Ferns are considered the most ancient plants on the planet. There are about 20,000 species, but not all of them are edible. There are two opinions about the appearance of the name "Orlyak".
The first is that the plant has a leaf shape similar to an eagle's wing. Secondly, if you cut the stem, the cut shows how the bundles of vessels form the silhouette of a double-headed eagle. It grows almost everywhere except the Arctic, deserts and steppes.
In Russia, it is distributed in the European part, in the Far East, the Urals, and Siberia. In China, Korea and Japan is considered a delicacy.
Orlyak is a grassy perennial with a height of 30 to 100 cm. It is undemanding to the composition of the soil, prefers sunny areas, it grows rapidly.
Roots of a dark shade, creeping horizontal and vertical, expand in width. Single leaves (fronds) grow from them on long, dense petioles. Leaves twice or triply pinnate, triangular, blunt tips, bent down. Sporangia are located on the underside of the leaf, and spores develop.
Three main differences bracken fern from other species:
- leaves are arranged singly,
- the plant does not form bushes,
- the edges of the leaves are folded down.
Vegetatively propagated by the roots, which grow underground, spreading over large areas. The formation of young roots occurs in spring and autumn. The second way - throwing a dispute. The wind spreads them over long distances. Spores ripen from July to September.
Orlyak is the first plant that appears after a fire in a burnt area. His collection in the forests does not harm the nature, the plant quickly recovers and grows.
Collecting and harvesting fern
Orlyak plant can be grown at the dacha. It is necessary to take part of the rhizome in the forest with a lump of earth and plant it on the site. Orlyak winter-hardy, does not require shelter, it does not need to create special conditions. He does not need care, watering. It is important to remember that the plant grows quickly, every spring you can get a stable harvest.
Eat young weekly shoots (rachises) from 5 to 20 cm in length. The roots are also edible, they contain a lot of starch. They are dried and used in cooking.
Collection of raw materials continues from May to June. The signal to the beginning of the collection will be a blooming bird cherry tree, lilies of the valley, lilac, and the end of the collection comes when the shoots stop breaking when bent and become flexible and fibrous. This means that they are old, they will taste bitter, they already contain fewer useful substances.
Raw materials need to be recycled immediately after collection, after a few hours the shoots will be rough. Fern can be stored for a day in the refrigerator. If it is stored for a long time, without treatment it will become useless and tasteless. Fern is used in boiled, fried, pickled form, salads, sauces are added to soups. In raw form, do not use.
The easiest way to store is salting. The collected shoots are washed, tied up in small bunches, tightly packed in layers in a jar, barrel or other container, each layer is covered with salt (¼ part by weight of the product). Above you need to put the load. Leave the container for three weeks. Then the cargo is removed, the liquid is drained and the fern is shifted so that the upper layers are at the bottom and the lower ones are at the top. We need to prepare a pickle and pour fern to it, put the load for a week.
Salted product is stored for several years. Before use, the shoots are soaked in cold water for at least 7 hours. Water needs to be constantly changed. Then boil no more than five minutes, and they can be fried with spices or used for salad.
Shoots can be dried. They must be boiled in salt water and then dried to brittleness. Store in a dry place in fabric bags. Before use, soak in water so that they become soft.
Useful properties of eagle
Orlyak ordinary can be eaten, it is rich in vitamins and nutrients. It is necessary to collect it in time and properly cook it. Beneficial features:
- low-calorie product,
- contains vitamins and minerals: starch, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin E, carotene, iodine, copper, fiber,
- if there are sprouts regularly, the immunity is strengthened,
- work of heart and vessels improves,
- normalizes metabolism
- relieves spasms
- strengthens bone tissue
- stabilizes blood sugar levels
- helps the thyroid gland to work properly
- normalizes the work of the stomach,
- removes germs, toxins,
- normalizes the nervous system,
- reduces cholesterol,
- rejuvenates the body.
Fern Orlyak: photos and description
In nature, there are over 10 thousand varieties fern All of them are scattered around the world and over the years of growth have adapted to the terrain. In terms of the climate of our country, several species of ferns grow here, one of which is Orlyak.
Large plant - perennial. It appeared 55 million years ago and is one of the few oldest lichenwhich not only survived to our time, but also retained their appearance unchanged. It reaches almost 70 centimeters in height, and some up to 2 meters in the southern regions, and unpretentious to the soil.
At home, the fern Orlyak will live much longer than in natural wild conditions. With proper care, the plant will please exuberant crown growth to several decades.
More clearly see the fern Orlyak you can on the photo below:
Features care after purchase
The first step towards success is to buy a healthy fern.
It is necessary to pay attention to its appearance: the foliage must be elastic, without yellow spots, sluggish segments and parasites, the root system must be intact and intact.
Having brought Orlyak home should leave him for a day in a shaded place. Then transplanted into a previously prepared spacious pot with soil mixture.
The hole in the pot should be dug deep, impose a thin layer of compost and carefully place the roots of the plant in the recess. After landing, immediately plentifully pour with special means that will soften and accelerate the adaptation.
In the house fern Orlyak will feel good in a dark place away from central heating batteries. Solar windowsills are categorically contraindicated for him - it is better to place a pot with a large plant on the opposite side of the window.
Fern Orlyak maintains a fairly wide temperature range - from +10 degrees to +25.
In the summer, the plant can be taken out into places protected from direct sunlight, detrimental to lichen. The main thing is that it is protected from cold drafts and wind.
In home care of fern Orlyak, it is important to observe humidity. In summer, the lush crown and stem of the plant must be constantly moistened. The leaves should be sprayed with a spray bottle daily, irrigating and the air around. In a dry environment, the fern starts to ache.
Orlyak likes abundant watering from early spring to late autumn - the soil is moistened 2 times a week, as far as its slightest drying out.
In winter, watering is reduced, making the procedure 1 time in 2 weeks. During this period, daily spraying is sufficient to maintain the required plant moisture level.
Fertilizers and feeding
Fern Orlyak very sensitive to chemical fertilizing.
Fertilize the plant should be after hibernation to restore strength and give impetus to growth. They are made once a week, respectively, the specified dosage.
The plant rarely needs a transplant. This is appropriate only in the case of the landing of an adult, fermented fern in open ground for a warm summer period, or if the pot in which it grows has become small for an overgrown root system.
Crown fern does not need seasonal pruning. At home content Orlyak does not shed leaves. The growing lichen leaves in the garden will replace the faded leaves in the spring with new ones, which will return to its former healthy appearance.
In the wild, Orlyak breeds spores, as it is asexual plant.
In home breeding conditions in the fall, cut a sheet from a plant, incise it and put it in a paper envelope for drying.
At the end of January, spores, which are a fine powder, are poured into prepared boxes with soil mixture, irrigated with a spray bottle and covered with thick glass.
After 2 months on the surface of the soil appears green moss - this is the basis for future seedlings. During this period, the glass is removed to provide oxygen.
When individual elements grow together and increase in size, they can be transplanted into separate pots of small diameter. By spring, seedlings are ready and can be planted in another soil. This is a rather difficult method and is rarely used, preferring a lighter alternative.
Reproduction by dividing the bush
The easiest way to get a lot of planting material is to divide the bush into separate parts. The developed and strong root system of the plant allows you to do this without prejudice to the main fern and get a lot of children ready for planting.
The procedure is carried out in early spring, after the end of frost, as soon as the thermometer thermometer shows steadily above 0.
Fern Orlyak not propagated by tubers and shoots.
Diseases and pests
Fern Orlyak often prone to parasitic diseases. Its crown is affected by a scythe, thrips, and whitefly. If the plant is not helped in time and the insect is not saved, it may die. To combat parasitic pests using chemical insecticides. Apply them with caution according to the instructions, so as not to harm the sensitive Orlyak.
Fern Orlyak is used not only for decorative decoration of the house or garden plot.
Its successful application in medicine and cooking is known. However fern Eaglet has not only useful properties, but also contraindications.
Reviews about the possibility of using plants in these areas are very controversial.
Doctors have long recognized the healing properties of fern. Broths of his young shoots and leaves give good results in the treatment of diseases of the spleen and digestive system.
They are effective in different types of cough and have anti-parasitic properties.
Especially in Orlyak primed rhizome. It has a unique therapeutic effect:
- stimulates growth
- improves the exchange of iodine and potassium,
- improves performance
- relieves stress
- boosts overall immunity
- helps to speed up the metabolism.
Japanese scientists claim that the use of fern rhizome decoction works on excretion of radionuclides.
Young shoots - a true delicacy. They can be cooked, fried, baked and added to salads. Untreated shoots become poisonous after 2 days. By taste, Orlyak resembles mushrooms, respectively, and the field of use in cooking is the same.
Many scientists are skeptical about the use of fern for medicinal and culinary purposes. This is due to the fact that the plant juice contains poisons.
The use of Orlyak is contraindicated:
- pregnant women
- breastfeeding mothers
- small children
- patients with intolerance to the substance.
Symptoms of Fern Poisoning pronounced: nausea, severe dizziness, vomiting, allergic reactions, problems in the kidneys and liver.
Fern Orlyak takes a worthy place among ornamental plants. It is easy to care for him, and the result will please every fan of home floristry.
Calorie and nutritional value
Eaglet has a rather low calorie content, this makes it an attractive component of the diet menu. By the way, many nutritionists successfully use this plant in their practice: they recommend that patients add it to salads and to meat dishes, drink healthy infusions and decoctions.
Calorie bracketed - 34 kcal per 100 g. If we talk about the nutritional value of this miraculous in its properties of the plant, it is amazing due to the unusual percentage:
- carbohydrates - 5.54 g,
- fat - 0.4 g,
- proteins - 4.55 g
The rhizome of this plant contains medicinal ingredients:
- tannins that provide excellent digestion,
- various essential oils and fats,
- Orlyakovich tannic, glutamic, aspartic, nicotinic and hydrocyanic acids,
- starchy substances and saponins,
- Riboflavin, tocopherol and carotene (found in young shoots),
- various enzymes, in particular glycoside and thiaminase (an enzyme involved in the hydrolysis of thiamine).
The valuable composition of eaglet is represented by the following microelements:
- nickel and potassium,
- magnesium, copper and sulfur,
- phosphorus, sodium and manganese,
- calcium and iodine.
The proteins that make up the bracken are, by their properties, something akin to cereals (wheat, oats). But the most important use of fern is associated with a high concentration of biologically active elements.
Doctors have been using fern bracken in their practice for a long time and very successfully: the beneficial properties of this plant help to cure many diseases. For example, it is indicated for patients who suffer from:
- dry and wet pleurisy,
- headaches and chest pains,
- jaundice (Botkin's disease),
- aching joints and bone pains,
- noises in the ears
- malfunctions of the intestines, stomach and spleen.
At this therapeutic properties brackens do not end. Well helps decoction, made from its leaves and roots, with constipation. The plant is used to alleviate pain, getting rid of worms, urine excretion (in violation of diuretic function).
By the way, people knew about the analgesic ability of this plant for a long time. Many centuries ago, the fern was applied to wounds, burns, bruises. And he shot even the most severe pain.
- Especially useful for those people who lead a sedentary lifestyle. For example, he spends a lot of time at the computer or at the TV.
- Due to the content of iodine in its composition, brace saves a person from leukemia and radiation sickness.
- In the accelerated mode restores the disturbed metabolism, thereby contributes to a quick and comfortable weight loss.
- Superbly removes the excitation of the nervous system and strong tension, leads to a normal state of the pulse.
- Restores in full the lack of vitamins in the spring of vitamin deficiency.
- Removes heavy and harmful metals, radionuclides, improves the activity of the endocrine system. Human performance after applying brace increases significantly.
- Brackens are also used for ulcerative manifestations and convulsions. He actively treats rheumatism, hemorrhoids, sciatica.
As you can see, the healing properties of this species of fern are truly endless. The main thing is to learn how to harvest the plant and how to properly apply it.
Terms of collection and use
If fern leaves are young, they are used to make salads. In addition, brace can be prepared for future use - pickle or pickle. This is a great seasoning for meat and fish dishes. But the old leaves of the plant should not be eaten, they can be dried and later used for infusions, lotions and decoctions.
If a person is worried about sciatica, rheumatic and other painful sensations, herbal raw materials should be steamed and added to the bathroom.
In order for the fern to benefit, it should be harvested in early spring. After all, in summer and autumn, he loses some of the healing properties.
Young shoots need to be stored in the refrigerator, and not longer than 2 days. If you do not have time to use eaglet within the specified period - it will become poisonous and harmful to the body.
Harm and contraindications
Despite this abundance of useful properties, eaglet has its own contraindications. First of all, you should remember that this plant contains toxic substances in its composition. That is why before using it, it is necessary to consult an experienced herbalist or homeopathic doctor.
It is strictly forbidden to use bracken fern in food or to use for the treatment of infusions and decoctions on its basis for women during breastfeeding and also for pregnant women.
It is necessary to observe the dosage during the preparation of the medicinal product. If you ignore this rule, you may experience nausea, severe dizziness, gagging, cramps, severe headaches.
It can even be fatal, especially if you used low-quality shoots or fern leaves for treatment. Did you notice any of the above symptoms after using the plant? Immediately call a doctor and thoroughly rinse the stomach.
Description and preparation
Orlyak ordinary has a powerful deep-lying root system, large feathery leaves (fronds) with curved edges on long petioles, reaching a height of one and a half meters. In July-August, spherical disputes develop in the brace (not annually).
As a medicinal raw material in traditional medicine, the roots and grass (leaves) of bracken are used. Заготовку травы производят в мае, когда верхушка побега начинает выпрямляться, или когда побеги выпрямились, но листья еще не распустились: срезают молодые побеги и сушат в электрической сушилке при температуре 20°С. Корни выкапывают и сушат ранней весной.
At one place you can produce a blank for 3-4 years, and then you need to take a break for 2-3 years.
Orlyak ordinary is rich in: flavonoids, phenols, tannins, carbohydrates, carotenoids, succinic, caffeic, ferulic, fumaric and other organic acids. Due to its composition, the brackish has antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive, anthelmintic, astringent, diuretic, antitumor, antiemetic, wound healing and tonic action on the human body.
In folk medicine Orlyak ordinary used in:
- cold, fever, sore throat,
- cough, bronchitis, dry pleurisy, tuberculosis,
- headache, migraine,
- infectious hepatitis,
- infiltration of the spleen,
- rheumatism, arthritis, joint pain,
- radiation sickness
- noise in the ears
- abscesses, eczema, ulcers, burns, diathesis,
- hair loss.
Infusion of migraine:
- 1 tbsp. dry shredded leaves of bracken,
- 1 tbsp. boiling water.
Pour boiling water over eagles, let it brew for 15 minutes and strain. Take 60 ml three times a day. The recommended course of treatment is 20 days. Also, this infusion can be taken for inflammation of the ovaries. When hemorrhoids from the broth of bracken leaves make lotions.
Broth when coughing:
- 1 tsp brace leaf,
- 1 tsp crushed bracken root,
- 400 ml of boiling water.
Pour boiling water over eagles, boil for 10 minutes, and then let it brew for an hour. Strain. Take 50 ml 3-4 times a day when you cough. In addition, this decoction can be taken to treat migraine, pain in the stomach and joints.
Broth for arthritis:
- 3 tbsp. bracken root,
- 500 ml of boiling water.
Pour boiling water over bracken root and boil over low heat for 15 minutes. Then remove the broth from the heat and let it brew for two hours. Strain. Divide into several parts and take during the day 20 minutes before meals or 2-3 hours after meals. Also, this broth is used for making compresses and lotions to the joints. You can take it with anemia, scrofula, diarrhea.
Broth with helminthiasis:
- 1 tbsp. crushed dry bracken root,
- 1 tbsp. boiling water.
Pour boiling water over bracken root and boil over low heat for 20 minutes. Then remove the broth from the stove and place in a warm place to insist for an hour. Strain. Take 1/3 cup of broth three times a day. Also, this decoction can be used for washing wounds, skin rashes, boils, boils and for gargling with sore throat.
Tincture from parasites: fill the glass bottle with crushed grass eagle on 1/3 volume and fill it with vodka to the top. Let it brew in a dark place for 14 days. Take 1 tablespoon three times daily before meals. Also, this tincture can be used to strengthen the body and treat cancer.
Tincture at oncology:
- fresh crushed bracken root,
Fill the glass container with 1/3 root and fill it with cognac to the top. Let it brew for 21 days. Strain. Take 15 ml, dissolved in a small amount of water, three times daily before meals.
Compress with varicose veins:
- 15 ml of gruel from fresh bracken root,
- 15 ml of sour milk.
Grind the fern root to a state of gruel and mix with sour milk. Apply the resulting mass with a thick layer on the affected place, fix with several layers of gauze. Keep such a compress should be 5-6 hours.
- 100 g fresh bracken root,
- 3 liters of boiling water.
Pour boiling water over the bracken and simmer for three hours. The resulting broth is filtered and added to the bath with rheumatism. Also, this tool is used in the form of lotions for eczema, ulcers on the skin, scrofula, etc.
Dry grass of the bracken, crushed into powder, is used for dusting wounds and burns, which contributes to their speedy healing.
When pains in the joints make compresses from the leaves of ordinary bracken.
To improve the bone splicing after fractures, as well as the treatment of ulcers on the skin, poultices from pounded leaves of bracken ordinary are used.
Broth root can be rubbed into the scalp for hair growth.
The eaglet is a perennial grassy fern belonging to the family Hypolepisaceae (Hypolepidaceae).
In Latin, the name of the bracken fern sounds like Pteridium aguillinum: thus, the first word means "wing", while the second comes from the word aquilla - eagle. This name the plant received for the similarity of the shape of the leaves with the wing of the eagle.
However, there is another version of the origin of the name. The fact is that at the cut of the stem of the eagle vascular bundles form a figure that resembles in its outlines a two-headed eagle.
This edible fern, reaching a height of 30 to 100 cm, has a strong, thick, creeping rhizome of black color, the diameter of which can reach 1.5 to 10 mm. Single leaves (fronds) separated from each other at a certain distance from the black rhizome. The name of the bracken leaves was given for its similarity with palm leaves (the word "frond" is translated from Greek as "palm branch").
It should be noted that the eaglet forms the so-called clones occupying territories, the area of which can be equal to 100 - 200 sq. M. Such clones are formed due to the growth and vegetative reproduction of the rhizomes of the plant.
Interesting fact! Orlyak has two types of rhizomes:
1. Horizontal - formed from the main apical bud, does not form leaves (it is from horizontal rhizomes that new elongated growths are formed annually).
2. The shortened oblique - is formed from lateral buds and has leaves located at the apex (a certain part of the lateral buds "falls asleep" with time or dies completely).
There is an opinion that the eagle clones are able to "live" on the territory they occupy for hundreds, even thousands of years.
The green leaves of bracken have even, long and fairly rigid petioles (or rachises, which in Greek means “ridge”), while the lamina is noticeably tilted to the petiole (sometimes located almost horizontally). On the underside of the leaf, there are sporangia in which spores, which are poured out and carried by the wind between July and up to September, form and ripen. It is from sporangia that a continuous narrow strip is formed, passing along the edge of the leaf lobes. The oblong and lanceolate fronds of the bracken are blunt at the end, whereas at the base they are lobed or pinnately incised.
Orlyak is a large-leaved plant, in which the length and width of the frond directly at the base can vary in the range of 50 to 150 cm.
It is possible to distinguish common bracken from other types of fern by the following features:
- single placed leaves
- curved edges of leaves,
- longitudinal covered rows of sporangia.
In addition, eagle does not form bushes.
Where does eagle grow?
Orlyak grows in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres, preferring forest areas (the main thing is that these areas should be "favored" by the sun). The bracken grows on edges, clearings and forest fires. But in the highlands this plant can not be found above the forest belt. Bracken does not grow in the arctic regions, steppes and deserts.
On the territory of Russia, this plant grows in the European part of the country, in Siberia, as well as in the Urals and the Far East.
It is best to take root on light and rather poor soils, it can be found on limestone. I must say that due to the deep-lying rhizomes and the ability to vegetative propagation, this plant perfectly masters cuttings and burning, not to mention the abandoned fields, plantations and pastures.
In some cases, bracken forms continuous thickets, and therefore often dominates in the grass cover.
Collecting and harvesting brace
For medicinal purposes, as well as for consumption, they use young shoots and rhizomes of the plant.
Rhizomes are harvested in the fall or early spring (from May to June) when the above-ground part of the plant begins to grow (the beginning of the collection of eagle signals the flowering of bird cherry, frying, lilac and lily of the valley). First, it is advisable to collect bracken on sun-drenched slopes (the first eagles appear in open areas), then along birch forests and hollows, and then in shaded ravines and aspen trees. It is important to exclude the collection of shoots in one thickets, which, of course, will give new leaves, but much weaker. It is enough to collect a third of the rachis from one plant, which practically does not weaken the plant.
The rhizomes are cleared from the ground, this removes all small adventitious roots that are not thrown away, but dried separately. But the base of leaf stalks should be left with the rhizome. Dried underground part of the plant in the shade.
The eagle leaves are harvested exclusively by young, and together with the newly emerged from the ground shoots, which are not yet unfolded fronds (the height of the cut-off shoots should not exceed 20-30 cm). It is important that the diameter of harvested leaves exceed the mark of 5 mm.
Only juicy, fragile and easily breaking shoots of a plant are to be harvested. As soon as the shoots cease to break when bent, and will only bend, the collection of raw materials stops, because it becomes bitter and unsuitable for food. In addition, the content in such hardened shoots of nutrients will be minimal.
The collected shoots must be immediately recycled, because after 3 - 4 hours after harvest, they will become overloaded and lose their nutritional and therapeutic value. In extreme cases, shoots of eaglet can be stored for 24 hours in the refrigerator (with prolonged storage, fresh fern loses all its taste qualities).
Salt Fern Bracken
The shoots are tied up in small bunches, after which they are laid in a barrel in layers (each layer is sprinkled with salt). The amount of salt used should be equal to one fourth of the weight of the bracken. A weight is put on the last layer, the weight of which must be equal (or to be greater, but not less) to the weight of the fern. After two to three weeks, the brine is discharged, after which the load is removed in order to swap the lower layers with the upper layers. When changing layers, the raw material is again sprinkled with salt.
Important! Since the brine does not form during the secondary salting, it should be prepared separately, which will require an amount of salt that will not be less than 20 percent of the amount of brine. So, the layers are poured with brine, after which a load is applied on top, which is removed in a week.
Before consumption, the salted bracken is soaked in water for at least seven hours, then the above-ground part of the plant is boiled for about five minutes and used to make salads, dressings, and pickles.
Important! Together with the brine, all the bitterness that is characteristic of the young shoots of the fern will disappear. The eagle grass, harvested in a similar manner, is stored for two to three years at any temperature.
Let's give one more recipe for eagle stock preparation for future use. The collected shoots of the plants immediately after assembly are boiled in salted water for 10 minutes, after which the water is drained and the boiled raw material is laid out in a thin layer and dried, turning regularly, until the young shoots become fragile (to complete drying of the shoots, no more four days). Stored dried raw materials in fabric bags. For the subsequent preparation of dry eaglet, it is recommended to soak in water during the day, changing the water periodically.
Important! In its raw form, bracken is poisonous and can cause severe poisoning, which can be fatal.
Composition of brace
- skin regeneration
- removal of inflammation
- acceleration of wound healing
- promoting the absorption of essential oils,
- protection of the body against the action of carcinogenic substances.
- stimulation of appetite
- normalization of digestive processes,
- increased excretion of bile,
- restoration of strength and energy
- increase immunity.
- increase the body's defenses
- elimination of toxins
- neutralize the harmful effects of free radicals,
- prevention of cancer,
- regulation of protein synthesis,
- normalization of metabolism
- ensuring normal bone formation.
- normalization of redox processes,
- normalization of metabolism
- ensuring the normal functioning of the nervous system,
- eye improvement,
- elimination of toxins
- normalization of sleep.
- stimulating the production of the hormone estrogen,
- promote wound healing
- protection of skin against ultraviolet radiation,
- slowing the aging process
- regulation of water-lipid balance,
- elimination of skin inflammations
- removal of puffiness.
A nicotinic acid
- increased synthesis of estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, cortisone, thyroxine and insulin,
- providing all types of metabolism
- elimination of pain,
- improved joint mobility
- activating the function of the cerebral cortex,
- dilation of blood vessels
- increased blood flow velocity
- strengthening the secretory and motor functions of the stomach,
- stimulation of the functional activity of the pancreas and liver,
- strengthening immunity
- lowering blood cholesterol
- lowering blood pressure.
- normalization of the functioning of the heart,
- soothing CNS,
- promoting the expansion of blood vessels
- increased urination,
- neutralization of microbes
- dilution and excretion of sputum.
Lignin not only absorbs, but also contributes to the elimination through the gastrointestinal tract of salmonella and yellow staphylococci, toxins, all sorts of allergens and salts of heavy metals.
- removal of toxins,
- increased mental alertness
- improved digestion
- elimination of inflammation,
- normalization of gastrointestinal functions,
- neutralization of bacteria and microbes
- a significant slowdown in oxidative processes
- accelerating the wound healing process,
- strengthening the blood vessels.
- relieves inflammation
- fills the body with energy, because it is transformed into glucose,
- contributes to the suspension of tumor growth,
- slows down the absorption of sugar, thereby contributing to a decrease in its level,
- in moderate doses improves bowel function.
- normalization of blood circulation
- pain relief,
- accelerated blood clotting,
- lowering blood pressure.
- excitement of the cough center,
- regulation of water, salt and mineral exchanges,
- enhancing the action of hormones
- elimination of inflammation,
- liquefaction of sputum.
In addition, the composition of brack includes such useful substances as iodine and potassium, calcium and magnesium, manganese, as well as copper, sodium, nickel, sulfur and phosphorus, which affect the body as follows:
- produce hemoglobin,
- secrete thyroid hormones,
- neutralize the action of bacteria
- regulate metabolic processes
- synthesize insulin
- regulate the work of the central nervous system,
- detoxify and toxins,
- prevent the formation of kidney stones,
- normalize the reproductive system,
- stimulate anabolic processes
- strengthen bones
- saturate the cells with oxygen,
- regulate blood sugar levels.
Roots and rhizomes as an internal remedy are used in the treatment of joint aches, diarrhea, rickets.
Outwardly, the infusion of the rhizomes of the plant is used for skin diseases, chronic wounds, boils, scrofula and eczema. Also, the infusion in the form of baths can be used in the treatment of ulcers and rheumatism.
The use of brace in medicine
About fern as a medicinal plant, Pliny and Dioscorides also mentioned in their writings, while Avicenna described the detailed description of this plant and its use in the 11th century.
Interesting fact! In the Middle Ages, the Swiss doctor and pharmacist Nuffer compiled a prescription for antihelminthic medication, the basis of which was precisely the fern. This recipe was kept in the strictest secret, which was revealed for a great reward after the death of Nuffer (the recipe was bought from the pharmacist's widow by decree of the French King Louis XVI). Already at the end of the 18th century, the fern was included in the pharmacopoeia of European countries as a means of helping not only to get rid of worms, but to alleviate the course of arthritis and polyarthritis.
Such popularity of fern is due to the beneficial effect of drugs from this plant on the body.
1. Metabolism stimulation.
2. Elimination of pain.
3. Stress relief.
4. Elimination of fever.
5. Stimulate the growth process.
6. Contribute to the proper formation of the skeleton.
7. Increase performance.
8. Improving the state of the endocrine system.
9. Promoting the removal of radionuclides.
10. Elimination of iodine deficiency.
A bit of history
The fern (namely, bracken) has long been used as a food product.
Thus, in Russia, during famine, this plant was used as a surrogate for bread, whereas in Japan, the fern was considered a real delicacy, because the taste of this plant, when properly prepared, resembles the flavor of mushrooms of the highest sort. In Japan, warabi-mochi sweets are made from fern starch, which are pies with a filling.
Orlyak is valued for taste in countries such as China, Korea and New Zealand.For example, residents of the Canary Islands (in fairness, we note that the fern grows abundantly on the islands), rhizomes of the plant are mixed into flour, from which they bake delicious, nutritious and healthy bread called cheleho. In Korea, bracken is used to make "Chon" pancakes, which can be filled with meat, seafood and vegetables.
Important! The shoots and leaves of the bracken have an anti-rotten effect: for example, the vegetables or fruits transferred by them remain fresh for a long time and do not deteriorate.
Interesting Facts! It has been established that the fronds of eagles can repel insects (cockroaches, bedbugs, flies, and spiders), therefore in Western Europe the peasants used the leaves of the plant for stuffing mattresses and pillows. In addition, it was believed that such a packing protects against sciatica. And the French women used bracken root to cleanse the skin. Finally, to this day, a special glue is produced from the rhizomes of the fern, which does not dissolve in cold water (with this glue they saturate the backpacks in order to make them waterproof).
How to cook bracken fern?
Young leaves and shoots of the eagle (they are also called "snails") that did not have time to turn around are consumed instead of asparagus or olives, and also pickled, fried and boiled, because this plant has a strong mushroom flavor.
In general, brace can be used as a side dish or as an additive to vegetables, cereals, meat, fish and flour products. This plant is well combined with potatoes, various cereals, peas.
The dried eaglefish is used in a finely ground state as an ingredient for gravies or fatty sauces.
But it should be remembered that before applying the eagle it is necessary to heat treat and soak the plant, which will help get rid of bitterness, excess salt and toxic components.
Thus, the main task of the culinary specialist is to remove bitterness by salting, marinade, drying, soaking or boiling, while leaving crunchy hardness.
In the process of cooking brack it is important to achieve the desired consistency of the shoots, so it is better to undercook the raw materials than to digest, since the digested fronds lose their taste and crispness. It is recommended to cook the fronds for no longer than 10 minutes, after which the water is drained, the boiled bracken is washed under running water and stored in the refrigerator for several days.
Interesting fact! The Japanese believe that the fern must be cooked exclusively in copper dishes, which will help to maintain the bright green color of the plant.
Delicious and very healthy salads can be made from bracken, the recipes of which are listed below.
- young vayi brace - 100 g,
- hard-boiled eggs - 2 pcs.,
- spring onions - 20 g,
- vegetable oil - 2 tbsp.,
- salt to taste
Fronds are cleaned, washed, boiled and finely chopped, and then mixed with chopped green onions, as well as a boiled egg. Salad is salted and dressed with vegetable oil, instead of which you can use sour cream.
- onion - 100 g,
- canned corn - 100 g,
- rye crackers - 100 g,
- cheese - 100 g,
- Veal - 100 g,
- Korean carrot - 100 g,
- Vayi brace - 100 g
Onions are fried, cheese, veal and fronds are finely chopped, after which all the components of the salad are mixed and dressed with a sauce, for the preparation of which are mixed components such as sour cream, garlic and mayonnaise. Salad salad to taste.
Orlyak can be used for cooking soup.
Ingredients (0.5 liters of broth):
- bracken leaves - 100 g,
- Onion - 1 pc.,
- carrots - 1 pc.,
- potatoes - 2 pcs.,
- flour - 1 tbsp.,
- Tomato paste - 1 tbsp.,
- salt to taste
Finely chopped onion fried with flour and tomato paste. Finely chopped vegetables, bracken leaves and zazharka are added to the broth. The soup is salted and cooked until ready.
Bracken leaves can protrude and as a separate side dish, for what they should be cleaned, washed and cut. Next, leaves bracken are paned in flour and fried in butter. This side dish is served with meat, fish or vegetable dishes.
Decoction from worms
One tablespoon of sliced and dried eagle roots is placed in an enamel pan and poured with a glass of boiling water, after which the medium is placed on a moderate fire and cooked for 20 minutes. The broth, taken from the heat, tightly covered with a lid and infused in a warm place for an hour, and then filtered and consumed by a third cup three times a day.
The same broth can be washed open wounds, boils, as well as boils and allergic skin rashes. In addition, a decoction of brace recommended to gargle with sore throat or a strong cough.
Broth with diarrhea, scrofula and anemia
3 tbsp. Bracken roots pour half a liter of boiling water and cook for 15 minutes, then insist on the remedy for another two hours, strain and drink the resulting volume during the day. The broth is drunk 20 minutes before eating (on an empty stomach) or two hours after eating (preferably overnight).
Such a decoction will help to cope with joint pain, if you make lotions and compresses from it that are applied to the affected areas.
Young, twisted into a snail, the leaves are called fronds. In general, they resemble the wings of an eagle, hence the name. Translated from the Greek, frond is a palm branch. Fern branch really looks like her. The lower leaf feathers have the ability to secrete sweet nectar, which attracts ants and other insects. And at the end of the summer the plant throws out spores - these are cells for reproduction. Disputes are located on the back of the leaves and are well visible when ripe. In addition, every year a thick root gives more and more above-ground shoots. So the fern multiplies. But, it is the vegetative reproduction from the rhizome that this culture gives its preference, rather than the spore.
Bracken fern is sometimes called the aggressor plant. This is because it is capable of active growth. He fills all free fields in the forest. He is not afraid of either the hot sun or forest fires, because if the foliage dies, the deep roots will remain intact. At the same time creating such large plantations, bracken fern prevents flushing of fertile layers, for example, on the slopes. The plant with its lush growth, of course, interferes with the emergence of other light-loving crops, including young trees. But, if pines, firs or spruces grow among its dense thickets, then they should not be afraid of any frosts.
The leaves and rhizome of a fern have many useful substances in their chemical composition:
- carotenoids (lutein, carotene),
- carbohydrates (xylose, fructose, arabinose),
- organic acids (cinnamic, caffeic, vanillic, coumaric, etc.)
According to the protein content, this plant is similar to mushrooms again, and from vegetables - with potatoes or cabbage. Its biological value is close to the merits of grain crops. In some quantities it contains starch (0.18%), pectin (0.5%), cellulose (0.9%).
And also the bracken fern does not lag behind other species of useful plants in terms of the content of vitamins. Biological research has shown that it includes:
And the starch content in its roots reaches from 40 to 70% of dry weight.
Due to the number of useful properties of the plant, it has long been produced and cultivated for industrial and pharmaceutical production, as well as for personal use.
In order to comply with the measures of extermination of fern resources, it is necessary to observe certain conditions when harvesting. Collection is recommended when:
- The length of the juicy part of the sheet reached at least 20-25 cm.
- For the season, it is necessary to carry out a one-time cutting of the fern for three years, and in the next 2-3 years to take a break.
- Store the collected raw materials is recommended up to 12 hours at a temperature of 20 degrees. At a higher temperature, to keep the fern collection without processing need even less.
- Freshly prepared shoots will quickly become stiff, so they need to be processed in the same day.
The most popular method of processing to which bracken fern is exposed is its pickling. Industrial salting is carried out according to technical conditions (TU 61 RSFSR 01-93-92E), developed in Soviet times. The recycled product is called “Bracken fern. Salty prefabricated. You can store it for a long time in the refrigerator and add to food a little and as needed.
In addition to salting, a popular processing method is drying leaf shoots. This production is also performed in accordance with all norms and standards (TU 61 RSFSR 01-101-89E). In addition, this option is more economical in time, since it takes about two months for salting, and drying can be done in 2-3 days.
Not only the leaves, but also the root is dried. It is stored for many years also using parts if necessary. The root is usually rubbed into a powder that can be added to flour and baked bread from it. Or knead in the dough and sculpt dumplings. Still root is used for washing the headbecause it foams well in water. As well as his can be used as soap (for example, on a camping trip).
How to use the Orlyak plant in medical nutrition
Ferns live on Earth for many millions of years. During this period, according to scientists paleontologists, their appearance has not changed significantly. Although fern is considered a wild-growing plant, it has long been cultivated. Orlyak ordinary found its use not only as a decorative culture, which fits perfectly into the country beds, but also as a medicinal and even food plant. It is used for cooking soups and salads, used in boiled and fried, dried, pickled.
Orlyak has a peculiar smell and mushroom flavor.
For example, only blooming leaves of a plant, when they are still wrapped in a snail, can be consumed in boiled, salted or pickled form.
Russians are not accustomed to its fresh use, although in old times they used it instead of bread. After all, there is a lot of protein, carbohydrates, and various vitamins in brace. Leaves make salads, seasonings and all kinds of snacks.
But in Japan, China or Korea, succulent stems are widely used as raw vegetables. Of particular value in this case are precisely the young fresh shoots-fronds. For the Japanese, it’s just a delicacy. Orlyak is imported to this country in large quantities, including from Russia.
In our Far East, bracken has long been popular with indigenous peoples. It is used in food for many centuries. Cooked fern leaves are a little bitter. Therefore, before using them, they are poured with boiling water for a few minutes, then kept in cold salted water for another two hours.
Consider a few recipes:
Young shoots of leaves are washed and boiled. Finely chopped and mixed with green onions and boiled egg. All salt, season with butter or sour cream.
- fern leaves - 100 gr,
- green onions - 20 gr,
- boiled egg - 2 pcs.,
- salt to taste
- vegetable oil (or sour cream) - 2 tbsp. spoons.
Boil the meat broth. Young fern leaves are added to it: bracken, carrots, potatoes, flour and onions, overcooked in tomato paste. Salt and bring to readiness.
- broth meat or chicken - 0.5 l,
- fern (leaves) - 100 g,
- potatoes - 2 pcs.,
- onion turnip - 1 pc.,
- carrots - 1 pc.,
- flour - 1 tbsp. l.,
- tomato paste - 1 tbsp. l.,
- salt to taste
Young fresh leaves are washed, cut, rolled in flour and fried in butter (preferably cream). Used as a side dish for fish, meat, vegetables.
Bracken fern in the household
The fern is very popular as an ornamental plant and is often used in the design of cottages and household plots. From his plantations, you can form solid fields under growing trees. This gives the landscape a mysterious shade and mystery.
Fluffy bushes with filigree leaves look harmonious with flowering plants in flowerbeds and create a beautiful background for them.
Orlyak is unpretentious, he prefers both dry, loose, and wet soils and looks great in natural reservoirs or hand-made rockeries.
In the household fern has long been used. So, the leaves that are still not blooming have anti-rotting properties. They shift the harvest: fruits and vegetables, which can then be kept fresh for a long time. Also leaves scare away harmful insects.
Villagers still use bracken fern, which grows in sufficient quantities in the nearby forest, for stuffing bedding, pillows and mattresses. It is believed that such litters help from sciatica, and, in addition, scare flies, cockroaches and spiders.
Girls use fern leaves for bathing, as they have the effect of cleansing and rejuvenating the face and body.
Let us recall one more mystical property of the fern, which nevertheless has been used by young people for many centuries. In the Slavic epic, it was believed that on the night of the holiday of Ivan Kupala the fern blooms. And the one who found him a fiery flower will certainly be lucky to find the treasure. Whoever sees the flower first is waiting for an early love and happy family life. So celebrate the day of Ivan Kupala that night, and young lovers are looking for a blooming fern.
But, this culture also has contraindications, they should be known when using the fern in the household.
- Bracken fern is considered poisonous planttherefore, only the youngest leaves that have not fully developed can be used as food. Before use, they must be boiled and rinsed several times in running salted water to get rid of bitterness.
- Excessive consumption of fern leaves may threaten avitaminosis, because the thiaminase enzyme in fresh shoots destroys thiamine (vitamin B1) in our body.
- In eaglet ordinary contains carcinogen called ptakviklozid. Because of this, paportniki carcinogens are not used for livestock feed, since it is subsequently found in cow's milk and is not destroyed by any treatment.
Therapeutic use of fern
Known such a case, which occurred in the XVIII century. The Swiss pharmacist invented a medicine based on a fern, the composition of which was kept in strict secrecy. After his death, this recipe was bought from the widow for a lot of money by the personal physician of Louis XVI. After that, in 1775, the fern included in the official pharmacology of many European countries for its high medical properties.
For preventive and therapeutic purposes, the bracken is used for vascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, as an antihelminthic.
The root of the plant has astringent properties, spores are applied to non-healing wounds, decoctions and alcoholic extracts are prepared from the leaves to treat convulsions, inflammations, intestinal disorders, ulcers and epilepsy.
The roots and leaves of the fern Bracken are used in folk medicine for a variety of ailments:
- Broth - in the treatment of cough.
- Fresh juice - for disinfection and wound healing.
- Flour and bran from the root - from pain in the joints.
Dried shoots and roots of the bracken fern help fight diseases such as:
Home recipe for the use of medicinal properties of fern:
- crushed fern root eagle - 3 tbsp. spoons with a slide,
- water - 0.5 l
Fern root is ground and boiled. Boiling broth is kept on the stove for about 15 minutes. After that, remove and leave to infuse for 2 hours. This is the composition of the daily dose, which is taken on an empty stomach (20-30 minutes before a meal). And also broth use for lotions and compresses on sore spots (bruises, joints, lower back).
But, when using fern in home doctoring, it is important to observe the measure. After all, poisons are contained in small quantities even in young shoots. They tend to accumulate. Also do not use fern medication patients suffering from hypotension (low blood pressure), pregnant and lactating women, as well as young children.