Homeland fir North America, here it can be found in the marshes. As a cultivated plant has been grown since 1850. The name Abies fir - abh in translation from Indo-Germanic language means abundance. Fir branches are densely covered with needles and strongly branched, it is in fact an abundance of fragrant green needles.
Characteristic fir nana
- Size of an adult tree: height up to one meter at the age of ten years, crown diameter up to two meters.
- Growth rate: grows very slowly, regular fertilizer, watering and a sunny spot for planting promote growth.
- The need for watering: loves moisture, does not tolerate drought, requires regular watering in the absence of rain. To reduce moisture evaporation, the soil around the tree is mulched, sprinkling with sawdust.
- Soil composition requirements: prefers acidic or neutral loamy soils; special earth mixtures can be used for coniferous plants.
- Attitude to light: shade-tolerant, but grows well in sunny, open places.
- Frost resistance: tolerates severe frosts. To protect the branches from breakage under the weight of snow, a special frame is installed in winter.
- Pests: affected spruce-fir hermes.
- Planting: seedlings are planted from March to November in the soil, suitable for coniferous composition, avoiding sandy soils.
- Care and protection: it is recommended that regular watering, preventive treatment against Hermes, fertilizing, if necessary, for young plants.
- Use: used for decorating small gardens, landscaping roofs, loggias, balconies, alpine slides. Traditional decoration for the Christmas and New Year holidays. Ethnoscience.
This small tree, similar to a bush, attracts with a wonderful aroma of pine needles, an unusual color and a neat, dense crown. The shape of the crown is round or conical. Dark green needles of fir have two bluish-white stripes on the underside, the middle and edge of the needles are lighter - yellowish-green. The height of the tree is from fifty centimeters to a meter, it grows very slowly. It reaches its maximum size in forty years. Life expectancy is three hundred years. Grown by amateurs in the open field, in containers, in winter gardens and on the roofs of buildings.
Fruits are reddish-yellow cones, five to ten centimeters long.
Temperature, lighting, soil. The tree is unpretentious. Shade-tolerant, frost-resistant, resistant to strong wind. Loves cool and wet places. The soil prefers loose, fertile with an acidic or neutral environment. Dislikes sandy soil and high air temperature and drought.
Watering. In the absence of rain, requires additional abundant watering. Water the fir should be separated by water twice a week. Since the dwarf fir does not like compacted soil, the ground around the tree is regularly dug on the floor with a spade bayonet, for additional preservation of moisture they mulch with sawdust or peat. It is not necessary to dig up near the trunk in order not to damage the root system.
The formation of fir. The branches of the tree are strong enough, but with a large amount of snow in winter they can break. To prevent this from happening, install the backups. Fir is very sensitive to highly polluted urban air, therefore it is better not to plant it in the industrial zone. Pruning of the fir to form the crown is not produced, since it does not lead to branching. The tree is formed by removing the central buds of lateral shoots in the autumn. In winter, young plants with strong frosts cover.
Pests and diseases. Fir is resistant to diseases. When the plant is weakened due to adverse weather conditions or rare irrigation, it may be affected by spruce-fir hermes. This is expressed in the yellowing of the needles. On the needles of a diseased plant, small black insects and white lumps, similar to cotton wool, can be seen. The disease begins most often in spring. When detecting its signs fir should be sprayed with insecticides of systemic action.
Planting balsamic fir
Fir seedlings grown independently from seeds or purchased in a nursery are planted in open ground from early spring to late autumn. The best earthen mixture when planting will be a combination of three parts of clay, three parts of humus, one part of peat and one part of sand. If the ground in which the fir is planted is not sufficiently loose, drainage from rubble is placed on the bottom of the planting pit and sawdust is added.
Fertilizing planted trees should be no earlier than two years with mineral fertilizers for coniferous trees to make it grow better. When planting, you can also add a little mineral fertilizer. Fir, planted in a container, transplanted as the growth of the root system in a large container. Although the plant is shade-tolerant, it loves sunlight and grows well in an open, lit place.
Description and variety
Balsam fir has come to Russia from North America. There this tree grows in large numbers in the marshland. The plant prefers a humid cool climate and does not like the heat. In nature, trees in height reach 25 meters in height. The trunk diameter of an adult plant is about 80 cm. The trunk is covered with smooth brown bark, and the roots are close to the ground.
The name of this plant is due to the fact that it emits an aromatic resin, which has beneficial properties. The crown of a tree has the shape of a cone. The branches, though thin, are frequent and hang almost to the ground. They are covered with needles 15−25 mm long. These needles are not sharp, since their tips are blunt and may even have a notch. Due to this, fir branches are thornless and it is comfortable enough to hold them in hands.
The balsam fir cones appear on the top of the tree in groups. At first, they may be purple, but eventually turn brown. In the fall, they release seeds.
This plant - long-liver. There are instances whose age has reached 300 years. At the same time, fir grows rather slowly. For 10 years she can add only 1 meter.
Although ordinary trees take root in parks and squares, breeders have developed several varieties of dwarf fir, which is actively used in landscape design. Their unusual appearance and aroma has long been appreciated. Among the varieties, there are three most popular:
- Abies balsamea nana. Fir of this variety is a small tree, which in adulthood grows up to 1 meter in height and 2-2.5 meters in width. It grows slowly - in 10 years it adds only 30 cm in height. Having reached the desired height, it grows in breadth. The crown is usually cone-shaped. This fir has an interesting color of needles: two white-blue stripes are visible on the bottom of the needles, and on the top of the needles are painted in golden-green color. Cones of a red-brown shade of 10 centimeters in length and 2.5 in diameter. Fir Nana is loved by landscape designers.
- Balsam Fir Diamond. The description of this plant is somewhat similar to fir nana. Also a small tree, its maximum height is 50 centimeters. It grows slowly, for the year adds from 3 to 4 centimeters. Light green needles exude a wonderful fragrance. The crown is spherical in shape. It is possible to grow this tree in containers, but it is also quite suitable for planting in gardens and parks. This can be done in groups, although single copies will also look good. Fir is unpretentious in care, it is necessary to replant in the warm season, and in the winter it is better to shelter from the cold.
- Fir piccolo. This variety also grows up to 50 cm in height. The crown is spherical, the needles are colored blue-green. Young shoots and layers while bright green, which looks very impressive. The needles themselves are short. On the smooth trunk of a tree there are nodules from which the resin oozes. The cones of this fir have a cylindrical shape.
And yet of these varieties in the decoration of gardens and parks is most often used fir balsamic nana, planting and care for which does not represent much difficulty. Therefore, it is better to describe the nature of this plant in more detail.
First of all, beginners need to pay attention to the reproduction of this tree. This can be done in three ways:
- Bought in nurseries saplings.
The first two methods are rather laborious, and there is no guarantee of a positive result. Therefore, to buy seedlings in specialized stores and nurseries will be the most appropriate option. As a rule, the soil in the pots in which the tree grows is saturated with a long-lasting feed. Therefore, transplanting fir on the site will be easy.
Planting in open ground
If the tree is too small, then you can wait for it to grow. Planted in open ground should be a plant that has already turned 5 years old, no less. Then it will take root well.
The root system of such a fir surface, the tree does not go deep into the ground. Because of this, the plant is afraid of strong winds, which simply can tear it up by the roots. To better grow fir, it is better to plant it in a sunny place, which is protected from the winds. There the tree will grow rapidly.
The process of transplanting fir nana from a pot or container to the ground is as follows:
- A hole 50 to 50 cm and a depth of 80 cm is dug. If the soil is too heavy, then a layer of fine gravel can be put on the bottom. From above it is necessary to sprinkle with a small amount of sawdust. You can add a little mineral dressing.
- Landing mix is prepared for planting, which consists of 3 parts of clay, the same amount of humus and one part of peat and sand. You can use special mixtures for conifers.
- The hole is half filled with the prepared dredger.
- After that, the tree is placed in a hole, and its roots are covered with soil. Radical neck should remain above the ground.
- After planting, the tree should be poured abundantly. It will take at least 30 liters of water.
In addition to sunny places, fir can be planted in partial shade. The plant is not afraid of the shade, but it can affect its growth. Under the influence of sunlight, the tree develops faster. The landing itself should be made from April to September.
If a group of plants is planted, then the distance between them must be maintained:
- If the ground is too dense, the distance between the trees should be at least 2.5 meters.
- With medium soils, the distance increases to 3.5 meters.
- If there is a desire to plant an alley of trees, then they should be planted at a distance of 4-5 meters from each other.
Proper maintenance of a young tree, timely watering will help the pine to take root, and it will decorate the land for a long time with its original look.
Care balsam fir nana is simple. But the plant is quite fragile, it must be handled with care. Fir not afraid of frosthowever, snow can break its fragile branches. Therefore, in the winter it should be put on a special frame. In the spring you can prune the dead branches. It will also be useful to mulch the soil. This will retain moisture in the ground, which is so necessary tree. Mulch can be made from sawdust or peat.
Fir loves water very much, drought and heat are simply not recommended for her. Therefore, the plant must be watered at least twice a week in the summer. It will take 15−20 liters of distilled water. The plant also needs frequent sprinkling. Only then will it grow well and develop. Fir crown forms itself, from trimming its branches will not branch. Here the gardener's special attention is not required.
It is possible to fertilize the land around the tree only after it has lived in the open ground for 2 years. For feeding you can use various mineral complexes, including coniferous plants. Fertilizers “Kemira Universal” have recommended themselves well.
Diseases and pests
As a rule, diseases and pests of the plant are not dangerous. The only attack that can happen to fir nana is Hermes fir fir. This can be seen by changing the color of needles, which turn yellow. On the branches appear black insects and clots, something like cotton wool. As a rule, the lesion is found in the spring, more often the plant in such cases is weakened due to improper care. In this case, you will need insecticides to help get rid of pests. In addition, the plant will benefit from preventive treatments from Hermes.
The ground around the tree should be loose, so it must be slightly dug up to a depth of half a bayonet of a shovel. With this treatment, it is not necessary to touch the ground near the radical neck. There is a chance that the roots themselves will be damaged. After soil loosening, you can do mulching.
Proper care and good watering will ensure that the balsam fir will take root well and will maintain its decorative properties.
Use in landscape design
This plant has long been loved by conifer trees. A neat little tree the size of a bush can perfectly decorate a garden. Dwarf fir used to decorate balconies, terraces, roofs. Single copies can decorate the local area. The tree will look good in rock gardens and rock gardens.
Fir as an element of landscape design can be used in group plantings. With the help of fir nana, you can create a low, but spectacular hedge. Good tree looks surrounded by other low plants such as heather and rhododendron. Due to its appearance and delicate coniferous aroma, the plant will create a unique atmosphere in the garden, help to distract from everyday fuss and enjoy communication with nature.
Perennial flowering shrubs go well with balsamic fir. The plant can not only be planted in the ground, but also leave it in containers to decorate the land, the area in front of the house, and so on.
In addition to decorating, fir nana is used as a medicinal plant. The resin it produces has antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, cosmetic properties. Resin extract helps heal wounds, improves skin condition. The aroma has a beneficial effect on the state of the nervous system, improves the functioning of the respiratory system. Tar helps relieve cramps and reduce pain.
Among other uses of the plant, the pulp and paper industry can be mentioned. The branches of this tree, some people like to create holiday wreaths for Christmas and decorate their home with them.
Dwarf balsamic fir - a beautiful plant. Its appearance and useful properties will improve the lives of those who live near it. Those who purchased this tree for their garden will not regret their choice. The beauty and aroma of this representative of the flora deserve special admiration.