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Sunflower: description, varieties, composition, use, recipes

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The fields with sunflowers look amazingly beautiful - plants whose inflorescences resemble the sun from children's pictures. This golden-yellow miracle is not only great in appearance, it is also very useful.

In this article we will talk about what constitutes a sunflower. One-year or perennial this plant, in what conditions it grows, what types there are, varieties, you learn by reading it.

The history of sunflower oil production began in England at the end of the eighteenth century. Since then, various varieties of sunflower have been developed, which are united by high resistance to various pests and diseases.

General information

Annual sunflower is the most important oilseed in the world. Responsive and grateful to the applied agronomic technologies, it is very useful and fertile. Not for nothing in heraldry, a sunflower flower symbolizes prosperity and fertility. In addition, the plant is remarkably similar to the sun in any weather in any area creates a bright and warm atmosphere.

Sunflower is grown in almost all fertile agricultural areas as a raw material for the production of high-quality vegetable oil. And it is used as a melliferous, medicinal and ornamental plant.

It turns out that there is another unusual species of it - the tuberous sunflower. It is considered a vegetable crop.

The annual sunflower (the Compositae family) is a plant with a good root system, relatively rapidly growing to the depth of the soil up to 140 cm (and under special conditions up to 5 meters), and 120 cm wide. The dendritic stem of the plant is high (reaches and 4 meters), covered with hairs. Oval heart-shaped leaves are large, with pointed tips.

Sunflower inflorescence is a multi-flower basket (in oil-bearing forms with a diameter of 15-20 cm) with a slightly convex or flat disc. Large flowers are located on the edges - asexual, reed, yellow-orange color, and the middle ones completely cover the receptacle - bisexual, tubular, much smaller sizes.

And a huge variety of seeds has ripe sunflower. An annual herb has a seed-fruit, consisting of a core and a shell. Sunflower seeds contain on average 22-27% of oil, and in the best varieties - 46% or more. One basket, depending on the variety and nature of sunflower care, has from 200 to 7000 seeds.

It has excellent healing properties (astringent, anti-inflammatory, etc.) annual sunflower. Formula of a flower: * Л (5) Т (5) П1.

Sunflower in Russia

Sunflower is a typical plant of the steppe and forest-steppe zones with any climatic conditions. About 70% of all crops in the world are concentrated throughout Russia. This plant is the main oilseed crop cultivated in Russia. Edible and technical oil is produced from its seeds in the country.

Remains of processing also do not disappear: the cake is used in the preparation of feed for farm animals, get potash from ash from the stems, as well as fertilizer, the tallest varieties (up to 3-4 m) with a huge green mass are cultivated as silage culture.

Cultural history

Homeland plants is the southern territory of North America. In Russia, the annual sunflower was introduced in the 18th century already from the countries of Western Europe. Initially, it was grown as an ornamental plant, but later they began to use sunflower seeds as a delicacy, and therefore they began to grow it more and more in gardens and vegetable gardens.

It is known that the cultivation of sunflower exactly as an oil plant in a field crop is associated with the name of a peasant-serf Bokarev, who first developed oil from it in 1835.

The culture of sunflower in Voronezh and Saratov was especially widespread initially, and then appeared in other Russian regions.

Annual sunflower: life form

Forms of one-year cultivated sunflower are divided into 3 groups:

  • Gryzovye, having large seeds with a small core, in connection with which they have a low oil content. In the pericarp of such a sunflower there is no shell layer, therefore this plant is relatively easily damaged by the tracks of the sunflower moth,
  • oilseeds have smaller achenes with a carapace in the pericarp,
  • mezheumki representing the transitional forms between oilseeds and rodents varieties.

In Russia, the varieties of oilseed sunflower are of the greatest industrial interest.

About varieties of sunflower

The annual sunflower has a wide variety of varieties cultivated in our time, fully complying with the requirements of the existing production.

There are varieties of early and mid-season. There are decorative, widely used to decorate the garden and park areas. Below are a few of the most common sunflower varieties in culture.

Early ripe varieties

Sunflower Albatross is distinguished by its rather high oil content. The variety is drought-resistant, resistant to disease and damage from pests. Perfectly reacts to extensive cultivation methods. This variety grows up to 195 cm in height.

Buzuluk contains 54% oil in seeds. Quite drought-resistant variety and has a stable yield in different climatic conditions. Requires fertilizing and high-quality agricultural techniques. Its height reaches 168 cm.

Mid-season varieties

Variety Flagman has a large harvest. The oil content in it is 55%. Pretty tall plant, reaching 206 cm.

The favorite also has a large oil content - 53%. Differs variety and resistance to hydrolytic decomposition of the oil, and therefore the resulting raw material has a low acid number. The plant grows up to 200 cm in height.

The highly productive variety Master contains 54% oil in seeds. Gratefully responds to the introduction of appropriate mineral fertilizers.

All these varieties are highly tolerant to fomopsis, resistant to broomrape, moths of sunflower and powdery false dew.

A little bit about the tuberous sunflower (Jerusalem artichoke)

This species is grown as fodder, technical or decorative culture. The plant grows well in more southern climatic zones. This is due to the fact that it ripens only from September to November, depending on the variety. The yield of Jerusalem artichoke is up to 35 tons of ripened tubers per hectare.

There is another plant, obtained by crossing, - topinsa sunflower. Tubers of a large oval shape has such a sunflower.

Growing sunflower: conditions

The plant is demanding on soils, the best of which for it are sandy chernozem, loamy, and rich in various nutrients. Sandy soils are unsuitable. Spring barley, winter wheat, corn and legumes are excellent predecessors for sunflower seeds. Again, in the same place the sunflower is sown not earlier than in 7-9 years. It is not worth sowing it at the place of cultivation of root crops, Jerusalem artichoke, perennial herbs last year, namely after the cultures that have common diseases.

Sunflower responds well to fertilization. The most dangerous pests for plants are wireworms, kravchik beetle, shpononka, sunflower barbel. Against pests and diseases (white rot and rust), different methods are used: agrotechnical, chemical, mechanical.

How to cultivate the annual sunflower? Growing from seed immediately in open ground is the main way. Can be planted and pre-prepared seedlings.

For sowing, seeds of zoned varieties with fairly high germination and good sowing qualities are used. Seeds, as a rule, should be calibrated, because they are exactly the same size and evenly sprout, and this increases the yield.

Be sure to sow sunflower after heating the soil to +10. +12 ° C, otherwise there will be a decrease in seed yield.

It's curious

Sunflower annual grown all over the world. But the sunflower is a true Russian plant, it is recognized abroad. An integral part of rural landscapes are these yellow flowers with black seeds located in the center.

In the German amusement park Europa-Park (the largest in Germany and the second in Europe by the number of visitors) there is a Russian zone where sunflowers grow. And in Berlin, in one of its districts, the “Sunflower labyrinth” is arranged in the summer: a sunflower field with tangled paths. In Austria, there is a park of sunflowers with these plants, with a wide variety of species and varieties.

Conclusion

Vast fields covered with blooming golden sunflowers look picturesque, bright and cheerful even in inclement weather. Those who wish to decorate their garden and create the same bright, cozy and cheerful atmosphere, you can use beautiful decorative annual sunflowers.

They have surprisingly fluffy yellow flowers, in which there is almost no visible seed. Even their varieties have nice soft names: Teddy Bear, Teddy Bear, Teddy Bear, Teddy Bear, Teddy Bear. Indeed, the flower is a golden neat ball, more like a fur pompon. Such sunflower bears look quite impressive in flower beds and bloom for a long time.

This cute unpretentious flower with bright yellow petals will bring more light, freshness and a lot of solar energy into the garden.

Annual sunflower

Sunflower is an annual plant that grows in height up to 2.5 meters. Represents the sunflower family Compositae. The plant has a dense, straight stem with a spongy middle, its taproot, branchy. The stem is decorated with large leaves on long petioles. The shape of the leaves is heart-shaped, the surface is rough. Each stalk above is decorated with a beautiful, large, yellow flower with a black middle.

Sunflower fruit - black or striped seeds that grow and ripen in the black middle of the flower. Plant blooms depending on planting time, climate and weather. The main period falls in July - August, the sunflower fruit is sunflower seeds, which ripen in August - September.

When the sunflower begins to bloom, its heads are all the time turned toward the sun. When the flower is fully opened, the head freezes in place and no longer turns to the sun.

In nature, there are two types of sunflower family:

  • one-year olive,
  • perennial topinambur.

A little bit about sunflower varieties

The annual plant has a wide variety of varieties from which it is possible to distinguish early and mid-season. Decorative sunflowers that decorate gardens and parks are also considered common.

Consider in more detail the common varieties of this plant.

The early maturing varieties include the variety. Albatross, which is distinguished by its high oil content. He is not afraid of drought, pests and diseases. It responds well to extensive cultivation methods. In height, the plant of this variety reaches 195 cm.

For early ripe varieties Buzuluk, which contains 54% oil in seeds. The plant is not afraid of drought, has a good yield in different climatic conditions. This requires high-quality dressing and good technology. Height of an adult plant is 168 cm.

From mid-season varieties can be distinguished variety Flagship, which has a high yield. The oil content reaches 55%, and the height of an adult plant reaches 206 cm.

Of mid-season stands out Favorite, the oil content of which reaches 53%. Plants of this variety are resistant to hydrolytic decomposition of the oil, so that the resulting raw materials have a low acid number. Height of an adult plant reaches 200 cm.

Sort Master reaches 54% of oil. The plant is hardy and responds very well to mineral fertilizers.

Klubnonosny sunflower, he Jerusalem artichoke, grown as a decorative, feed or technical culture. The southern climatic zones are the most suitable for him, since its fruits are sown only in September - October, depending on the variety.

Depending on weather conditions, the yield of Jerusalem artichoke can vary. On average, it reaches 35 tons per hectare.

Growing conditions

Sunflower grows and gives a good harvest on sandy black soils and loamy soilsrich in various nutrients. Unsuitable for its cultivation are loamy soil. The plant grows well on land, where corn and legumes, winter wheat and barley had previously grown. Planting it in the same place is not recommended, as the crop will be very weak. Again, in the same place, you can sow sunflower not earlier than in 7–9 years. Well-fertilized land will give high yield if you plant a sunflower.

For pest control plants, which the sunflower a lot, use chemical, mechanical and agronomic methods.

For sowing crops use seeds that are immediately planted in open ground. They are pre-calibrated, because plant germination and a good harvest depend on it. Planting seeds produced only after the soil warms up to 10-12 degrees Celsius. Planting seeds in unheated soil is a decrease in germination and crop yield.

Use of sunflower

Main oilseed - this is a sunflower. Sunflower oil obtained from the processing of seeds, has an excellent taste and is very valuable to humans. It is used in food in its natural form, as well as in the form of margarine and cooking fats. Sunflower oil is used in the confectionery, bakery and canning industry. Almost waste-free production, as the cake, which remains after processing of the seeds is also a nutritional value. It contains a lot of protein with essential amino acids. In addition, the cake is used for the production of halva and for preparing food for domestic animals.

The soap and paint industry uses for its production of low-grade sunflower oil. In addition, it is used for the manufacture of linoleum and oilcloth, waterproof fabrics and insulation materials, stearin, etc.

Brazil distinguished itself by the production of aviation fuel “proseny” with the properties of kerosene. But this fuel does not have an unpleasant smell, as the raw material for it is soybean, sunflower and cotton, or, more precisely, their seeds. There was even a message in the press that a plane had already flown on the new fuel.

If we consider sunflower seedstheir skin is an excellent raw material for the production of ethyl alcohol, fodder yeast, artificial fiber and plastics. And it remains a lot in the production of sweets.

Plant stems used in the manufacture of paper and paperboard. But for the steppe regions, where firewood is a shortage, they are used as fuel. Ash obtained after incineration is an excellent phosphorus-potassium fertilizer.

In the 19th century, potash was obtained from the ashes of the stalks and threshed baskets. He served as the raw material for the production of gunpowder.

Green shoots Sunflower is used for animal feed, their nutritional value can be compared with the nutritional value of corn shoots. There are cases when a young sunflower is mowed, it is used as a green feed for cattle.

Sunflower is very fond of bees. Beekeepers often establish their apiaries near the fields with sunflower during their flowering period. The product that bees produce is called sunflower honey. It is transparent in appearance, has a wonderful aroma and taste - it is highly appreciated by experts of this product. Honey is also used for medicinal purposes as an anti-cold and antiviral medication.

According to Japanese scientists, sunflower is a valuable crop that absorbs motor emissions. The measurements were carried out on the highways to which the crops of this crop adjoined, and where such crops were absent.

Concluding, I would like to say that such a beautiful plant has raw materials:

The plant is universal, since it is completely waste-free.

Medicinal properties of the plant

Raw seeds are good for the human body. They:

  • pressure is normal
  • facilitate the excretion of sputum,
  • strengthen blood vessels
  • strengthen the nervous system
  • reduce the manifestation of allergies.

In addition to these beneficial properties of raw seeds, you can call their diuretic effect.

Sunflower oil is used everywhere. More about this is written in the previous paragraph.

The root of the plant contributes to the dissolution and removal of salts from the body. Preparations based on the root of a plant are used in the treatment of:

  • arthritis
  • arthrosis,
  • osteochondrosis,
  • removing sand and stones from the kidneys and gall bladder.

Но самолечением заниматься ни в коем случае нельзя, даже если четко знаешь, как нужно приготовить то или другое лекарство в домашних условиях. Обязательно нужна консультация специалиста, анализы и полное обследование.

Для изготовления лекарственных препаратов применяют и цветки растения. Препараты лечат от таких заболеваний, как:

  • jaundice,
  • diarrhea,
  • cold,
  • bronchitis,
  • whooping cough,
  • bronchial asthma,
  • rheumatism,
  • neurasthenia,
  • herpes,
  • gout.

In addition to these diseases, the inflorescence is taken in diseases of the liver, stomach and duodenum, intestine and pancreas, articular rheumatism.

Preparations are prepared from sunflower leaves to help fight the following diseases:

  • migraine,
  • neuralgia,
  • fever,
  • hives,
  • psoriasis,
  • gastrointestinal colic,
  • cold,
  • bronchial asthma.

From the flower petals are prepared infusion, which is taken orally for cancer, as a diuretic. Petals are used for the manufacture of external ointments, which treat the old ulcers in diabetes and some other diseases.

The stem of sunflower is used to prepare drugs for diseases of the kidneys, urinary system and the thyroid gland. During the taking of drugs, many people had pains in the joints, which testify to the cleansing of the articular bags from harmful layers.

Cooking healing drinks

Preparations made from sunflower are taken orally, as decoctions, tinctures and tinctures.

For cooking broth need to take 2 tbsp. l dry the flowers of the plant, pour a glass of boiling water and boil on low heat for 10 minutes. After the broth insisted for an hour, it needs to be drained and brought to the initial volume with boiled water. Take the broth to 3 tbsp. l in 20 minutes before meals, but not more often than 4 times a day.

Infusion made from sunflowerHeals colds and relieves fever. To cook it, you need to take 2 tbsp. l petals, pour a glass of boiling water and insist 10 minutes. The resulting "potion" you need to drink at night.

At tincture wider spectrum of action. It is taken to improve the activity of the digestive tract and improve appetite. It is prescribed for malaria, neuralgia and lung diseases. To prepare the tincture need dry sunflower leaves and vodka, in the amount of 250 grams. Three tablespoons of flowers are filled with liquid and infused in a dry and dark place for one week. After a week, the resulting tincture needs to be drained and taken 40 drops twice a day.

Contraindications

It is not recommended to take drugs on the basis of sunflower for people suffering from gastritis or peptic ulcer. Roasted seeds are not desirable in large quantities to those who are overweight. And all because they belong to high-calorie foods.

The use of sunflower is contraindicated for people with individual cultural intolerance.

In any case, before taking drugs based on sunflower, you need to consult with your doctor and determine if there is an allergy.

Plant description

Sunflower name ( Helianthus ) from Latin is translated as "flower of the sun" (or solar flower). And this name is given to him by far not by chance, because the large inflorescences of the sunflower, which are bordered with bright yellow petals, really resemble the sun. In addition, the sunflower has a unique ability, which consists in the fact that the plant turns its head after the sun, thereby passing with it the path from sunrise to sunset.

It should be noted that most of the species of sunflower are annual plants, although there are perennials, mainly representing herbaceous plants.

The sunflower is distinguished by a thick and strong root, rough and pointed leaves at the top, which can be from 15 to 35. The top of the stem has a large basket inflorescence surrounded by green leaves from below, but there are golden flowers outside the basket.

Sunflower fruit is a seed with a kernel. Depending on the type of plant, the skin of the achenes is white or black.

Perennial Sunflower (Jerusalem artichoke)

This is a tuberiferous plant, which in Russia is better known under the name "earth pear", but in Europe many years of sunflower are called "Jerusalem artichoke".

The homeland of the earth pear is Brazil, it was from here that the plant was brought to Europe along with the American Indians from the Tupinambus tribe (hence the name of the plant, “Jerusalem artichoke”).

This light-loving and drought-resistant plant is used as a decorative element, food product and a medicinal plant. So, Jerusalem artichoke tubers contain inulin, macro- and microelements, pectins, vitamins C and B, iron salts. But the topinambur does not accumulate harmful substances and nitrates.

Inulin is a polysaccharide, due to the hydrolysis of which sugar which is harmless to diabetics is fructose.

Jerusalem artichoke contains a large amount of iron, manganese, calcium, as well as magnesium, potassium and sodium. In addition, this type of sunflower actively accumulates silicon directly from the soil. It must be said that there are proteins, pectin, amino acids, and useful organic and fatty acids in the topinambur.

Important! In the Jerusalem artichoke there are 8 amino acids that are synthesized exclusively by plants (that is, they are not synthesized in the human body). We are talking about histidine, arginine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, tryptophan.

Thus, biologically active substances are the basis of the healing properties of Jerusalem artichoke.

Jerusalem artichoke is similar to ordinary sunflower, but it also has underground shoots (the so-called stolons), on which tubers like potato are formed. A perennial sunflower in one place grows 30 (or even 40) years, although a high yield yields only in the first three - four years.

The Jerusalem artichoke tubers have medicinal properties that normalize the metabolism, which has a positive effect in the treatment of:

  • diabetes mellitus
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • gout
  • atherosclerosis,
  • obesity.

Preparations of Jerusalem artichoke are used in the treatment of urolithiasis and cholelithiasis, in the prevention of heart attack. Jerusalem artichoke perfectly removes toxins and all kinds of slags from the body, and also calms the nervous system.

Collection and storage of sunflower

Medicinal raw materials for sunflower are:

  • marginal flowers,
  • leaves,
  • seeds,
  • stem,
  • the roots.

The collection of raw materials is carried out during the flowering period, while it is important to collect flowers and leaves separately: for example, it is recommended to cut off the edge flowers of the baskets at the beginning of flowering, and the leaves at the end.

In medicine, reed flowers of a bright yellow color are used, which break in such a way as not to damage the baskets themselves. Collected flowers are immediately dried in a well-ventilated area, which allows them to preserve their natural color. The smell of dried raw materials in the process of soaking should be weak and honey, but the taste - a little bitter.

Sunflower leaves are detached from the stalks, and very large leaves should not be harvested, especially if they are damaged by rust or eaten by insects. The leaves are dried in the air, but always in the shade (you can use special dryers). Properly dried leaves should be rough and have sharply distinguished and strongly pubescent veins. Dried raw materials have a dark green color and a bitter taste, while the smell of dried leaves is absent.

Sunflower roots are harvested (pulled out) in the fall (or rather, at the end of September), that is, after ripening, as well as the collection of seeds. It was at this time that the roots of the plant have healing properties.

Sunflower seeds ripen by September.

Flowers and leaves are stored in cloth bags for no more than two years.

Sunflower properties

  • choleretic
  • antipyretic
  • laxative,
  • antispasmodic,
  • antitussive,
  • softening,
  • immunomodulatory,
  • enveloping
  • astringent
  • antirheumatic,
  • anti-sclerotic,
  • expectorant.

Sunflower ordinary treatment

Sunflower is widely used for health purposes due to the presence in the plant of many biologically active substances that are vital for the normal functioning of the whole organism.

In medicine, such parts of the plant are used:

  • seeds,
  • root,
  • flowers,
  • inflorescences,
  • petals
  • stem.

Seeds (seeds)

Raw seeds have the following properties:

  • contribute to the normalization of pressure
  • facilitate the excretion of sputum,
  • prevent sclerotic changes directly in the blood vessels,
  • normalize the nervous system,
  • reduce the appearance of allergies.

In addition, sunflower seeds have expectorant, emollient and diuretic effects, therefore, are widely used in the treatment of laryngeal, bronchial, and pulmonary diseases.

From sunflower seeds receive sunflower oil, which is a component of ointments, patches, effective oil solutions.

Sunflower application

Sunflower tincture prepared from leaves and flowers is prescribed to improve the appetite and enhance the activity of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the tincture is used for malaria, lung diseases and neuralgia.

To prepare the tincture, 3 tbsp. Flowers are filled with a glass of vodka and left to stand for a week in a dark place. After the specified time, the tincture is filtered and drunk 40 drops, twice a day.

Allergy to sunflower

Sunflower allergy is often triggered by the sensitivity of the human body to plant pollen, which, penetrating into the bronchi, causes a negative reaction of the immune system. In the worst case, pollinosis (or an allergic reaction to pollen) can cause the development of asthma, a disease that is accompanied by shortness of breath and cough. Therefore, it is important to determine the presence or absence of an allergy to this plant even before starting to use sunflower preparations. And this will help the allergist, who will collect anamnesis and prescribe tests to clarify the allergen or eliminate allergies.

In general, pollinosis is often accompanied by allergic rhinitis, which can be recognized by the following signs:

  • severe itching in the nose
  • paroxysmal sneezing
  • nasal congestion,
  • reduction of smell,
  • ear pain.

In addition, against the background of pollinosis, allergic conjunctivitis may develop, which is accompanied by the following symptoms:
  • itchy eyes
  • redness of the eyelids
  • lacrimation.

The most obvious sign of sensitization to the sunflower is the seasonality of allergy: for example, with the completion of the flowering time of the plant, the malaise passes by itself.

In the event that the blood test confirms the sensitivity to sunflower, you will have to limit your diet, excluding products such as melon, sunflower oil, squash, and Jerusalem artichoke.

Sunflower Honey

Sunflower is a honey plant, the honey of which has a golden yellow color, a weak aroma and a slightly tart taste. This type of honey crystallizes in small coarse grains.

Sunflower honey does not have a high degree of stickiness (unlike other varieties of honey), its crystals melt with ease in the mouth, leaving a very pleasant fruit and sour aftertaste.

This honey is valued not only for its healing properties, but also for its unique aroma, which can resemble both freshly mown hay and pollen, both mature apricots and green tomatoes (sometimes the smell of sunflower honey reminds even the flavor of fried potatoes).

Scientists have shown that sunflower honey contains the richest spectrum of the most useful amino acids that the human body needs for protein synthesis. In addition, antioxidants are present in this honey, which fight free radicals and help remove heavy metal salts and slags from the body.

Traditional medicine traditionally uses sunflower honey to treat heart disease, diarrhea, bronchitis, malaria, to improve intestinal functions, as well as relieve digestive colic. Also, this honey can be used as an effective tonic and diuretic.

Sunflower honey is useful for people suffering from diseases such as atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, and catarrhal neuralgia. We should not forget about the antibacterial properties of sunflower honey, thanks to which it is used in the treatment of colds, flu, cough, catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, and liver diseases.

Sunflower honey is distinguished by a fairly high content of carotene, vitamin A, and fragrant substances that have bactericidal properties, therefore, it is used to accelerate wound healing.

This sort of honey is recommended to be used simultaneously with apple cider vinegar, for which you should mix a glass of water at room temperature, a tablespoon of sunflower honey and a tablespoon of apple cider vinegar. This mixture is drunk in the morning on an empty stomach, not less than a month.

Important! Sunflower honey contains a high percentage of pollen, so it is not recommended for people who are prone to allergies.

Useful properties of honey sunflower

Unfortunately, in our country, sunflower honey is far from always in demand, which is not the case in European countries, where this honey is necessarily included in the school and kindergarten diet. Our compatriots do not prefer sunflower honey due to the fact that it quickly crystallizes (this honey does not contain more than 20 days in liquid form, and sometimes crystallizes in the hive itself). At the same time, after crystallization, honey acquires bitterness.

But rapid crystallization does not detract from the medicinal properties of this honey, which contains the amount of glucose, which is one and a half times higher than in other types of honey.

Glucose does not need additional processing directly in the stomach, because it is instantly absorbed into the bloodstream, spreading through the body.

Glucose properties:

  • strengthening the walls of the heart muscle,
  • increase the strength of blood vessels
  • Contribute to the normalization of the heart.

Properties of honey sunflower:
  • normalization of arterial and venous circulation,
  • excretion of toxins
  • improved liver function
  • prevention of edema,
  • strengthening myocardial muscle,
  • promoting the process of blood formation, which accelerates the renewal of the body.

Sunflower lecithin

Lecithin is an integral component of the growth and development of the body. It is lecithin that is a component of all cellular membranes of the human body, acting as the main component of the protective membrane of not only the brain, but of all nerve fibers. Simply put, without lecithin, normal functioning of the heart, liver, kidneys and other organs is impossible.

Lecithin is responsible for the "repair" and regular renewal of the body's cells, as it is part of the so-called "good" cholesterol, which removes the "bad" from an atherosclerotic plaque located in the vessel, thereby helping to restore its lumen.

In general, lecithin performs three main functions:
1. Conservation of energy transported throughout the body.
2. Ensuring the construction of cell membranes.
3. Providing adaptive properties of the organism.

It is in a plant like sunflower ordinary that a large amount of lecithin is contained, which affects the body as follows:

  • prevents the development of diseases triggered by impaired functioning of the nervous system,
  • beneficial effect on mental development,
  • produces acetylcholine, which ensures the normal metabolism of both fats and cholesterol,
  • strengthens memory
  • normalizes reproductive function (without lecithin, women cannot conceive, bear and give birth to a healthy child),
  • increases the body's resistance to the influence of toxic substances,
  • stimulates bile secretion
  • prevents the development of multiple sclerosis,
  • improves attention
  • increases physical stamina
  • promotes the absorption of vitamins A, D, E and K,
  • protects the liver from the negative effects of preservatives, insecticides, toxins, as well as drugs and alcohol.

Broth with prostate adenoma

Dried sunflower roots (a little less than one glass) are boiled in three liters of water (only enamelware is used to prepare the decoction). The decoction is infused for three hours and taken one liter per day.

In addition, with prostate adenoma, enemas from sunflower oil sediment are shown, which must be unrefined. Enemas are made for 10 days, for which, 100-150 g of oil with sediment should be poured into a heated enema, and introduced into the anus.

Sunflower Root System

The sunflower root system is very extensive. Thanks to her, he uses water and nutrients from a large volume of soil. Stem (main) root grows vertically and penetrates into the soil to a depth of 2-3 m. Sufficiently strong and very branched lateral roots leave it, which, depending on the state of soil moisture and nutrient distribution, form 2-3 tiers. In addition to the taproot and its branches, the sunflower forms stem stalks that grow from the semiperionous knee in a moist soil layer. Stem roots are very ramified and actively absorb water and nutrients.

Sunflower stalk

The stem of cultural forms is unbranched, round or ribbed, covered with stiff hairs. Середина его наполнена губчатой тканью. Во время созревания верхняя часть его вместе с корзиной наклоняется. Большинство сортов достаточно высокорослые — высота их в степных районах 130-160 см, в лесостепных 140-180 см и более.

Sunflower leaves

The leaves are oval-heart-shaped with a pointed top and jagged (serrated or ribbed) edges, the lower two-, three-superal, higher along the stalk - alternate. Leaf blades vary in size not only from the variety and growing conditions, but also from their location on the stem. Most leaves are medium tiers. They are all covered with short, stiff hairs. Petioles are long, equal or longer than the leaf blade. In some forms of sunflower (such as fuchsin) cuttings, the edges of the leaves have a purple color of varying intensity (anthocyanin), which is an important varietal characteristic. The number of leaves varies greatly. Usually varieties under normal conditions of growth and development have 28-34 leaves.

Sunflower inflorescence

The inflorescence is a multi-flowered round basket. The outer surface of the ripe basket has a predominantly convex, less often flat or concave shape. On the edges of it in several rows are wrapped leaves, which, before flowering, firmly adjoin each other, and the inflorescence has the shape of a bulb. In some forms of sunflower, the leaves of the wrapper are short, which is why an open disc has flowered before the inflorescence, but this is not a varietal characteristic. Under favorable conditions, a ripe basket reaches 18–22 centimeters in diameter and more.

In the basket, two types of flowers are formed: extreme - reed, medium - tubular. Reed flowers are infertile, rarely same-sex, female with sufficiently large yellow or orange-yellow, sometimes pale yellow corolla, which is one large petal.

Sunflower basket shape

Tubular flowers (800-1500 of them in the basket) have toothed bracts, a five-teeth corolla, the petals of which have fused into a tubule. The corolla of most varieties is yellow, and in varieties of the Fuchsinki type it is dark purple. In the flower there are five stamens, which have grown together with anthers; they form a tube, into which pollen spills out when ripe. The pistil has a single-nest ovary, a column, and a two-bladed snout. The pollen is sticky, yellow in color, with characteristic spikes on the surface. The sunflower is of the flowering type. First pollen matures, and later - the stigma. Basket blooms 7-10 days.

Sunflower fruit

Sunflower fruit - achene with leathery pericarp (husk), which contains the core. The value of the variety depends on the ratio of kernel and husk (by weight). The most common high-ash varieties of sunflower, which have a leafiness of 18-23%.

The shape and size of sunflower seeds are of two main types: oilseeds - elongated or rounded elongated shape, luzalnye - mostly elongated. The intermediate place between these types of sunflower seeds is mezheumok.

The color of sunflower seeds is white, gray or black with a different number of strips of white or gray and dark gray (slate) color. The mass of 1000 seeds varies from 40-120 g depending on growing conditions.

Sunflower Basket Cut Type of sunflower seeds

An important feature of sunflower varieties is the presence in the pericarp of seed seeds of a thin layer of cells that contain about 70% carbon and therefore are painted black. This layer of cells, located under the epidermis close to the surface of the seed, is called armor-clad, or phytomelan. It prevents damage to the seeds of the larvae of the sunflower moth.

What is a sunflower and how does it look

A one-year sunflower, or sunflower, is a useful oilseed crop, grateful and responsive to good care.

It is interesting! In heraldry - the science that studies all the coats of arms of the world - the flowers of sunflowers are documented as a symbol of fertility and prosperity.

Regardless of what kind of weather outside the weather, similar to the sun plant will contribute to the creation of a warm and bright atmosphere in any backyard.

Where do sunflowers look and why does the sunflower turn to the sun? This phenomenon is characteristic only for young flowers of the plant, which have not yet fully opened. The unopened sunflower bud really moves towards the sun throughout the day. This is due to the uneven growth of the stem, a phenomenon called heliotropism.

The cultivation of sunflower is possible in any fertile land, and the resulting raw materials are subsequently used in the process of cooking vegetable oil. In addition, the culture acts as a medicinal, ornamental and melliferous plants.

Information! Another unusual type of culture is the tuberiferous sunflower, which can be eaten.

The one-year sunflower is part of the family of asteraceae plants. Its root system is rapidly developing to a depth of at least 150 cm (sometimes this figure reaches 5 meters), and up to 120 cm in width.

Among the main distinguishing features of sunflower are:

  • tall woody stalk covered with fine hairs, reaching a height of 4 meters,
  • large leaves have an oval heart-shaped shape and pointed tips,
  • Sunflower inflorescence is represented by a multi-flower basket - its diameter is 20 cm, the basket disk is flat, and the hook is slightly convex,
  • flowers are located on the edges, are reed and asexual, they have a shade of yellow-orange,
  • as for the middle flowers, their size is much smaller, they are tubular and bisexual.

A ripe plant has a lot of seeds. In the annual herbaceous culture there is a seed-fruit containing the shell and the core. The composition of sunflower seeds includes oil in the amount of 30%, among representatives of elite varieties, the indicator can be more than 47%.

Attention! In one basket, depending on the type of plant and the correctness of care, contains from 300 to 8000 seeds.

Among the advantages of the annual culture are excellent healing properties - anti-inflammatory and astringent.

Where do sunflowers grow in the suburbs? This question often interests those who choose places for staged photo shoots and beautiful shots. People in different forums write that they saw fields with sunflowers in the following places:

  • if from Hotky to Sergiev Posad to go through Semkhoz (by car), then on the way there is such a field,
  • a small sunflower field is located near the Danone plant,
  • on the Simferopol highway before Podolsk a huge field of sunflowers is difficult to drive,
  • on Novorizhskoye highway near Mansurovo.

It should be remembered that in the suburbs to shoot sunflowers are best from the end of July, during their flowering period.

Distinctive features and description of sunflower varieties

Annual plant has a wide variety. There are a large number of sunflower hybrids that are actively cultivated to this day and fully comply with the detailed step-by-step criteria and requirements of industrial production.

Varieties can be both mid-season and early-season, and ten-petal decorative. The latter can be used to decorate a park or garden area. Among the early ripe perennial varieties are the following:

  1. Sunflower Albatross, which has a fairly high oil content. The variety is drought resistant, resistant to pests and various diseases. Feels great with extensive growing methods. In height reaches 2 meters.
  2. Sunflower Buzluk, the seeds of which contain up to 55% oil. This variety has a stable yield, independent of weather conditions, and a high drought tolerance index. When growing Buzluk, it is necessary to comply with high-quality agricultural practices and regularly apply fertilizers. This subspecies grows up to 170 cm in height.

As for mid-ripening varieties, here you can select a variety called Favorite: it has a high oil content - up to 55%. A variety is not afraid of hydrolytic decomposition, because its seeds have a low acid number. The height of the plant, on average, is 2 m. Among the varieties with high yields, Flagship and Master are also distinguished. In the process of their cultivation, you must periodically make the appropriate mineral fertilizers.

Attention! All of the above varieties of culture resistant to diseases such as downy mildew, fomopsis, broomrape, and sunflower moth.

Tuberiferous sunflower, better known as Jerusalem artichoke, is presented as a technical, fodder or decorative culture. For optimal cultivation of plants, the most suitable areas of the southern climatic zone. This fact is due to the fact that it ripens only in September-November (depending on the particular variety). The yield index of a tuberiferous sunflower reaches 35 tons of tubers that can be harvested from one hectare of land.

Properties and useful qualities of culture

Sunflower has a number of useful properties that arise due to the unique chemical composition. Vegetable seeds rich in oleic and linoleic acid are obtained from the seeds of the culture. With the help of sunflower oil you can get rid of cholecystitis, as well as biliary dyskinesia. In addition, we must not forget that this product is widely used in cooking.

The structure of sunflower seeds includes such elements:

  • glycosides,
  • scopolines
  • phenol carboxylic acids,
  • carotenoids and anthocyanins.

In sunflower seeds contains magnesium, the amount of which is six times higher than this figure in rye bread.

Important! Experts recommend the use of seeds in the treatment of renal failure and to get rid of gallbladder disease. For preventive purposes, their use will be very effective in atherosclerosis, hypertension, as well as in diseases of the cardiovascular system.

Due to the content of calcium, zinc, iron, iodine and fluorine, the plant is often used in the preparation of various additives and means by which you can take care of the skin of the face and body. Shampoo, lipstick, baby hygiene products - in the composition of these and many other products can be found sunflower oil. This oil also contains large amounts of vitamin F, which nourishes and moisturizes the skin, and also has a nourishing effect on the hair and nails.

Sunflower is able to positively affect a person suffering from diabetes. Tea from the leaves of this culture has expectorant, diuretic and astringent properties. Petals can be used to prepare poultices to help with wounds, spider bites and snakes.

Sunflower Tea

In the culinary industry, sunflower is often used in the baking process. Seeds need to pre-fry and chop, and the resulting texture used for baking cookies as a filler. In the UK, young baskets of plants used to prepare vitamin salads with vegetables.

From the pollen, which the bees get from the inflorescences of the sunflower-honey plant, it turns out very tasty honey, which even bears like to eat.

What pests are and how to deal with them

Pests that pose a particular danger to sunflower in the Moscow region are:

  • sunflower shponoska,
  • cotton shovel
  • aphid.

In order to lay eggs, shpononka uses the axils of the leaves of the sunflower. Yellow larvae have a brown head and three pairs of legs, which cover long hairs. The larvae penetrate the core of the plant, breaking through their moves from different sides. They feed on the stem, eating a third, and with the onset of autumn they become pupae and hibernate. You can fight shponoskoy by resorting to timely harvesting and deep plowing. Also helps the treatment of plants with the drug Vanteks.

The main pest of the plant is a cotton moth, with a wingspan of 40 mm. The color of its front wings is distinguished by a yellow and gray tinge, and the hind wings - by a light color divided by a burgundy stripe. In the center of the hind wings you can often notice a dark spot. The length of the caterpillar of a cotton moth is 40 mm, and its color can be either light green, or brown or yellow. To combat the cotton shovel, farmers advise not to neglect deep autumn plowing, timely destruction of weeds and proper tillage between rows of plants.

The main pest of the plant is a cotton shovel.

As for aphids, it nibbles a sunflower. Often this occurs at elevated air temperatures or prolonged droughts. Ladybugs feed on the main part of the insects, so that the plant louse does not cause significant damage to the crop, and it is not necessary to treat the plants using chemicals.

Important! If the aphid is aggressive and plentiful, it can cause significant damage to plantations, leading to a drop in yield. In this case, you need to immediately treat the plant with chemicals.

Possible harm and contraindications

Due to the individual intolerance of the sunflower, the human body can be harmed.

Important! A decoction of the roots of the plant is strictly contraindicated to use during pregnancy, lactation, as well as in childhood.

It is not recommended to resort to the sunflower treatment method if there are insoluble stones in the body.

Despite all the good qualities of sunflower oil, it can not be eaten in large quantities, as it often leads to intestinal disorders.

Sunflower fields in the Moscow region are the most vivid, picturesque and cheerful decoration of any landscape, even under inclement weather conditions. To decorate your backyard and create the same cozy and bright environment, you can use decorative annual sunflowers, characterized by full yellow inflorescences, in which there are practically no seeds. With the help of such an unpretentious shrub the garden is filled with light, solar energy and freshness.

What does a sunflower look like: the leaves of the plant in the photo

Sunflower (Helianthus annus) belongs to the family of Compositae.

Hailing sunflower from North America. This is an ancient culture. During archaeological excavations, its seeds were found, whose age is determined to be 2000–3000 years old. The "flower of the sun", as the sunflower was called, was worshiped in ancient Mexico, its image was made of gold. Looks like a sunflower in its blossoming state, they know absolutely everything. But few people know sunflower leaves, if you think about it, you won’t immediately remember their appearance. So unforgettable impression makes the head (flower).

In Europe, sunflower was imported from North America. Once in Russia under Peter I, this plant was grown only for ornamental purposes for several decades. Currently, sunflower has become the main oilseed crop in our country.

Sunflower is widely spread in the southern regions of Russia as a field crop, in the more northern areas as a silage crop.

See how the sunflower looks in the photo of the plant, where the leaves, stem and inflorescences are illustrated:

Where and how is sunflower used?

Speaking about where the sunflower is used, it is worth mentioning that it is interesting to botany with its curious adaptations to life and, perhaps, even more interesting to everyone as one of the most useful cultivated plants.

The whole process of improving and creating that cultural sunflower, which is now known to each of us, took place in our country. Russia can rightfully be called the birthplace of cultivated sunflower. The fact is that in Western Europe, where sunflower seeds were taken from overseas repeatedly, this plant was bred more often as an ornamental or as a gardener (“gryzovaya culture”). In all these cases, these were branched forms with small, numerous baskets of flowers, as they grew in their homelands in the steppes and semi-deserts. Neither the inhabitants of Western Europe, nor the inhabitants of the American prairies thought of such a discovery, as they use sunflower, as an oil plant. In the XIX century, the French began to do this, but for some reason they abandoned it.

But in Russia in 1779, the article “On the Preparation of Oil from Sunflower Seeds” was already published in Academic News. At the end of the 18th century, the famous Russian agronomist Bolotov himself tried to obtain sunflower oil in his estate. The benefits of sunflower were enormous, since the culture supplied the farm with useful oil for cattle and excellent aromatic oil in quality.

In the 30s of the last century, a serf peasant Bokarev from the settlement of Alekseyevka of the Voronezh province began to cultivate sunflowers in his garden, process his seeds in a hand butter churn and get excellent cooking oil. Bokarev began to sell oil to the side, sunflower crops began to spread, and the plant itself, carefully cultivated on fertile black soil, all improved their qualities, reducing the baskets of flowers in quantity, but increasing them in size. This is how a cultural golden-yellow “flower of the sun” was created in Russia, in Ukraine.

What is the structure of flowers in the inflorescence of sunflower: what features are there

Головка или соцветие подсолнечника — этого всем известного полезнейшего растения — конечно, самый большой из всех близко нам знакомых цветов. Головка сантиметров до 40 в поперечнике — не такая уже редкость, а ведь это выходит размер цветка виктории. Однако тут приходится оговориться, что у виктории речь идет действительно об одном цветке, а головка подсолнечника — целое «соцветие», целая «корзинка», как говорят ботаники. The structure of a sunflower flower is amazing: in a large head one can count over a thousand small buds. Small flowers, collected in the "baskets", are, of course, not from some sunflowers, but from very many plants, like chamomile, burdock, dandelion, cornflower, sow thistle, etc., etc.

To understand what inflorescence is in a sunflower, it is best to look at its head at a time when the faded flowers at the edges are already falling off, exposing seeds that begin to ripen. At this time you can see the flowers at all ages.

What is the result of such a combination of colors? What is the role of each flower in this inflorescence? The main task is to create as many good seeds as possible for the reproduction of sunflower. To make a seed from a flower, it is necessary that the pollen should fall on the stigma of the pistil. The seed will be better if pollen is taken from another flower or brought from another sunflower.

The transfer of pollen should produce insects. But it may happen that insects for some reason do not. In this case, the flower, not waiting for pollen from the side, should, as they say, "at worst" produce self-pollination. If pollination from the side has already been done, additional self-pollination is useless. If there was no pollination from the side, then self-pollination produces seed, although not always quite good. So, each flower has such a task: you should avoid self-pollination and try to get pollen from the side, but if this does not succeed, then in order not to be wasted, you should do self-pollination. Let's see how the flowers cope with such a tricky task.

Small buds are placed in the very middle, and further - bigger buds. These are “children” and “teenagers”. Then the already blossoming flowers begin, from which dark anthers stick out, stuck together with each other like a muff. These are flowers that are experiencing the male period of their life. They provide pollen spilling into the muff. A pistil growing inside the muff - with a still closed stigma and therefore incapable of pollination - pushes pollen upward. Inside the flower at this time nectar stands out. The bee sucking this nectar, certainly touches the pollen and carries it on itself.

Farther from the middle of the head are the flowers, which have already completed the male period of life and started the female. Pistils stretched above the anthers, stigma opened. Nectar continues to stand out. The bee, having already been to male flowers and smeared in pollen, searches the female flowers and, touching the stigmas, makes pollination.

Farther from the middle of the head are even older flowers. The pistils were shortened, the stigmas were wrapped so that they could touch the pollen of their own flower. At this time of life of a flower, self-pollination occurs, if previously there was no pollination from the side. Now the nectar is no longer emitted, the flower is blocked by dust and stigma pressed against each other. A bee, having flown to such a flower, does not linger, but hurries to younger flowers, where it can enjoy with benefit both for itself and for a sunflower.

During the life of the flower, the anthers first go up, then go down again. Stamen filaments have to be pulled out first, then shortened. They straighten and curl. In order to fit where these curls fit, a spacious chamber is prudently arranged in a flower, making the flower look like a glass inflated at the bottom. Closer to the edge of the head, the flowers completely wilted and fell off, exposing the "pavement" of the seeds sitting in regular rows.

The structure of flowers in the inflorescence of a sunflower is unique and distinguishes the buds from each other: reed flowers are sitting on the very edge of the head with a ring. These are barren flowers that do not produce seeds. They have neither stamens, nor pestles. There are only big bright corollas. Their purpose is only to show off, but by this they serve the common cause. Thanks to these barren flowers, insects from afar see dark heads of sunflowers surrounded by golden yellow crowns. But what flowers in sunflower bring tasty and fragrant seeds, so these are those that are located in the center of the head.

Around the ring of reed flowers is a ring wrapper. These are green leaves, like tiles that overlap each other. The wrapper performed its main purpose at that time, when the sunflower head was still a bud, when the buds of flowers had just arisen inside the bud. Then these rudiments were so gentle that they needed to be protected from the cold, and from damp, and from all sorts of pests.

Sunflower inflorescence is one of the clearest examples of the ingenious adaptability to life, which is manifested throughout the plant world, and throughout the world of organic nature. This fitness has long represented a mysterious enigma, Darwin found a natural and ingeniously simple solution.

Sunflower Plant: Botanical Culture Description

Starting a botanical description of sunflower, it is worth noting that this is a well-known field oilseed crop, belongs to the family of the Compositae, this is an annual herb from 1 to 1.25 m in height. He has a tap-off root. The stem is simple, like the leaves, rough.

Continuing the description of the culture of sunflower, we say that the lower leaves are alternate, petioled, heart-shaped ovoid, and the upper elliptical. In large, petiolate, heart-shaped, toothed leaves, the ends are bent outwards, and rain water flows along them. Thin trickles of such water absorb the roots of sunflower. From one main root, there is a mass of small lateral ones, which do not extend beyond the crown of leaves.

In the continuation of the description of a sunflower plant, it should be said that its flowers are yellow, apical, gathered in a large drooping basket with a diameter of up to 25 cm, which turns to the sun. The outer flowers are large, yellow, lingual, infertile, the inner ones are tubular, smaller, yellow-brown, bisexual, located along the entire inner surface of the basket. These inflorescences, resembling a radiant sun, provided the sunflower with both Russian and scientific names: from the Greek words helios - sun and anthos - flower.

False-tongued bright yellow flowers are located outside the inflorescence, they do not form seeds, but, increasing the surface of the basket, attract insects. Inner tubular flowers are fruitful, after their flowering, fruit-seeds, known to all seeds, containing oil and other beneficial substances are formed.

Fruit - oblong ovoid seed striped or black. It blooms in July-August, ripens in August-September.

This plant has the unique ability to turn its head after the sun, tracing its entire path from sunrise to sunset.

The sunflower has quite a few decorative forms: with variegated leaves, terry inflorescences, consisting of reed flowers, with terry, spherical inflorescences, tubular flowers, various color of median flowers (yellow, brown or purple and others).

Currently, many different varieties and hybrids are bred.

See what the sunflower flower looks like in the photo, where different forms of cultural development are shown:

The best varieties of sunflower: description and photo

Considering the best varieties of sunflower, it is necessary to divide them into decorative and agricultural. The following description of the varieties of sunflower will allow you to choose the right planting material for your site.

The flagship refers to the mid-ripening varieties of sunflower: the plant reaches a height of 210 cm. The seed oil content is 55–56%. Environmentally stable high-yielding variety, resistant to broomrape, downy mildew, sunflower moth, fomopsis. If the crop was sown on May 15th, then the harvesting can begin on September 15th.

Gourmand - a highly productive mid-ripening universal variety, which is grown both for the production of butter and for the confectionery industry, has large seeds with good taste. The variety is resistant to sunflower moth, broomrape, downy mildew, it can be grown in almost all areas, but it is recommended for cultivation in the forest-steppe zone.

Spring - early medium-yielding variety of sunflower. Oil content of seeds is 53%. The plant is resistant to broomrape, downy mildew. It can be sown until June 15, yields good yields during droughts. Distributed in the steppe zone.

Buzuluk - high-yielding superearly undersized variety. The plant is resistant to rot, mealy, dew, fomopsisu, tolerates drought.

Look at these varieties of sunflower in the photo, where the strongest qualities of one kind or another are demonstrated:

Conditions and features of growing sunflower (with video)

Features of growing sunflower are that it is planted in a sunny, sheltered from the wind place. It can grow on any garden soil, but most clearly manifests its decorative qualities on fertile, light, loose and slightly acidic or neutral soil.

Growing sunflower conditions are not tricky, and care includes pruning of flowering inflorescences, so that the plant can bloom further. In an open, wind-blown area, you need to tie the stem to the stakes.

The plant is very loving regular watering, and abundant watering is recommended. It responds well to fertilizing with complex mineral and organic fertilizers.

Propagated by seeds that are sown directly into the ground in mid-May, nests of 2–3 seeds, 2–3 cm deep. Sunflower seedlings appear 6–8 days after sowing. Flowering occurs 75–80 days after germination.

In cultivated horticulture bred, as well as medium and low varieties.

See how the cultivation of sunflower is carried out on the video, where some agricultural techniques are shown:

Sunflower care and cultivation

When planning the proper care of sunflower, it is worth knowing that it can be sown on black soil, chestnut and gray forest soils, while saline, acidic and sandy soils are not suitable for this crop.

The optimum temperature for seed growth is + 20–25 ° C. The plant maintains frosts to -6 ° C. It is a light-requiring and very demanding culture of nutrients, especially in the first half of the development of plants.

The field under the cultivation of sunflower with proper care and compliance with agricultural crops can be used again only after 7-10 years. Corn, winter wheat, legumes will be good predecessors for this crop.

Basic soil preparation depends on the state of the field. In the autumn, before plowing, the field should be cultivated several times (including peeling, harrowing, plowing), if there are perennial weeds, and in the spring, harrowing and cultivation.

Phosphorus and potash fertilizers are applied under the main plowing in the fall, under spring cultivation - nitrogen fertilizers. Together with the sowing on the side of the row, a small part of the phosphate fertilizers is also introduced.

Sunflower should be sown after early spring crops, with an average daily soil temperature of + 10–12 ° C. Before sowing, the seeds must be pickled or treated with microbiological preparations, and then rolled.

Soil herbicides can be applied before sowing or replaced by harrowing before the emergence of sprouts. To increase the yield in the field, you can take out the hives with bees. By harvesting sunflower start, when brownish 85% of all baskets.

The use of therapeutic and beneficial properties of sunflower in medicine

Interestingly, the sunflower introduced in 1569 from Mexico to Spain and spread throughout Europe was an ornamental plant for a long time. Hats and even suits decorated large baskets with buds. Practical use of sunflower began after a peasant from the Voronezh province first received sunflower oil from seeds. Then oil mills were built. Currently, varieties of sunflower are bred, the seeds of which contain more than 50% fat.

Medicinal raw materials, which enclose the beneficial properties of sunflower, are marginal flowers and leaves, mature achenes. Flowers are collected throughout the summer at the beginning of flowering of a particular plant. Leaves break only green, intact by insects or diseases, and flowers - only bright yellow, and they are pulled out of the baskets without damaging, and immediately dried in a dark room. Leaves are air dried in the shade or in dryers.

The finished raw materials - green leaves with petioles up to 3 cm in length, flowers of bright yellowish color with a honey smell - are stored for 2 years.

The medicinal properties of sunflower are that the leaves contain tar, rubber, provitamin A (carotene), in colors - glycosides, choline and betaine. The fruit has a lot of fatty oil. Sunflower oil obtained from the fruit, is part of the creams, ointments as the main therapeutic component or replaces the more expensive components. It is used as a laxative and is recommended for the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis (because it contains unsaturated fatty acids).

In folk medicine, flowers and leaves of the sunflower are used in the form of tincture in the treatment of febrile conditions, malaria and as bitterness to improve the appetite. Refried sunflower oil is used in the form of oil dressings for the treatment of wounds and burns, in the composition of honey and milk drink to alleviate the throat when coughing. Young sunflower baskets are used to prepare vitamin salads, along with germinated seeds, they help to increase immunity.

Sunflower preparations relax the smooth muscles of the internal organs, lower body temperature, stimulate the appetite, and have an expectorant effect.

In folk medicine, broth of reed flowers are drunk with jaundice, heart diseases, bronchial spasms and gastrointestinal colic, with malaria, flu, catarrh of the upper respiratory tract. Alcohol tincture of reed flowers (and sometimes leaves) is effective for fever and neuralgia. Instead of tincture, you can use a decoction that is used as a diuretic, as well as a remedy for diarrhea. Oil obtained from sunflower has high nutritional properties and energy value. Used as a prophylactic agent for atherosclerosis, due to the high content of unsaturated fatty acids. Boiled sunflower oil is used as a healing agent for fresh wounds and burns in the form of oil dressings.

Flowers, leaves, fruits and sunflower oil are used in medicine for diseases of the liver and biliary tract. The flowers and leaves are used as an antifebrile agent, alcoholic tincture of them is drunk during malaria, influenza, and catarrh of the upper respiratory tract. Fresh seeds help with allergies (urticaria, etc.).

In England, young sunflower baskets are used to make salads.

Sunflower seeds contain a large amount of oil, which consists of glycerides of palmitic, stearic, arachidonic, lignoceric, oleic and linoleic acids, up to 19.1% protein, 26.5% carbohydrates, about 2% fitin and 1.5% tannins.

In cosmetology with the help of warm oil applications treat dry, fading skin of the face and hands.

In traditional medicine, the healing properties of sunflower and its marginal flowers are used, from which they prepare an alcoholic tincture used for malaria and as a means of stimulating the appetite of patients.

Oil is obtained from the kernels of the seeds; the fruit shell (husk) can be used as fuel. Husk ash is rich in mineral salts, can be used as a valuable fertilizer, and for technical purposes. Sunflower oilcakes are good feed for feeding animals. In addition, the plant can be used for silage, it is a good honey plant.

Sunflower is the most common technical crop in Russia. Almost all vegetable oil in the Russian Federation is made from it.

All varieties of sunflower can be divided into groups:

  • oilseeds with small seeds and large kernels, in which the fat content is from 53 to 63%,
  • gryznye with large seeds, the fat content of which is much lower - only 20–35%. Plants are quite large, often they are planted on silage.

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