Cucumbers are more convenient to grow in a seedling way. Pre-planted seedlings speed up the process of fruiting, seedlings are strong and viable.
To avoid mistakes, you need to choose the right time when planting cucumbers on seedlings and carry out the entire procedure correctly. Seeding, watering, placing containers with future plants - the future harvest depends on these important little things.
The topic of today's article is cucumber seedlings: when to plant, approximate dates when sowing cucumbers for seedlings, how to plant cucumbers for seedlings correctly?
When to plant cucumber seedlings?
Cucumbers belong to fast-growing cultures. In order for plants to develop normally, do not delay the laying of flower buds and the formation of ovaries, you need to choose the right time when to plant cucumber seeds for seedlings. In the greenhouse or garden beds need to move strong, developed, but not overgrown seedlings.
When to sow cucumbers for seedlings? A countdown is recommended for sowing time. You can start planting seedlings when the soil warms up to 15 degrees. According to folk signs, this time falls on the massive flowering of dandelions. However, seedlings moved to a not too warm soil will grow slowly, and sudden short frosts can kill it.
It is better to move the transplant to a later date - end of may or beginning of june. The plants are moved to the open beds even later. Much depends on the climate zone. Amateur gardeners should focus on the experience of colleagues from their region.
Determining the time to move the seedlings to a permanent place of residence, you can calculate the optimal time when to plant cucumbers on the seedlings. In most regions of Russia it is better to sow them in the 20th of April or early May. The necessary condition of the seedlings will reach in 3 weeks.
The maximum term for growing seedlings at home is 1 month. A further delay in transplantation significantly reduces crop yields.
Seed sowing rules
For proper planting of cucumbers for seedlings need to prepare:
- Tanks for seedlings. It is advisable to plant the seeds in a small individual container, which allows to exclude a pick. Brittle Root Cucumber System does not tolerate transplant. Ideal - medium-sized cups made of extruded peat or peat tablets.
- Pallet for individual containers. It should not be too small so that the cups do not tip over. You can use a high-sided plastic tray, a cake package, a food container or a small cardboard box.. The latter option is convenient for cucumbers planted in peat pots. For peat tablets, it is better to use not too deep pallets of eraser.
- In advance mixed soil. Cucumbers prefer light nutrient soil. A mixture of garden soil with humus or peat will do; for relief, a little perlite or vermicult can be mixed into the substrate. Mineral supplements will increase the nutritional value of the substrate: urea, potassium sulfate, superphosphate or wood ash.
- Sprayer for watering. It does not wash away the soil, evenly moistening it and not contributing to the stagnation of moisture. Saplings can be watered and a teaspoon.
- Plastic film or glass. Serves to cover the tank with planted seeds. Keeps necessary temperature and level of humidity, without interfering with access of light.
- Plates with the name of varieties or plastic stickers. Needed if planted different varieties and hybrids of cucumbers. Stickers are mounted on pots or pallets, the plates are stuck in the ground.
How to plant cucumbers for seedlings at home?
Before planting, seeds are sorted, empty and warped are rejected. For the best germination, seeds of 2-3 years old are used. It is worth choosing the largest seeds, they guarantee strong and viable seedlings.
For self-collected seed decontamination is recommended, purchased seeds are usually not treated. Some gardeners sprout seeds, others prefer to plant them dry. Good results are obtained by short-term soaking in an aqueous solution of growth stimulant. Read more about seed preparation before sowing.
It is recommended to ignite the soil before planting., process over steam or freeze for disinfection. You can spill the soil with a hot, dark pink solution of potassium permanganate. This procedure kills harmful microorganisms that affect the health of seedlings.
Pots or other containers are filled with soil. Pre drainage holes must be made in the lower part of the tank. The soil is lightly crushed.
1-2 seeds are placed in each pot. When using seeds of rare varieties that have already proclaimed, it is reasonable to sow them one by one. If dry sowing material of mass species is used, it is better to plant seeds in pairs. This will reduce the percentage of marriage, will save cups and scarce space on the windowsill.
Seeds are buried 1.5-2 cm. Sprouted seeds are planted very carefully, fragile shoots are easily damaged. For their placement is to use a wooden peg. In the ground is a small hole, it laid out a seed.
Dry seeds deepened with your fingers. The soil is sprayed with warm distilled water from a spray bottle. It is recommended to use soft water: thawed, rain or boiled.
Cups or pots are installed on the pallet. Do not put them too close, but containers should not overturn.
The pallet can be filled with expanded clay, it will reliably hold the pots and serve as a drainage. Landings are closed with plastic wrap and placed in heat. Usually shoots appear in 5-6 days.
If peat tablets are used for planting, the scheme changes slightly. Pressed peat is placed in a deep container and filled with hot water. When the tablets swell and turn into columns, they are placed in a plastic tray. Cucumber seeds are placed in the holes located at the top of the tablets. If necessary, they can be deepened with a toothpick or other suitable tool.
In the peat tablets is better to plant dry seeds.. Tender seedlings can be injured when forced into deep peat. Watering a wet substrate is not necessary. The tray with the tablets covered with plastic is placed in a warm place before germination.
Immediately after sowing cucumbers on the seedlings, the pots are labeled with labels or labels indicating the varieties. This is especially important when planting new, not yet tested plants or especially valuable hybrids. It is recommended to enter data on seedlings in a separate notebook. Indicates the number of pots, their numbers, planting time and other important points.
Sowing seedlings need warmth, humidity and bright light. They are moved to the window sill of the south window, protecting it from drafts. For greater reliability, glasses should be closed with a dense transparent film, which prevents the penetration of cold air.
Planted seeds periodically sprayed with warm distilled or boiled water. Watering planting from a watering can is not recommended, water jets can erode the soil. If the soil settles, you can add a little substrate without tamping it.
It is possible to pour the soil only after the seedlings appear on the surface and the leaves are turned. In the first days of planting, you can cover the film, then it must be removed so that the sprouts are strengthened and grow.
If 2 seeds were sown in a pot, the weakest seedling should be removed. You can not pull it out, the roots of a stronger plant may suffer. The rejected sprout is carefully cut with a sharp knife above the ground.
Properly planted seeds germinate quickly and develop well. Young seedlings, ready to move to the beds, should be strong, bright green, not too stretched. Such seedlings are a guarantee of an excellent harvest, which will not take long to wait.
So, we discussed when to plant cucumbers on seedlings at home, how to properly plant the seeds of cucumbers on seedlings?
Adding an article to a new collection
Want to get a rich crop of cucumbers as early as possible? Grow them in a seedling way! In the master class we will explain in detail and show how to do it correctly.
Cucumbers can be sown immediately in open ground, but thanks to the seedling method, the crop can be obtained earlier. And the number of fruits will be much more.
When to sow cucumbers for seedlings?
To correctly determine the time of sowing, you need to focus on the time when you will plant seedlings in open ground. At the same time it is necessary to take into account the climatic conditions of your region. In central Russia, this procedure is usually carried out in early May.
Seedlings of cucumbers transplanted into the open ground about 15-20 days after sowing the seeds. To make it easier for you to determine the appropriate time for sowing seeds and planting seedlings, use our table, which shows the recommended dates for different regions of Russia.
Seed preparation for sowing
First of all, the seeds should be decontaminated: pour a pink potassium permanganate solution into a plastic cup, dip the seeds into it, hold there for 25-30 minutes, then rinse with warm running water.
Then the seeds are recommended to soak. This is optional, but when sowing directly into the ground you will not be able to discard the "dummy". And, in addition, naklyuvshiesya seeds germinate faster.
Place a pre-moistened paper towel or gauze cloth on the saucer and distribute the seeds evenly on it. Note that the seeds should not float in water, so it is better to moisten the cloth with a spray bottle. But at the same time make sure that the seeds were wet on both sides.
Place a saucer with seeds in a warm place (for example, on a battery). The higher the temperature, the faster they will be. So, at 30 ° C, the seeds will germinate in 1-2 days, and if the thermometer column is below 15 ° C, they may rot.
We have sown the seeds a day later
The ideal soil for growing cucumber seedlings is a mixture of peat, sod land, sawdust and humus (in equal parts). If you do not want to prepare the substrate yourself, you can buy in the store ready soil for growing cucumbers.
Growing cucumber seedlings
There are 2 ways to grow cucumber seedlings:
- In large capacity, followed by picking seedlings.
- In individual cups or pots (volume 300-500 ml).
Immediately, we note that cucumbers do not always tolerate picking well, so novice gardeners prefer to sow seeds in separate containers. In order to understand which of the methods is really better, we decided to experiment and sow a part of the seeds in one bulk container, and a part in separate containers.
In both cases, germinated seeds need to be sown in the grooves superficially and lightly sprinkled with a layer of 3 mm in soil. Do not forget to pre-moisten the soil.
Then, using a spray bottle, moisten the soil well with warm water and place the containers in a warm place with an air temperature of 25-28 ° C.
To create favorable conditions for seed germination, it is necessary to cover the container with plastic wrap or plastic cover. When the sprouts sprout, the shelter can be removed.
When the air temperature is not lower than 20 ° С, the first leaflets should appear at the seedlings within 5-7 days. At this time, you need to water the plants as the soil dries. It is important not to pour the seedlings, otherwise the roots will rot.
If the window sill is pretty cool and the wind blows from the cracks - this is not the best place to grow cucumber seedlings: they will be cold there. Therefore, it is better to put the containers in a more protected place from the wind. If there is not enough light there, at first the cucumbers are better illuminated by fluorescent lamps.
In separate cups sow 2-3 seeds. If they all germinate, you need to leave one of the strongest plants, and pinch the rest or carefully cut them with scissors. Pulling extra shoots out of the ground is not recommended, as there is a risk of damaging the roots of the desired seedling.
Picking cucumber seedlings
Plants sown in a common container, in phase 2-4 of these leaves, need to be picked up in separate pots or cups.
To do this, using a spoon, gently pick up the seedling with a clod of earth and move it into a small container with a moistened substrate. After that, fill the soil and moisten it well.
Cucumbers are rather tender plants, therefore it is difficult to swoop down. Plus, they have long and branched roots, which are often intertwined with the roots of other seedlings. And when picking, part of the root system is inevitably damaged. Therefore, if you want to avoid difficulties with a dive, it is better to sow the seeds immediately in separate containers. Each can be sown in one seed, because usually the cucumbers sprout very well.
When to plant cucumbers?
Cucumber - fast-growing culture. In order for the plant to develop normally and give a good harvest, it is necessary to determine the time of planting seeds for seedlings. It depends on the climate of a particular region. In most regions of Russia, seeds begin to be sown in late April-early May. With proper care, seedlings in 3 weeks will reach the desired condition.
It is worth mentioning that the maximum period for growing cucumber seedlings at home is 1 month. Further delay significantly affects the yield.
Cucumbers prefer nutritious and light ground. Purchased mixtures for planting will not work, as there is a lot of peat in them, which has a very acid reaction. It is better to prepare the soil yourself. Such a mixture is excellent for cucumber seeds: garden soil + humus + rotten sawdust + peat in a ratio of 2: 2: 2: 1.
For the mixture is better to use a light sandy soil, the soil mixed with clay is not suitable here. The substrate must be weakly alkaline or neutral. Before mixing, the ground must be sifted and calcined in the oven or microwave.
Processing should occur at a temperature of 90 degrees for at least half an hour. This simple procedure destroys all harmful microorganisms that can cause seedling disease. If there is no possibility to carry out heat treatment, the earth can be frozen.
The nutritional value of the mixture can be enhanced with the help of mineral additives.
On 1 bucket of soil mix you need to add:
- 3 tbsp. l wood ash (preferably sifted),
- 1 tbsp. l nitrofoski,
- 1 tbsp. l drug "Mortar",
- 1 tbsp. l crushed double superphosphate,
- 1 tsp urea,
- 1 tsp potassium sulfate.
Seed preparation for planting
To ensure one hundred percent germination and get strong seedlings, seeds must undergo a number of activities:
- Calibration. At this stage, deformed and hollow seeds are rejected. Selected seeds need to be poured slightly salted water (10 g per 0.5 l of water) and mix thoroughly. Unusable seeds immediately float to the top, and benign ones sink to the bottom. Quality material should be immediately removed from the salt solution, washed with clean water and dried, laid out on a paper towel.
- Disinfection. The procedure is to warm the seed at a temperature of 60 degrees for 3 hours. In no case should not overheat. Then they should be dipped in a solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per 1 l of water) for 30 minutes and rinsed well with clean water.
- Germination. Seeds should be wrapped in cotton, moistened abundantly with warm boiled water and placed in a plastic bag. It will provide heat and will not allow moisture to evaporate. The bag must be kept warm, but not on heating appliances. Seeds usually germinate in 3 days.
- Quenching. After germination, the seeds must be placed in the refrigerator for 2 days. This helps to improve the immunity of plants. Seeds should not dry out during quenching. Fabric, where they are wrapped, often need to be moistened with a spray.
Seeds that have been collected during the past 8 years will be suitable for sowing. Consider that the germination rate decreases slightly each year. Excellent results are given by seeds collected 2-3 years before planting.
Seed preparation should be done immediately before sowing, since the sprouted sprouts cannot be stored for a long time.
Sprouted and dry seeds should be planted the same way.
To plant cucumbers properly, you need to prepare:
- Capacities for seedlings. It is better to plant seeds in a small individual container in order not to make a dive. Normal plastic cups are great,
- Pallet for containers. You can use a food container, a cake pack, or a small cardboard box. For peat tablets fit shallow plastic pallets.
- Glass or plastic film. Helps to maintain the required level of humidity and temperature.
- Priming. Technology training described above.
- Sprayer for watering. It evenly moistens the soil, does not erode it and does not contribute to the stagnation of moisture. Can be watered and a teaspoon.
To grow strong seedlings, follow these guidelines:
- In the tank for planting do the drainage holes and fill the prepared soil. Lightly touch it with your fingers. При наполнении стаканчиков учитывайте, чтобы до краев оставался примерно 1 см.
- В каждом стаканчике сделайте маленькую лунку и поместите по 1-2 сухих семечка. It is reasonable to plant the seeds one by one. They should be planted with extreme caution, because fragile sprouts can easily be damaged. Depth of landing - 1,5-2 cm.
- Spray the soil warmly with boiling water from a spray bottle.
- Place the cups on a pallet. To ensure that they are securely fixed, fill the tray with expanded clay.
- Planting cover with plastic wrap and place in heat. Usually, all of them are installed on the window sill of the south window. It is important that there are no drafts.
From dry seeds sprouts appear in 5-6 days. Now the film can be completely removed to sprout growth. Planted seeds periodically need to be sprayed with water. The soil can be poured when the seedlings are deployed first leaves.
If both seeds have grown in the cup, the weaker of them must be removed. Pull can not, you need to cut above the ground with a sharp knife.
Properly planted cucumber seeds germinate quickly and develop well. Seedlings that are ready to move to the garden should be bright green, strong and not stretched.
The specifics of the cultivation of cucumber seedlings
It is possible to grow strong seedlings in an apartment, but only by creating the necessary conditions for it: by planting in suitable soil, creating favorable light and temperature conditions, ensuring regular watering and feeding. And you need to start with good seeds.
Good care is needed to grow strong cucumber seedlings.
Choosing seeds for planting
For good seedlings need high-quality seeds. The stores sell regular and granular.
The first ones are sorted, rejected small, and the selected ones are put in a strong saline solution - the quality ones will sink to the bottom. They are washed with water, dried and prepared for sowing.
A good harvest starts with quality seeds.
Granulated seeds have already been sorted, manufacturers have supplied them with a protective sheath of antifungal, antimicrobial agents and nutrients that give the initial start to the seedlings. Such immediately, without treatment, put in the substrate.
When choosing planting material, it should be taken into account where the seedlings eventually move - under the open sky, in the greenhouse or pour cucumbers directly into the apartment. In the latter case, as well as for the greenhouse, choose parthenocarpic varieties, setting fruit without pollination.
When to land
Many gardeners rush to plant seeds as early as possible. This should not be done: overgrown seedlings are stretched, thinned and may die when they land on a permanent place. If it is too late to sow, small, fragile plants will take a long time to take root in the ground, the harvest time will naturally move away. The seedling period takes about 21–29 days. This should be guided by, taking into account the climate of your area and where the borage will be - in a greenhouse or in the open.
Growing cucumber seedlings lasts about a month
In addition, it is necessary to take into account the timing of fruiting. There are early-maturing varieties yielding yield 42–46 days after emergence (Courage F1, Herman F1), there are middle-ripening ones that begin to bear fruit after 48–52 days (Hayley F1).
The formula for determining the sowing date: 3-4 days - for the emergence of shoots, + 10–15 days - for the regrowth of the first true leaf, + 8–10 days - for the formation of two or three true sheets = time for sowing seeds - for 21–29 days before the planned planting of seedlings.
Seedlings are usually transplanted to the site in early June, when warm weather is established and the earth warms up well. You shouldn’t do this before, since frosts are possible until the end of May, fragile plants can simply die. In the southern regions, where the planting is carried out earlier, the preparation of seedlings begins in late April. In cold climates, seeds are sown in mid-May. Cucumbers are transplanted to greenhouses in mid-May, therefore, the sowing of seeds for this purpose is carried out in the twentieth of April.
Harvest fresh vegetables can be at the beginning of spring, if you grow seedlings in a greenhouse equipped with heating and lighting. In this case, the seeds of early varieties of April F1, Zozulya F1 are sown in mid-February, greenhouses appear at the end of March.
- It is believed that to improve the germination of seeds of all melons need to warm up. For example, you can put them on the battery, wrapped in a piece of paper, and let them rest there for a couple of months.
- Seeds of cucumbers have good germination. Before sowing, they are placed for disinfection in a solution of manganese for 15 minutes or boric acid for 2-3 hours.
With the disinfection of cucumber seeds before sowing, potassium permanganate will do fine
Cucumber seeds are easy to germinate in wet cotton pads
What is needed primer
For planting use ready-made soil for vegetable crops or prepare their own:
- 2 parts of peat and humus, 1 part of rotted sawdust. On a bucket of this mixture is added 1 cup of wood ash and 1 teaspoonful of urea, superphosphate and potassium sulfate,
- equally ground turf, compost or humus. On a bucket of soil are added 1 cup of ash, 10 g of potassium sulfate and 20 g of superphosphate,
- 6 parts of peat, 1 part of humus, sawdust, sand, mullein,
- equally divided turfy land, peat, 1 part humus, old sawdust.
It is useful to fertilize the soil with Nitrofoska (1.5 tbsp. L.) And ashes (2 tbsp. L.) Per 10 liters of land. Mix well.
For planting cucumber seeds use garden soil with humus
Cucumber seedlings do not tolerate the transplant and are sick for a long time. Therefore, you should think carefully about suitable packaging for it. Tanks can be in the form of racks of cells with cells, long trays or small cups. Often, plastic bottles, egg shells, and wooden crates are used for this purpose. The best option would be growing in separate pots or cells, so that the plants do not crowd each other and are well lit by the sun.
Seedlings often use pallets with cells.
Tip! Better to use peat pots. In this case, the plant is planted in the ground together with the container without the slightest damage to the fragile roots.
The best option for fragile cucumber roots - peat pots
The sowing operations are carried out in the following sequence:
- In the tank, the soil is filled up with about 2/3 volume, the rest of the earth is gradually filled up in the process of plant development.
- Seeds with 5 mm sprouts are buried 2 cm into the soil.
Depth of landing - 2 cm
Mini-teplichku with sown cucumbers put in a warm place
The newly emerged shoots for 2-3 days are transferred to a cooler room.
The seedling has started well for the future harvest.
Cucumber loves comfort
For seedlings it is necessary to create a comfortable environment. Improper temperature conditions, lack of light, excessive moisture and thick sowing of seeds can lead to stretching of the seedlings.
Violation of the rules of agrotechnology can lead to the stretching of seedlings
When growing seedlings, the optimum temperature conditions must be observed constantly: at night - not below 15 ° C, during the day - 22 ° C. When airing too hot a room, it should be remembered that immature shoots are afraid of drafts.
Plants need light. In the bright sun lighting is not needed, but in a dark room cucumbers will fade and stretch. Weakened seedlings need additional light. For these purposes, use fluorescent lamps. They are set on top so that the plants are lit evenly. The first week of life, seedlings should be illuminated around the clock, then - 10-12 hours a day.
For uniform illumination of seedlings fluorescent lamps set on top
Soil and air humidity
Water the seedlings once every 2 days, in the heat - more often. The soil should be constantly moistened, but moderately - an excess of moisture can lead to rot of the roots. Land after watering necessarily loosened: gently, trying not to hurt the roots. If the apartment is too dry, the air is moistened with a spray bottle, especially on hot days.
Excessive moisture of the air and soil contribute to the growth of vulnerable seedlings with a weak root system, which hardly take root in the garden.
Cucumber seedlings watered at least once in two days
Feed should be made carefully, following the instructions clearly. Excessive introduction of trace elements can adversely affect the development of seedlings. Fertilizers are applied in the morning, preferably in liquid form. With the appearance of the first leaf, the plants are fed with mineral or organic fertilizer (infusion of chicken manure - 1:15).
Fertilizers should be made strictly following instructions.
A few days before planting in open ground, seedlings are fed with complex fertilizer (10 g of urea, 15 g of potassium sulfate and 35 g of superphosphate per 10 liters of water).
If cucumbers were planted in a common planting container and grow very densely, it is necessary to thin them out. In order not to damage the neighboring plants, the seedlings are not pulled out of the soil, but pinched off or cut off. In spacious conditions, young shoots quickly gain strength.
If cucumbers grow too tight, they should be thinned out.
Care before landing in the ground
Seedlings are planted in the ground, when there are 2-3 real leaves. 5–7 days before moving to the garden, the plants are hardened. They carry it out on a warm day to the loggia, first for half an hour, gradually increasing the time spent on the air up to 4 hours, always lightening. When the plant gets used to the new environment, it can be planted in the ground.
Seedlings are planted on the garden, when there are 2-3 real leaves
Reviews gardeners: grow cucumber seedlings can and should be
She planted cucumber seeds in half-liter disposable cups, seedlings appeared in a week. In the third week, everyone already has 5 sheets each. Knowing how cucumbers do not like transplanting, I just carefully cut the cups from the two sides and directly with the earth soot into pots more.
It is said that peat cups dissolve without a trace, but when they dug a kitchen garden, there were very many remnants of these cups in the ground. Cucumbers painfully tolerate transplantation, if you disturb their roots. But if you carefully remove them from the tank together with the ground, then nothing terrible will happen.
Always carried out sowing seeds directly into the ground or under the film, but I wanted to experiment: sowed in peat cups. When they were transplanted into the ground, despite the fact that the roots were not injured by the transplant, the ground part was sick and stunted for a long time. Cucumber seedlings are no longer planted - so grow and faster and stronger.
We always grow seedlings first, and then transplant cucumbers. They may wither with insufficient watering or excessive fertilizer. We seem to have no problems with this.
I agree about the peat pots. It is very convenient to grow cucumbers in them through seedlings. And then there are such rassadnye cups with a retractable bottom. At the bottom of the pressure, and rastyuha gets out with a clod of earth.
Cucumber seedlings are quite possible to grow at home. Planted on the site under favorable weather conditions, with good care, it will grow rapidly and very soon will give caring owners a rich harvest.
Planting cucumbers for seedlings
In the southern regions of our country, seedlings of cucumbers can be planted right here in the beds. In regions where the climate is cooler, only part of the seed can be planted early in the seedlings. And grow it in the premises, while there are cold. Planted in greenhouses in order to the first harvest could be tasted at the beginning of summer.
And with the arrival of stable heat, the rest of the seed is planted in open ground. In cool areas with short summers, only the seedling method of planting cucumbers is used, for growing them under shelters in beds or in greenhouses. And the harvest depends on the quality of seedlings.
The most important thing is to find a convenient place for tare with seedlings. Most often it is a window sill that goes to the south-east or south. When the windows of an apartment or house are in the direction of other parts of the world, the seedlings will need to be illuminated with lamps, otherwise they will be thin, pale and stretched out. It is better to avoid the direct rays of the sun, a bit of dark bushes during the hours of greatest sunshine.
Selection of seeds for planting
From seed quality will depend on the size of the crop and the moment when fruiting begins. It is not necessary to buy seeds from random sellers. There is a high risk of acquiring expired, substandard seeds of unknown variety. It is advisable to buy hybrids from proven companies in order to prevent regrading.
Seeds for sowing high-quality cucumbers desirable collect your own We must not forget that the seeds grow fully and sprout after 3-4 years of storage, and can germinate up to 6-7 years. For planting choose full-weighted seeds. Irregular shapes, broken, empty need to sort and throw.
Timing when you need to plant cucumbers on seedlings
The planting time for seedlings will depend on a number of factors:
- Constant stay in your garden or just visits in your free time, that is, the ability to protect planted plants during unexpected frosts.
- The quality of the greenhouse, the presence of arcs on open beds and covering material.
- The area of residence.
When to plant cucumbers for seedlings for the greenhouse?
Most often in the middle regions of our country, seedlings are planted for seedlings in early April. From sowing before planting seedlings in the greenhouse must pass 27-35 days.
Landing time will depend on weather and quality greenhouses (warmed or not). Taking this into account, the time of sowing is calculated. Indoors it is not recommended to keep the seedlings for more than a month. Overgrown seedlings take root poorly and can not fully develop an adult bush.
If there is no greenhouse, then seedlings are sown on a bed with fixed arcs. Cover with agrospan, and on top of it, with frosts, throw a plastic film over it. The protective cover is removed when the night temperature is set at least 15 degrees.
When to sow cucumbers: Dates for open ground
In order to get the seedlings for planting in the open ground without a shelter, determine the end date of late frosts and establish warm nights (at least 15 degrees) in the area, and a month before this time seeds are planted.
In order to stretch the fruiting of cucumbers for the whole summer before frosts, choose different varieties precocity, given that:
- In early ripe varieties, the first cucumbers appear 30–40 days after sowing.
- In mid-season varieties in 52-57 days.
- In late-ripening fruits appear in 60-75 days.
Determination of the date of the lunar calendar
The timing of planting seeds on seedlings is also determined by lunar calendar. It is noted that cucumbers germinate best during sowing on the growing moon. Or when the moon is in such constellations as Pisces, Capricorn, Cancer and Taurus. It is necessary to verify your actions with the lunar calendar and not plant cucumber seeds on unfavorable days. It does not matter for sowing time of day.
Have varietal and hybrid seeds preparation for planting is different. Hybrid seeds are sold already treated with various disinfectant solutions. Also, they do not need to be warmed up, because the increased temperature activates the development and formation of female flowers on future bushes, while in parthenocarpic hybrids, flowers are already female.
Varietal seeds, especially collected with their own hands, before sowing need sanitize and warm up. It is possible to warm the seeds, which are wrapped from drying out in a package, for half an hour on the central heating battery.
Methods of disinfecting processing a fairly large number. The simplest of them: hold the seeds for 20-25 minutes in a deep purple, strong solution of manganese, then rinse and allow to dry.
The lower the storage time of varietal seeds (up to 2 years), the more they need to warm up for Awakening and development female flowers. Heating them for half an hour in a thermos with water up to 55 degrees, you will not only activate growth, but also be able to destroy the causative agents of diseases such as anthracnose and bacteriosis.
To activate the growth process seeds are required heat, moisture and oxygen. Provide optimal future for these cucumbers, will enable the soaking of seeds in napkins or cotton pads, which are soaked with melt water. Selected seeds for planting spread between these two discs, and placed on a saucer. In order for them not to dry out, put the saucer in the bag and roll it up. The room temperature should be approximately 22-25C. Sprouted seeds should be immediately planted in moist soil.
Soil for cultivation
The quality of the seedlings will directly depend on soil compositionwhere they are planted. The soil can be purchased finished, but it is better to do it yourself. Cucumbers grow well in moisture-intensive, loose, light soil. The soil should not be very nutritious, so that the bush does not stretch. Make it from the following components:
- Part 1 - sod land.
- 1 part - neutral peat.
- Part 1 - rotted sawdust (scalded with boiling water before laying).
- Part 1 - humus or compost.
- On 1 liter of a mixture of 1 tbsp. - ashes of deciduous trees.
- 0.5 parts - river sand.
If in the soil for seedlings add a hydrogel, 1 tbsp. размоченных гранул на 500 мл земли, то кустикам обеспечена будет умеренная постоянная влажность и количество поливов снизится в 2 раза.
Посадка саженцев и особенности тары
Для рассады огурцов особенно important maintain the integrity of the roots. If during the transplantation of grown seedlings damage the suction tender roots that are not restored, then the growth of the ground part will stop, until a new root system grows.
Therefore, plants that were later planted with seeds directly into the ground are often ahead of seedlings in fruiting and development. Capacity for seedlings of cucumbers must ensure the integrity of the root system during transplantation. For what paper or peat-humus pots are suitable, they, dissolving in the ground, allow the root system to continue its development after transfer to the garden or to the greenhouse, without delay in recovery.
The most affordable and simple containers for seedlings can be made from unnecessary newspapers, which are folded in several layers and wrapped around a can. This container is filled with soil by two thirds and watered. The seed with the spine appearing is quite easy to damage. Therefore, they take it neatly with tweezers, put it on a wet surface and cover it with soil on top, deepening 2-2.5 cm. Then re-watered. Before germination in the room temperature should be at least 25C.
During the transplantation of finished seedlings in the ground, peat-humus or paper pot is placed in a hole dug by its size, and carefully watered. The walls of the pot become limp, and the root system develops further.
Peat-humus pots not all the time can be of high quality, it turns out very durable, and the roots of seedlings can not develop. Therefore, before planting seeds, it is necessary to check the disintegration of the walls of the pot, lowering it in water for several hours.
In April, when the seeds are planted on seedlings, the light day is not very long. And the closed conditions of the room do not give the seedlings of the level of light that is needed for normal plant development.
If the room is very warm, the seedlings will grow weak, pale, elongated. She needs additional illumination with special lamps. Simple lamps for lighting the room will not work, they have not enough spectrum. For normal growth of cucumber seedlings, LED lamps with red and blue parts of the spectrum are required. Plants need to highlight at least 12 hours.
We must not forget that for normal development, plants need at least 6 hours of absolute darkness.
After germination, in order for the seedlings not to stretch, the room temperature should be no more than 19-22 ° C during the daytime and no less than 17 ° C at night. Cucumbers in development are suspended already at a temperature of 14 ° C, and at more than 27 ° C, saplings are strongly drawn out, especially when there is a lack of lighting.
The room where the plants are located to air, taking into account the fact that for cucumbers drafts are destructive. When planting seedlings in the ground, it is best to warm the earth to 19 ° C, and the temperature at night does not fall below 14 ° C.
Watering and feeding cucumber seedlings
Feed seedlings begin after education first real sheet. Nitrogen bait can cause stretching of seedlings and unwanted gain growth. Plants at this time it is desirable to give mineral fertilizers. Excellent infusion of wood ash.
To prepare it 1/2 cup of ash need to pour boiling water, let it stand for a day, mix with 5 liters of water, decant and water the seedlings with this composition once a week. Bait produce on wet ground. In the evening, the seedlings are watered, and in the morning lure. In one pot add 1/2 cup of the composition.
In the role of foliar bait, it is useful to spray seedlings with HUMAT EM. Enough this one bait.
Seedlings are watered regularly only with warm, settled water, avoiding excessive waterlogging, but also preventing them from drying out. To avoid diseases, the central shoot and leaves are not moistened.
Care of seedlings before planting
From germination to planting, seedlings grow 27-35 days. All this time watching illumination of plants and air temperature. It is necessary to feed the seedlings with prikormkami, to maintain a moderate constant soil moisture.
During this time, it suffices to produce one foliar and two or three root bait cucumbers. For the prevention of diseases once a week it is useful to spray the seedlings with a solution of manganese with the addition of boric acid (powder is added to the tip of the knife for 3 liters of the solution).
The future crop of cucumbers will depend on the quality of seedlings. Making quite simple rules for care, highlighting, maintaining the correct temperature, fertilizing and watering your plants, gardeners lay the foundation for the subsequent abundant and good fruiting.
When to start?
Regarding cucumber seedlings, there are two extremes. Some people prefer not to get involved in additional work at all and sow the seeds directly in open ground.
The reason for this “dismissive” attitude to the vegetable is very simple: its seeds germinate extremely fast and grow, especially in the first days, right before our eyes.
On the other hand, it is very difficult to transplant a large, curling bush from the pot into the ground, and it is very difficult for the culture to endure such stress.
Other inexperienced gardeners, on the contrary, are trying to plant cucumbers for seedlings at the same time as they sow tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, cabbage, etc., - that is, in February-March. As a result, they have the problem described above.
In addition, usually all diseases and other troubles begin to occur with the inhabitants of the beds by the middle of summer, with the arrival of really dry days.
June, therefore, is precisely the time when there is every chance to remove neat young and sweet cucumbers from the whip, and, consequently, here every day is worth its weight in gold.
Cucumber sprout for the correct development need a lot of light. Think in advance where you can place the boxes with the seedlings to create the appropriate conditions for them. Good strong bushes are formed, provided that they are actively illuminated by the sun for at least 10, and better - all 12 hours a day.
On the one hand, in the middle of April, when the corresponding work begins, daylight hours are already quite long, and in this respect, cucumbers create much less trouble than their nightshade.
But if the spring is cloudy, or in your apartment there is, in principle, no well-lit area (acute problems with this may, for example, be experienced by residents of the lower floors of old high-rise buildings where the light covers thick greenery), the seedlings will need to be artificially renovated.
Of course, it is not always necessary to highlight the seedlings, but only on cloudy days or even hours. The fact that the shoots are not enough light can be judged by their appearance - such plants stretch upwards and have thin and frail stems, while well-lit cucumbers look healthy and joyful “sturdy”.
Seed preparation and sowing
Cucumber seeds are a whole storehouse of secrets and subtleties. To begin with, these seeds, in principle, can be stored for up to ten years (if they are not overheated above 15 degrees Celsius and retain moisture in the range of 50–60%), however this does not mean that the yield from such sowing during all ten years will be the same. Moreover, in this case the formula “the fresher the better” does not work at all.
So, we chose the seeds that were optimal in terms of terms and conditions of storage; First, it is recommended to warm the seeds.
There are several options here. You can simply leave the envelope with the seeds on the battery or somewhere near another heat source (for example, near the stove, if you cook often) for a few days. For seeds stored in the cold, this procedure is all the more necessary. Another option - accelerated. Just a couple of hours is enough to soak the seeds in hot water (so that it does not cool, you can use a thermos).
Heated in this way, seeds sprout faster and better and show higher productivity.
Now it's time to reject the "dead" material. Seeds are placed in water or in a weak solution of ordinary table salt, they wait a few minutes and then they throw out all the seeds that have not sunk to the bottom - they still will not sprout.
For these purposes, the seeds are dipped for half an hour into a weak solution of potassium permanganate, garlic brew or for a day - into aloe vera juice (you must first hold the cut leaves of the plant for five days in the dark at room temperature, and only after that squeeze the juice). After such dressing, the seeds should be washed and dried. But that's not all.
To improve germination, cucumber seeds are recommended to soak for 10–12 hours in a growth stimulator (they are sold in specialty stores in specialized stores).
You can use the infusion of wood ash for the same purpose (1 tablespoon per liter of water, leave for 24 hours, then strain).
The extreme option - plain water, better than melt. The soaking liquid should be slightly above room temperature — about 28 degrees.
You can not rush with the termination of soaking until the seed “proklyulyutsya”: at its tip appears first tiny, then like a small white worm spine.
In this case, you can see exactly which of the seeds will sprout, but here it is important not to delay the planting so as not to destroy the germ.
To make the result even better, especially the meticulous gardeners quench the seeds that have already protruded, putting them in wet gauze and placing them on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator for several days.And, finally, a special “chic” is to arrange contrasting seeds for the seeds, alternately placing them in a refrigerator for several hours and taking them out of it.
By the way, it is in the refrigerator that you should keep sunflower seeds in order to keep them “conserved” for several days, if for some reason you cannot start planting right now (for example, you need to postpone the procedure until the weekend).
And now, finally, for the cultivation of seedlings everything is ready. Choose a day when you are at home and do not hurry anywhere, and proceed.
First of all, the prepared containers should be filled with the soil mixture prepared in advance and it should be watered well with very hot water (not boiling water, but distinctly hot, approximately 70 degrees) - this will give the soil additional disinfection.
Wait a few minutes before planting so that the soil has time to cool slightly.
If the seeds have passed all the necessary stages of preparation, one seed can be planted in each cup, because we are almost sure of their germination. If you didn’t wait for pecking, you can plant two, but this option is still undesirable because cucumbers have a very delicate root system, and trying to separate plants from one another after subsequent transplantation, you risk irreparable harm to them.
For this reason, when planting two seeds in one pot, the weaker must still be removed immediately after appearing; otherwise, instead of one high-yielding cucumber, you will get two sick and weak ones, or even lose both.
At the same time, the term “remove” should be understood not to be pulled out by the root - this alone is enough to disturb the sprout left in the tank — cut off the “extra” seedling at ground level with manicure scissors, depriving it of its chances of survival.
Due to the weak root system, the ideal capacity for cucumber seedlings is peat cups, however, if you are able to cross the plants without damaging the earthen room, you can use ordinary cardboard or plastic ones. By the way, if you feel sorry for the money on the peat pots, but you are not sure about your qualifications, you can use the “grandmother’s method”: make a bag from a regular newspaper and place it in a glass prepared for stability.
Fill the tank with earth, plant a seed, care for it as usual, and before planting on the garden bed, carefully remove the sprout together with the newspaper, put it in the hole, sprinkle the ground on the sides and on top.
In the process of watering the newspaper will get wet and decompose, and cucumbers will easily take root through such soft paper.
In a prepared cup, a toothpick or other object makes a recess of 1.5–2 cm, a germinated seed is carefully put into it, after which the earth is leveled over it just as gently.
If you are afraid of hurting the spine, you can lay it right on the surface, and carefully pour the necessary layer of slightly damp soil from above.
Planting seedlings in the ground
When the seedlings have grown, and the outdoor ground is well warmed up (at least 15 degrees), you can begin to plant it. This process should be carried out after all spring frosts.
Best of all - in early June. Before planting, seedlings should be hardened by placing them in the open air.
It is impossible to plant cucumbers in places where they already grew last year, as well as in the places where pumpkins grow. The best precursors for them are potatoes, legumes, cabbage, and tomatoes.
Planted only in a well-lit area, which is protected from the north winds. Seedlings best take root on light and loose soils.
When planting cucumber seedlings need to go through the following steps:
- The day before planting water sprout water.
- Fertilize the soil with manure or compost.
- Dig holes with a depth of 15 cm and water the holes. The distance between them should be 40-50 cm, if you decide to grow in spreading, and 25-30 cm - for trellis.
- Carefully cut the plastic cup and lower the seedling along with the earth into the hole. Sprinkle it with earth and tamp it down a little. Quality seedlings need to be planted vertically, and overgrown - obliquely.
- Water the sprouts with water and grind the bed with organic residues (straw, hay, leaf litter or sawdust).
Landing is necessary in the afternoon.
Planting seedlings in the greenhouse
At the time of planting cucumbers in the greenhouse soil should be heated to 15-18 degrees. This is a must. In unheated greenhouses is not recommended to plant seedlings earlier than May 15.
- Soil preparation should be done in the fall. Remove all plant debris and top layer of soil approximately 5 cm in which pathogens could accumulate.
- Process overlaps of the greenhouse and the soil itself with a solution of copper sulphate (150 g of powder per 10 liters of water).
- Under the digging fertilizer - fresh manure and fertilizing - phosphate and potash fertilizers (40 g per 1 sq. M.).
- Before planting, make beds up to 25 cm tall. Arrange them so that they fall on the sun's rays. The distance between the rows should be at least half a meter.
- Make holes with a distance between each not less than 30 cm. This is very important, because cucumbers do not like thickening.
- Further, everything is the same as described above. Need to cut cups, transplant seedlings and water.
After planting and during the first weeks, seedlings should not be watered, otherwise the lightest seed may fall deeper and not germinate.
So that the soil does not dry out, it is merely sprayed from the sprayer, while it is necessary to ensure that the water is warm.
It is good before the shoots appear to tighten the box with the pots installed in it with a film, thus creating a small improvised greenhouse, but in this case the film must be removed periodically so that the soil under it can “breathe”, for cucumbers it is very important.
We have already said that cucumber seeds sprout very quickly. After how many days exactly this happens, depends on the outside temperature and on whether the seeds were germinated before planting.
If the air is heated to 25–28 degrees, the cotyledon leaves from sprouted seeds appear on the surface within three days, worse prepared seeds and lower temperatures can stretch this process twice, or even three times. Now we remove the film (if it was stretched) and begin to prepare future cucumbers for “independent living”. The first thing you need to worry about is that the seedlings do not start to drag up.
For these purposes, just for a couple of days we place it in a bright, but cool enough place - 17–19 degrees during the day and 13–14 degrees at night (in April, an indoor balcony or loggia should fit well for these purposes, but remember that seedlings need a large amount of light).
After a couple of days, the external temperature should be raised to the optimum for the cultivation of cucumber seedlings, we talked about it in detail above.
To regulate the temperature, in the absence of a closed loggia, it is recommended that the seedlings be separated from the living area with a film, and inside this kind of greenhouse, opening and closing the window, create the most suitable temperature.
And again: do not forget about lighting or artificial lighting!
Watering seedlings can be started only after the first cotyledon leaves are fully formed. In order to prevent the leaching of the roots, at first it is better to use a teaspoon.
Too cold water slows the growth of the plant and can even lead to its death, so it is better to heat it to about 30 degrees.
Properly developing seedlings form the first true leaf by the end of the first week after germination. Dive cucumbers should not be. Во-первых, эти растения очень тяжело переносят любые пересадки, даже если вы профессионал по перевалкам без повреждения земляного кома, все равно без стресса для растения процедура не проходит.
For a short period of seedling formation, it must be fed at least once (if the land for planting was not sufficiently fertile or the seedling looks painful and frail, then once may not be enough).
This is best done a few days before landing in open ground, using complex mineral fertilizers such as nitrophoska (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) at the rate of about half a cup of solution for each plant.
In addition, as a preventive measure, cucumbers should be treated several times against pathogens of fungal diseases and pests already at the stage of growing seedlings, and for these purposes it is better to use non-toxic modern biological products, for example, Rizoplan. Another way to strengthen the seedlings - regular spraying growth stimulant (for cucumbers a good result shows a biological product "Epin").
If the seedlings are in close proximity to the battery, it is also necessary to constantly humidify too dry air. For this purpose, it is advisable to place as close as possible a large container of water near it, and put a damp towel on the battery and make sure that it remains wet.
Hardening and landing in the ground
Any seedlings before planting in the open ground must be prepared for the new conditions - harden. Cucumbers are no exception.
For a start, it is enough to open the window for a few hours before the seedlings, and later begin to carry the pots to the open air for a short time, gradually lengthening the sessions.
It is better to carry out hardening on cloudy days or after the sun is too bright, and will no longer cover the balcony, otherwise its rays will simply burn the young leaves.
Planting cucumbers in open ground is carried out after the formation of three to five true leaves on the seedlings. With proper care of this phase, seedlings reach about four weeks after sowing or a little earlier. They must be sturdy, with thick stalks and dark green leaves and white intact roots that fill the entire pot.
The optimal air temperature for cucumbers is about 18 degrees of heat during the day and not less than 15 degrees of heat at night.
If you have not guessed with the deadlines, and it is still too cold by that time, the cucumbers begin to turn yellow, which, of course, cannot be allowed, so be careful!
In the extreme case, in order not to destroy the plants, plant them on the garden bed, but for the first time cover it with a film in order to avoid freezing.
There are quite a lot of difficulties with cucumbers, so many summer residents do not try to grow this product at all. Let's try to stay on the main.
If the seedlings are drawn out, this may indicate problems with two parameters - light or temperature (or both, at the same time). Unfortunately, at home, in contrast to equipped greenhouses, it is almost impossible to create optimal conditions that are suitable for these capricious plants.
Above, we talked about the need for additional lighting, but not all gardeners amateur can afford such pleasure. At a minimum, you should try to ensure a large distance between the individual pots so that the plants do not trite each other.
Sometimes it is possible to add light by means of the system of side mirrors installed directly on the windowsill.
Planting is not very strong seedlings need to be heated in the soil knowingly, and the soil should not be too wet. Another problem is that cucumber seedlings grow too fast. You did not have time to come to your senses, and bright yellow flowers have already blossomed in your pots.
In principle, there is nothing fatal in this, but if the plant is weakened, it will be much more difficult for him to survive a transplant after the start of flowering, so it’s best not to delay this procedure.
In a pinch, it is better to remove the first few flowers so that the bush focuses on rooting. He will begin to bear fruit later, but he will not get sick, otherwise you should not count on a good harvest from a weak plant anyway.
Further, cucumbers, as already mentioned, need much more humid air than most crops. However, even small droplets on the leaves, including dew, almost overnight can kill the plant.
Actually, it’s not the water itself that is destroying the cucumber, but powdery mildew and other fungal infections for which the water on the leaves is excellent conditions for reproduction.
In order to avoid such problems, water cucumbers better in the morning, the same applies to preventive sprays.
Watering young cucumbers is a whole art. It should be regular and at the same time moderate in order to prevent neither overmoistening nor drying out.
To maximize the preservation of light and heat, a special dark film is sometimes used, it is placed on the surface of the garden bed, and cross-shaped cuts are made directly into it, in which seedlings are planted from pots (or directly from pots if they are made from peat or newspaper).
Even a slight cooling can completely kill healthy and strong seedlings after planting in open ground. The same effect can arise simply from too large (more than seven degrees) difference between day and night temperatures.
To prevent this from happening, as already mentioned, it is better to cover the plant just in case. Nevertheless, the cultivation of cucumbers is a truly delicate matter, starting, as they say, with a seed. But if you do not ignore any of the above conditions, spring works will be rewarded a hundredfold, as prepared, seasoned and promptly processed in case of possible problems, seedlings transfer any tests much better than a seed thrown into the ground, which quickly grows. will perish, not having time to please with a tasty and fragrant harvest.