One of the popular vegetable crops in the backyards is Bulgarian pepper. To get the necessary vitamins after a long winter, every gardener or summer resident is always looking for ways to harvest vegetables before.
Pepper heat-loving plant and does not grow too well in open ground.
To solve this issue, there is no need to invent a bicycle, this is a well-known greenhouse cultivation method that speeds up the process of harvesting. And so, we can distinguish the postulate: Bulgarian pepper - growing in the greenhouse, a pledge of high yields!
Indoor you can grow a variety of varieties, differing in the size and color of fruits, their shape and shades of taste. Bulgarian pepper can be cone-shaped, elongated, oval or spherical, colors range from dark green to pale yellow, red or orange. The size fruit fluctuates from 1 to 30 cm in length.
In areas with a temperate climate, in the film greenhouse, very early ripening and early peppers can be grown without additional heating. Their term of ripening is from 90 to 110 days after the appearance of the first shoots.
Desirable to choose plants with compact or medium-sized shrubs suitable for limited space greenhouses. In winter heated greenhouses you can grow any variety, focusing on taste, appearance and juiciness of the fruit. Possible planting of peppers with different periods of the growing season, allowing to get crops until late autumn.
In addition to early ripe varieties it is recommended to try late, the period of growth and maturation of which lasts up to 150 days. Late-ripening peppers have a very interesting taste, high juiciness and a large size of fruits, besides, they are rarely found on the market.
Among the popular varieties and hybrids:
- Early maturing: “Ilya Muromets”, “Orange Miracle”, “Green Miracle”, “Karapuz”, “Tenderness”, “Player”, “Winnie the Pooh”, “Ruby Stars”. Suitable for film greenhouses, resistant to pests.
- Medium early: “California miracle”, “Swallow”, “Firstborn of Siberia”, “Nochka”, “Golden rain”, “The Gift of Moldova”. Mid-early varieties and hybrids have small fruits, the yield in the soil is low, in greenhouses, it increases significantly.
- Middle late and late: “Garden Ring”, “Albatross”, “Paris”, “Lyudmila”, “Sailor”, “Vivaldi”, “Figaro”. Practically they are not grown in the open ground of the middle zone; they give good yields in heated greenhouses. Fruits are stored for a long time and have an impressive size.
Shelter for pepper can be heated or not having additional heating. An unheated greenhouse is suitable for early-maturing varieties, it allows you to achieve a good and fast harvest in regions with a temperate and warm climate. Such greenhouses build without foundation, on wooden or metal frames.
Cold greenhouse can be covered with film or glass. Some growers use disused window frames. The approach is economical, but such a greenhouse will have to be repaired before the start of each season.
Capital winter greenhouses more practical build on a solid foundation, possibly penetrating into the ground by half a meter. As a skeleton, welded metal structures with a corrosion-resistant coating are used.
The design must be equipped with vents, double doors and lamps for lighting. It is possible to heat the greenhouse with the help of boilers or wood-burning stoves. The drip irrigation system is used only in expensive industrial greenhouses, in more simple watering spend from buckets or hoses, directly under the root plants.
Peppers can be grown together with other heat and moisture-loving crops. Ideal neighbors for them - cucumbers and radishes. Bell peppers it is undesirable to plant together with greens and tomatoes. No less dangerous neighbor - bitter pepper. When placed in the same greenhouse, it is possible to pollinate, sweet fruits will get an unpleasant bitter taste.
Features of growing
First stage - seed selection for sowing. They must be fresh, two years after harvest, seed germination is sharply reduced.
Before sowing, the material can be soaked for 10-12 hours in a growth stimulant solution. Thereafter the seeds are washed and wrapped in a wet cotton fabric for spitting.
For greenhouse growing seeds can be sown in peat pots or in boxes. Landing is conducted in February or early March., since the germination period takes at least 7 days, and often lasts up to a month. Depth of seed placement should not exceed 10 mm. Capacity with seeds covered with glass or film and put in a warm, well-lit place.
Seedlings can be grown in an apartment or in a year-round heated greenhouse. For successful germination seeds of pepper need good humidity and temperature 20-25ºC. After the appearance of the entrances, the temperature in the room is lowered, the plants begin to harden, removing the glass at certain intervals.
2 weeks after entering the seedlings water the solution complex mineral fertilizers. At the age of 2 months, the grown peppers are quite ready to be transplanted to a permanent place in the greenhouse. Plants are placed at a distance of 30 cm from each other.
The soil should be fairly light, neutral acidity. It is recommended to add peat and sand to garden land. Soil need well loosen and make ash in it, humus or mineral fertilizers (potash, superphosphate).
Basis of care for peppers - timely watering warm defended water. Watering is carried out only at the root. Plants are very moisture-loving and do not tolerate even a short-term drought. The level of humidity in the greenhouse will help maintain open containers with water, as well as frequent watering of the floor and glass.
Occasionally need to air the greenhouse. The ideal temperature is 18-25ºC, a cold snap or exhausting heat are equally undesirable. Plants do not tolerate the average daily temperature drops.
Pepper likes frequent and abundant feeding. Some growers add a weak solution of mullein with each watering. In the ground, you can make and balanced mineral complexes. After year intensive use topsoil in the greenhouse need completely replaceThis contributes to higher yields.
Bulgarian pepper does not tolerate heavy, flattened soil, reacting with slow growth and lack of ovaries. At least 1 time per week it is necessary to loosen the soil between the plants, ensuring the flow of oxygen to the roots.
If there is no possibility of regular loosening, the soil needs to be mulched humus, sawdust, straw or husk of sunflower seeds.
A watering hole is left around each plant. For proper development of the bush and the formation of ovaries, regular removal of leaves on each plant is necessary. On the bush leave no more than 2 strong side shoots, the rest pinch.
Sure to leaves and shoots are removed below the main branch zone. This technique contributes to proper insolation, the plant does not spend strength on building up green mass, concentrating on the formation of ovaries.
Pepper bushes are very fragile, they are easy to damage during processing. For greenhouses better to choose compact plantswithout sprawling side shoots. Stretched stems must be tied up, otherwise they will break under the weight of the fruit.
Peppers of full physiological maturity have a bright color, fully corresponding to the variety, and a pronounced taste. Such fruits should be eaten immediately, they are not subject to storage. Harvest removed in the morning, carefully cutting off or tearing off fruits together with a short stem.
Delicious and juicy Bulgarian pepper rather unpretentious. With a well-equipped greenhouse, compliance with the regime of watering and feeding even inexperienced vegetable grower can achieve excellent yields. Having obtained good results, one can proceed with experiments with varieties and even selection work.
Useful tips on growing peppers in the greenhouse, see the video below:
Sowing seeds and growing seedlings in the greenhouse
Before sowing seeds, they must be treated with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate within 30 minutes. For the rapid growth of seedlings, the seeds are treated in growth promoters.
Seeds are sown in February (so as to be transplanted into a greenhouse at the age of 60-65), in cups or pots, deepening 5-15 mm in the soil. The soil should be fertile and light.
For the best yield of pepper in the greenhouse, use 2-month seedlings, which formed 6-10 leaves and a height of 20-25 cm.
Pepper seedlings are planted in greenhouses in early April. They make beds with a distance between rows of 50 cm. They make holes for transplanting seedlings.
Pour 1 liter of chicken manure or manure solution into each well (in a bucket of water with a temperature of 50 degrees, dilute a glass of 200 g of chicken manure or 500 g of manure).
It is good to water the seedlings of pepper in cups so that without damaging the roots, it is easy to take them out. Transplanting seedlings in the wells and tie them to the pegs.
Growing and caring for pepper in the greenhouse
The main thing in the care - compliance with the thermal regime, timely watering, feeding, loosening the soil and weeding.
Ventilate the greenhouse necessarily, in the heat of pritenyat.
Watering peppers produce every 2-3 days under the root of 1-2 liters of water. Peppers are moisture-loving and do not tolerate even a short-term drought.
Maintain an optimum temperature - during the day 20-27 degrees, at night 15 degrees. When the fruiting period comes, the temperature can be lowered.
Hilling bushes when the soil is wet. As the soil dries rumble between the rows, about once a week. If the possibility of loosening is absent, mulch the soil with straw, humus, sawdust.
To form bushes, remove excess shoots, leaving the 2 strongest side shoots, remove excess leaves and processes below the main branching zone. The plant will focus on the development of the ovaries, rather than increasing the green mass.
For the greenhouse, choose compact varieties, pepper is a fragile plant, the stems can break under the weight of the fruit. Stretch plants necessarily tie up. Harvesting is carried out in the morning, carefully cutting off or tearing off the fruit with a short stalk.
When growing pepper in a polycarbonate greenhouse care of plants does not change.
Feeding pepper in the greenhouse
When grown in a greenhouse can not do without dressings. Urea or bird droppings are used as fertilizers. To prepare the solution is dissolved in water urea or chicken droppings in the proportion of 1 x 15. Watering each bush under the root of 1 liter of solution.
Sprinkle on beds before feeding wood ash.
Dates of dressings
First feeding 2 weeks after transplanting seedlings in the greenhouse.
Second feeding during the formation of ovaries.
Third dressing during fruit ripening.
If you didn’t notice a shortage on plants for the entire growing season, the proportion of fertilizers can be left unchanged.
Pests and diseases of Bulgarian pepper in the greenhouse
Even when grown in a greenhouse, diseases and pests can appear.
With sharp temperature drops the plant can get sick; when the temperature drops to +10 degrees, purple spots and bloom appear.
Pepper is prone to vertex rot in violation of the moisture regime. To combat, sprinkle a handful of ash under the root in a timely manner.
The advantages of greenhouse cultivation
Bulgarian pepper is a culture of southern latitudes, poorly tolerated cold, temperature drops, drafts and other adverse conditions. Creating and maintaining an optimal environment for the growth and development of plants significantly reduces the risk of death of bushes or getting a bad harvest. The probability of infection or damage by pests is also reduced.
Planting and care for sweet peppers in the greenhouse has advantages over open ground:
- the possibility of early transplanting,
- reduction of the growing season,
- providing a favorable microclimate,
- protection from wind, hail, dew, rain,
- facilitating basic care,
- yield increase,
- reduction of material expenses.
Proper cultivation and care of peppers in the greenhouse will allow you to get a large crop of large fruits while creating a favorable environment. Particular attention should be paid to lighting, temperature and relative humidity, airing.
It is important to plant the seedlings in the nutrient soil, to ensure timely and sufficient watering, fertilizing, to form bushes at certain stages of development.
Do not allow drafts, sudden changes in temperature, lack or excess of moisture. It is necessary to choose the right neighbors and predecessors, if the top layer of soil does not change.
It is necessary to grow peppers in a greenhouse while ensuring a 12-hour daylight hours. The lack of light will lead to stretching of the seedlings, stopping the growth of an adult plant, a weak ovary, and an excess will slow down the formation of buds. In cloudy weather, you need to organize the illumination of lamps of a wide spectrum, suitable sodium, mercury, metal halide.
Culture does not tolerate shade, which should be considered when choosing neighbors in the beds. For the same reason, it is impossible to plant peppers too closely or neglect the process of forming a bush, which is necessary when grown in a greenhouse.
Depending on the vegetation stage, the optimal temperature indicators change. From sowing until the appearance of the first shoots, provide + 25-30 ° C, 6-7 days after the spitting of sprouts + 13-16 ° C during the day, +10 ° C at night. With further cultivation, indicators of + 20-27 ° C during the daytime, +13 ° C at night are favorable. For laying the fruit optimally + 25-30 ° C.
The critical temperature for seedlings will be + 5-6 ° C, for adult bushes -1 ° C. When the thermometer values are above +30 ° C, the ovaries fall off, the pollen becomes sterile, which negatively affects the yield. If there is a heating system in a polycarbonate greenhouse, you can maintain the desired temperature throughout the year. When film coating focus on weather conditions.
At the seedling stage, during the growth period and before planting, the optimum air humidity is 60%, of the soil - 70-75%. When transferring pepper seedlings to a permanent place of cultivation, the air should be humidified by 80%, the soil - by 90%. Until the end of the growing season, respectively, support 65% and 80%. A lack of moisture will cause the flowers to fall, reducing the size of the fruit. Excess will cause decay, the development of fungal infections.
Preparing for planting seedlings
Every year the construction is required to prepare for spring work. The main part can be done in the fall, and before planting the seedlings in the greenhouse will remain to create a favorable microclimate. Regardless of the materials from which the building is made, and the cultures growing in it, the main activities are:
- cleaning of plant residues,
- creating warm beds,
- washing, disinfecting the frame,
- preparation of topsoil.
The main thing is that before the spring planting the building was clean. Part of the work can be done immediately before transferring the seedlings.
In the fall, wash the greenhouse with soapy water. Carefully review the joints for mold or bacterial plaque. After treatment, air and dry.
For disinfection of buildings made of polycarbonate, spraying, dusting or fumigation with complex action preparations is used. Processing is performed after pre-washing all structural elements and cleaning the soil from plant residues. It is enough to wash the metal profile with a solution of potassium permanganate. Impregnate wooden parts with building antiseptics and coat with lime sludge.
Wash glasses and polycarbonate panels from the outside with household chemicals, inside with a solution of potassium permanganate or a compound containing chlorine. Work carried out in special clothes and gloves. Inventory and container taken out of the greenhouse during processing. Before entering, it is recommended to lay a mat soaked in copper sulphate, ammonium nitrate, chlorinated with lime.
Smoke bombs for fumigation are considered the most effective, but expensive way. You can replace them with metal trays on hot coals, in which pieces of sulfur are laid (50-80 g per 1 m3). Spraying is carried out with a solution of bleach, copper sulfate or chloropicrin. Sprinkle with slaked lime.
To arrange warm beds, sanitize the soil, remove the top layer of soil. For disinfection pour boiling water or a solution of potassium permanganate. Put a thick layer of straw and sawdust or compost on the bottom, then manure. Top with pre-filmed ground, cover with a dark film or zamulcirovat dry grass and leaves. In winter, snow cover, removing the film when it is available.
In spring, dig the soil, improve the clay structure by introducing sand. A day before planting the seedlings, fertilize - one will need 25 g of saltpeter per 1 m², 1 tbsp. superphosphate, 1 tbsp.wood ash, humus. In the case of an acidic environment, neutralization is required. Liming hold in the fall or spring add dolomite flour. Before transferring the seedlings, ground the soil, form holes, water.
The change in growing conditions is hard tolerated by Bulgarian pepper, so it is necessary to smooth out this process as much as possible. 2 weeks before the procedure, the seedlings need to begin to harden. Young seedlings should gradually get used to sunlight.
The implementation of basic agrotechnical measures will accelerate the process of adaptation. Prepare the soil in advance, nutrient soil is needed during this period.
The main thing that should be considered when planting seedlings in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate or other material:
- allowable neighbors on the beds,
- the term of the transfer to a permanent place of cultivation,
- scheme and rules of landing.
Compatibility with other cultures
Together it is allowed to plant solanaceous (pepper, eggplants, tomatoes) due to the similar requirements for the microclimate. The danger is that they have the same diseases and pests, if you do not take action in time, then all the landings will suffer. Permissible neighborhood with onions, basil, carrots, coriander, sideratami.
You can not have near beans, fennel, kohlrabi. Hot pepper is undesirable to plant next, because they may pereopilyatsya with each other. Incompatible crops, if necessary, may be distributed at different ends of the greenhouse.
Terms of planting seedlings
There is no exact date, you should be guided by weather conditions, time of sowing and emergence of shoots, the formation of 8-12 leaves with buds, type of construction. In Moscow region, Moscow, the middle lane, planting is done in late April-early May. In St. Petersburg, the best time to transfer seedlings - the end of May. If the greenhouse is equipped with heating, it is possible earlier.
In the Urals and Siberia, one should focus on the end of May and the beginning of June. Growing peppers in regions with adverse weather conditions in film greenhouses should be carried out after the threat of frost has passed. The soil should warm up above +10 ° C. The plant is 25-30 cm tall, has from 2 inflorescences.
How to choose a variety of bell peppers
- In greenhouses, you can plant completely different cultureswhich will mainly differ in their size and color in fruits, as welltheir overall shape and taste characteristics.
- Pepper may have a conical shape, elongated, oval or spherical. The color of the fruits of culture usually varies from dark green to pale yellow, red or orange. The size of the finished vegetables will vary from one centimeter to 30 in length.
- Plants can be divided into groups by ripening and shrub size. The choice of one or another option will depend on the variety of the greenhouse, as well as on the climatic conditions of a particular area of crop growth.
- In regions with a temperate climate, it is possible to grow early or early peppers in a film greenhouse without additional heating conditions. Their time of ripening is from 90 to 110 days after the development of the first shoots of the plant.
It would be best to acquire a crop with compact or medium sprawling types of bushes that are well suited for growing plants in conditions of limited space in hotbeds. In winter and well-heated greenhouses, it is possible to grow any variety of variety, focusing on the plant's taste characteristics, succulent fruits, as well as the appearance of the crop. You can also plant crops of pepper with different periods of the growing season, which will allow the gardener to get a new crop until the autumn.
In addition to early ripening varieties of pepper, late ones should also be used, the period of growth and full maturity of which will reach 150 days. Late ripening cultures of pepper are distinguished by their unusual taste, increased juiciness, large fruits on the plant, and they can be very rarely found on the market.
Among the most common varieties of hybrids can be found:
- Early maturing: Ilya Muromets, Orange Miracle, Winnie the Pooh, Player, Tenderness, Karapuz, Ruby Stars and Green Miracle. They grow well in conditions of a film greenhouse, and also are highly resistant to attacking varieties of parasites.
- Medium early. California miracle, Swallow, Gift of Moldova, Nochka, Golden rain and the Firstborn of Siberia. Srednerannye varieties of varieties and hybrids have small fruits, as well as a low percentage of yield compared with other crops. Under greenhouse conditions, yields may increase markedly.
- Middle late, and late varieties: Albatross, Ludmila, Waivaldi, Sailor, Paris, Figaro. These crops are almost not grown in the open ground of the middle zone of the country, but yield a high yield only in well-heated greenhouses. The fruits of the plant can be stored for a long time in the home, and also have an impressive size.
How to equip a greenhouse
Shelter for the growth and formation of pepper should be heated properly or may not have additional heating.
Unheated greenhouse view Most suitable for early ripe varieties of pepper, as it helps the grower to achieve the highest yield, as well as increase the speed of its growth in areas with warm and temperate climates. Such types of greenhouses are built without the use of a fundamental basis, on wooden or metal frames.
A cold greenhouse can be covered with a film or with additional glass. Some gardeners use out-of-use window frames. This trip will, of course, be economical, but this kind of homemade greenhouse will have to be repaired before the start of each season.
Capital greenhouses for the winter it is best to create on a solid foundation, you can also deepen the construction in the ground by 0.5 meters. In the form of a frame, welded metal structures with a corrosion-resistant coating can be used.
Such a structure should be additionally equipped with vents, as well as double-type doors and light bulbs for additional illumination of vegetable crops. It is worth heating greenhouses by means of coppers or the special wood furnace. The method of drip irrigation of plants should be used only in very expensive industrial greenhouses, and in more economical and simple devices it is worth using watering plants from simple buckets and a hose, at the very root of the plant.
Peppers can begin to grow together with other heat, as well as moisture-loving varieties of plants. The best neighbors for this plant will be radishes or cucumbers. Bell peppers should not be planted on the same plot with greens and tomatoes. Bitter pepper will become a no less dangerous neighbor for the plant. When placing crops in the same greenhouse, pollinating can occur, and the sweet fruits of bell pepper will be unpleasant and bitter to the taste.
Planting and care for peppers in the greenhouse
- The first stage during cultivation is seed selection. Seeds must be fresh, because within a few years after collecting the seeds, their germination deteriorates dramatically. Before planting, it is worth soaking the seeds for 10-12 hours in a special solution for growth and development. After that, the seeds should be washed, and then wrapped in a damp cotton-type fabric for further gluing.
- For seed production in greenhouse conditions plant out their in peat pots and different boxes. Planting should be carried out in early March or in February, since the time of seed germination will last less than a week, and in some cases stretches to one month. The depth of planting material should not be more than 10 mm. The container with the prepared seeds should be covered with a dark plastic film or glass and placed in a warm place, as well as with a good level of lighting.
- Pepper seedlings can be grown at home or year-round. well heated greenhouse. For high-quality germination of pepper seeds, it is worth observing a special humidity, as well as an air temperature indicator of 20–25 degrees. After the development of the first shoots, the temperature inside the greenhouse is reduced, so the plants will be able to harden qualitatively. In this case it is necessary to remove the glass for a while.
After two weeks after development, seedlings should be watered in a greenhouse with a solution. complex mineral fertilizers.
At the age of more than two months, the germinated seedlings are already quite well prepared for transplanting to a place of permanent growth inside the greenhouse. The plant should be planted, while respecting the distance between each other in 30 centimeters.
Priming it should be light typewhich will contain a neutral indicator of soil acidity. Peat or sand should be added to the garden soil. The soil should be well loosened, and then add additional ash, humus or mineral fertilizers (superphosphate, as well as potassium).
Fresh manure should not be used for these purposes, because it can lead to the development of abscission of flowers, as well as a strong overgrowing of the crop with grass and excess weeds.
The basis of the Bulgarian pepper care process is compliance. timely watering plants. Watering the crop is only at the root and with the help of separated water. Culture is considered highly moisture-loving and is not able to endure even a short-term drought. To keep the level of humidity inside the greenhouse will help special open containers filled with water, as well as regular watering and weeding of the culture.
Over time, it is necessary to air the greenhouse for a while. The optimum temperature inside will be 18–25 degrees Celsius, a cold snap or the onset of heat can equally adversely affect the plant. Also, this culture reacts negatively to average daily temperature drops.
Pepper prefers frequent and abundant dressings. Sometimes gardeners decide to add a weak solution of mullein during each watering of the plant. You can also add balanced mineral fertilizer complexes to the soil mix. After one year of intensive use of the soil in the greenhouse, it should be completely replaced with a new one, as this will help to increase the overall level of crop yield.
Bulgarian pepper is not able to tolerate heavy and compacted soil, and at the same time shows a deterioration in growth and does not form the ovary. At least once a week, it is necessary to loosen the soil qualitatively between crops, giving the soil under the plant to be sated with a large amount of oxygen, which goes to the roots of the crop itself.
If it is not possible to adjust the loosening, then the soil should be mulched using humus, straw or husk after sunflower seeds.
Near each culture should leave a special well for the implementation of high-quality watering plants. In order for the shrub to be able to form qualitatively, and also to form a large number of ovaries, it is worthwhile to regularly remove excess leaves from each plant. On the shrub should be no more than two strong shoots of the lateral type, and the rest should be pinned.
What else do you need to know?
It is mandatory to eliminate all processes and leaflets that are located below the area of the main branch of the culture. This method can help develop proper insolation on the plant, so the culture will not spend its energy on the process of building up the green mass, and will give all its power to the formation of new ovaries.
Pepper bushes are considered very fragiletherefore it is quite easy to damage them during processing. For cultivation in greenhouse conditions, it is worth taking compact shrubs that will not include sprawling and excessively large shoots. The stretched stems of the plant should be tied up, otherwise it may happen that they simply break under the weight of the bright fruits of pepper.
The time interval when it comes to collecting the fruits of a plant will depend directly on how long the florist intends to keep them. For the process of transportation and sale of culture, pepper varieties with an average maturity rate are best suited. At this time, the fruits of the pepper will already be fully formed, their color will vary from yellow to green.
Peppers are fully ripe and ready to eat bright colorwhich is fully consistent with the grade, as well as a pronounced taste. Such fruit should be immediately used for food, as they are not to be stored. Crop should be removed only early in the morning, while carefully cutting off the peppers with a short stalk.
Tasty and juicy cultures are quite unpretentious to the process of growing. If the greenhouse is well and efficiently processed, and the process of watering and fertilizing the crop is observed, even an inexperienced gardener will be able to achieve a good yield indicator. Having received high-quality crop, you can start to conduct experiments and even breeding work.
Selection of material for landing
First of all the rest, you first need to decide on a variety of seed. After all, the nuances of the necessary agrotechnical methods, as well as the main characteristics of the crop, depend on his choice.
Today varietal variety of Bulgarian pepper is quite wide. However, not all varieties are suitable for the closed method of cultivation (in the greenhouse). The following varieties are most often grown grown:
- Ermak. This is a large-fruited species, which is characterized by high yields. In one season, two crops can be harvested from the bushes, consisting of fruits weighing 250 grams,
- Medal. The plant forms red fruits. They ripen gradually. Fruiting bushes can occur year-round. That is, even the winter can get a decent harvest. Here the average weight of peppers is about 150 grams,
- Gladiator. Also large-fruited variety. On the bush are formed bright yellow peppers, which are characterized by thickened walls,
- Black cardinal The main feature is the fruit, which have a dark purple color.
Experts advise to choose for the closed landing also such varieties: Night, Orange miracle, Winnie the Pooh and Tenderness. They will be the best solution, since they were specially created for growing in closed constructions. You can find information that in the closed cultivation environment, the following types of pepper have proven themselves: Health, Othello, Elephant, Victoria, etc.
When choosing a variety, you should always focus on the climatic conditions of the region where the pepper bushes will be planted. Even in spite of the fact that they will be protected from adverse weather conditions by special structures.
When choosing varieties of bell peppers, consider the following parameters listed on the label:
- ripening time
- ripening temperature
- number of dressings, etc.
It is also necessary to take into account the manufacturer. After all, overseas planting material may simply not take root in a particular region of our country.
When choosing planting material, it is necessary to take into account the use of the resulting crop. If you plan to eat fresh fruits, then you should give preference to large-fruited varieties. These varieties quickly ripen. In a situation when pepper is grown for preservation, it is necessary to choose small-fruited varieties.
Bulgarian pepper is bred by the seedling method. Seedlings begin to be prepared (seed sowing) in March. First you need to collect everything you need:
- capacity. Optimally fit wooden boxes,
- fertile soil. It is best to take moistened compost, because this culture is sensitive to the percentage of nutrients in the soil,
- planting material itself.
The prepared earth is poured into the container. Selected seeds are placed for 10-12 hours in a solution of growth stimulant. After that, they are washed and wrapped in a wet cotton cloth.
Planting of planting material occurs in such a way that the distance between two adjacent seeds is not less than 2 cm.
Planted seeds from above should be filled with dry compost. Next, a “micro-greenhouse” is organized. To do this, the boxes on top are covered with paper and glass. Such a structure should stand until germination. Often, this should take 14-21 days. During all this time, it is necessary to regularly moisten the soil.
The temperature of the room during the germination of seed should be kept in the limit of + 21 degrees. When the seedlings get a little stronger and grow up, they pick them. For transplanting, you should choose separate small pots with a diameter of about 20 cm. So much space is required for the root system for its full, painless development.
A distance of 40 cm should be maintained between transplant tanks. At the same time, in a closed design, the mode should be maintained at least + 18 degrees. Кроме этого, еще важен и свет. Если его недостаточно, то посадки перейдут в стадию чрезмерного вытягивания и будут иметь бледный цвет.
За всходами нужно правильно ухаживать. Важно регулярно поливать саженцы, а также вносить подкормки. If all the conditions were met in good faith, the bushes will begin to branch out quickly. Do not allow a strong growth of green mass of the plant. When the bushes reach a height of 15 cm, they remove the apical bud. This will allow to properly form a bush. After all, the more side shoots there are, the more abundant the harvest will be formed.
Closed can be cultivated and tall plants. But lest they break under the weight of fruits, they are recommended to be tied up.
In the cultivation of any vegetable crop, the main role in obtaining a future crop is played by planting and care.
Transplantation of germinated seedlings of pepper is done by means of small containers filled with sandy sand. Thermal conditions in a closed structure must be appropriate. So, from the ground should be within at least + 15 degrees, and from the air - in the region of + 20 degrees.
The principle of planting is determined by the variety. All important agrotechnical features of the landing should be indicated on the packaging. But there are general advisory tips that apply to all varieties. These include the following points:
- the planting of future bushes-seedlings is carried out on the prepared beds with a two-line ribbon,
- between the grown seedlings should be an empty space of 20 cm,
- bush aisle distance - 80 cm.
When the planted shoots have taken root, becoming rather high, their garter is held. Here they use wooden supports. Their height should be about 50 cm.
At the beginning of flowering shoots, from its first branching should remove flowers. It is recommended to leave two escapes. Further, in each branching, they retain the strongest stem, and all the others are pinned after bud formation.
Bulgarian pepper in the greenhouse requires constant care, which must include:
- periodic soil loosening,
- regular watering
- maintaining a constant air temperature
- good lighting. Best of all, if the greenhouse will be made of polycarbonate, which passes the diffused light well.
With regard to fertilizing, then each species has its own requirements in their account. The prevailing majority of varieties should be fertilized every 7 days. The most suitable fertilizer complex type. In this case, mineral dressings should be used in the first phase of bush growth.
As you can see, the care of Bulgarian pepper in the greenhouse does not require significant expenditure of effort and is extremely simple in terms of implementation.
Basic rules for growing
To get a decent result in the form of a good harvest, you need to adhere to a certain cultivation technology. It implies the observance of the following rules:
- for high-quality and successful spitting of seeds in the room should be maintained optimal humidity. The thermal regime should be regulated within + 20-25 degrees,
- after germination of seedlings, the temperature is lowered. This will allow the plants to be well tempered,
- after germination 2 weeks, shoots should be spiced with a solution of mineral fertilizers,
- transfer of seedlings to a closed one in the ground is carried out in two months,
- Optimal planting soil is light with a neutral pH. Here you can still make sand and peat,
- humus, ash and mineral inclusions can be used as top dressing. But experts do not recommend fresh manure.
Mandatory moment of care for pepper seedlings is watering. It is carried out only at the root. Bushes do not tolerate even a brief drought.
Do not forget that the greenhouse should be periodically ventilated. Inside it must be respected mode within + 18-25 degrees. Remember that sweet peppers are extremely sensitive to sudden temperature changes.
Secrets of a good harvest
In the cultivation of virtually any vegetable culture, there are certain secrets that allow you to achieve excellent fruiting. And our today's hero of the article is no exception. For him there are the following secrets of cultivation:
- seedlings should be tempered a couple of times. Pots with shoots need to make at night in the open air. But you can temper only when the warm weather has settled. This procedure will allow the bushes to better adapt to the new place of cultivation,
- Bulgarian pepper is sown either in boxes or in special packages. They are filled with appropriate nutrient mixed humus,
- Approximately 7 days before planting, young bushes must be treated with potassium salt. It stimulates plant growth. Instead of salt, it is allowed to use growth stimulants to pepper,
- bushes should be periodically inspected for dried and diseased leaves. Such leaves should be removed immediately. It is also necessary to cut off fruitless shoots,
- in order for the formed fruits to ripen faster, it is necessary to harvest the ripened crop in time.
Experienced gardeners do not recommend growing bushes of different varieties of pepper in the same greenhouse. After all, then their cross-pollination may occur. As a result, the fruits will have an unusual taste.
Knowing the above secrets, the procedure for growing peppers in a greenhouse will be easy, and the harvest will be tasty and plentiful.
Pathogenic microflora is one of the main obstacles to a good harvest. If you do not start treating the infected shrub in time, the disease can spread further, hitting the pepper bushes throughout the closed planting.
Bell peppers most often suffer from the following diseases:
- blackleg. The causative agent is a fungus that affects the shoot and root system. If you do not fight the disease, the bush will die. The disease spreads very quickly to other bushes. Defeat the disease will help timely disinfection,
- bacterial blotch. The causative agent is a bacterium. It affects the bushes at different stages of development. Spots appear on the infected areas. They can develop both on leaves and on fruits. At the last, watery bulges often develop. To combat the disease, the affected bushes are sprayed with special solutions,
- late blight. One of the most common diseases of greenhouse plants. Provokes rotting fruit. Able to hit and the green part of the bushes. For the disease is characterized by the formation of dark spots that have a light green tint along the contour. The main reason for the appearance is temperature jumps, as well as the presence of high humidity. They fight this pathogen by spraying infected pepper bushes with a solution of Bordeaux mixture.
Most often, the appearance of disease in greenhouse plants leads to improperly organized care. Therefore, if the bushes began to hurt, it is necessary not only to spray them with the necessary solution, but also to eliminate the cause of the development of the disease. Only in this case, you can completely get rid of pathogenic microflora.
To prevent the development of diseases, each planted bush should be periodically inspected for the first symptoms of malaise. Such a procedure should cover all greenhouse plantings.
Cleaning and receiving seeds
When the harvest has ripened on the bushes, it is necessary to start harvesting it. At the same time, you can stock up on seeds for the next season.
The yield of this culture is directly proportional to the forces invested in its development, as well as the proper implementation of all agricultural practices and care. Only then can we expect a really plentiful and tasty harvest. Although the approximate yield of each varietal species has its own.
Bulgarian pepper is removed from the bushes when it reaches technical ripeness. Harvesting is carried out according to the following rules:
- fruits must be fully formed and meet the visual characteristics of their variety. Full maturity comes in about 20-25 days,
- ripened peppers are recommended to cut quickly, so as not to sleep,
- cut from the bush to the stalk with a knife or scissors.
When the crop is harvested from it, you can extract the seeds. This is a delicate procedure, because the harvest of the next year will depend on its accuracy. To collect the seed of pepper you need to choose one bush. He must be as manifested properties that are inherent in this species.
You can get seed by performing the following manipulations:
- taken the largest samples of pepper. They should be placed below the third tier,
- Selected peppercorns should not be cut until the end of summer,
- also from the selected bush you need to remove the ovary,
- when the time comes, the swatches are cut, placed in a paper bag. They are kept there until the fruit dries,
- dried pepper samples cut and collect seeds. They are stored in a paper bag, on which a record is made about the variety, the place of collection, and a date is put.
The seeds of pepper collected according to this algorithm should maintain their germination for three years. But in practice, older seeds produce healthier, stronger plants.
Bulgarian pepper is an excellent crop that can be grown in a greenhouse without any problems. After all, care for planting is simple, and the plant itself needs only regular watering and feeding.
The benefits of growing peppers in a greenhouse
Growing bell peppers in a greenhouse gives a lot of advantages:
- the possibility of early planting of seedlings, which leads to the rapid fruit set,
- in the greenhouse you can maintain a stable microclimate - there are often sharp temperature drops in the open air, and this is detrimental to sweet peppers,
- plants are protected from cold winds, rain and unwanted dew, so the disease on the pepper are rare,
- care of plants indoors is minimal.
Plants in the greenhouse are protected from all natural disasters, and the further yield of sweet pepper depends on how well it is taken care of.
Polycarbonate greenhouses are preferable to greenhouses from other materials. Sunlight penetrating through the double material - diffused, does not cause burns on the leaves of the bell pepper. In addition, the air temperature in a polycarbonate greenhouse does not rise too high in the heat, and the lighting is uniform over the entire area.
Polycarbonate Greenhouse Installation Tips:
- the form is preferable to a semicircular (arched) - in winter, a thick layer of snow does not linger on it,
- To ensure durability and long service life, the fastening of polycarbonate sheets to the frame should be carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer.
Technical characteristics of cellular polycarbonate prevent greenhouse damage from hail.
Terms of planting pepper in the greenhouse
Growing peppers in the greenhouse is carried out by the seedling method. Planting can be seedlings, which age from 60 to 70 days. Each seedling should have at least 10 leaves.
The time of planting of seedlings is mid-May, but it will be correct to orient according to how stable the air temperature is in the greenhouse. When the thermometer in the greenhouse ceases to fall below 10-12 °, it is time to plant the Bulgarian pepper.
If in hot areas the greenhouse is warming already in late April or early May, then in colder areas — in Leningrad, in the Urals, and in other regions — this can drag on until the end of May or early June.
The output in this case is the creation of warm beds in the greenhouse. Prepare them in the fall. The top layer of soil is removed to a depth of 20-30 cm. Plant material — small branches, straw, fallen leaves, and humus — are placed on the bottom of the beds. From above fall asleep fertile land. Water beds are watered to start the process of decomposition of plant residues.
In winter, the beds need to sketch out the snow. In the spring, when the air in the greenhouse warms up, the snow will begin to melt. This will moisten the soil, watering it before planting seedlings is not required.
Scheme of planting pepper in the greenhouse
The scheme of planting of sweet pepper is selected depending on the variety and method of the intended cultivation: in one or several trunks.
The place in the greenhouse is limited, so it will be right to choose tall varieties of Bulgarian pepper. They are grown in two or three trunks, the growth of additional shoots holding back the sticks. The distance between such plants should be at least 40 cm.
Low-growing peppers grown in two trunks, can be planted closer to each other - 25-30 cm between them.
To care for plants was not easy, the distance between the beds should not be small. Optimally - 70-80 cm, and the landing scheme is chosen at will.
Planting scheme may be limited by the size of the greenhouse. If it is small, then it will be right to make narrow beds along the walls and plant seedlings in one line or in a checkerboard pattern. In the center of the greenhouse, a wide bed is preferable, and the planting scheme is a two-row one.
Planting seedlings in the greenhouse
Before planting the bell pepper in the greenhouse, it must be taught to the bright sun. A week before planting, boxes with seedlings begin to endure in the sun. Do it gradually. The first sunbath should not exceed two hours, each next day the time spent in the sun increases by 2.5 hours.
Planting pepper in the greenhouse is held on an overcast day or in the evening. The day before transplanting pots of seedlings must be shed with water. Replace should be carefully, trying not to damage the clod of the earth. Bulgarian pepper does not always withstand damage to the roots, is long restored.
The first three days the transplanted plants do not water.
Pepper seedlings need to be planted in the soil at the same depth as they grew in the seedling box. They can not be deepened.
Pepper care in the greenhouse
Pepper care in the greenhouse is simple, but requires a competent approach.
For sweet pepper is important:
- bright lighting, because with a lack of light the fruits are not tied,
- fertile soil - only with sufficient nutrition, even full-fledged fruits are formed,
- fresh air - without airing fungal diseases appear that are dangerous for the entire planting of peppers.
Drying the soil for a long time is unacceptable.
Care must be regular, it includes:
- the formation of bushes and pasynkovanie,
- early detection and control of the disease.
Watering is best done in the morning, so that in the evening the moisture has evaporated. Water only under the root, using a watering can, hose or drip irrigation. When watering a hose should not use a strong stream of water that can wash away the soil and expose the roots.
Watering is recommended to carry warm water. When watering with cold water plant growth stops, the fruits do not form, and the ovaries fall off.
Pepper does not require frequent watering - just water once every five days. In the heat of planting in the greenhouse can be watered additionally.
Some time after watering the land should be loosened. The roots breathe, loosening prevents their rotting. Facilitate care can be, if loosening replaced with mulching. In addition, the mulch will protect the soil from overheating.
Airing is carried out to maintain a stable temperature inside the greenhouse and prevent fungal diseases. Humid air contributes to the rapid development of the disease. In addition to airing, the removal of excess foliage and pasynkovanie provide a flow of fresh air to the plants.
Top dressing for plants in the greenhouse is no less important than for peppers grown outdoors. Preferably fertilizing infusion of organic fertilizers. It is carried out once every two to three weeks.
Fertilizing fertilizer is carried out in the second half of summer. To increase the mass of fruits and ripeness fertilizer should be comprehensive.
Care also consists in tying shoots. Pepper shoots are very brittle, they break under the weight of fruits. As a support, you can use stakes (one for each bush), or a trellis installed on the whole bed.
Masking and removing excess foliage
Such care for peppers, as pasynkovanie, for many remains controversial. But for plants in the greenhouse, pasynkovanie has more advantages than minuses:
- landing thinning provides access to air and light,
- with a large number of shoots on one plant, the fruits lack nutrition, they grow poorly, deform, and many ovaries fall off.
When growing peppers in the open field at a great distance from each other, pasynkovanie can not be carried out, but in a limited space it is necessary to do this.
Removal of weak shoots will direct food and moisture to the growth of large, high-quality fruits, provide peppers with access to the sun, which is necessary for aging. Thinning the crown will save plants from many diseases.
When the plant reaches a height of 25-30 cm, pinch its top. This gives an impetus to the growth of lateral shoots. When the shoots grow 10-15 cm, they begin to stitch. All side shoots below 20 cm are removed. Of the rest, 2-3 leave the strongest. Those that are directed inside the crown, I do not have ovaries, underdeveloped - break out. In addition, remove the foliage, which is located below the branch shoots.
The first formed fruit is removed. If you leave it, it will grow large, but it will delay the growth of the rest of the peppers, because it will take the main part of the diet.
Gathering is carried out in stages, removing part of the shoots thickening the crown at a time, breaking out the weak in a few days, and cutting off the foliage later. This will help the plant to avoid shock.
Пасынкование низкорослых сортов можно не проводить, но при этом надо увеличить дистанцию между растениями при посадке или проводить дополнительные подкормки.
Для теплолюбивых перцев выращивание в теплице предпочтительнее, чем на открытом воздухе. Только в тепличных условиях можно создать подходящий микроклимат, при котором завязывается множество плодов.
But in order for the fruit to form a full-fledged, reached biological maturity and corresponded to the declared qualities of the variety, the care requires competent and regular.
Features of the formation of the bush
Hothouse environment is an indication for the mandatory conduct of the procedure. Thickening will have a negative impact on yield, fraught with the development of diseases, slowing down development.
It is important to properly shape the bushes, so as not to reduce the ability to bear fruit and the speed of fruit ripening.
Growing in a greenhouse, Bulgarian pepper should:
Conducting procedures depends on the variety, often they are needed for the whole growing season. Pay special attention to plants whose shoots are very fragile. In time carried out agrotechnical measures contribute to the direction of the forces of plants and nutritional juices on the formation, growth and ripening of fruits.
Forming and pinching
First of all, the corona bud is broken out. The only exception is the need to obtain seed, then it should be left, allowed to fully ripen and cut to extract seeds. Caring for sweet peppers in a polycarbonate greenhouse necessarily includes formation and crazing, as the plants grow taller, the fruits form larger.
The culture is formed in 2-3 stalks. To do this, before the place of branching of the main shoots (at least up to 15-20 cm) it is required to break off all the leaves and twigs. Next, break down all unnecessary stepchildren, especially weak ones growing inside the bush. When staving remove excess shoots, flowers, leaves. It is recommended to leave 15-25 ovaries on one bush, then large fruits are grown. Removing the escape, you need to leave 1 leaf, because it feeds from the ovary, located under it.
The main stems several times during the growing season to pinch. When the fruit goes into a state of technical ripeness, cut the leaves on this stem of pepper. Last time to remove them no later than 1.5 months before the end of the harvest. The same terms for the final pinching of skeletal branches. Immediately all the leaves can not be removed, the plant can die, at a time you need to cut no more than 2-3 pieces.
When preparing the greenhouse, it is necessary to install a tapestry and stretch the wire at a height of 2 m. Using ribbons or twine attached to it, tie the bushes. For undersized varieties, you can install a support next to each plant. Garter sweet pepper in the greenhouse to hold carefully, trying not to damage the sprig. Do twine loop free, as for eggplants, wrap the stem in the lower part. The rest of the shoots tie round the several more times during the season.
Subtleties of care
To increase the yield of pepper in the greenhouse, you can, if it is properly grown, comply with all agronomic recommendations. A favorable microclimate will greatly facilitate care, but for a demanding culture it must be constantly maintained. Some nuances may be associated with varietal affiliation, so when buying seed, you should read the description.
Ventilate the greenhouse every day, avoiding drafts. Plantings regularly look for signs of ill health, nutritional deficiencies, and heavy thickening.
The culture is self-pollinated, but a slight shaking of the bushes favorably affects the formation of fruits.
It is necessary to care for sweet pepper in the greenhouse, observing:
- watering mode
- the formation of the bush
- prevention of diseases and pests,
- maintaining an optimal microclimate.
The most important event for the care of Bulgarian pepper in the greenhouse is to provide it with moisture. The first 3-5 days after planting seedlings do not water. Then you need to use only distilled warm water, because of the cold plants may die. The procedure is carried out in the morning, if necessary, repeat in the evening. Optimally watered 1 time in 2 days. In the period of flowering and fruiting, the ratio should be reduced to 2 times a week.
Water consumption per 1 bush - 0.5-1 l. When using a hose, make the pressure small so that the roots are not exposed. Culture responds better than others to drip irrigation.
Growing in the greenhouse of sweet pepper involves the regular introduction of organic and mineral additives. Organic matter is necessary for the formation of green mass. Fresh manure is prohibited to use, you can make humus or compost. Bird droppings make the environment acidic, therefore it is also undesirable for peppers, but it is permissible to use at a dilution of 1:20. Well established dressing infusions of herbs. Of mineral fertilizers, preference is given to the complex, developed specifically for this crop.
The first time to feed the plants 2 weeks after transfer to the greenhouse. A guideline is the young leaves, which are formed after the seedlings take root in a new place. You can get a good harvest by fertilizing every 14 days after that. It is practiced to conduct foliar fertilizing, especially when symptoms of a lack of any nutrient appear.
Loosening and mulching
Breeding peppers in a greenhouse requires the elimination of a thick earth crust formed after watering. Air access is necessary for the root system, otherwise the bush may die. Mulching is carried out in order to facilitate care, as it eliminates the need for loosening, prevents the growth of weeds, and retains water in the soil.
You can soil the soil with straw, sunflower seed husks, compost or sawdust.
Diseases and pests
When growing peppers in a greenhouse, regularly look at the bushes for signs of infection or insect infestation. The most dangerous:
- bacterial cancer,
- white rot,
- greenhouse whitefly,
- spider mite,
Plant protection provides prevention. When symptoms of ill health appear, it is necessary to take immediate action using permitted biological preparations and folk methods. Diseased bushes can be immediately removed from the beds and destroyed, because the infection will spread quickly in the greenhouse, and not only pepper, but also neighboring crops, primarily solanaceous, may suffer.
How to accelerate the ripening of peppers in the greenhouse
All agrotechnical measures can be divided into thorough care and incentive measures. The first will avoid the delay in the formation and ripening of fruits. The second in an unheated greenhouse will add 2 weeks to the end of the fruiting period, will contribute to accelerated ripening. In a heated building, the pepper matures all year round.
Harvest can be faster if you provide:
- regular loosening of the soil to a depth of 5-7 cm
- foliar dressing ash infusion,
- harvesting fruits that have reached technical maturity
- pinching of the crown bud, pasynkovanie shoots located below the fruit,
- sufficient lighting and temperature.
The fruiting of green pepper grown continues until the onset of stable cold weather. In heated constructions you can harvest all year round. Early ripening varieties mature for 90 days, late ripening varieties - for 130 days. To remove the fruit is recommended when they reach technical maturity - the normal size, but the color is not characteristic of the variety. Vegetable carefully cut with scissors along with the stalk. Immature peppers can last up to 2 months and reach biological ripeness.
The shelf life of such fruits is longer, it is convenient to transport them. With physiological ripeness, the harvest will not be stored for a long time, because it requires processing.
Bulgarian pepper in the greenhouse gives a high yield. When grown in greenhouses, it is easier to create a favorable microclimate. It is important to pass the plants on time, leave no more than 2-3 stems.
Optimal conditions for growing peppers in the greenhouse
To care for the pepper in the greenhouse gave good results, you should consider the features of the plant.
Pepper is an unpretentious plant, it is rather simple to grow it. Caring for peppers in the greenhouse is the proper planting and the formation of bushes, in a balanced top dressing, in ensuring adequate lighting and watering, as well as in protection from diseases and pests.
An important nuance - the Bulgarian pepper in the greenhouse should be planted as far as possible from other varieties. Planted in close proximity, the plants are pollinated, and an undesirable hybrid can be obtained.
Landing methods, their pros and cons
How to grow lettuce in closed ground? Cultivation and care in the greenhouse begin with planting. You can sow the seeds directly into the ground, and you can plant purchased or grown seedlings. Most growers prefer the second (seedling) method.
For planting seedlings is good to use paper cups. In this case, it is enough to press the bottom of the tank, and the plant can be easily removed along with the soil clod. Wooden boxes are also used, but with this method of planting young plants can be damaged during transplantation.
If the method of growing in cups is chosen, then there is no need for a dive plant procedure. When planting seeds in the garden the plants also do not need a pick. The latter method has such a minus: when planting in a box or pots, it is possible to choose the strongest plants, when landing in the ground, selection is made directly on the garden, and when culling poor quality and weak plants, voids can form, and finishing it is not the best option.
Preparation of seeds and seedlings. Landing
The best care in the greenhouse for pepper will not give good results if you use low-quality planting material. To get a strong seedling, it is important to have good seeds. Bought in stores, unfortunately, not always high quality. Therefore, it is better to purchase them from proven growers or prepare it yourself. To do this, take the seeds from the ripe and high-quality fruit, dried and stored in a paper bag. Sachets are preferably inscribed. All pepper seeds look almost the same and are easy to confuse. It is not recommended to use seeds after 3-4 years of storage.
The soil mixture is composed of leaf humus with the addition of coarse sand and ash. Both are taken at the rate of two hundred grams per bucket of humus mixture.
Lettuce pepper is planted shallowly, on high beds, at the rate of 6-8 plants per square meter.
When to sow the seeds in the ground, and when seedlings plant peppers? Planting and care in the greenhouse begin earlier than when grown in open ground. Because pepper is a heat-loving plant and does not tolerate frosts, and in greenhouse conditions it is easier for it to provide the necessary thermal conditions.
If the greenhouse is unheated, an important factor is the soil temperature not below plus 15 degrees Celsius. At low temperatures, plants grow poorly. At a temperature of plus 4 degrees, the roots of the plant die off. Ideally, the soil should warm up to plus 19-21 degrees Celsius.
We continue to consider the care of the pepper in the greenhouse.
Forming a bush
Seedlings of peppers — grown or peeled into cups — are pinched when it reaches the stage of seven to nine true leaves. This allows you to get strong healthy bushes. If the seedlings do not pinch, the plant is stretched and becomes frail. Tweaking on late dates is undesirable. It contributes to stunted growth and flowering.
Good results are achieved by taking care of the pepper in the greenhouse, if large-fruited (lettuce) varieties of Bulgarian pepper remove the first flowers and all the additional shoots. Leave two or three side shoots, which, after reaching 20 cm in length, are pinched and tied.
Low-growing varieties with smaller fruits usually do not need to be staked, but in cases of strong branching, it is necessary to thin the shrub, removing excess branches so as not to thicken the planting. Excessively thick green mass prevents the formation of ovaries and is a favorable environment for the development of fungal and viral diseases, as well as the appearance of insect pests.
Lighting and watering
Pepper is demanding on the nutritional value of the soil, moisture and light. The lack of moisture can lead to the fact that the flowers and the resulting fruit ovaries fall off. Optimum humidity should be from 40 to 50%, and the soil should be moderately wet, without drying, but without excessive flooding. Excessive soil moisture contributes to the formation of various types of rot, as well as the development of the disease, known as the "black leg".
Sweet pepper loves sunny weather, but in the heat the greenhouse needs to be shaded to keep the fruit strong.
How to get a full - beautiful and large - Bulgarian pepper? Cultivation and care in the greenhouse necessarily involves regular feeding. The mode of applying dressings is similar to the mode for tomatoes and eggplants. Feed the pepper with an interval of 10-14 days with urea, as well as complex fertilizers. Special attention should be paid to the potash balance. The lack of this element is very adversely affecting the growth and condition of the fruit. It is useful when loosening between rows to make wood ash at the rate of half a glass per square meter.
If pepper care in a greenhouse is organized correctly, then diseases in this vegetable crop practically do not arise. Weed removal, fertilizing, optimal moisture and protection from direct sunlight will ensure a good harvest without pesticides. At the exit, the grower will receive an environmentally friendly product.
Most often, peppers suffer from such diseases:
- Stolbur. Affected plants produce ugly and spotted fruits, the leaves wither and fall. The disease is not treatable. Affected plants are recommended to be removed and burned. The place where the diseased plant was located is watered abundantly with a solution of manganese-acid potassium.
- Phytoplasmosis. Manifested in root rot, drying leaves, chopping fruit. With this disease, proper care for the pepper in the greenhouse does not help, you can cope only with the help of chemical treatment of the bushes.
- Verticillosis. Fungal disease. Today there are many varieties that are resistant to this lesion.
It is worth paying attention to the fact that the most capricious and prone to diseases of pepper varieties from overseas countries. Domestic varieties are much easier to care for, grow and are less prone to various diseases.
Pests and control measures
Proper care of Bulgarian pepper in a greenhouse is also in the fight against pests of this vegetable:
- Aphid. It may appear with frequent use of organic fertilizers. To destroy it, both chemical preparations and tobacco extract are used, which is much more harmless. When aphids appear, it is necessary to reduce the use of nitrogenous fertilizers of organic origin (manure, poultry droppings, urea) and more often to ventilate the greenhouse. Besides the fact that the aphid itself is a pest, it is also a carrier of viral and fungal diseases.
- Slugs Their appearance indicates excessive moisture. Snails and slugs are removed manually. In between rows you can pour a large river sand or put sandpaper stripes.
- Spider mite To combat it, it is recommended to spray the plants every five days with a decoction of onion peel at the rate of one cup per liter of water. The treatment is carried out for three weeks. You can use special insecticides, but remember that chemistry is used before the appearance of the fruit.
- Colorado beetle - the most active pest. It is collected from the bushes by hand. Well helps the treatment of plants with a strong decoction of the celandine.