landscape of naturalistic styles, curving the outlines of ornamental grasses with its vertical line. Such demand provoked the emergence of dozens of new varieties, but Diane remained a classic. Grown in fertile soil on the sunny side. Adult specimens reach one hundred and twenty centimeters in height.
  8. Burnet Sanguisorba. This variety is versatile, as it develops well and grows in any light. It will feel good both in the sun and in the shade. This plant will perfectly fit into a flower garden of naturalistic style. Thanks to the brilliant green leaves, the burnet looks elegant and noble. Due to undemanding to growing conditions, this plant is popular among gardeners. An adult plant grows up to one meter in height.
  9. Coreopsis whorled. Since this disheveled shrub, surrounded by a cloud of yellowish flowers, looks non-photogenic in pictures and photos, it rarely attracts attention. However, being in the common garden flower garden, coriopsis attracts the eye with its bright color and contrast, not leaving anyone indifferent. It is best to plant a flower in a moderately fertile soil, where it will receive abundant sunlight. In such conditions, coreopsis grows up to forty centimeters in height.
  10. Veinik is short-haired. Choosing between valuable and unpretentious ornamental herbs, opt for a particular form is quite difficult. Closer to the fall in the fields rises a lot of cereal plants, competing among themselves in beauty. Veinik is short-haired, as if specially created for this time of year. Covered with small dews in the early foggy morning, this plant effectively stands out among the others. Neat and decorative appearance creates an extraordinary photogenic and decorative. Veinik short hair grows well on the sunny side in moderately fertile soil, but in the penumbra will also feel good. The maximum height of an adult plant can reach one hundred twenty centimeters.

Thus, herbaceous plants are a life form, having stems and leaves, which die off on the soil surface at the end of the growing season. Their distinctive feature is the absence of a tree trunk above the ground. Herbaceous plants are classified into annuals, biennials, and perennials by life expectancy, and by appearance and growing conditions, into ornamental, agricultural, climbing, and aquatic plants.

Classification of herbaceous plants

Classification of herbaceous plants

The department of ferns unites about 10,000 species of plants distributed throughout the globe. They are different in appearance, structure and size. Ferns stretch to the light, so they usually grow near the trunks of any trees.

Representatives of this department, as well as the next two, do not have flowers. They multiply by spores that are carried by the wind (male fern). Many species growing in the equatorial zone settle on neighboring plants, but do not parasitize them.

The rhizomatous perennial herbaceous plants belong to the section of the horsetail. A typical group within this department - the horsetail family - includes the horsetail family. In nature, horsetails are found in the form of clones of plants, but always near water or in places with an exceeded moisture content in the soil (field horsetail). The stems of many representatives are rough to the touch, their height varies from 5 cm to several meters. Horsetails are fairly abundantly distributed on Earth.

Pine-like belong to the highest plants that inhabit our planet. Representatives of this department are perennial herbaceous plants, united in classes of plaun and shilnik. Evergreens with upright or climbing shoots, densely covered with narrow scaly leaves are called plauns. For all plants of this group, two types of growth are characteristic - underground and above-ground (plaun mace). Moons differ from simpler species by a well-developed water-carrying fabric.

The flowering plant division is subdivided into classes of dicots and monocots, distinguished by the structure of the representatives. In total, angiosperms, which are the largest division of the vegetable kingdom, comprise more than 390 families and over 350 thousand species.

The central order of dicotyledons is the stone-hemmedaceous, uniting 20 families. Among these plants are dominated by herbs, mostly perennial, with a height of only a few centimeters to one and a half meters. One of the most numerous species in the number is saber-hemlock.

Among other important representatives of the department is the Rosaceae family, which combines plants mainly with simple or complex alternate leaves. Many members of this family are cultivated as decorative.

The nightshade family contains about 90 genera and over 2500 species.

Classification of herbaceous plants - among all flower families, grasses occupy a special position. These include the main food plants: wheat, rice, barley, rye, corn, as well as many other famous cereals. There are 650 genera and up to 10,000 species of this family, which is considered the most numerous group of the class of monocots.

Для зерновых характерна равномерность их распространения по земле. Злаки нетрудно узнать по внешнему виду, поскольку они имеют членистые стебельки с хорошо развитыми узлами, а их листья всегда располагаются поочередно и почти всегда двурядно. Цветки растений приспособлены к опылению ветром. Количество колосков может варьировать в пределах 30.

Another well-known family of monocots received the name lily, and its representatives are mainly medicinal plants. These include onions, garlic, wild garlic, aloe, lily and other species. In total, this family includes 4000 species. However, ornamental herbaceous plants within this family are no less famous, in particular tulips, ruscus, asparagus, hyacinths and, of course, lilies, after which the family was named.

Characteristics and varieties

What a grassy plant looks like is quite difficult to describe, since the form is represented by a large number of species that differ from each other. However, they all have a common characteristic feature - a soft (not woody) aerial stem. The structure of the herbaceous plant includes the root system and the shoot (stem, leaves, flower part).

Another sign of herbal vegetation is the absence of a perennial above-ground part that can withstand the cold season. However, this feature is inherent in grass growing in a variable climate. In the hot tropics and deserts, some plants have a perennial above-ground part that grows to a height of 15 m or more.

It should be noted that along with a very small representative of the form - duckweed, growing only up to a height of 0.4-1.5 cm - there are giant species. The name of herbaceous plants, reaching up to 15 m, strangely enough, is familiar to everyone - they are bananas, which are sometimes mistakenly attributed to trees. However, even bananas are not the highest representatives of herbaceous plants, since bamboo, also related to grass, can grow up to 35 m.

Representatives of this form consist of ornamental and flowering herbaceous plants, meadow and forest herbs, in addition, among them there are medicinal and forage plants.

All of them divided by their life expectancy into:

Annuals there is only one growing season during which they grow, bloom, ripen and die. They multiply only by seed. Famous names of herbal plants such varieties: dill, peas, chamomile.

In biennial plants in the first year the root system, the stem and the leaves develop. However, they bloom only in the second year, after which they die. These include, for example, pansies, bell, mallow.

Perennial live more than two years. They have a root system (in the form of a tuber, bulb, or root shoots) with renewal buds. Share on supershaven, early, middle and late. These include tulips, delphinium, peonies.

Spheres of application

Herb plants have long been used by people. Their use depends on individual characteristics.

  1. Spices (basil, thyme, rosemary, dill, parsley, cumin, mint) are used to improve the taste of food and to make spices.
  2. Medicinal herbs (chamomile, sage, mint, calendula, lavender, plantain) are used in traditional medicine and the production of pharmaceuticals.
  3. Ornamental, climbing and flowering plants are used to decorate gardens, parks and other areas.
  4. Feed grown as pet food.

Medicinal herbs

Medicinal herbs are the basis of most popular recipes. Such species grow in the natural environment — horsetail grows along river banks, in meadows and in rare forests. It is used in heart disease and as a diuretic.

On the slopes of ravines and in the forests among the bushes you can find the spring primrose, so named for its early flowering. Its leaves contain a large amount of vitamins, so the decoction of them is used for beriberi. In folk medicine, its roots are used to prepare expectorant decoction.

In the forest-steppe and steppe zones motherwort grows, from which heart sedatives are made.

Decoration of the territory

Ornamental herbal plants are used to decorate areas. They are planted in flower beds, flower beds, curbs, modular flower beds, etc. They are conventionally divided into two groups:

Types are selected depending on the conditions: the composition of the soil, the illumination of the place, the proximity of groundwater, climate. Wishes are also taken into account - the color of the buds, the flowering period.

There is a large variety of species that will interest florists. For example, large blue buds of geranium look very beautiful, which will delight the eye almost all summer. Great landings of oak sage look very impressive. The species has many varieties that differ in the shades of buds. If you cut the first flowers from sage, the culture will bloom again. At the same time the sage belongs to the most unpretentious types.

Poisonous plants

Do not forget that, besides useful and beautiful herbs, there are dangerous and poisonous for people and animals. It is worth knowing what they look like, their names. It is worth clarifying, going to the forest, where you can meet one of the most dangerous species:

  • poisonous milestones
  • yew berry,
  • autumn crocus autumn,
  • lily of the valley (dangerous berries),
  • raven eye.

Some species can be found even at the summer cottage as weeds: hemlock spotted grows in central Russia almost everywhere. Its leaves resemble parsley leaves, which can be confusing for inexperienced gardeners and especially children.

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send