Tomatoes and peppers are the most popular vegetables among gardeners in Russia. They differ not only in excellent taste, but also very useful for the body. To get a good harvest, it is not easy to plant them in time, but also to feed them with the necessary nutrients in a timely manner.
Fertilizers for feeding tomato seedlings and peppers
Tomatoes and peppers belong to the nightshade family. Therefore, the seedlings are grown almost the same. They plant it in advance in order to take the fruits of their labor in time. Saplings gain growth in a limited space and a minimum of land, so the food quickly ends and the plants of both cultures require additional feeding. This is the introduction of substances useful for growth and development into a depleted substrate. Each plant needs a specific set of nutrients, but there are fertilizers that are suitable for everyone.
Usually in this quality are mineral mixtures sold in a specialty store or natural organics present in the garden.
For each type of fertilizer there are time-tested recipes. It is better not to break these dosages, since plants can be very easily harmed.
The best fertilizers for seedlings are those that give the plants enough nutrition that allows them to grow well and at the same time do not affect them negatively. But the choice remains for the owners of the estates, especially since the proposals from the professionals receive a lot.
These two cultures are grown almost identically. Both love warmly, respond growth and strength to make supplements, can not tolerate drought. However, the nuances of each when growing seedlings should be considered.
Now about how to grow peppers:
- For early harvest, these crops are planted in a greenhouse or under cover. It is necessary to very carefully monitor the nutritional value of the substrate. It is necessary to fertilize the full mineral complex, as well as organic. Planted pepper seeds are distinguished by slow germination, compared with tomatoes. Careful preparation for sowing is required, seeds need special measures.
- Another difference is that grown seedlings are better not to dive. Since the roots of the pepper are located almost on the surface, they are very weak and can be easily damaged. This culture likes frequent and abundant watering, especially in the flowering period. If you take care of in bad faith, the flowers just fall off.
- The plant itself in the period of seedling formation is also fragile, and therefore requires careful care.
- Different varieties of peppers (sweet and bitter) are not grown next to each other. As they pereopylyatsya and leaves the mixture of varieties, which affects the taste is not the best way.
- The seedlings of both cultures do not like high temperatures, especially if they grow in the greenhouse. Regularly open the doors of the greenhouse for ventilation, but without drafts.
- It must be borne in mind that in one greenhouse cultures are not grown. The best neighbor of the pepper will be a cucumber.
During sowing, gardeners prepare the nutrient soil, which will provide the plants with everything necessary for development. However, young saplings need a lot of different components, to ensure their need and designed to feed. The basic rules include:
- Knowing of limits. After all, the deficiency and excess of nutrients are equally harmful. Young seedlings are acutely responsive to care, so large doses along with poor nutrition are equally harmful.
- Form nutritional composition. Seedlings of pepper and tomato need liquid fertilizer. However, if you only have dry mixes, they can be dissolved in water. In young seedlings, the root system is still being formed, so it is not able to absorb components from dry fertilizer. Access to them will open only during watering, which will take a long time until the seedlings can “digest” it. Therefore, cultures will be hungry.
- Procedure time Seedlings are fed after abundant watering. The best time is the morning hours, at this time there is no danger of lowering the air temperature. During the day it will warm up, which will prevent the appearance of fungus.
- Concentration of top dressing. When applying mineral ready fertilizers or organic carefully follow the instructions. After all, if you want to feed adult plants, the concentration of the composition should be reduced by half.
- Regular tillage. The top layer must be carefully loosened. Only in this case, your efforts will be crowned with success.
Top dressing of pepper seedlings liquid fertilizers
Small peppers need fertilizing with liquid fertilizer. They are made from an early developmental period. Mineral blends are preferable to organics. It needs to be remembered, otherwise sensitive seedlings of pepper will suffer. The following fertilizers are good in this respect:
It is also worth knowing that pepper is nourished only through the root system.
Fertilizers are applied for the first time at the development stage of two leaves.. Have to take:
- ammonium nitrate - 0.5 g,
- superphosphate - 3 g,
- potassium sulfate - 1 g.
Dissolve in water and pour the composition of the seedlings. It is important to ensure that it does not soak the tender leaves, if this happens, they should be washed with water.
The second time, use the same composition, but use a double dosage. After the first feeding should take half a month.
The third time pepper fertilized before transplanting to a permanent place. This is done in a week. Now apply the infusion of wood ash. Per liter of water take 15 grams. You can do the previous composition, but with an increase in the dosage of potassium, you need to take 8 grams.
Top dressing of seedlings tomato
Tomatoes are demanding nutritional crops. During the whole period of development bush they need additional feeding. A powerful trunk of a young plant appears after competent introduction of nutrient mixtures.
After the seedlings are planted at the place of permanent residence, she is guaranteed to give you a rich harvest. Three times feeding tomato seedlings will be enough.
For the first time, fertilizers are applied 10 days after diving. The root system manages to adapt to new conditions and pick up nutrients from the soil. This stage is suitable for irrigation with nitrogen and phosphorus. To do this, use the drug called "Nitrofos." You need to take a large spoon of fertilizer and dilute it in a liter of water.
You can instead make fertilizer organic infusion. Use mullein or bird droppings. But here you need time for cooking. The selected component is diluted with water in a ratio of 2 to 1 and give time to infuse. After the fermentation is complete and the mixture is precipitated, fertilizer can be used. The concentrate requires dilution with water. For litter, this is done 1 to 12, for mullein - 1 to 7. Now you can water the seedlings.
Folk box includes fertilizing infusion of wood ash. You need to dissolve dry ash (1 spoon) in hot water (2 liters), give time to cool, after which you can water the young tomato bushes.
The second time they pour over fertilizing after half a month.
The choice of fertilizers depends on the health status of the tomato bushes. If the seedlings have grown strongly, you do not need to make nitrogen. Preferred mixtures are preferred:
Seedlings will absorb the right amount of nutrients. If young bushes are healthy, it will be enough to apply Nitrophos fertilizer a second time.
For the third time, tomatoes need to have time to feed one week before disembarking on a permanent habitat. You can again take the finished mineral fertilizers or infusion of organics.
In the folk piggy bank a list of tools for feeding seedlings of peppers and tomatoes. For these crops, the main components of nutrition are: potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. Especially popular is dressing with iodine.
It is used in two ways:
- bring directly into the root system, which is suitable for both tomatoes and peppers.
- foliar application is only suitable for tomatoes.
Iodine is fed under the root by watering the seedlings. The solution consists of a drop of iodine in 3 liters of water. Sometimes you only need to deposit it once.
Foliar dressing spend spraying shoots. This method helps to feed tomatoes, and also protects against formidable late blight and downy mildew. This type of feeding continues even further when tomatoes are planted in a greenhouse or in open ground. It will take 3 drops of iodine per bucket of water, one plant is sprayed with a liter of composition.
Tomatoes and peppers are fed with iodine then in order to obtain disease-resistant seedlings with the ovaries of large fruits. Extraordinary formulations are also used for feeding seedlings:
- In the ground, you can add coffee grounds, coffee lovers claim that the pepper is excellent. The thick helps nourish the roots and loosen the soil, allowing air to penetrate better into the roots.
- Banana peel delivers potassium to the roots. Make an infusion in a three-liter jar of water from the peel of three bananas. Wait three days and water the seedlings. Potassium allows the roots to be saturated with nitrogen.
- Eggshell. It is used as a top dressing of young bushes of pepper and tomato after picking. The shell is put on the bottom of the container for picking or collected for infusion. In the latter case, you need to fill half of the bucket with water and insist for three days, then pour the plants. In the process of infusion, you can feel the unpleasant smell of hydrogen sulfide, but it is well influenced by plants.
- Many gardeners use onion peels, potato peels, yeast.
Organizing the conduct of fertilizing seedlings of peppers and tomatoes, you need to take into account their condition. By their appearance, they can tell themselves what substance they need more than others, as well as when to feed. Sometimes deadlines are broken for the sake of plants.. Deficiency of the necessary substance is manifested by a certain signal:
- The leaves brighten. It is necessary to make nitrogen-containing fertilizers.
- There were light streaks. Plant too much light. Copper sulfate will help to prevent the disease.
- The leaves began to fade. Magnesium is missing. This item is delivered using ash.
- The color of the leaves becomes purple. Phosphorus deficiency. Apply superphosphate.
If the plant has a dark color of leaves and they look strong and healthy, then you can not rush to the next top dressing - some gardeners are not in a hurry with this. It is especially good when the seedlings of peppers and tomatoes grow in rich, nutritious soil. Special literature vacationers forums or videos from professionals will help answer emerging questions novice gardeners. Watch the seedlings carefully, it will help to take action on time. But it is best to pre-stock knowledge on the proper cultivation of seedlings of these crops, to prevent problems.
General rules for dressings
Even when using a special soil for tomatoes and peppers, enriched with fertilizers, plants may lack nutrients. Growing in boxes of these crops takes place over two months, and the plants lack food for the entire period.
Young plants are especially sensitive to this deficiency, and a nutritional deficiency immediately affects their condition.
However, feeding any seedlings need not lose a sense of proportion. Large doses of fertilizer applied for seedlings of tomatoes and peppers, as well as too frequent top dressing will not help the plants, but most likely will harm.
When choosing a drug preference should be given to liquid species. If you purchased a dry mix of minerals, be sure to dilute it with water before use. The fact is that the root system of the seedlings is not able to independently use dry mineral substances introduced into the soil.
For better distribution of minerals in the soil fertilizing seedlings of tomatoes and peppers should be carried out after watering the plants. It is necessary to carry out the procedure in the morning hours, so that in the evening, when the air temperature drops, do not provoke the development of fungus in the soil.
Apply ready-made mixture of fertilizers, watch out for their purpose.. If the fertilizers purchased by you are intended for adult plants, then for seedlings it is necessary to reduce their concentration in the solution by half.
Top dressing will bring more benefits if around the plants you will regularly loosen the ground. Just do it with utmost care, loosen the topsoil only an hour or two after watering.
Fertilizers for tomato seedlings
Tomatoes - culture is particularly demanding on nutrition in all periods of development. Proper and timely fertilizing allows you to get strong, viable specimens for subsequent cultivation in greenhouses or open ground.
During the cultivation of tomato seedlings need to feed her three times:
- The first feeding is carried out 10 days after picking the plants. The roots were already well accustomed to this time in the new soil and are able to absorb all the introduced elements from it. At this stage, the tomatoes need nitrogen and phosphorus, so the best use of the drug "Nitrofos". 1 tbsp. spoon diluted in a liter of water. Fertilizing is applied after a slight pre-moistening of the soil, then the bushes are sprinkled with fertilizer until all the soil is evenly moistened.
- The second feeding is carried out in 2 weeks. The composition of fertilizers during this period depends on the state of the plants. If they are stretched from lack of light, then nitrogen should be excluded from the fertilizer. The mixture is prepared from double superphosphate and potassium sulfate. Each mineral is taken in a tablespoon per liter. Of the finished liquid fertilizers, the most suitable during this period are Uniflor Growth, Effecton, Signor Tomato.
- A week before planting tomatoes in a permanent place, a third dressing is conducted.. For it uses a solution of Nitrophoska.
What and how to feed the pepper?
Top dressing pepper start in the earliest terms of development.
Already in the phase of the first two true leaves, seedlings should be shed with a mixture of ammonium nitrate (0.5 g), superphosphate (3 g), potassium sulfate (1 g).
All ingredients must be diluted in a liter of pre-settled water.
The second time, pour pepper with the same composition., but double the dose. Make it necessary in two weeks after the first feeding.
A few days before the pepper is planted in the ground, a third dressing is carried out. The fertilizer solution is prepared from 15 grams of wood ash, diluted in 1 liter.
Top dressing of seedlings of tomatoes and pepper folk remedies
Adherents of natural fertilizers can be advised to conduct fertilizing folk remedies:
- Bird droppings. Diluted 100 g in 1 liter, infused for 10 days. Before use, it is recommended to add copper sulphate or potassium permanganate.
- Banana peel. It is a source of potassium, especially recommended for tomatoes. Peel from 2-3 pieces insist in 3 liters of water for 3 days.
- Eggshell. This is how to feed the seedlings of peppers and tomatoes after picking, as the shell is recommended for laying out as a drainage when picking. It is possible to cover half a bucket of water with water and use it for watering after three days.
- Onion Husk. 10 g are filled in with liter of water, and insist 5 days.
- Yeast. 1 g per liter.
The appearance of plants - an indicator of lack of nutrients
The need for extra fertilizing seedlings and the composition of fertilizers can be judged by its appearance:
- Brightening lower leaves - lack of nitrogen.
- The location of the light bands along the veins - lack of iron. Seedlings should be sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate.
- Withering leaves They say about the lack of magnesium. It is possible to fill its lack with introduction into the soil of wood ashes.
- Pronounced purple veins on the leaves of tomatoes - lack of phosphorus. 5 g per liter of water is infused per day, then diluted with another liter, and the seedlings are watered with this composition.
Observing the simple rules of fertilizer application, you can grow strong and healthy seedlings of peppers and tomatoes, which in the fall will give you a rich harvest.
What is feeding seedlings
This is the process of introducing under the root system of seedlings of tomatoes, pepper nutrient solution, fertilizer, strengthening the immune system of the plant, helping to survive in stressful conditions under the influence of the external environment. To do everything right, you need to be able to recognize what exactly the pepper or tomato needs, how and when to add the solution, how to mix it, etc.
Answers to these many other questions will help novice gardeners to get a full crop of vegetable crops. The benefits of using nutritional folk remedies are obvious - they help seedlings grow healthy, strong, resistant to various diseases and pests. Top dressing is carried out in two main ways: root, foliar.
How to feed the seedlings
Before you begin feeding, you need to familiarize yourself with the species that divide any fertilizer for seedlings of tomatoes and peppers:
- Organic This includes all folk remedies: a solution of mullein, wood ash, chicken droppings, yeast mixture. Such fertilizers are made independently, do not require a large investment of time, effort and finances, have a large percentage of assimilation.
- Organo-mineral. Include salt solutions and organic ingredients.
- Mineral Contains the full range of nutrients needed for normal full growth of seedlings.
Количество подкормок, их состав зависит от качества почвосмеси. Primary feeding is carried out no earlier than 15 days after sowing and the emergence of full germination. Before picking in open ground, peppers and tomatoes do not need early feeding, and after the procedure you must wait at least a week. A very good result gives the alternation of mineral mixtures with organic-mineral. This feeding is made every 7-10 days. It should be noted that an oversupply or lack of mineral nutrition has a bad effect on seedlings:
Intensive growth of stems, leaves, the appearance of a saturated green color, reduced resistance to disease
Stop fertilize with nitrogen, feed with phosphorus-potassium agents
Decreased root development, stalk growth
Pour liquid nitrogenous agent
The appearance of chlorosis, reduced iron absorption
Feed potassium or dolomite flour
Decrease in growth of stalks, emergence of hloroz, yellowing, falling off of leaves
Water 1-2 times a week with calcium nitrate (7-9 g per 3 liters of water)
Growth delay, brightening of the leaves, the appearance of spots and falling foliage
Feed potash remedy
The appearance of blueness on the leaves, spots, brown shade on the edges, loss of immunity
Water 1% saltpeter once a week
The rapid aging of plants, fruits wilt, the appearance of chlorosis
Weak growth of plants, the appearance of red streaks on the leaves
To warm the windowsill, pour a solution of azofoski (5g to 3l)
There are fertilizers for seedlings of peppers and tomatoes, which are prepared from natural ingredients at home. Experienced gardeners prefer these folk remedies to purchased drugs, because they are not just an excellent alternative to chemicals, but also absolutely safe for future fruits. Most of the means of national production for feeding seedlings are made on the basis of:
- bird droppings,
- egg shell,
- banana peel,
- thick from coffee,
- potassium permanganate,
- potato broth,
- boric acid
- aloe juice and others
The main trace elements that tomatoes and peppers need are:
- Potassium. The element is necessary for the development of the root system, with its deficiency, the plants will die.
- Phosphorus. Supports seedlings during flowering, fruiting. If phosphorus is not enough, the ovary will fade and fall off, and you should not expect a full harvest.
- Nitrogen. It is an active participant in the process of photosynthesis, helps young seedlings to actively build up a strong green mass.
The main disadvantage of the processing and feeding of seedlings of tomatoes and peppers by folk remedies is the lack of the ability to calculate the exact amount of trace elements in the mixture. Given this fact, it is better to reduce the dosage of fertilizer applied than to exceed it. In addition, it is better to conduct top dressing in the morning, in a wet soil and maintain the temperature of the mixture from 220 to 250. To disinfect the soil and fertilize any varieties of tomatoes, use an infusion of a handful of onion peel (cleaning) and 3-5 liters of water.
The most popular fertilizer among gardeners is wood ash, which contains phosphorus and potassium, which is necessary for feeding seedlings. Substance protects plants from pests, diseases and nourishes them. Before diving seedlings in the ground, 2 tbsp is poured into each well. l ash mixture, and on top - a layer of earth to avoid damage to the roots. At the end of the second week after the landing, the first top dressing is carried out with liquid ash, to obtain a mixture, 100 g of ash powder must be diluted in 1 liter of water. This solution should be poured under the base of the stem of 1 liter.
You can also carry out foliar feeding, diluting 10 liters of water with 300 g of ash and half a piece of soap. Next, the mass is boiled for about half an hour, filtered, cooled. It is not necessary to add the last component, but it promotes better adhesion of the mixture to the leaf of seedlings. The resulting ash solution of the plant must be sprayed on top.
The peel of bananas is rich in potassium, which is necessary for seedlings during flowering. The skin of the fruit must be dried in any way, and then grind to a powder. The resulting mixture is poured when planting seedlings. It is best to dry the crusts in the fresh air, where it will contribute to the sun's rays and breeze. The product must be strung on a string, cover with gauze. So, the maximum preservation of useful substances and disposal of harmful impurities with which fruit was processed is ensured.
You can also use liquid banana fertilizer, obtained by infusing peel from 2-3 fruits in a three-liter jar with water for at least 3 days. Next, the fluid must be drained and pour 50 ml under each bush. There is another simple way to get a nutritious banana mixture - grind 1 fruit skin with a glass of water in a blender and add soft porridge 1 tbsp. l under each seedling once a month. Organic elements contained in bananas not only nourish the plants, contributing to abundant flowering, but also effectively combat aphids.
There is another way of feeding: spraying of seedlings with a spray of banana peel (4 pcs.), Egg shell powder (2 tsp.), Magnesium sulfate (20 g), 1 liter of water. The first component needs to be dried, chopped, mixed with the other ingredients. Spraying is carried out not more than once in 7 days, the mixture is stored in a refrigerator, and heated to 20 ° before use. From several finely chopped skins filled with the preparation “Baikal EM1”, you will get excellent compost. Insist the mixture needs a month.
Infusion of bird droppings
This dressing is very popular among gardeners and is one of the first. The mixture is necessary to stimulate the growth of seedlings and if there are no signs of nitrogen starvation, then there is no need to fertilize. Preparing the mass is simple - bird droppings are filled with water 1: 2, covered with a lid, left to ferment for 3 days. Then the solution is diluted 1:10 and used for root feeding. This method is the most effective, since it eliminates the "nitrogen starvation" of seedlings by 100%.
Peppers and tomatoes belong to the Solanaceae family, so the optimal conditions for growing are similar, with the exception of some nuances. It is also the case with dressings. Both vegetables require nutrient friable soil, but if tomatoes need phosphorus, then pepper needs potassium. Cultures do not tolerate fresh manure. Nitrogen is especially important when growing seedlings, because it promotes the growth of green mass. Feeding phosphorus a few days before transferring seedlings to a permanent place will help the root system to more quickly and more easily adapt to the changed environment.
The main nutrients are nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, but the lack of other nutrients also negatively affects plants. Calcium is required for growth, growth of the vegetative mass and roots, the formation of fruits. Iodine increases the yield, strengthens the immunity of vegetable crops, is especially important for seedlings of peppers and tomatoes. Boron is necessary for the formation of roots, inflorescences, buds, as well as during the flowering period, the ovary. Manganese - in the formation of the fruit, to protect against diseases.
External signs of lack of nutrition
When growing seedlings at home, a full-fledged substrate is prepared, so the lack of nutrients may not appear. It is more difficult to grow crops in open ground, because fertilizers can be leached out, distributed unevenly, picked up by neighboring plants, weeds.
The reaction of peppers and tomatoes to the lack of nutrients manifests itself rapidly, so it is important to distinguish the main features.
Symptoms of nutritional nutrient deficiencies:
- Nitrogen. Foliage is shrinking, thinning. The lower tier acquires a pale green color, then turns yellow, dies. Bush looks very weak.
- Phosphorus. Dead spots are formed on the leaves; brown blotches are visible on the lower part. Later, the surface will become blue-violet with reddish-purple streaks. The bush will stop growing, will begin to languish.
- Potassium. Old leaves look burned at the edges, then dry and fall away. Inside the fruit visible brown-gray stripes.
- Calcium. The upper tier turns yellow, some areas are covered with necrotic tissue, constantly growing. Vertex rot appears on the fruit.
- Manganese. First, the lack of nutrient is imperceptible, then the leaves become grayish metallic luster, covered with purple spots from above.
- Iodine. The plant is often sick, attacked by pests. Low yield, low resistance to weather changes. Brown spots, late blight, root rot.
- Iron. At the base, the leaves become yellowish or white, the veins remain green. The top turns yellow, the growth of the bush slows down, chlorosis develops.
- Boron. Dying off the point of growth, enhanced formation of stepchildren. Dry foci are visible on the fruit.
- Sulfur. The base of the sheet and the veins become reddish. First, the symptom appears on young leaves. The stalk becomes fragile, stiff.
- Magnesium. On the old foliage formed yellow-green specks, changing color to gray. Leaves dry and die. Fruits ripen early, grow small.
Feed dressing mode seedlings
The soil for growing crops must always contain the necessary nutrients in the required quantity, but in some periods of the growing season the needs of the plants change, increase. It is especially important to feed tomatoes and peppers with:
- forming 2-4 true leaves,
- ovary formation
- ripening fruit.
To accelerate the growth of seedlings and preparing for transplantation, it can be fertilized more than once, but several times - after the appearance of the first shoots, before picking and planting in the ground. Additional nutritional mixes are possible if the seedlings show signs of nutritional deficiencies. Often practice regular feeding every 10-15 days with the alternation of different mineral complexes.
When growing seedlings of peppers and tomatoes at home, the substrate is prepared in full compliance with the requirements of the crops, so the first 3 weeks feeding is not needed. If the soil is not previously prepared, shoots appear slowly, you can use a weak solution of complex fertilizer. The best time to feed seedlings is after the formation of 2-4 true leaves. To accelerate the growth of seedlings of green mass requires the introduction of nitrogen-containing substances. To do this, dissolve 1 tsp. nitroammofoski in 1 liter of water and pour under the root. A week later, repeat the procedure, diluting 0.5 tsp. fertilizer. In the same way to feed the third time after 7 days.
Top dressing will prepare the seedlings for planting in individual tanks, facilitate the recovery period thereafter.
This procedure is a stress factor for plants, so you should wait for them to recover, getting used to the changed environment. After the picking, it should take 7-10 days, the procedure should be carried out by the method of irrigation, since the introduction of dry additives and spraying will not give the desired effect.
To feed the seedlings of tomatoes and peppers can be a complex fertilizer containing the main nutrients - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. For tomatoes fit homemade infusions according to popular recipes - chicken dung, wood ash or eggshell. For peppers, it is better to use an infusion of onion peel, banana peel or a solution of pressed yeast. Then apply fertilizer every 10-15 days, the last time - 3-4 days before transplantation.
Landing in the ground
Feeding seedlings of peppers and tomatoes after transferring to a permanent place of cultivation should be carried out in 2-3 weeks. During this time, the root system will be restored, seedlings adapt to changing conditions. Plants must root, release young green leaves. After landing in the ground, the first procedure is carried out with an infusion of a mullein solution, bird droppings or yeast. Organic - a natural source of nitrogen, the only drawback - it is impossible to accurately calculate the required dosage.
Strong seedlings - the key to success in the cultivation of vegetables, but may require other feeding. The main thing is to be guided by the external characteristics of plants. If the soil was prepared according to all the rules, enriched with nutritional components, it is permissible not to add new batches of mixtures before flowering. Pepper and tomato seedlings after planting in open ground are recommended to be additionally fertilized with foliar top dressing. Nutrients from the soil are harder to get than through leafy plates, so if you need a quick result from the procedure, this method is used.
What fertilizers are needed in tomatoes and peppers?
In this section of the article we will talk in detail about what kind of fertilizer is necessary for crops of interest to us at the seedling stage.
The first substance, which necessarily need to feed the vegetables mentioned - of course, nitrogen. It is he who influences such indicators of the health of seedlings of the cultures listed above as:
- stalk thickness
- color brightness
- succulent foliage.
Nitrogen - an essential element required by tomatoes
Provided that there is not enough nitrogen for the crops of interest to us, the plants will grow thin and very vulnerable to diseases and attacks by garden pests.
However, it should be remembered that an excess supply of nitrogen to plants can also lead to negative consequences affecting the health of seedlings. Therefore, you need to feed the plants wisely.
The following substance, which must necessarily be contained in the feed for tomatoes and peppers - phosphorus. It is this element that supplies seedlings with energy for growth, besides, he is responsible for:
- the formation of a greater number of peduncles,
- Proper formation of the future decoration of your table: peppers and tomato.
Provided that the phosphorus goes to the plant in insufficient quantities, most likely you will be left without a crop, or you will receive fruits that are scarce in size and taste.
Potassium is a chemical element that is directly responsible for the progress in the growth and development of the part of the plant that is underground, that is, the roots. However, the required substance requires much more pepper, however, tomatoes also really need it at this stage of development.
Potassium is especially needed by plants at the stage of ascending seedlings.
It is potassium that helps plants to take root not only in tubs at the stage of home germination, but also in the greenhouse after transplanting seedlings to a permanent place of residence.
So, having carefully studied this section, we can conclude that the main substances required by tomatoes and peppers at the growth stage in the form of seedlings are:
If you want to get a crop, moreover, it is abundant, then it is better for you to ensure that the plants receive all the above-mentioned substances, since, as a rule, plants cannot receive them in the right amount in the natural way.
However, it should always be remembered that overdoing the seedlings with fertilizer is as simple as under-feeding. Harm can be applied to plants even when you use folk remedies that are not concentrated and do not contain harmful impurities.
Such an ugly appearance of a seedling can equally speak, both about the lack of nutrients for it, and about their excess
Excessive fertilizer may not be a medicine for the plant, but poison, and it will quickly become sick. Before planting seedlings, it is very important to study the composition of the soil that you have dug up or purchased for it (in the latter case, to make it easier), since a sufficient amount of the listed fertilizers may already be in the prepared substrate.
Note! One of the following external manifestations can make you realize that the seedlings lack nutrients:
- changing the shade of foliage or plant stalks,
- dried leaves
- leaves twisted in an unnatural way
- blanching color
- thinning parts of seedlings,
- general weakened look.
Unfortunately, the exact reason for this “behavior” of seedlings is difficult to determine, since it equally can be both a lack of fertilizers and a lack:
Think about how comfortable the conditions are at the point of the apartment where the plants are standing, and then start experimenting with fertilizers.
Fertilizers for tomato seedlings and peppers: folk remedies
Before proceeding to the consideration of the list of folk remedies that are well suited for fertilizing peppers and tomatoes, it is necessary to remember certain rules of interaction with them.
- Thus, the first golden rule, which must be followed when working with seedlings feed, concerns the amount of fertilizer used. Thus, according to the requirements, the volume of useful elements introduced into the soil or sprinkling the green part of the plant should be small.
- The temperature of the prepared fertilizer at the time of its introduction into the tubs with seedlings should be equal to the ambient temperature.
- Feed young plants should be exclusively early in the morning, after you will water the seedlings, so fertilizers will be assimilated in the best way.
Feed seedlings after watering
Теперь, когда мы знаем, как взаимодействовать с питательными веществами, необходимыми перцам и томатам, перейдем к их поочередному рассмотрению.
Древесная зола для томатов и перцев
Зола – перегоревшее дерево, которое сохраняет в себе почти все химические элементы, до этого в нем содержащиеся.
Для удобрения огорода подойдет любая древесная зола, которую вы жгли:
- в печи дома,
- растапливая баню,
- поджигая мангал.
Ash can be used only pure, not containing harmful impurities.
Categorically, it is impossible to use the ash in which traces of aggressive chemical agents are used to ignite. If you add it to seedlings, then it will rather kill small peppers and tomatoes.
It must be said that the effect carried out by such a fertilizer as ash, though not visible to the eye, comes almost instantly. It is enough to apply it for the considered crops at the growth stage once or twice, and the seedlings will receive:
- essential nutrients
- resistant immunity to fungal diseases,
- resistance to garden flea attacks.
Garden (cruciferous) flea
The technique of using ash for seedlings of tomatoes and peppers is dusting. A thin layer of substance is enough to cover the ground in pots for seedlings, and it will start to work.
Table 1. What is the best ash for fertilizing cucumber seedlings and tomatoes?
Fertilizers for tomatoes and peppers
Entering into the soil the nutrients that are necessary at this stage of development will have a positive effect on crop yields and protect plantings from infections and pests. When choosing a mixture, one should be guided by the external characteristics of the seedlings, the vegetation stage, take into account the effect of nutrients on plants. For example, nitrogen should be added when it is necessary to increase the aboveground part in a short time, and at the stage of the formation of the root system, attention should be paid to the content of phosphorus in the additive. Also, do not mix several varieties at once.
Complex fertilizers are needed at certain stages of the growing season, after transfer to the open ground is better to feed more often, but with different substances.
All fertilizers for seedlings of tomatoes and peppers can be divided into:
- folk methods.
This group is represented in a form that is easily absorbed (up to 50%) by plants, especially if they consist of chelate compounds (up to 90%). Some supplements contain only one component, for example, nitrogen - carbamide, urea. Mineral fertilizers are produced in dry and liquid form. The first option is mainly used to prepare the soil for sowing, and solutions are prepared for dressings in order to distribute the nutrient mixture around the plant as evenly as possible.
Tomato and pepper seedlings can be poured over with solutions:
Liquid fertilizer Bogatyr for seedlings of tomatoes and peppers contains a complete set of essential nutrients, used for root and foliar dressing. Another comprehensive supplement is Hera. Stimulates the formation of fruits, improves immunity, improves taste, does not contain chlorine and nitrate nitrogen. Fertilizer Malyshok for seedlings and adult plants consists of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium in optimal proportions.
It is brought in a natural form or in the form of solutions, tinctures. This kind of fertilizing is safe for humans, improves the structure of the soil, activates the beneficial microflora. Of organics often used:
- bird droppings
- infusions of herbs
- bone meal.
Fresh manure can not be used for these crops, but it is allowed to prepare infusions based on it. Compost to make the autumn preparation of beds, after transplanting in open ground to use for mulching. Herbal tea can be made from nettle, wormwood, weeds.
Using the purchase of soil, you can expect that the seeds take root and germinate at the appointed time. If you buy the right composition is not possible, then prepare the mixture with your own hands is easy.
Tomatoes and peppers love loose soil with a lot of organic matter. It is impossible to re-moisten the ground so that the fungus does not appear and does not rot the roots. Humidity should be moderate - it is better not to keep the seedlings near the heating devices.
The recommended soil composition for seedlings:
- garden soil - 10 l,
- clean sandpre-sanitized in the oven - 5 l
- peat (can be bought in the garden shop) - 5 l ,
- ready compost - 5 l.
- oven ash - 150 g,
- three-component complex fertilizer - 30 - 40 g.
All components mix well, break the lumps with your hands or sift through a sieve to the granules were not larger than 2 mm in diameter. Fold in the seating box or cups. The cups are better in this case because the root system will be less damaged when transplanted into the open ground.
Selection and germination of tomato and pepper seeds
The next stage is the selection of seeds. This is important, since not everyone can potentially germinate. Need to prepare:
- water tank - about a glass,
- salt - tablespoon,
- seeds that are being prepared for planting.
- In warm water dissolve the salt.
- Cover the seeds and wait 5 - 10 minutes.
Seeds that have sunk to the bottom are good planting material. Those that remain to float above can be collected and thrown away, even if they are all on top. This is a marriage and seedlings they will not give. Then you can lay the next batch and check.
After selection, rinse and dry the seeds. Next you need to sanitize them. You can use regular potassium permanganate:
- make 1% solution - 1 g of potassium permanganate in 1 liter of water,
- collect the seeds in cheesecloth and put into solution
- wait 20 minutes
- Remove, rinse and dry.
Commercially available disinfectants can be used, for example, Fitosporin. In any case, it is necessary to carry out manipulations just before landing in the ground. Keep more than a day can not be.
Next stage - germination stimulation. For this you need:
- 1 tablespoon of wood ash stir in a glass of water,
- seeds put in cheesecloth and leave in solution for 5-6 hours,
- get and dry.
There are ready-made solutions that contain nutrients.
When to plant peppers and tomatoes for seedlings
Preparation for germination is carried out in late February - early March. Then it should be planted in prepared cups. Depending on the climate of the region, varieties of planting dates can be changed. If on the package with seeds specified dates, it is better to follow the recommendations. Tomato seeds are planted two weeks later than peppers. Pepper rises longer.
Seeds are planted in a row with an interval of 1 cm. Sprayed and sprinkled with earth a layer of 5 - 7 mm , cover with plastic wrap and put in a warm room. Temperature should be supported at 20 degrees.
In such conditions, seedlings appear in 3 - 5 days. Sprouting shoots need to wait 2 to 3 weeks. When leaves appear on the seedlings, you need to remove the film and put the plants into the light to stimulate the production of chlorophyll.
From this point you need to watch the seedlings. If tomatoes usually feel good on fertilized soil, then pepper needs more attention.
How many times and when to feed seedlings of tomatoes and peppers
Lack of nutrition can manifest itself dramatically. Yesterday, the seedlings still looked healthy, and a day later the leaves began to wilt and fall. This is due to the fact that in the preparation of the soil used conventional land without fertilizer and dressings.
The plants took out all the substances and began to starve. To save them you need fertilizing from complex mineral fertilizers, where there is nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Bred mixes for seedlings according to the instructions, but usually 3 - 5 g per bucket of water.
Video: The best feeding for seedlings
It is recommended to use several types of complex mixtures:
- For the first feeding use nitrogen-potassium compounds. The period of occurrence of the second leaf in peppers and the third in tomatoes.
- The second is carried out in 2 weeks for tomatoes and in 3 weeks for peppers. Use the same fertilizer as the first time.
- The third is carried out shortly before landing in the ground or greenhouse. Here you need phosphorus in the form of superphosphate or double superphosphate to support the root system before planting. Phosphorus additives allow you to better move through and take root faster. Nitrogen can be used as urea for spraying or watering. On a bucket of water you need 1 tablespoon.
- Tomatoes can be carried out a fourth feeding in two months of age. Should be diluted superphosphate granules and furnace ash - for 5 liters of water they take a teaspoon of superphosphate and 2 tablespoons of ash. Insist until the phosphate mineral fertilizer is dissolved - a day. Water a glass of tomatoes under each plant.
Picks are carried out in tomatoes at the age of 2 weeks, in peppers - 10 days after the first feeding. When picking, the root is shortened by a third in order to develop lateral shoots of the root system.
Types of feeding
Most commercially available fertilizers are suitable for seedlings. When growing young seedlings on their own, dosages need to be halved, because plants cannot absorb the “adult” amount of nutrients. It is better to follow the recommendations described in the instructions, which indicate the proportions for young plants and adults.
Manufacturers produce dry mixes and liquid fertilizers. In liquid form, nutrients are absorbed better and faster. To assimilate dry plants, you need to expend more strength to get them out of the soil.
There are conventional fertilizers and there is a chelated form. Ordinary mixtures are absorbed by plants at 50% at best. Chelated - by 90%. This also applies to the human body. Chelate cost more because the production technology and substances used are expensive. These are profitable investments, as they form healthy seedlings, which then develop well and abundantly bear fruit.
Organic substances are good fertilizers, but you need to know how to feed pepper and tomato seedlings so as not to harm them. For example - for young peppers can not use fresh manure.
This substance contains a lot of ammonia, especially chicken manure, which leaves burns on the roots. The plant dies. It is necessary to pre-insist and dilute the manure, and it is better to use rotted or composted.
If there are a lot of seedlings, then a third of a bucket of dung or chicken manure is taken, filled with water and worth a week. It is necessary to stir occasionally, so that excess ammonia goes into the atmosphere. Next, the resulting infusion is diluted: 10 liters of water is added to 1 liter. The rest is stored under cover in a cool place. Chicken droppings insist just but dilute 1 liter with 20 liters of water.
When growing tomatoes need to monitor the acidity of the soil. If the leaves began to wither - it is not always a lack of nutrition. Perhaps, tomato seedlings simply can not assimilate it because of the low pH of the soil. Increase it with wood ash containing phosphorus, potassium, and almost the entire periodic table of trace elements.
Fertilizers for feeding seedlings at home
At home, you can apply any fertilizer. The reference point is the price. Import analogues are usually more expensive, but also work as domestic ones. Top-dressing of seedlings of tomatoes and peppers, as well as eggplants, zucchini, pumpkins, will be cheaper if you buy domestic fertilizers of good quality. This will increase the harvest and save money.
If you are engaged in growing poultry or cattle, then fertilizer will come by itself. Of these, you can make compost, which is very fond of young seedlings.
Another “domestic” available substance that strengthens the plants during the period of active growth is woody ash, obtained from burning leaves, twigs, and weeds.
Foliar feedings seedlings
Foliar top dressing of seedlings of tomatoes and peppers is carried out in the event that it is necessary to immediately eliminate the deficiency of nutrients. Urea is used from nitrogen fertilizers, as it is absorbed most quickly through the leaves. From potash - ash solution.
At the first signs of infection with a fungus, it is necessary to spray the leaves and soil under the seedlings with a fungicide. Iodine also copes well with the fungus.
The yield of crops of pepper and tomato depends on the proper care of the seedlings. Timely dressings contribute to the rapid rooting, growth and ripening of fruits. In the open ground, well-groomed seedlings yield 30–40% more crops than those grown in the usual way.
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In order to save money and provide an environmentally friendly nutrient medium, seedlings of peppers and tomatoes are fed with folk remedies. Most commonly used:
- wood ash
- egg shells,
- hydrogen peroxide.
Iodine solution (1 drop per 3 liters of water) is used for spraying 2-3 times during the growing season. Feeding seedlings with ashes is necessary when there is a shortage of phosphorus, potassium and calcium, in addition, the additive reduces soil acidity. From it it is necessary to prepare a solution and insist 2-3 days. You can dust the bushes and the soil around or water under the root.
Infusion of egg shells (500 g per 3 liters of water left for 3 days) is used with a lack of calcium. Yeast enriches the earth with vitamins and minerals, as well as improves its structure. Fertilizing with liquid ammonia should be carried out with a shortage of nitrogen and to protect against pests. This preparation is used for spraying.
The use of whey is required for the prevention of fungal and bacterial diseases. The solution can handle seedlings and adult plants. Top dressing with hydrogen peroxide disinfects, enriches with oxygen, promotes the assimilation of trace elements, neutralizes chlorine, nitrates and nitrites. The substance is used for the treatment of seed and young seedlings.
Tomatoes and peppers are very demanding crops, they need a preliminary forcing of seedlings. The introduction of nutritional supplements is necessary throughout the growing season. In this case, it is impossible to allow an excess of nutrients, since it also negatively affects the plants, as well as the deficiency.
Good results are obtained by using natural stimulants for soaking pepper and tomato seeds before planting:
- Aloe juice The cut sheet wrapped in cheesecloth is kept for 2 weeks on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator or 2 days in the freezer, after which the juice is squeezed out, diluted with water at a ratio of 1: 1 and seeds are soaked in it for 24 hours.
- Honey. Dissolving a teaspoon of honey in a glass of warm water, moisten the seeds and incubate for 6 hours.
- Dry mushrooms. Dry mushrooms are poured over with boiling water and allowed to cool, seeds are soaked for 6 hours in this solution.
- Potato juice. Peel several tubers and put them in the freezer for 2-3 days, then squeeze the juice out of them and soak the seeds of tomatoes or peppers in it for 8 hours.
Potassium deficiency in plants has a negative effect on nitrogen absorption. As a result, seedlings grow poorly, becoming lethargic. "Banana" dressing of 3-4 fruits from the skins will help eliminate the lack of potassium. To prepare it is simple: placed in a 3-liter jar, the skins are poured with water and infused for 3 days. Water filled with potassium released from the skins of the fruit is used to water the plants.
From the egg shell
Eggshell is often used to fertilize vegetable seedlings. To prepare a top-dressing, 3-4 eggs are poured into a 3-liter jar of slightly sheathed shells and filled with warm water. After infusion for 3-4 days, water rich in a complex of useful substances is used for watering seedlings.
When fertilizing seedlings with yeast, not only nutrients are introduced, but the structure of the soil completely changes. Thanks to the work of fungal microorganisms, the growth of seedlings is accelerated, and the yield of tomatoes and pepper is increased. To prepare the concentrate, you will need 4 tablespoons of sugar, 10 g of yeast and 10 liters of water.
The resulting solution is diluted with pure water at a ratio of 1:10 before application to the soil. Yeast dressing is better to give after planting seedlings in the ground, as it stimulates the growth of plants.
Yeast replacement can be wheat grains. Bay with a small amount of water, they are put in a warm place. After swelling, the grains are ground into porridge and sugar is added (2-3 tablespoons per glass of dry grains). After warming up, the resulting viscous mass is left in a dark place for a day. This dressing is also diluted with water before use.
Ash is a rich source of calcium, magnesium, potassium and other minerals useful for plants. This unique substance makes the acidic soil suitable for growing vegetables. The introduction of small amounts of ash into the soil for seedlings reduces the risk of fungal diseases in tomatoes and peppers.
Prepare a top dressing from ash at home is easy: Mix 1 tablespoon of this substance with 2 liters of water, insist day. It is important to make sure that the ash used for the preparation of top dressing is not a product of the combustion of construction waste.
In the ashes of different plants contain various doses of chemical elements. When burnout of birch wood chips, dried stalks of Jerusalem artichoke, sunflower get the best ash. В золе лиственных пород содержится много кальция, хвойных — фосфора. Торфяной пепел содержит мало калия и много извести.
Удобрение рассады перцев и помидор
На пути к большому урожаю овощей важно вносить в почву полезные вещества. Feeding seedlings must be balanced: the plants must receive nutrients in certain quantities and proportions.
Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are the main substances required by pepper and tomatoes:
- Nitrogen provides the process of photosynthesis and building tomatoes and green peppers.
- Phosphorus is required by plants for flowering and fruiting, with its deficiency the ovary falls.
- Potassium contributes to the development of the root system, its deficiency can lead to the death of plants.
If a nutrient-rich substrate is used for growing seedlings, it is better to abandon top dressing. The excess of nutrients is more dangerous for plants than their deficiency. For example, with an excess of nitrogen, the plant accelerates growth, but its yield does not increase.
Feeding plants need to do only when this is evidenced by their appearance. For this purpose, using mineral fertilizers. To prepare a solution in 1 liter of distilled water is diluted with 0.5 g of ammonium nitrate, 1 g of potassium, 3 g of superphosphate. As a fertilizer for tomatoes, it is better to prepare a solution from 1.5 g of potassium salt, 0.5 g of urea and 4 g of superphosphate, diluted in 1 liter of water.
The need for nutrients in tomatoes and peppers appears after the formation of the second true leaf. Subsequently, fertilizers are applied every 10-15 days. At this time it is important not to allow the excess of nutrients.
Reliable protection against late blight provides plants with generous watering with copper solution. This substance can be found in any specialty store. To prepare the solution, 1 teaspoon of copper is diluted in 10 liters of pure water. The fertilizer remaining after watering can be stored in a plastic bottle until next year.
How to feed after picks?
Feeding seedlings of peppers and tomatoes after picking is the key to obtaining high-quality planting material. For this, essential nutrients are brought into the earth. Baker's yeast rich in nitrogen and phosphorus has proven itself well. As a fertilizer, yeasts have one major drawback: these fungal microorganisms decompose potassium. Supplementing the lack of mineral helps to add potassium to the yeast composition.
Yeast dressing increases the percentage of rooting, stimulates plant growth and improves immunity. For the preparation of a nutrient solution, any type of yeast is suitable.
One hundred grams briquette of soft yeast is added to a bucket of water, infused overnight. A concentrated solution of 200 g of yeast per liter of water is drawn for several hours, diluted in a bucket of water before watering. Increase the efficiency of top dressing garden crops, bird droppings, hops.
How to feed at home after landing in the ground?
When preparing the soil for seedlings, it is easy to form a substrate rich in nutrients. With beds a little harder to do the same. The optimal solution is fertilization immediately after transplanting plants. The main thing - always look at the plants and not overdo it.
Under dry summer conditions, potassium supplementation will not only not bring the expected result, but can also cause plant diseases. If the summer is rainy, the seedlings may lack potassium in the soil and then this element should be applied when feeding.
They do this only 15 days after planting at a new place, so that they adapt to new conditions. After acclimatization, seedlings may require phosphate-potassium fertilizers (PKU), which contribute to plant growth, budding, flowering and fruit formation. Nitrogen-containing dressing is better not to.
Iodine is an effective fertilizer for plants, which not only accelerates their growth, but also provides protection against diseases and pests. During irrigation, iodine is diluted in settled water at the rate of 10 g per 10 liters of water. To improve the efficiency of feeding, 20 g of potassium and 10 g of phosphorus are added to the solution.
Potassium permanganate for foliar feeding
Manganese is important in the development of pepper and tomato. It provides plants with protection against many diseases, takes part in photosynthesis. A deficiency of manganese leads to a brown spot of vegetables and negatively affects the size and number of fruits. Foliar nutrition with a weak solution of manganese sulphate (2 g per bucket of water) will help eliminate such problems.
Urea is a concentrated fertilizer that contains nitrogen in a convenient state for plant absorption. The amount of nitrogen in the composition of the fertilizer reaches 46%. You can make it in the form of a solution and directly into the ground. Plant root dressing is carried out with a solution of 10 liters of water and 60 g of urea. For foliar feeding the proportions increase: 100 g of urea per 10 liters of water.
Urea is applied to the ground in dry form (12 g per 1 square meter) before planting seedlings and 10 g per 1 square meter at the stage of active growth. Effective for plants feeding a liquid solution of urea before flowering.
Ammonia - a source of nitrogenous compounds, which is used for feeding seedlings, some gardeners. To this end, in 10 liters of water dilute 1 tablespoon of the substance, and then use it for watering plants (under the root).
Get the proper effect of the use of ammonia is possible only if the plants are deficient in nitrogen. Ammonia well repels pests from seedlings.
The nitroammofosk contains 3 most important elements for the development of plants: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Fertilizer in the form of granules can be applied in bulk to the soil in a dry form or used in liquid form, previously diluted with water. Liquid nitroammofosku used for watering plants or as foliar feeding.
This dressing helps to increase the number of ovaries on tomatoes and peppers. Diluting a matchbox of nitroammofoski granules in a bucket of water, add 500 ml of this solution to each bush. It is good to use nitroammofosku in combination with sodium humate, potassium sulfate, mullein.
The company "Fasok" produces water-soluble fertilizer "Fortress" in liquid and dry form. The composition of this carefully balanced dressing includes humates, natural stimulants, potassium, magnesium, nitrogen, iron. Working with this fertilizer is convenient and easy.
It is introduced into the soil during watering seedlings. The first dressing is carried out after the formation of the second leaflet, the next - during the picking and every 2 weeks until flower ovaries are formed. Seedlings of peppers and tomatoes are watered with a solution of 2 teaspoons of “Fortress” in 10 liters of water.
The basis of feeding "Ideal" is biohumus - a product of the activity of earthworms. Taking it as a basis, domestic scientists have improved the structure of the drug by artificially introducing micro and macro elements necessary for cultivated plants.
As a fertilizer of tomatoes and pepper "Ideal":
- Increases the speed of adaptation of seedlings in a new place.
- Improves the development of the root and vegetative systems of plants.
- Contributes to the acceleration of fruit ripening.
- Increases yield.
- Increases the amount of nutrients in vegetables.
- Reduces the risk of plant diseases.
"Ideal" is suitable for root and foliar fertilizing seedlings of tomatoes and peppers. Root top dressings are carried out every 10 days with a solution of 8-12 ml of fertilizer per 1 liter of water. For foliar fertilizing 5 ml of "Ideal" diluted in 1 liter of water and sprayed with plant leaves before flowering.
"Epin" is a natural biological stimulant that contributes to the activation of the processes occurring in plants that are necessary for their normal development. The drug is available in an ampoule, when used, the contents of the ampoule are diluted in water.
The tool is used only after 3 true leaves are formed in plants. Solution "Epin" most effective for foliar feeding seedlings of tomatoes and peppers. To do this, in 500 ml of warm water is diluted with 5 drops of a biostimulator.
What can not feed?
Sulfates are harmful to developing plants, fertilizer with their content cannot be used. Does not like seedlings of pepper and tomatoes of fresh manure and high doses of nitrogen, which contain herbal teas and green fertilizer. Strong development of seedlings can cause a slept tea, which contains tannins.