Figs - tropical plant with a unique healing composition. In different regions, it is also known under the name of fig, fig tree, fig, fig tree, wine. The most popular figs used in ancient times. If you believe the interpretations of the Bible, it was precisely his sheets that covered the intimate parts of Adam and Eve. And in Greece they say that if a fig tree grows in the yard, then the family is not hungry. Its fruits were considered so nutritious that dried figs necessarily took with them travelers in long road. Many have heard about this culture, but very few people know about its beneficial properties.
This is a large shrub that grows to 8−10 meters in length. Its branches are smooth and thick, and the crown is wide. The diameter of the trunk can reach 18 cm, and the root system - 15 meters (roots go down to 6 meters). Fig leaves large and hard with irregular teeth at the edges. The color of leaves from dark green to greenish-gray. In width, they can reach 12 cm, and in length - 15 cm.
All fig shrubs are divided into female and male individuals, which in nature are pollinated by black wasps blastophagous. These insects do an excellent job with their work, which is the main proof - a big harvest. In the inflorescences of the plant there are minor holes, it is through them that pollination occurs.
Fruits are pear-shaped and grow in length up to 10 cm. May be from darkpurple to yellowish green. The fruit is a kind of fleshy vessel with small scales. Color and size of the fruit depends on the variety. The most common color of the fruit - dark blue or yellow (yellow-green).
Unripe berries can not be consumed, as they contain inedible latex. The number of seeds in a fig depends on the variety, so it can contain up to 16 thousand small and from 30 large seeds. If the fig grows in favorable climatic conditions, it is able to bear fruit for 200 years. The tree blooms several times a year, but the fruits are formed only in warm weather (from summer to autumn).
In the wild, the fig tree grows in warm regions with a humid climate: in the Mediterranean and Asia Minor, in India, Georgia, Iran, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia. In Russia, a fig tree can be met in the Caucasus and on the Crimean peninsula.
Useful properties of figs
Figs are not very rich in vitamins, such as raspberries or currants. It contains vitamins of group B, C, PP and carotene. But the mineral composition is very rich. It has a lot calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus and iron. This combination of minerals makes figs the most useful among all the southern fruits. All these beneficial substances have a beneficial effect on the state of the body.
Fresh fruits are of great value. They contain:
- sugar -12−25%
- organic acids - 0.39%,
- glucose - 3.2%,
- sucrose - 1.7−3.8%.
The amount of sugar in dried fruit reaches 70%.
Benefits and properties The fruit of the fig tree is as follows:
- fruits have diaphoretic and diuretic properties,
- fig substances normalize the work of the digestive tract, liver and kidneys,
- fruit pulp is used to heal wounds,
- figs, brewed with milk - a great tool for coughing and sore throat,
- fruits have antipyretic effect,
- lower blood cholesterol levels
- due to the large amount of iron in the composition, it is often recommended for the treatment of anemia,
- figs are useful in cardiovascular diseases, as it contains a lot of potassium,
- used as a laxative for constipation,
- fruit gruel is effective in treating corns and spurs.
Growing up in an apartment
Even a novice gardener will be able to grow this useful plant at home. Growing is carried out in two ways:
- Seeds. This method is available to all, as the fig seeds can be obtained from any fruit purchased in the store (even from the dry). Before planting, planting material is washed, disinfected in a solution of potassium permanganate and dried. Soil mixture can be bought, but you can cook by yourself from sand and sheet soil. Sow the seeds to a depth of 2-2.5 cm, carefully watered and cover them with a film. The capacity with the planted seeds is removed in a warm place, where there are no directional rays of the Sun. Shoots appear after 3 weeks. After the appearance of two true leaves, seedlings are transplanted into pots. The first fruits are usually formed after 5 years.
- Cuttings. This method is considered beneficial as the first fruits grow the following year. Planting material harvested in the fall, and planted in the spring. The ends of the cuttings before planting stand in the water for 2−4 hours. Then in several places make cuts and planted in the soil (the mixture is the same as for planting seeds), watered and covered with a can. The appearance of young leaves says rooting cuttings.
The fig tree can grow not only in the southern regions, but also it is successfully cultivated in the northern regions of the country. But growing in these cold regions is associated with some difficulties.
In the ground should be planted seedlings already with roots. To prepare the cuttings is easy. To do this, they first immersed in water with honey, this solution helps the formation of roots. After which the prepared cuttings are planted in the tank. The most convenient way to plant in plastic bottles. It is necessary to cut off half of the bottle, cover the primer and place the cutting. The soil around it is watered (the soil should always be hydrated). These improvised containers are placed on a bright place where there is no direct sunlight. Through transparent plastic it is easy to see whether the cutting is rooted or not. As soon as the first leaves appear, the seedling is planted in the ground along with a clod of earth.
In open ground, seedlings are planted in a sunny and windless place, where trenches or pits were previously prepared. The bottom of the pit must be sprinkled with a layer of drainage. Fig tree quickly branches. As they grow, they should be tilted to the ground and attached. This is done so that the figs grow not in height, but spread on the surface of the earth.
For the winter fig tree is better to cover. To do this, cover the plant with a layer of mulch from branches (some cover it with a blanket), then cover it with polyethylene on top and sprinkle it with a small layer of earth. In the spring, when frosts recede, shelter is removed.
General rules for the care of figs
Like all plants, figs need proper care. If all requirements are met, the fig tree will delight with its beneficial fruits for more than one year. Main rules of care:
- figs, which are grown in a pot, needs regular transplanting (Once a year)
- a plant, planted or kept in a pot in a well-lit place, produces more fruit,
- in the autumn, the fig tree needs rest, for this it is placed in a cool place for 2–3 months and the watering is stopped (usually in such conditions the figs shed the leaves)
- both in the house and in the plot, figs should be fed with fertilizers: in the spring they make nitrogen, in the summer - phosphate, in the autumn - potash fertilizers,
- the plant needs pruning and crown formation,
- important component of care - prevention and control of diseases and pests.
Diseases and pests
The fig tree is considered to be a rather resistant plant to diseases and pests, but still there is a predisposition to some ailments. The most common diseases of figs:
- gray rot - fruit strikes a gray or white scurf with watery spots,
- Fusarium - rotting of the fetus from the inside,
- branch cancer - part of the branch or stem is affected, which gradually die off,
- anthracnose - spots are formed on fruitsthen they wither,
- souring - the color of the fruit changes,
- mosaic - fruits and leaves are covered with spots of different sizes, then they die and fall away.
Pests insects that most often affect the fig tree:
- fireworm - a butterfly, which causes the leaves and fruits to rot,
- mole-wheeler - harms the whole tree (fruits rot, then leaves and fruits fall away),
- The leaflet is a small insect that sucks all the juices from the buds and fruits (deprives the bush of vital forces and hinders its development),
- beetle is a brown bug, damages the bark of a plant, and it slowly dies off.
Fig - shrub subtropics and tropics. Of course, to obtain fruits, it can be grown in the home and in the open field. And you can alleviate the problem by buying dried figs, in which the concentration of nutrients is also high, as in the fresh fruit.
Outdoor ground or home conditions?
To decide where to plant the fig tree, in the open ground on the street or in the pot in the apartment, you need to take into account the peculiarities of its climatic zone and how the figs grow. Although it is a heat-loving plant, some species withstand severe frosts. The tree may freeze, but in the spring it will move away and give fruit. Under natural conditions, the fig tree bears fruit almost all year round: in spring, summer and autumn. The north the region, the shorter the warm season, because of what the fruits do not have time to ripen. In cold areas, it is best to grow a fig, if not in an apartment, then in a greenhouse, on a glazed terrace or loggia (it is warmer there than outside). If a tree does not grow in open ground, but in a pot, it can be taken out into the street for the summer, and brought into the room for the winter. In warm regions, figs grow safely in open ground and do not need special conditions.
Important!In Ukraine, the climate is perfect for growing figs in the open field, but for the winter, they still need to be sheltered from frost.
Varieties for home cultivation
Indoor figs look like their relatives - ficus, a lush and low plant with a height of 2-3 m. Unlike wild varieties, indoor figs do not need the services of the blastophage, as they are self-pollinated and give tasty fruits even in an apartment. Figs - unpretentious plant, so growing it in the home does not require much effort. It loves warmth, but it also keeps cool. In an apartment in the summer, it is best to place the pot by the window on the east side, and in winter - on the south side. Indoor varieties of figs wide variety.
Sochi 7 and Sochi 8
As the name implies, these two varieties of figs are bred in the city of Sochi and have similar characteristics. Without artificial pollination, they bear fruit once a year and give juicy sweet fruits weighing 60 g. Recommended for growing in an apartment.
This wonderful variety brings the crop twice a year, in summer and autumn, with nothing without caprice. Fruits are green with red flesh, large, up to 130 g, with the first harvest they are larger than with the second.
The variety is named after the scientist who bred it from other domestic varieties of figs. It is distinguished by the fact that the fruits appear on it in the autumn, the growth in winter stops and the fruits winter on the tree with small green berries, and in spring they grow again, and in summer the harvest is ready.
Cultivation and care
Growing a fig tree in an apartment is as easy as ficus. Minor efforts to care for him will certainly be rewarded with a bountiful harvest. First you need to learn how to properly grow figs, so that at home it will take root well and bring tasty fruits twice a year.
There are certain rules for how to plant figs. Planting needs to be carried out in the spring, before active growth began. A glass for seedlings or a small flower pot (not more than half a liter) should be filled with sand and peat (1: 1) substrate with the addition of sphagnum. And you can add coarse sand, a bit of ash and peat to the leafy ground and mix. The starting material for planting figs can be seeds, cuttings and root shoots. In one dish, you can sow a few seeds, then to choose the strongest of them. It is enough to sprinkle the seed with moist soil, not compacting, then cover it with glass and leave it warm. After 2-3 weeks, sprouting will sprout. After waiting another 5 weeks, the seedlings can already be transplanted. The figs planted in this way will produce the first fruits only after five years, so growing the tree at home from seed is used only in the absence of cuttings.
If a sprout comes from the root, it can also become a new tree. To do this, it must be bent to the ground, sprinkle with soil and so secure it. The roots will appear in 3-4 weeks, and the seedling is ready for planting in the pot. The most common planting material are cuttings. Trees planted in this way bear fruit for the second year. To do this, follow some guidelines on how best to grow figs from cuttings. It should be at least 3-4 buds. From the bottom, it is necessary to make an oblique cut 2 cm below the last kidney, from above - a straight cut 1 cm above the first. To speed up the appearance of the roots, the leaves can be cut and a few scratches on the bottom of the cutting, which will be covered with earth. It is advisable to moisten an oblique cut in the root, a stimulator of root formation, and immerse the cutting in a moist soil on the second lower kidney. Land should be sealed and cover the glass with a plastic bottle or a transparent bag. Roots will appear in about 3 weeks.
We advise you to learn more about such stimulants of root formations as: “Kornerost”, “Chunky”, “Etamon” and “Heteroauxin”.
At the bottom of the pot should definitely lay a layer of drainage, and fill the top with soil. You can use the purchased land and mix it with ash and sand. And you can take the usual soil from the garden, generously add compost, sand and perlite to improve water permeability.
Reproduction of figs is carried out in the same way as planting: cuttings and root growths. Root basal processes can be at any time. But to grow a new fig from seeds is impossible if they are taken from a nursery seedling. Female plants are grown there. If there was no male tree, then pollination did not occur, and the seeds are barren. Nothing will grow from them.
Also cuttings reproduce such trees as: plum, thuja, blue spruce, hawthorn,
Peculiarities of care
To determine how to care for figs at home, you need to remember that the tree loves heat, light and moisture. Solar illumination and warm climate (air temperature within 22-25 ° C) are necessary for proper flowering and timely ripening of fruits. Homemade fig tree fruits in June and October. After that, the plant sheds its leaves and “rests” in the winter at a temperature not higher than 10 ° C.
Indoor figs - fruit plant. In order not to lose this ability, he needs abundant and regular watering. Adult plants can endure a long break in watering, and for young trees it is destructive. In winter, during the period of rest, on the contrary, it is necessary to water less. The main thing is to make sure that the earth in the pot does not dry out. If at this time on the tree the leaves are still green, you need to dry the soil so that the leaves turn yellow and fall off. In late February, growth begins again, and frequent watering should be resumed.
Important!Although the fig tree loves a lot of water, a strong waterlogging threatens to rot the roots.
In the period of flowering and fruit formation, the fig needs fertilizing with organic and mineral fertilizers. Until the end of fruiting, it is advisable to feed it several times with potash fertilizers (for fruit trees, tomatoes and flowering shrubs). Sheet feeding is also suitable.
Of great importance pruning is not only for aesthetic appearance, but also for the normal development of the tree and fruiting. It is necessary to remove all damaged, intertwining and inwardly growing branches, as well as long new shoots. This is done in early spring. And in the fall, before the beginning of winter dormancy, all unripe fruits are cut. Proper pruning is good for the tree.
Diseases and pests
Figs, being at home warm, are exposed to pests and diseases:
Spider mite actively propagates in a warm, dry room when heating is in operation. During this period, it is necessary to spray the tree with cold water every day for the purpose of prevention. If it is already affected, then the sore spot should be rinsed with a strong stream of cold water, and then treat the trunk and branches with an insecticide.
Coral spotting - fungal disease, appears in the form of red dots on the stem. Sore spots should be cut and the whole wood treated with a solution of potassium permanganate or Bordeaux mixture.
Did you know?The fig tree is a tree known in ancient times. According to the Bible, it was from his leaves that Adam and Eve sewed loincloths for themselves.
If an indoor fig is provided with the right care at home, then it looks beautiful, has abundant fruit, and is less likely to get sick.
Botanical characteristics of figs
Fig, or fig tree - Ficus carica L. has many other names: toffee, fig, fig, etc. This is a small deciduous tree or a large shrub from the mulberry family (Moraceae) up to 10 m high, with thick branches. It has a powerful, highly developed root system. The trunk and old branches are covered with bark of gray color, young branches - with thick green stalks.
The leaves of the figs are alternate, rounded, 3-7-lobed, sometimes almost whole, large, up to 15 cm long and 12 cm wide, leathery, hard, dark green above, rough, below, greyish green, fluffy, with длинными толстыми черешками. В стеблях, листьях, молодых соплодиях инжира содержится млечный сок.
Оригинальные соцветия инжира, называемые сикониями, располагаются в пазухах листьев. Каждый сиконий имеет вид груши, полой внутри, с маленьким отверстием на верхушке («глазком»). Sikoniy is formed from an overgrown inflorescence axis. Tiny flowers sit on the inner walls of such bloated formations. Initially, both male and female flowers are laid in each inflorescence. On some trees, female flowers do not bear fruit, although they were formed. Naturally, such individuals are male. On other trees, male flowers in inflorescences mutate into scales, only female flowers remain normal. Such individuals function as females. Therefore, the fig is a dioecious plant.
Sikoniy, developing on male trees, called kaprifigami. Each male flower has a 3-membered perianth and 3 stamens. Women's sycony are called figs. A female flower consists of a 5-membered perianth and pistil. Fruits are nuts. When ripe, they are immersed in the fabric of overgrown seed heads, which are usually called figs, or figs, like the whole tree. Different varieties of seed heads of different sizes and colors. Varieties with a purple-black and yellow color prevail. In good varieties reach large sizes - up to 8 cm in length and up to 5 cm in diameter. The mass of one fig is 32 - 77 g.
In the wild and wild state figs grow in southern Europe, Asia Minor and Central Asia, in the Caucasus and in other southern regions of Eurasia. Figs are cultivated in ancient times, according to some archaeological data, 5,000 years ago. It happened for the first time, as suggested in Arabia, where the state of Yemen is now located. From there, a cultural fig spread throughout the whole of Front Asia. He was bred in ancient Egypt. Found images of the collection of figs made by Egyptian masters 2500 years ago. In the IX-VIII centuries. BC er figs appeared in ancient Greece, and soon in neighboring countries. In Hellas, he was the daily food of wealthy citizens.
Recall that figs are often mentioned in religious literature. So, Adam and Eve were covered with fig leaves. The Qur'an speaks of Allah "swearing on the fig tree." In ancient Egypt, the ideal was considered "to live under a fig tree and eat its fruits."
Currently, figs are cultivated in many countries with a subtropical climate. The annual world crop of fruits is 1.5-2 million tons. The largest areas of fig orchards are in Turkey, Algeria, Tunisia, Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, the United States (California), Georgia, and Azerbaijan. In Russia, only the southernmost parts of the European part are suitable for the cultivation of figs, especially the coast of the Black and Caspian Seas. Yes, and there he often freezes in harsh winters, so a reliable culture is possible only when plants are sheltered for the winter. However, figs are grown in Russia. There are five promising varieties adapted to the conditions of our country. Some lovers plant figs as a houseplant.
Figs - subtropical drought-resistant plant. Does not withstand severe frosts - suffers already at -12 ° C, and at -20 - 22 ° C freezes to the root of the neck. Propagated by cuttings, less layering. Young plants of figs start blooming and fruiting from 2 to 3 years old, the fruit yield is not high enough from 7 to 10 years.
Figs blooms in several stages from spring to autumn. Pollination is carried out by small wasp-blastophagous crawling inside the inflorescence through a hole on its top (“eye”). They are displayed in male inflorescences of eggs, which lay the females of these insects in the underdeveloped female flowers. Getting out of the cavity of the inflorescence, the wasps get dirty with pollen. In the wild, they are attracted by the smell of inflorescences on female trees. Getting into female inflorescences, blastofagi involuntarily leave the pollen brought on their bodies on the stigmas of female flowers. Those flowers, on the stigma of which pollen has fallen, are tied up with viable fruits, and their sycony develops into juicy sweet seedlings, for the sake of which figs are bred.
One tree gives 80 - 100 kg of seed crops per year. Figs live up to 150 or even 200 years, but they are kept on production plantations for 30 to 60 years while they bear good fruit.
Economic use of figs
Figs - an important food plant. They eat ripe female stems, commonly called figs, as well as the tree that produces them. Fresh figs contain 12 - 26% of sugars, in dry - up to 75%. Over 90% of fig carbohydrates are represented by simple sugars (monosaccharides): fructose and glucose, which are very easily absorbed by the body. In addition, there are quite a lot of pectin, organic acids, provitamin A, vitamins C and group B, as well as trace elements. Due to this composition, fig crocodillae is a valuable dietary product. They are eaten fresh, dried and dried. From them boil compote, jam, jam, jam, marmalade. They make wine from the stems of figs, why they have long been called wine berries. Fresh fruits are not very transportable, so the bulk of the crop is dried. The yield of dry figs is 30–35% of the mass of fresh vegetable stems.
Fig wood is used for various crafts and as a fuel. Stem fruit serve as a coffee substitute.
Medicinal value of figs and methods for the therapeutic use of figs
With the purpose of treatment applied "fruits" (seedlings), leaves and roots. Fruits are harvested in August - September, the leaves - in April - May, the roots - in spring and autumn.
In ancient medicine, figs were used as a means of strengthening the strength, stimulating the activity of the liver, heart and other internal organs. Avicenna believed that figs are more nutritious than many other fruits and strongly advised people to use it with poor health, the elderly. Fresh and dried figs help from epilepsy (fainting associated with hypotension), opens up blockages in the liver and spleen, useful for the kidneys and bladder. Milky juice of figs is recommended for difficult to absorb tumors and ulcers.
Squeezed from the leaves of the juice removes the tattoo and treats scabies. Broth rinse throat with inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract. Fig leaves are rubbed on the eyelids when hardening and trachoma. Unripe figs are applied in the form of a drug dressing to birthmarks, all sorts of warts. The use of figs improves the complexion, spoiled due to diseases, contributes to ripening abscesses. According to the descriptions of Muhammad Hussein Sherazi, figs are useful for heartbeat, asthma, cough, chest pain, coarsening of the pleura. Before eating it is useful to eat figs to soften the body, especially the intestines.
Traditional medicine recommends decoctions or jam from figs as a diaphoretic and febrifuge. Decoction of figs, jams and coffee made from dried figs have a diaphoretic and antipyretic effect and have a beneficial effect on laryngitis, tracheitis and bronchitis.
The broth is prepared as follows: Pour 2 cups of boiling water (or milk) with 100g of dried figs, boil over low heat for 15 minutes, leave for 2 - 3 hours, drain. Take 1/2 cup 2 - 3 times daily before meals as antitussive.
The decoction at the rate of 2 tablespoons of dry fruit kernels (wine berries) for 1 glass of milk or water is used for gargling with sore throat, hoarseness, and also taken orally, 100 ml 2-3 times a day for gastritis and constipation.
Fig seeds are known as a laxative for constipation. Take once for 10 - 15 seeds.
Outside, a decoction of figs is used for poultices with boils, flux. Sometimes, to speed up ripening, fresh or soaked dried fruits are applied to the boils.
Broth of fruits: 2 tablespoons of the crushed raw materials on 1 glass of hot water, boil 15 minutes., Strain, bring the volume to the original. Used for rinsing with flux.
The fruits of figs boiled in milk also accelerate ripening of abscesses when used externally.
For dyspepsia, soak 2-3 dried fig fruits in 200 ml of water overnight. In the morning on an empty stomach to eat.
In case of violation of the venous blood flow in the lower extremities, take 100 ml of fig juice prepared from fresh ripe stems, which are rubbed through a metal sieve. Pulp diluted with water (2: 1), squeeze through several layers of gauze and drink 2-4 times a day. Not recommended for diabetes and gout.
Traditional medicine recommends figs as a means of strengthening the strength of people depleted of serious diseases in the treatment of anemia and the gastrointestinal tract, to stimulate the activity of the liver and other internal organs.
In case of spleen disease, infusion of spruce figs is used: 2 tablespoons of dry powdered raw materials for 1 cup of hot water, leave for 30 minutes in a water bath, strain, squeeze, bring the volume to the original. Take 1/2 cup 3 times daily before meals.
For chronic constipation, use fig seeds of 10–15 g per reception.
Broth of fruits: 1 cup of the crushed dry raw materials on 2 glasses of boiled water, boil for 10 minutes, strain. Take 1/2 cup 4 times a day before meals for urolithiasis. Usually this broth is used in the preoperative period when the type of stones is not installed.
Milky juice of figs is used to treat wounds, acne, skin cancer.
Infusion of leaves on vodka drink with malaria.
Fresh or dried figs have the property of eliminating the side effects of drugs prescribed by cancer patients. It is best to eat the fruits of figs with walnut or almond kernels.
In modern medicine, figs are prescribed for patients with venous insufficiency. It is recommended for patients with diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Unlike other fruits, the dietary value of figs is determined by the combination of a large amount of fructose with low acidity. Condensed fig juice acts like honey.
In the Salerno Health Code we read:
“Glands, goiter and abscess are relieved with a compress from a fig, you will add Maca to it, and you will heal fractures of bones, Longevity and passion will arouse, but in most desires there is a hindrance.”
In scientific medicine using fig leaves. Of them get furocoumarin bergapten, which is part of the drug psoberan. This drug increases the sensitivity of the skin to ultraviolet rays, enhances its pigmentation, and therefore is used to treat vitiligo and nesting baldness. The pulp of the fruits of figs is an integral part of the laxative preparations kafiol and regulaks, which increase intestinal motility and are prescribed to elderly people suffering from constipation. Syrup from the stems of figs is used as a mild laxative for children. In Georgia, a thick extract of seed heads was released - legvin, which has a diuretic effect, which was prescribed to patients with decompensation of the cardiovascular system. Japanese researchers have obtained an anticancer drug from fig fruits. Similar studies have been conducted in our country to test the antitumor activity of fig latex.
Precautionary measures. Due to the high sugar content, it is contraindicated to use fig fruits for diabetic patients. In figs a lot of fiber, so you should not use it in acute inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. It is also contraindicated for gout, as it contains a lot of oxalic acid.
In the Botanical Dictionary of Hermetic Medicine we read: “The Fig Tree. Moderately warm and humid. The black variety belongs to Jupiter, and the white variety to Capricorn and Venus. In Sparta was dedicated to Mercury and Bacchus. In India - Cherry. Saturn's crown consisted of its leaves. The branch of the fig tree, broken off under the favorable influence, calms the enraged bulls. Fruits are useful for corns on the legs: the corn should be smeared with a cut berry daily for several days. The leaves are used for fortune telling (Sikomantia): a question is written on the sheet, and if it dries right away, this is considered a negative answer. ”
What is the fig tree: homeland and names in different countries
The homeland of fig or fig tree (Ficus) are the countries of the Mediterranean, Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus and the Crimea. Figs are cultivated in ancient times, according to some archaeological data, 5,000 years ago. He was bred in ancient Egypt, in ancient Greece.
Currently, figs are cultivated in many countries with a subtropical climate. The largest areas of fig orchards are in Turkey, Algeria, Tunisia, Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, the United States (California), Georgia, and Azerbaijan. In Russia, only the southernmost parts of the European part are suitable for the cultivation of figs, especially the shores of the Black and Caspian Seas.
The plant in question has many names, each country has its own. The Russian version is a fig tree, because its fruits are figs. In another version they are called figs, and the tree by analogy is fig tree. His most famous and popular name is figs. In the scientific world this is the ficus Carica (Fícus cárica). It is believed that the birthplace of the plant - the ancient Kariya, which existed before the Trojan War. For a long time already there are neither Karyans, nor Caria, only the ficus bearing her name has remained. From figs (or figs) craftsmen make wine. Therefore, another name for the plant is tartar.
Fig trees live up to 100 years (according to some sources 30-60). Separate copies reach up to 200 years. In India, there is one fig tree, which, according to local residents, is as much as three thousand years old.
The fig tree is the first fruit tree mentioned in the Bible. The first clothes of Eve after the expulsion from paradise, as is known, was a fig leaf. The Talmud says: "The fig is good for food, it pleases the eye and adds to the mind." According to one of the myths of ancient Greece, figs appeared as follows. Zeus began to fight with the titans, sons of the Earth. He struck them one by one with lightning strikes. So was Sikeus defeated - the beloved son of the Earth. Not wanting to accept the death of her son, his mother turned him into a fig tree.
See photos of figs in the natural habitat:
How does the fig tree bloom: description of the shape of leaves and flowers (with photo)
Fig ordinary (F. carica) Is a deciduous tree or a branchy shrub. Plant height in nature is up to 12 m. It grows on rocky and rocky slopes, mainly on limestone. Indoors reaches 1 - 1.5 m, begins to bear fruit from 2 - 3 years of age. Leaves figs single, large, petiolate, lower whole or weakly notched. The shape of the upper leaves of the fig is three- or five-lobed, heart-shaped
As can be seen in the photo, the top of the fig leaf is green, rough, the bottom is gray, with small hair:
The flowers are small, same-sex, gathered into peculiar, pear-shaped hollow inside inflorescences (figs), opening a narrow hole, some inflorescences that ripen early by the end of winter, so-called “grossi” or “orni”, are placed in the upper part of last year's branches above the leaf scars (such inflorescences in the wild F. tree contain mostly male flowers, in diluted female flowers), other inflorescences are placed in the leaf axil, the lowermost ones ripen in front of the leaves and are called “forniti” (they contain female flowers and only slightly male ie do not contain them), the upper, called «cratiri» remain for the winter (almost no male flowers).
Pay attention to the photo - the male fig flower consists mostly of the three-five-part perianth and 3 - 5 stamens:
Female flowers are twofold: fruitless, the so-called “nut”, developing predominantly in the wild F. tree (caprificus) and the frugal, so-called “seed”, developing in the present, cultural F. tree. In the female flower, the perianth is also three to five separate, and the pistil is either with a short column and stigma without papillae (in nut flowers), or with a long column and papillae on the stigma (in seed flowers).
Here you can see photos of figs:
Ovary is upper, single-celled, single-seeded, fruit is drupe. When the fruit ripens, the entire inflorescence (and the perianth) becomes fleshy and represents the fruit seed, the fig (wine berry, fig) is so called. Fertilization is a cross that occurs through the nut-pots (Cynips psenes, aka Blastophaga grossorum), laying eggs in the ovary of the nut flowers, since these seed-pots cannot pierce the short oviposition with seed eggs. A new generation of nut-pockets that has emerged from the testicles is creeping in the same inflorescence, smears about the pollen of male flowers developed by that time, flies out with the pollen, finally, flies to other inflorescences, and in those where the seed flowers are located, it pollinates them and fertilization. This value of the wild fig tree (caprificus) for the fruiting of the real fig tree was known in ancient times. Even then, in order to get figs, branches of a wild fig tree were hung on a branch of a cultural fig tree, this operation was known as “caprificatio”, Pliny and Theophrast are mentioning it. In recent times, the significance of capricification and the methods of pollination have been studied in detail by Westwood, Delpino, Solms-Laubach, Fr. Muller, Kin, and others. It is curious that the wild fig tree has inflorescences not the same, namely, some of them, so called. “Mamme”, contain only hazel flowers in which the walnut trees hibernate, others, so called. «Profichi», contain nut and male flowers.
The fig is rich (up to 70%) in sugar, it is used in food and as a treat in raw or dried form (“wine berries”, “fig”). В торговле различают несколько сортов фиг (в культуре известно много разновидностей Ф. дерева), например, мелкие – марсельские, крупные – генуэзские, лучшими считаются левантинские фиги (доставляются из Смирны), сушеные фиги (каламатийские фиги) идут из приморского города Каламаты, гавани Мессины. С. Р.
При описании растения инжир стоит отметить, что его побеги и листья выделяют белый густой сок — латекс, что является характерным для всех представителей рода Ficus.
Опыление осуществляется осами бластофагами. При наличие опылителей и благоприятных условиях интерьера растение способно давать плоды. Содержат растение на светлом, теплом мете.
As shown in the photo, the fig plant drops foliage for the winter, and it can be put in a dark cool room:
Figs, or fig trees, can grow in open ground in a protected place, for example, near the solar wall. In warm countries, it grows into a low, sprawling tree, but at the southern wall it develops into a thinly branching shrub. In the container, the figs will remain small and graceful, especially if you leave something around when pruning. five main branches. The plant should be cultivated in a very large container with a light, highly nutritious soil. In the summer he needs a lot of water and fertilizer. In winter, it should be stored in a frost-free place and kept almost dry and, if necessary, in the dark. In this case, the leaves fall off. If the plant grows successfully, it must be replanted every three years. It is desirable to replace the entire soil or as much of it as possible. You can also shorten a few thick roots to give more room for root expansion. There are many varieties of figs suitable for growing in containers.
What does fig tree figs look like (with photo)
The fruit of the fig tree has a color ranging from yellow to black and blue, depending on the variety. Yellow-green fruits are more common. In shape, they resemble a pear, the size of a walnut or two times larger. Unripe fruits contain caustic milky juice, therefore inedible. Fruits contain a lot of very small seeds, the fruit is sugary or moderately sweet.
You can see how the fruits of figs look, you can see in the photo below:
Fresh stems of figs are tender, cannot be stored for a long time, depending on the variety and degree of maturity they contain: 12–23% of sugars, 0.5–4.2% - pectin substances, 3.4–7.4% - fiber, up to 1% - acids. Figs are rich in vitamins C, B1, B2, carotene, calcium, iron and phosphorus. They are used both fresh and for processing (drying, jam, jam, compote). Dried figs are high in calories, and contain 50–77% of sugars.
As a remedy, figs are recommended for cardiovascular diseases, vascular blood clots (it lowers blood clotting), anemia, urinary tract diseases, kidney stones, and oncological diseases. It is also used as an emollient, expectorant, mild laxative, diuretic, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory agent. Figs, boiled in milk, well helps with diseases of the upper respiratory tract (drink 1/2 cup warm 2-4 times a day). Broth of fruits and jam from them have a diaphoretic and antipyretic effect, improve digestion and have a light laxative effect. Figs syrup is given to children as a mild laxative. Due to its high sugar content, figs are contraindicated in diabetes mellitus, obesity and in acute inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Milky juice of figs is used to treat wounds, acne, skin cancer.
Then you can see the photos and descriptions of varieties of figs, fruiting at home.
Description of indoor varieties of figs
In room conditions, the following varieties bear fruit: Kadot, Dalmatian, Oglobsha, Sukhumi Purple, Sochi-7, Sunny.
Kadot. Fruits are pear-shaped, convex, ribbed, large, weighing up to 100 g, very tasty. The fruits of the second crop are formed on the shoots of this year.
Sukhum violet. Gives one crop per year - in August-September. Fruits are blue-purple, almost black, the flesh is red, not very sweet.
Sochi number 7. Fruits are large, up to 55–60 g, yellow, with a matte coating. Pulp maroon, with thick sweet juice. When ripe, some fruits crack. Figs of this variety fruits once a year, the fruits ripen in late August.
Seedling Oglobin. Fruits are medium sized, yellow-green. When propagated by cuttings, it begins to bear fruit on the 2nd or 3rd year.
White adriatic. Fruits 2 times a year, in June and at the end of August. The fruits are yellow, sweet.
Black Crimean. Very fruitful variety, fruits twice a year. Fruits are large enough, dark purple, almost black, pleasant to taste.
Dalmatika. Fruiting annually, twice a year. The first time is in July, the second time is in September. Forms large stems of weight from 60 to 150 g, pear-shaped, extended at the apex and narrowed to the base. The color of the stems is greyish green, the flesh is dense, fibrous, sweet, light red in color. The surface is ribbed, slightly pubescent.
Growing figs from seeds at home (with video)
If it is not possible to purchase cuttings from fruit-bearing figs, then they can be grown from seeds. Fig seeds very long (even after 2 years) retain their germination. Seeds are sown in pots at a distance of 1.5–2 cm from each other to a depth of 2–3 cm. To grow figs at home from seeds, the soil mixture consists of humus and sand in equal parts. After sowing the seeds, the ground is well moistened and the pots are covered with glass or transparent plastic wrap. The earth must be kept constantly wet. The air temperature in the room should be 25–27 ° C. Shoots appear in 2-3 weeks. Monthly seedlings are planted in separate pots with a diameter of 9-10 cm.
Seedlings begin to bear fruit on the 4-5th year, although there are cases of earlier fruiting. It is better to transplant figs before the growing season. Young plants are transplanted annually, and 4-5-year-olds - as the root system grows. For ease of planting and care for figs, you can grow trees in wooden boxes.
Compared to citrus, figs require more capacity, but before the start of fruiting it should not be planted in large pots: it will grow a lot, and the terms of fruiting will be delayed, and the care of large plants will become much more complicated. And when the plant begins to bear fruit, its growth will slow down.
With each transplant of young plants, the capacity is increased by about 1 l. So, for a 5-year-old bush of a fig, a 5-7 liter capacity is required. In the future, with each transplant, its volume is increased by 2-2.5 liters. Figs are transplanted by way of transshipment, although slight destruction of a clod of earth, removal of old soil and its replacement with a new one are allowed. During transplantation, a soil mixture is prepared from sod land, leaf humus, peat and sand in a ratio of 2: 2: 1: 1, the pH of this mixture is 5–7.
This video shows the cultivation of figs from seeds:
How to care for figs tree at room conditions
When caring for home figs, keep in mind that this plant is light and moisture-loving, therefore during the growing season it is better to keep it in a bright room and water it abundantly. With a lack of moisture, leaves are curled, and then they partially fall off, when the coma is too dry, the leaves can crumble completely, and although with abundant watering new leaves later grow, it is undesirable to admit it.
Under room conditions, figs bear fruit twice a year: the first time the fruits are tied in March and ripen in June, the second - in early August and late October respectively. In the summer, the plant is desirable to make a loggia or garden.
In early November, figs shed their leaves and become dormant. At this time, it is placed in a cool place (in the cellar, basement) or placed on a window sill closer to the glass and partitioned off from room warm air with plastic wrap. It is watered very rarely, not allowing the soil to dry up completely. Water temperature for irrigation should be no higher than 16–18 ° C, so as not to go to the growth of the kidney. If in the autumn the fig tree stands with green leaves, then a rest period should be artificially induced: deciduous crops need rest, even if only a little. To cause a period of rest, reduce watering and allow the soil to dry slightly - then the leaves will begin to turn yellow and crumble.
If in winter the plant was in a room, it starts to grow in December - early January, if it was in the basement or cellar - in February.
If necessary (if the fig grows only upwards, not giving side shoots), the crown of the plant is formed by pinching the top of the central stem. Lateral shoots are also pinched in the future, and long ones are shortened. Thus create conditions for the growth of lateral shoots. For good development and fruiting, the plant is fed with organic and mineral fertilizers, but not during the rest period.
During the care when growing figs, when buds begin to bloom after winter rest, the plant is watered with manure infusion, and after 10–15 days they are fed with liquid nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer. You can use the following solution for watering: Dissolve 3 g of double superphosphate in 1 l of water and boil for 20 minutes, then add boiled water to the original volume and add 4 g of urea. During the growing season, figs are regularly (2 times a month) fed with organic fertilizers (infusion of slurry, wood ash, infusion of herbs). To leaves have a bright green color, twice a year (in spring and summer), the plant is watered with a solution of ferrous sulfate (2 g per 1 liter of water) or spray the entire crown. In the spring and summer it is fed with microelements.
The most common pests in the open field are the fig moth, the fig leaflet (creeper), mealybugs, and fig bark. In room conditions, they are extremely rare. Of the diseases it is necessary to name the striking leaves of brown spot, anthracnose and gray rot. However, due to the fact that figs shed their leaves every year, these diseases do not cause any tangible harm to this plant. If necessary, the same control measures are applied against pests and diseases as for indoor citrus crops.
This plant is recommended for winter gardens, greenhouses and large bright rooms. Fresh fig fruit contains up to 25% sugar, and dried fruit contains up to 65 - 70%. They contain vitamins A, B, C.
For indoor gardening, the most suitable varieties of figs are ‘Cadot purple’, ‘Dalmatian’, ‘Smyrna’, ‘San Pedro’, ‘Chapla’, ‘Sukhumsky’, ‘Sochi no. 7’ and others.
Dried fig surpasses dates in its taste. In addition, the fruits of figs are an excellent raw material for the manufacture of jam, jams and other confectionery products.
Pruning and care for homemade figs (with video)
In the southern regions of central Russia, figs can be grown in warm areas in low-stem form as a wall culture.
Winning of figs is very active, but when cutting figs from a plant, only those shoots that are able to fill the space between the main skeletal branches should be preserved. In the first year of forming, the main conductor should be shortened to 40 - 45 cm. During the growing season, growing shoots should be tied up regularly, leaving skeletal shoots at a distance of at least 35 - 40 cm from each other.
When caring for figs during pruning in the second year, in spring, the skeletal branches preserved from last year are shortened by about half. In the period from May to September - at the time of intensive growth of figs - growing lateral shoots are regularly tied with at least 40 cm from each other. All unnecessary and weak shoots are cut. Similar work is carried out in the third year of forming. This formation should be carried out in the winter garden or greenhouse, stopping it in the fourth year.
In adult plants in the fall, after the leaves fall, branches are removed from the seed-bearing plants and leave only one strong bud. In the spring of next year, they cut out all thickening and branches damaged by low temperatures. The distance between the remaining shoots should be at least 15 - 20 cm. At the end of June, all the shoots continue on the fruit-bearing branches pinch on 4 - 5 buds, and after pruning, the resulting new shoots are tied at a distance of 10 - 20 cm from each other.
In the autumn, after the end of fruiting, it is necessary to remove all diseased and damaged branches. Old skeletal branches are also cut out to replace them with new growing shoots.
The tenacity of the roots of figs is unlimited. Small fig plants can be found in the Caucasus on poplar or oak trunks, in crevices of vertical walls and stone scree.
Watch the video "Crop of figs", which shows how to properly perform this agrotechnical technique:
Fig (fig tree, fig tree)
The fig tree, which is also called the fig tree, the fig tree, and the toffee, has been cultivated since time immemorial as a fruit plant in the countries of the eastern Mediterranean and in Arabia. It was in the south of Arabia that it began to be cultivated more than 4 thousand years ago, where and now you can meet the wild forms of this plant.
Currently, the main producers of figs are Greece, Spain, Portugal, Italy, as well as Turkey, in which more than 1 million tons of figs are harvested annually. Figs got to the territory of Crimea thanks to the Genoese and now it is grown here along the entire southern coast.
Juicy and sweet (contain up to 26% of sugars) fresh fig fruits are not only very nutritious, but have healing properties due to the presence in their composition of very many useful substances. They contain up to 2% of proteins, up to 0.5% of organic acids, 0.8% of ash elements (iron, zinc, copper, molybdenum, etc.), as well as fats, and a large amount of vitamins. Dried figs are an even more valuable product, because it contains up to 75% of sugars, up to 6% of proteins, up to 1% of organic acids, vitamins A, C, E, PP, vitamins of group B and many other useful substances.
Therefore, since ancient times, fig fruits have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of colds, inflammations of the mucous membrane, kidneys, and diseases of the digestive tract, including the stomach and liver. In addition to fresh and dried figs, they are used as food for making jam, jams, compotes, gingerbread, coffee. A ficin (the milky juice enzyme) is used to ferment milk in cheese production.
As a medicinal raw material, not only fruits are used, but also leaves containing rutin, coumarin, fatty acids, essential oil and other volatile production, as well as milky juice, flowing from the damaged parts of the plant.
Within the range of fig trees, in addition to fruit plantations, are used to create park and walkway plantations, as well as protective plantings that fix loose sand, landslide, etc.
The upper vegetative-flower buds are cone-shaped. Flower buds, which are much larger than the vegetative and having a rounded shape, are formed in the leaf axils of annual shoots. Flowers on fig plants are of three types: female pistillate short-column and pistillate long-column flowers, as well as male stamen flowers. Stamen flowers produce pollen, with the help of which wasp-blastophagous animals pollinate short-column flowers, while long-stem plants in nature are self-pollinating.
There are two types of trees, depending on the type of inflorescence on them: Figs and Kaprifigi. If the inflorescence on the trees of Figa has only pistillate long-stemmed fruitful flowers, then on the trees of Kaphrigi the inflorescence has short-column pistillate and staminate flowers.
The growing season of figs lasts from the end of March to the beginning of April, when the average daily temperature is set at 7-9 ° C and to the end of October, which totals about 180-215 days. At the same time, shoots grow most intensively only in the first month, and in high-growth varieties, growths often exceed two meters.
Fruiting begins in the second or third year after planting, when the figs start to give one or two crops a year, and kaprifigi - from one to three, which depends on the variety and conditions of care and growth. Bookmark flower buds continues during the growing season from May to October.
Representative of the mulberry family
Relatives of figs are such plants as mulberry and anchar. The first serves as a power source for the caterpillars of the silkworm, and the second was described in one of Pushkin's poems.
As for the fig tree itself, its botanical characteristic will look like this:
- a tree with light gray smooth bark and soft wood,
- life span is up to 300 years, but more than 60 rarely live in culture
- leaves are alternate, large, five-lobed,
- inflorescence - syconium, closed,
- pollinated by insects
- pear-shaped seed heads, with thin skin and sweet seeds.
Fig tree grows in the subtropical zone. It is widespread in the Mediterranean, Central Asia, the Black Sea region, Transcaucasia and the Iranian highlands. Grow it in the Carpathians. The fig tree can grow on stony and sandy soil; it is unpretentious. But in moist areas, the tree grows larger.
For a very long time, people thought that the fig fruit appeared on its own, because no one had seen its flowers. The plant in culture was selected in such a way that the tree had as many large figs as possible: the small ones were inedible.
Later it turned out that there are flowers in the fig tree, but they are small and are inside the closed inflorescence. Their size is measured by one millimeter, they are male and female.
On one tree inflorescences (syconia) are of two types,
- kaprifigi, small inflorescences with male flowers, and female infants in them are reduced,
- figs, where the opposite situation.
Опыляются такие цветки одним из видов ос-наездников. Их самцы не летают, а живут в каприфигах. Там же самка откладывает яйца — в женских соцветиях ей не проткнуть завязь. Вылетающая из каприфиги самка питается в фигах, заодно их опыляя.
Если растения не опылить, то семян в нем не будет, а поскольку основная часть сахара содержится именно в семенах, то без них смоквы будут просто невкусными. Apparently, people guessed something when cultivated trees with a lot of figs and an almost complete absence of kaprifig lost their taste, therefore caprification began to be applied during cultivation. It consisted in the fact that a branch of wild wood with kaprifig were hung or planted on a garden fig tree, after which the taste of figs became sweet. One fig fruit can contain more than 900 seeds.
Fresh figs are stored for a short time, not more than three days. Therefore, they are mainly consumed in dried form, and residents of those regions where the fig tree does not grow - only in the dried one.
In fresh form, 100 g of figs contain 19 g of carbohydrates, 0.3 g of fat, 0.8 g of protein, and 79 g of water. It has a low calorie content: 74 kcal. But during drying, most of the water evaporates, and the energy value of 100 g of the product increases to 249 kcal.
This sweet dried fruit is mainly used as a dessert. Before that, it is recommended to wash it: when it is transported, dirt accumulates on its skin.
In one of the cities of Spain, bread is baked from figs, and in other Mediterranean cuisines it is one of the ingredients of salads and hot dishes. It is added to meat when stewing.and in salads it goes well with cheeses, olives, bacon and vegetables. The number of pastries and desserts containing dried figs is simply impossible to list - from sweets to cookies.
Benefit and harm
If we talk about the usefulness of figs, then it is not questioned. Its fruits contain a whole pantry of vitamins and minerals. Among the first are vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B9, C, E, K. Trace elements include potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus, the rest are contained in smaller quantities. Nevertheless, the iron content in figs is higher than in apples.
Figs have long been used as a cough remedy - Ibn Sina mentioned this as well. In addition, they have antipyretic and diaphoretic properties.
But its use should be treated with caution to certain categories of people. For example, due to the high glycemic index, it is contraindicated for diabetics. Fresh fruits contain oxalic acidtherefore, they should not be consumed by people whose oxalic stones are deposited in the kidneys.
It is best to eat figs in moderation and to refrain from it after a heavy meal: it provokes bloating and flatulence. Figs are contraindicated in diseases of the pancreas and stones in the gallbladder. They have choleretic properties and can provoke hepatic colic.
In addition to fruits, fig leaves have useful properties. They contain coumarin - an anticoagulant that prevents the formation of blood clots.
Home Fig Tree
A fig tree is a type of ficus, and it can be grown at home in a tub. The minus of the fig tree is perhaps its leaf fall - by the winter its large beautiful leaves fall.
A tree can multiply both by seed and vegetatively. First, the seedling is grown in small containers, and the soil should contain sand and be well drained. Later, a strong tree is transplanted into a box or tub, filling it with turf and humus.
In the summer season the fig tree needs plenty of watering. It can be reduced in winter, but it cannot be allowed to dry out.
The tree begins to bear fruit in the second or third year - it all depends on the conditions. To accelerate its growth, you should choose a well-lit landing sites.
Six grades of a fig intended for cultivation of the house bear fruit. Of course, in the absence of pollinators, the fruits will not be so sweet, but they will retain other useful properties.
Why is a fig tree?
The plant in question has many names, each country has its own. The Russian version is a fig tree, because its fruits are figs. In another version they are called figs, and the tree by analogy is fig tree. His most famous and popular name is figs. In the scientific world this is the ficus Carica (Fícus cárica). It is believed that the birthplace of the plant - the ancient Kariya, which existed before the Trojan War. For a long time already there are neither Karyans, nor Caria, only the ficus bearing her name has remained. From figs (or figs) craftsmen make wine. Therefore, another name for the plant is the vineberry.
Fig trees where they grow?
Everywhere, where there is no big frost in winter. There are many figs in the Balkans, there is one on the Black Sea coast (Georgia, Abkhazia, Crimea, Krasnodar), in Armenia, Azerbaijan. There, no one cares for him. The fig tree is completely unpretentious and grows on its own not only in the garden, but also along the roads, near fences, on waste grounds, on the mountain slopes. His root system is strong and powerful, capable of hardening in stones, leaking into any gap. Since there is a lot of sun in the south, figs do not have a lack of lighting there and therefore they always bear fruit perfectly. They are not afraid of droughts, but with sufficient moisture the yield is much higher.
Some have never seen what a fig tree looks like. In nature, it reaches a height of 7-8 meters. Its branches are spreading, the crown is thick, the bark is light brown. Sometimes figs grow lush tall bush. Its leaves are hard, rather large, vaguely resembling maple. According to its biological rhythms figs (fig tree) is deciduous. In regions with a subtropical climate, where in winter the average temperature does not fall below +5 +10, the plant may not shed its leaves at all or only drop it for a couple of months. This phenomenon is observed in other deciduous, for example, poplar. In Russia, he exposes the branches already in October, and in the south of Greece only in December, in February to be covered with young foliage again. Fig trees live up to 100 years (according to some sources 30-60). Separate copies reach up to 200 years. In India, there is one fig tree, which, according to local, as many as three millennia.
Figs are blooming, only few people take its flowers for those. Outwardly, they look like small unripe fruits - round or pear-shaped, dark green, rigid. The expression “get a fig”, that is, “get nothing”, was born according to one of the versions precisely because half of these “fruitlets,” which are richly strewn with twigs, fall down. In fact, these are fig flowers. More precisely, the structure of inflorescences. The real flowers of the fig tree can be seen only if the fruit is cut in half. Inside there will be dozens of inconspicuous small flowers, from which seeds will later be obtained on whitish fibrous fibers, immersed in a sweet, viscous pulp. Fig, or fig tree, has flowers of both sexes. In women, called figs, there are five tiny petals and a pistil, similar to the tongue of a snake. In the male, called kaprifigami, three petals and three stamens.
In a fig tree, pollination is complex and is performed by a single type of insect - a small (up to 2 mm long) wasp-blastophage. The females of these wasps have wings and fly freely. The males are wingless; they spend their entire lives in the flower of a fig. How is this possible? The fact is that three species of inflorescences grow on a fig tree, as already noted, masculine, feminine and mixed. Female figs inside have flowers with long pistils, and mixed - with short ones. They serve not to obtain seeds, but to feed the wasps. All three inflorescences appear on the tree 2-3 times a year, in the autumn, in the spring, in the summer, or in the spring and in the autumn. Autumn is not showered. Putting eggs in them, the wasps are dying. Eggs develop male and female larvae. Grown up females crawl out through a small hole-hole and fly away, while males remain in place. Their meaning of existence is to fertilize. After mating, the females leave the flower, occupied by the male, and look for free, climbing into all the inflorescences of FIG. At the same time, in male and mixed colors on their body pollen falls from stamens. In female figs, they do not lay eggs, because they are hampered by long pistils. Of course, nature came up with it not for us, but in order that the wasp larvae did not eat the ripening seeds. Once in the female flower, the wasp unwittingly pollinates it and leaves to look for a more suitable one. Masonry is obtained only in mixed and male. New larvae hatch from eggs and the cycle repeats. There are self-pollinated varieties of figs ("date", "Magarachsky"), which are suitable for growing plants in the apartment and in the gardens of the northern regions.
The fruit of the fig tree in its ripe state is soft and very sweet, but not juicy. Its flesh is thickly filled with tiny seed-seeds, which, according to some people, are up to 900 pieces. Outside the flesh is covered in peel. She is not eaten. A fig tree has many varieties, but there are only two of them - green (green-yellow) and black (dark-purple). And in fact, and in another, the fruits are small and rather large. The latter are not so sweet, but they have the best presentation.