Since ancient times, people have known wild grapes. He was one of the first berry crops, because of which a man began to lead a sedentary lifestyle. For the cultivation and harvest of its ripe fruit is necessary for a long time, and this required to live in one place. Today, many gardeners are often interested in the question of how to plant grapes. There are certain rules for planting berries:
- To get a rich harvest, you should choose the right place for the plant. It is best to place a vineyard on a plot with lots of sun. At the same time, groundwater should be low.
- The site should be protected from cold winds, so it is better to plant grapes on the south side of the fence. If you put the plant in the center of the garden, it is better that it is located next to the currant. If your site has an acidic soil, then before planting its berries should be lime and sate with humus.
- Given the climate, planting of green cuttings (with a closed root system) should be made at the end of May. Planting grapes with open roots can be carried out in April.
- Seedlings must be purchased immediately before planting. In addition, you can plant and pre-germinated cuttings.
- Grape varieties also affect yield. Should take into account the resistance of seedlings to pests, diseases, bad weather conditions. Experts advise choosing varieties that have stable fruit bearing and strong ovaries, for example, Aladdin, Harold, Impulse, Galahad.
How to plant a besyamny method
The technology of planting grapes without pits is used by summer residents, whose plots are located on stony or clay soils, as well as when the groundwater is too high. The main idea of such a landing is that under poor soil conditions, place the grapes in a good soil layer at the desired depth for them. To grow berries, you will need:
- take chubuki and plant them in boxes without a bottom 150 cm long and 40 cm wide,
- 2 years in the space between the boxes should be folded leaves, mowed grass, furnace ash and sprinkle with earth,
- as a result, a fertile layer of soil is formed; high stable yields can be obtained from the vineyard.
How to plant grapes cuttings
If you do not know how to plant the cuttings of grapes, you can use the following step-by-step instruction:
- It is necessary to use only green shoots that are easily rooted and take root.
- Cut them better two weeks before flowering.
- Green seedlings should be cut into two-point cuttings, cut, remove the lower leaves and put in a bucket of water.
- Planting grapes in spring cuttings carried out in special pits.
- Digging a hole 80 centimeters deep, 60 cm in diameter,
- We pour 10 cm of rubble on the bottom.
- In the south-western part of the pit we put a pipe with a diameter of 50 mm and a length of one meter.
- Take the soil and mix with humus.
- The resulting mixture is put in the pit and well tamped, we fall asleep on top of the ground.
- We plant grapes.
- Here's how to water the grapes after planting: water must be defended and used for the plant every three days, while after irrigation the soil should be loosened,
- when the roots grow to top dressing, the grapes will grow, begin to bloom and bear fruit.
Planting grapes in spring seedlings
- The soil for the grapes must be prepared in the fall.
- A place to land should be sunny, the soil - loam and black earth.
- When buying seedlings, they should be carefully examined so that there are no damage by pests and signs of disease.
- The most suitable material for planting is an annual sapling with three roots, more than 2 mm thick, 10 cm long.
- Before planting, all seedlings must be properly sanitized, immersing them for 5 minutes in a solution of hexachlorane.
- The distance between plants should be 2 meters.
- You should not do a smaller distance due to deterioration of ventilation, further lighting and shelters for the winter.
- Prepare planting pits with a diameter of 80 cm, a depth of 90 cm.
- The bottom is covered with broken brick.
- Insert the pipe through which watering will be carried out.
- Fill the pit with fertilized soil.
- Moisturize the soil.
- We plant the grapes: we establish a sapling with roots to the south, with buds to the north.
- Cover with 10 cm of soil.
- By the end of summer, the vine can reach two meters, next year there will be a small harvest.
- The term of ripening fruits can reach several months.
- In case of transplantation, it is necessary to take a sapling with a lump of earth in order not to injure the roots.
How to plant grapes in autumn
The fruits of the plant for a long time retain useful vitamins and substances, and besides, juice and wine are made from berries. In order to successfully grow a plant, it is necessary to know the characteristics of vine care, how to plant grapes in autumn, in spring. It is proved that the best period for planting seedlings is autumn October, because the plant will have time to harden and take root before the onset of frost. Rules for planting autumn grapes:
- It is better to choose shoots 40 cm long and with a diameter of at least 8 mm.
- Seedling preparation consists of cutting the upper parts of the shoot, removing the side roots.
- Before planting, the roots should be lowered into a special “mash”, consisting of manure, water, and clay.
- We dig a hole 70 cm in diameter and 90 cm deep.
- Down we lay 7 cm of drainage, then we put thick paper.
- Be sure to install the drain pipe at the edge of the pit.
- We cover the soil with humus, sand and fertilizer.
- The plant is placed in the center of the heel, straighten the roots to the south.
- We pour a bucket of water.
- When moisture is absorbed, fall asleep soil.
When to plant
To grow a rich harvest of grapes is a painstaking work that requires time and constant attention, although hard work will be rewarded with sweet clusters of beautiful berries. Many gardeners often argue about when the grapes should be planted. This can be done both in the fall and in the spring, and in each case there are specific features:
- Most growers for planting prefer autumn. Seedlings at this time are at rest. In addition, the ground is well-moistened in the fall, so do not need abundant watering. The only negative of the autumn planting - the plant can die if it is too cold winter.
- Spring planting involves a more thorough preparation of planting material. It is possible to order the necessary variety, slowly prepare chubuk. With such a planting your seedlings will not freeze.
The distance between the bushes is called the landing pattern. From her choice depends on the yield and plant growth. As a rule, the scheme consists of two sizes - the distance between the bushes in the row and the distance among the landing lines. Planting depends on soil fertility, grape varieties, the formation of the bush. Vigorous plants should be planted with long distances in a row. The site is divided with the orientation of the lines from north to south, which further allows the sun to better illuminate the berries. The distance between the rows should be on average 2 or 3 meters, in the middle of the bushes 1.5-2 meters.
Where is the best place to plant grapes?
Choosing the most suitable place for planting grapes, you should focus not only on the aesthetic look of the garden, but also on the needs of the plant for its most comfortable development, and most importantly - yield. Therefore, before you buy seedlings for the future of the vineyard is to learn about it a few facts.
- Grapes - a perennial plant, so you need very responsibly, and most importantly in advance, to choose a landing site for it. It is important to take into account the biological characteristics of the selected variety, for further obtaining maximum yield.
- Another fact worth knowing about grapes is the rejection of shaded places. With this in mind, you need to choose the southern or western side of the site, as well as to avoid planting near tall trees.
- Almost all grape varieties are thermophilic and do not tolerate temperature fluctuations in the winter season. Therefore, it is necessary to select the place where it will be protected from strong wind and low temperatures as carefully as possible. The most suitable, in this case, for the plant will be located near the walls of the main building or homestead buildings. The thing is that during the day, the walls to a certain extent warm up from the sun, which allows them to give off excess heat to the vine at night. In addition, this arrangement greatly accelerates the time of ripening berries. If there is a question, which grape is better to plant, then the choice should be given to zoned seedlings.
- As for the need for a particular type of soil, in this regard, the grapes are completely unpretentious. But nevertheless there is a certain nuance - the yields are different for saplings planted in the fertile, but rocky form of the soil. The drainage qualities of this soil prevent stagnation of moisture, which contributes to the soil oversaturation with lime and salts. All this can have a negative impact on the grapes.
The most suitable time for planting grapes
- The autumn and spring season are equally suitable for planting young saplings of grapes in the ground. From late April until mid-May, annual seedlings are planted with an already woody trunk. But from the end of May and all of June, green vegetative grapes can be planted.
- As for the autumn planting of saplings, it is usually made in the period from October until the first frosts. The technique has practically no differences from the spring season, with the exception of careful protection of young grapes from sudden temperature changes. As a rule, for this, grapes are covered with peat, needles or sawdust.
Preparation of seedlings for planting
Of course, only healthy grape saplings are suitable for planting. How to check it? There are several factors that indicate quality.
- Bottom slice young sapling must necessarily have a white color. Its brown tint indicates the unsuitability of escape.
- The one-year appendix must be matured with a bright green cut.
- A suitable seedling is distinguished by dense buds, which do not fall away with a light touch.
These rules are suitable for planting girlish grapes, although he is more unpretentious.
Before planting the grapes by cuttings, it is necessary to prepare them for planting:
- from the bottom the cutting is cut so as to leave 1 cm to the first bud and about 2 cm above the top,
- for the next 24 hours, seedlings should be soaked in an aqueous solution with a tablespoon of honey to further enhance growth,
- after the soaking process, the cuttings are thoroughly dried and paraffin-coated. To do this, you need a liter capacity, which mixes 15 grams of wax and resin, 300 grams of paraffin and water. The mixture must be heated, stirring well. Cuttings can be waxed separately or in several pieces; for this, they dip the upper part into the prepared mixture, and then into a container with cold water. During the procedure, no more than 6 cm of grape seedlings are processed,
- In addition to proper pruning and processing, young grape saplings need a preliminary hardening procedure, before direct planting in the ground. Otherwise, they can receive significant damage in direct sunlight,
- for one week, the vegetative seedlings are kept under a canopy or in the dense shade of trees. Then about 10 days in natural sunlight. As for the seedlings that were grown in conditions of insufficient lighting and with violation of the temperature regime - for them the acclimatization period is extended by 1.5 times. Their appearance is more elongated shoots, and the leaves are pale green in color,
- young grape saplings that have not undergone a proper hardening procedure and are planted in open ground in early spring, respond to such conditions as the early onset of autumn. The result is a stunted growth, and the growth takes on a woody shape - in this way the sapling prepares for the intended winter. This is not critical for the plant. As closer to the middle of June, these seedlings resume active growth and development.
Planting grapes in black earth and clay
The order of planting grapes in black soil and clay.
- A recess is prepared under the woody sapling: 80 cm deep and 80 wide.
- The bottom is covered with a nutrient layer, the thickness is 25 cm. Its composition includes 10 buckets of humus mixed with fertile soil. After thorough tamping, this layer is covered with mineral fertilizers in the ratio: 300 grams of potash fertilizers, the same amount of superphosphate per 3 liters of wood ash. This layer also mixes with the soil and is lined in thickness - 10 cm. The next 5 cm is lined only with soil. Upon completion of all manipulations, a recess of 50 cm should remain.
- The next step is to form a small mound in the center of the dimple. A sapling is inserted in the middle and the roots are evenly distributed. Grapes are filled with fertile soil (black earth or clay) to the level of growth. Seedlings sprouted from shortened cuttings are laid vertically, but specimens longer than 25 cm should be planted at a slight inclination.
- After the seedling has been installed, and all the previous layers have been carefully tamped, the soil is watered with two to three buckets of water. After partial drying, the top layer is slightly loosened to a depth of about 10 cm.
- In the future, the grapes are watered two more times with an interval of two weeks. Then the soil is loosened again and mulch.
Tip: if you want to plant wild grapes (girlish), then everything is much easier. Best of all, he takes root in the fall. It is enough to cut off a vine of any length without roots. Lay it horizontally on the ground and prikopat fertile land so that all the processes (leaves) were on the surface. In the future, from each such leaflet, an independent vine will start growing. It is quite enough rains in autumn, so watering should be done only as needed.
Planting seedlings in sandy soil
What is the difference of planting grapes in sandy soil, if we compare this process, for example with clay or black soil?
- The thing is that at low temperatures, the sandy soil freezes faster and stronger, and in summer, respectively, it gets too warm. In addition, this type of soil practically does not retain moisture and nutrients, unlike fertile land.
- All these factors must be considered in the process of planting grapes. Thus, the recess under the sapling should reach a meter in depth. And to maintain moisture and to avoid the loss of nutrients at the bottom of the pit is placed especially dense layer. It is formed from clay soil at a height of not less than 20 cm. Fertilizers and nutrient mixture are poured over it (height - 25 cm).
- The most acceptable depth of planting seedlings in sandy soil is 60 cm. Taking care of the grapes will consist of regular watering, which will need to be carried out at intervals of seven days, with 4 full buckets of water.
Planting vegetative seedlings
- The deepening of the soil is prepared in the same way as when planting a woody seedling. The difference lies in the depth of the fossa, it should be 25 cm in clay and chernozem soil and about 20 cm in sand. All layers are thoroughly compacted and watered with 2-4 buckets of water at weekly intervals.
- After the soil shrinks, it is necessary to make a recess of 55 cm on clay or black soil and 65 cm on sand. The sapling that has undergone the hardening procedure is carefully removed from the planting container, and together with the earth is placed on the prepared depth of planting. The intermediate distance is filled with fertile soil, compacted and watered with one bucket of water.
- After planting, a woody peg is installed next to a growing seedling to further support the grape seedling.
Important: the plants which did not pass acclimatization are recommended to be shaded by means of a protective screen. To do this, it will be sufficient to place for 10 days on the south side of the planting - tree branches or sheets of plywood.
- In the first year, only one shoot should be left on the seedling, carefully remove the rest and tie the grapes to the peg.
Plant grapes in spring
- The spring planting of grapes ensures that by the beginning of the cold weather, he will gain the necessary power and is enough to get enough nutrients. This ensures the young seedling resistance to low temperatures.
- The preliminary preparation of the soil has a favorable effect on the development of young saplings. Thus, if the pits for grapes to prepare in advance - in the fall, then by the spring will be ready the ideal basis for planting, rich in natural fertilizers.
- Many grape varieties are able to produce a small crop in the second year. But this is only in the case of spring planting. Fruiting autumn seedlings, as a rule, is delayed by one year.
- К еще одному положительному моменту можно отнести благоприятный температурный режим весеннего сезона. Ведь осенью первые морозы могут не только повредить молодой побег, но и проморозить почву.
Но среди такого количества преимуществ, существует и ряд нюансов, которые стоит учитывать, выбирая весенний сезон для посадки винограда:
- недостаток влаги. В этот период потребуется дополнительный полив, который обеспечивается в осенний период естественным путем,
- lack of nutrients in the soil. This is especially true in early spring, when they need to be compensated by additional flooring of moss, sawdust and humus,
- high-quality grapes saplings go on sale in the autumn period, so the probability of acquiring frozen samples in spring is so great.
And yet spring is considered a favorable season for planting grape seedlings. There is only one question: is it possible to land at any time at any time? No, indeed, the planting period must be chosen, taking into account both the needs of the seedling and the temperature regime.
- The most optimal temperature is above 15 ° C. In addition, the indicators of soil temperature are also important, because they must reach at least 10 ° C. It is during this period that the best growing season occurs. Monthly this time interval will depend on the region. Since in one last frosts end until the end of March, and in the other night temperature drops occur until mid-April.
- In addition to the temperature regime, it is important to take into account the type of seedling: vegetative or stiff. The first option is available for sale in small containers with soil. These seedlings are characterized by the presence of a young shoot with leaves. Favorable landing period: from mid-May to the end of June. But the stiffened sapling is particularly viable, as it has a decorated root structure and buds. Therefore, even with early disembarkation, for example, in mid-April, he will already be able to withstand a change in climatic conditions.
How to plant grapes in autumn
In the planting of grapes in the autumn, there are also a lot of features. The advantages include the following factors.
- The humidity level at this time of the year has a positive effect on the growth and formation of young shoots of grapes. Additional watering is required only in the first few weeks after planting.
- Autumn seedlings tend to earlier development and the beginning of fruiting.
- But the main disadvantage can be attributed to the fact that young seedlings do not just move the frost and gusty wind, even with proper shelter.
- When choosing a period for planting grape seedlings in the ground, it is necessary to consider not only the advantages and disadvantages of each of them, but also the features of the selected variety.
Plant grapes video
Where to plant grapes
Before you purchase seedlings for your vineyard, find out the necessary information that will help ensure your plant the most comfortable development, and as a result - high yields.
The grape is a perennial plant, so you need to take a responsible attitude towards the choice of its place of residence. Important take into account biological features of the variety you have chosen for maximum yield in the future.
Another point that is worth paying special attention is the rejection of grapes in shaded places. In this regard, you need to choose for landing south or light west side plot, while avoiding the proximity of grapes with tall trees that will shade it.
Grape is heat-loving plantwhich badly transfers temperature drops especially in the winter period. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully select a place on the site where it will be protected as much as possible from low temperatures and strong winds. The most suitable place for grapes in this case will be the walls of the main building, as well as homestead buildings.
Heat from the walls, which are heated during the day from the sun will be given to the vine at night. In addition, this arrangement will significantly speed up the time of ripening berries. And if the question arises about choosing grapes for planting, it is better to give preference to zoned seedlings.
Grapes are not whimsical as far as the soil is concerned, but there is a certain nuance. Landed in fertile and stony ground he will give the highest yields. This is due to the fact that the drainage qualities of such a soil prevent the stagnation of moisture, which can contribute to the accumulation of lime and salt. And this has a negative effect on grapes.
When is it best to plant grapes
Planting of young grape seedlings in the soil is carried out in spring and autumn. Annual seedlings with a woody trunk are planted in late April - mid May, and green growing grapes - late May - all of June.
Autumn planting usually produce in October and before the first frost. At the same time, young grapes are protected from sudden temperature changes with the help of peat, needles or sawdust.
Landing ligneous sapling
- Under the woody seedling prepare a hole 80 to 80 cm in depth and width, respectively.
- The bottom is covered with a 25 cm thick nutrient layer. It includes humus mixed with fertile soil (10 buckets). After ramming, this layer is covered with mineral fertilizers: potash 300 grams, the same amount of superphosphate per 3 liters of wood ash. All this is also mixed with the soil and lined with a thickness of 10 cm.
- Then the next 5 cm is lined with primer only.
- After all the manipulations there should be a recess of about 40 cm.
- Next, form a small mound in the center of the recess, insert the seedling in the middle, evenly distributing the roots, and fill it with fertile soil to the level of growth.
- After installing the seedling and tamping all layers, the soil is poured over with water (2–3 buckets). And after partial drying, the upper layer is slightly loosened to a depth of ten centimeters.
- In the future, the grapes are watered 2 more times with a two-week interval. After that, the soil again loosened and mulch.
In the autumn enough raintherefore, watering is carried out only if there is an urgent need for it.
Spring planting of grapes - when to plant
Planting grapes in the spring, you are guaranteed to provide him with the necessary power and saturation of nutrients to the onset of cold weather. The young seedling will additionally acquire immunity to low temperatures.
For the favorable development of young seedlings soil needs pre-prepare. If the holes are prepared from autumn, then a good basis for planting young plants, saturated with natural fertilizers, will be prepared in the spring.
Spring temperature is another positive point for grape seedlings, since in the fall, with the arrival of the first frost, young shoots can be damaged.
Although along with the benefits of spring planting, take into account some nuancesNamely: in the autumn period, watering is carried out mainly by natural means, and in the spring additional watering is required.
Due to the lack of the necessary amount of nutrients in the soil, especially in early spring, it is necessary to make floorings of humus, sawdust or moss.
But despite these minor drawbacks, spring is still considered favorable period for planting grapes saplings. Although the specific time of planting should be chosen based on the needs of the seedling, as well as taking into account the temperature regime.
The most favorable temperature is considered over 15 degrees. No less important is the indicator of soil temperature, which should reach at least 10 degrees. The best vegetation of a sapling occurs precisely at this temperature.
By months, the time intervals for planting seedlings vary depending on the region, since the last frosts end in different climatic zones not at the same time.
In addition to temperature, it is necessary to take into account the type of seedling. He might be vegetative or stiff. A favorable period for planting a vegetative seedling is the middle of May - the end of June.
And in view of the fact that the sapling stiffened very viable, having an already established root structure, he will be able to withstand climatic changes even with early disembarkation from mid-April.
General recommendations for planting grape seedlings
- Properly chosen soil is a guarantee for good grape development. Fertile lands such as chernozem or light soils will contribute to the rapid and healthy development of seedlings.
- Among other things, should take into account the proximity of groundwater. If they are at a level of 1.5 meters in depth, then it is imperative to equip the drainage system.
- Timely irrigation and fertilization of the soil with mineral elements is also an important moment.
- The correct scheme of placement of seedlings during planting will provide the plant with the maximum amount of coverage, and also does not violate the mutual development of the root system. Therefore, when planting grapes on a plot, it is necessary to preserve standard indents, which should be 2–2.5 meters.
- If you decide to place the seedlings near the buildings, then indentation should be made not less than 0.5 meters.
- It should also not be forgotten that the distance from nearby tall and dense trees and shrubs should be between 0.5 and 0.7 meters.
How to plant grapes: errors
Saplings with a weak root system may linger in development or not take root at all. In addition, such plants rarely produce good yields.
By purchasing seedlings of an unknown variety, you risk facing the need for uprooting and the financial costs of acquiring a new one. Seedlings that do not correspond to the climatic zone will also be replaced in the future, because their fruits will not have time to ripen during the season.
A common mistake is planting grapes. in the north side of the plot or near trees. In this variant of planting the plant will spend a lot of effort on its development, and the harvest will be located on the top shoots and will be minimal.
Formation of a shallow pit for planting limits sapling in nutrients and affects its development. Excessive deepening is also fraught with negative consequences, which slow down the development, since the deep layers of the soil are a kind of “cooler” for grape roots.
Too shallow deepening affects the consumption of water by grape seedlings and greatly complicates the process of covering the plant for the winter.
Improper grape planting (thickening) leads to an increase in the number of different fungal diseases. In addition, the seedlings will conduct a fierce struggle between each other for lighting and water consumption, which, accordingly, will negatively affect their development, and ultimately, on yield.
If you plant only female varieties without potential and important pollinator varieties, then you may encounter a problem that will lead to the grinding of the grape harvest. Therefore, it is recommended for six or seven "female" bushes land at least one pollinating.
If you are going to plant young saplings of grapes, you should initially understand that this is a rather laborious and responsible process. And here it is necessary not only to choose the right young saplings that are able to withstand certain climatic conditions or soil properties, but also qualitatively conduct appropriate training to the landing of young plants.
Compliance with all the recommendations that have been voiced in this article will be a good help for the cultivation of the vineyard in your garden. As a result, by applying your diligence and patience to this knowledge, you will surely be generously rewarded with a rich grape harvest.
General rules for planting grapes
- The most important for the development of grapes is the correctly chosen soil. Fertile lands: black soil and light soils are exactly what seedlings need.
- In addition, it is necessary to take into account the level of groundwater. If their oscillation reaches the boundaries of 1.5 meters deep, then it is imperative to equip the drainage system.
- An important point is the fertilization of the soil with mineral additives and timely watering.
- Planting grapes involves a scheme of placement of seedlings, in which they receive the maximum amount of lighting and do not violate the mutual growth of the root system.
- When planting grapes at the site, it is necessary to maintain indents from 2 to 2.5 meters.
- When placing seedlings near buildings, the indentation should be at least 0.5 meters.
- The distance from dense and tall trees and shrubs is 0.5-0.7 meters.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of planting grapes in spring
For planting all garden crops, the most preferred autumn period. But most people do landing in the spring. Of course, it's up to you when to plant grapes. And we just tell about the disadvantages and advantages of landing grapes in open ground in spring.
Over the summer period bush gets well acclimatized in a permanent place, manages to get stronger for a successful wintering. Planting a seedling in the spring will save you from thinking than to cover it from the winter cold. Before planting grape seedlings need to carry out preparatory work. From autumn you need to prepare the ground (dig and fertilize it). This will greatly increase soil fertility.that will positively affect the survival rate of the seedling. After the first growing season, many grape varieties are ready to bear fruit again the following year in the form of seedlings. If you plant a crop in the autumn, it will be a year later.
In the spring, it is better to calculate the landing time. In the autumn, the first frosts can unexpectedly hit, which will negatively affect the seedlings and the ground itself. Many beginner vineyards planted seedlings in the spring. This gives great assurance that the bushes will take root.
But there are also negative sides. This may affect your decision. planting grapes in the spring and decline the choice of the season in favor of autumn. In spring, saplings may not have enough moisture in the soil. And this will create you extra chores for watering. Only plants planted in the ground poorly absorb moisture, but without it they can dry out.
In spring, the soil will need to be dug up and mulched with moss, sawdust or humus. Failure to plant a plant may be delayed, which will lead to various fungal diseases. In the autumn you can find the best seedlings., and in the spring you can sell dried or frostbitten.
Where to plant grapes best
When choosing a place, be guided by the needs of the culture for the most comfortable development and good yield.
Here are a few factors.that you need to know when choosing a culture for your garden:
- Grapes are a perennial crop. For this reason, it is necessary to prepare a place for it in advance. In order to get a rich harvest in the future, you need to take into account the biological characteristics of the variety.
- Grapes do not like dark places. Avoid planting near tall trees. On the site you need to choose the west or south side.
- Almost every grape variety loves warmth. This culture does not tolerate temperature changes in winter. Because of this, choose less windy places on your estate. The most suitable landing sites are areas near the walls of buildings. This arrangement is connected with the fact that during the daytime the walls are heated by the sun's heat, and at night this heat is given in some part to the vine of the vine. This arrangement can accelerate the ripening of berries.
- In the characteristics of the soil, this culture is unpretentious. But still there is one feature - the yield will be better if you plant the plants in fertile, but rocky soil. In this case, drainage qualities prevent the stagnation of water, contributing to the glut of the earth with salts and lime. This can adversely affect grapes.
It is possible to plant grape saplings both in the fall, and in the spring. It is better, of course, to do this in early spring, when the soil, after the winter cold, managed to warm up to 6–8. At this time, the "crying" of vineyards usually begins. That is, the beginning of active sap flow in the plant. Kilchevye chubuki sit down a little later. The soil should warm up to 10-12 degrees. In the southern regions, where winter is not so severe and the land does not freeze over much, planting of grape seedlings can be carried out in the fall. At the time when the leaves were showered, before the onset of cold weather.
If planting takes place in the fall, the mounds of the earth should be larger than in the spring. To avoid damage to seedlings by frost.
What to plant
Material for planting are cuttings or seedlings (rooted cuttings). Saplings or cuttings are of two types:
In those areas where the soil deeply freezes and there is a risk of frost damage to the roots, planting of grafted seedlings is practiced. Also this type of planting material is used in those places where the soil is infected with phylloxera. If the weather conditions are favorable, the winters are not too cold and the soil is free from phylloxera, they cultivate their own grapes.
Grafted seedlings are much more resistant to low temperatures and some diseases.
Growing seedlings from cuttings, perhaps the main method of reproduction of grapes. This is a fairly simple way that even a novice gardener can handle. The most important thing is to get the chubuki of the variety that I would like to plant and know how to germinate the cuttings of grapes correctly. In autumn, when the leaves will fall, but before the frost is necessary:
- Нарезать из лозы понравившегося винограда черенки диаметром минимум 5 мм с 5–7 почками,
- Обработать их раствором 1% медного купороса для уничтожения спор болезней,
- Замочить на один-два дня в воде,
- Высушить на свежем воздухе до исчезновения капель воды и сложить в полиэтиленовый пакет, в который по возможности засыпать опилки.
- Температура хранения 6–7°C влажность чуть ниже 100 процентов.
In the spring, the saved cuttings keep some time in the water until the roots appear. Then they are planted in open ground.
It is advisable to inoculate grapes in spring. Of course, for each term there are different rules according to which this operation should be carried out. What gives the vaccine? This manipulation allows the grape plant to be made more resistant to various diseases and pests. In addition, vaccination makes it possible to get completely different varieties on the same root system. With this manipulation, you can rejuvenate grapes. Cultivate new varieties with improved taste.
Grafting a grape is a rather complicated procedure that requires certain training and skills.
Grape reproduction by layouts is quite a simple method and was known in ancient times. The advantage of this method is that you can easily upgrade an old grapevine, grow new seedlings or fill an empty place with a new plant next to the mother bush.
In the vineyard is chosen any healthy and well-developed escape. For him, dig a small groove 10-20 cm in depth. Then it fits into the shoot, fastened with wire clips and sprinkles on top of the earth with humus. The end of the vine must remain above the ground. It must be strengthened, tied to a support. Next, the vine planted in the groove must be watered with water, having previously dissolved a small amount of manganese. Until a little pink. When the shoot has a full-fledged root system, it can be separated from the mother tree.
In the hot season, cuttings must be watered at least three times a month.
How to choose seedlings for a good harvest
The key to a good vineyard is quality planting material. From the correct choice of grapes, the state of the seedling depends on its further development and yield. It is better to acquire planting material in specialized nurseries, which are professionally engaged in the breeding of various varieties. Depending on the weather in the region, the composition of the soil, it is necessary to decide which type of seedlings is better to plant. Vaccinated, which are more resistant to frost and phylloxera or rooted own, grown from cuttings.
For the proper planting of grape seedlings it is necessary to take into account all the details that may affect the future harvest. And this:
- Choosing the right place
- Depth of planting material in the ground,
- The distance between the bushes and between the rows,
- Soil moisture,
- The thickness of the layer of humus and making the necessary for the growth of fertilizing,
- Protection against low temperatures, if the grapes are not frost resistant.
Novice gardeners often make a mistake when they first plant grapes. Planting material is laid in the soil too small. Because of this, the roots of seedlings, with the onset of frost, freeze.
Choosing a place
Grapes are a sun-loving plant, which means that the sunny, southern side of the backyard plot will be an ideal place for planting. The area should be protected from permanent drafts. It is better to plant grapes near the walls of the house, along the fence or other buildings on the territory. During the day, the walls warm slightly in the sun and at night they give off heat to the plants. In addition, the grapes will be protected from strong winds and low temperatures, which means that the ripening of the berries will occur much faster.
Given that the grapes do not like shady places, you should avoid planting near tall trees.
Grapes grow on almost any soil with the exception of salt marshes. Nor will the place where the ground water comes too close to the surface. It is advisable to prepare a hole for planting a grape seedling a little in advance. For this you need:
- dig a hole 60–70 cm wide
- pour into it two buckets of rotted manure, two buckets of the top layer of fertile soil, a jar of ash from burnt wood, 150–200 grams of superphosphate,
- mix well in the pit soil with fertilizer.
The distance between the bushes should be at least 1.5, and in the aisle 2 meters.
When planting a sapling near the house, it is necessary to retreat from the wall one and a half to two meters so that in the future the growing strong roots of the vineyard do not damage the foundation.
Time and landing time
Grapes can be planted in both spring and autumn. Autumn or spring planting has both advantages and disadvantages. The sapling planted in the spring does not have to winter in the open field, thereby eliminating the risk of damage from frost. During the summer, planting material gains strength and strengthens its root system. The advantage of autumn planting is that it excludes the possibility of spoiling the seedling during storage due to the lack of storage as such. Planting material, properly sheltered from low temperatures, during the winter passes a certain acclimatization at a new place. The roots, though not so active, but still grow even in winter, because the rhizomes, unlike the ground part of the plant, do not have a state of rest.
To get high yields from the vineyard, plants need proper care:
- competent, correct pruning,
- holding katarovka at least twice in the summer,
- timely pasynkovanie to unload the bush and garter. The garter should be both dry and green shoots
- autumn and spring processing of grapes from diseases and pests,
- feeding of grapes with nitrogen fertilizers before the beginning of the growing season,
- installation of supports for grapes. Between the pillars should be stretched strong wire that can withstand not only the grape vines, but also pouring grapes. The first, closest to the ground, is stretched at a level of 50 cm. The second is 25 cm from the first crossbar and the next at a distance of 40 cm from each other.
Grapes also bear fruit in rainfed lands, but still for greater yield and longevity of the plant, it must be regularly watered. Shkolka poured everywhere. Fruiting vineyards are watered in irrigated areas of the southern regions of the country. When planting, schools for each meter give 25–35 liters of water. In the next 5–8 waterings during the growing season, 400–800 meters of cubic water per 1 ha are produced. When planting grapes under each bush poured 20 liters of water. In fruit-bearing vineyards, 800–1400 cubic meters of water per 1 ha is used for each irrigation.
How it is correct and how often to water grapes read here.
Many grape varieties do not like excessive moisture, so watering plants should be moderate.
After trimming is necessary to carry out the garter. This procedure is to tie up last year's vines with a string to a wire that is stretched between the pole supports. Tie shoots horizontally in order to ensure uniform development of all ocelli. As the young shoots grow, they are directed upwards. This operation is called a green garter. At the first green garter, the young shoots are fixed to the second wire from the ground. With further growth, they are tied to the third, fourth. During the summer, 3-4 green garters are produced.
About the quality and proper garter grape read here.
Many grape varieties have bisexual flowers. Sometimes for physiological reasons, they fall off, and this leads to looseness of the hands.. This deficiency can be eliminated by pinching the tops of the fruiting shoots at the very beginning of flowering or in front of it. The most effective this process will be on the bushes and shoots with great growth force. After a temporary suspension of growth as a result of pinching, nutrients are not spent on growth, but are used for the development of inflorescences.
Pinching is not carried out on table varieties for which looseness of grapes is desirable.
The use of mineral and organic fertilizers significantly increase the yield of grapes. We can recommend the following plant feeding scheme:
- In the southern regions of the country Before opening of the bushes in the spring, superphosphate, ammonium sulfate (200 g and 100 grams, respectively) are added under each bush. Depth 40 cm.
- Before bud break - Nitrogen, phosphoric, and at the beginning of ripening berries - phosphoric and potash.
- Before flowering, during flowering and at the beginning of maturation superphosphate, ammonium sulphate, potash salt (30: 20: 10). In grams under each bush. Depth of application is up to 35 cm. It is advisable to feed bushes with organic fertilizers once every three years. Not less than 15 kg of humus under each bush. It should be remembered that in the spring mineral fertilizers are not used in this case.
In order to regulate the development of the bush of grapes and its fruiting, it is imperative to cut the vine. Young bushes at the same time form. Trimming biennial and older bushes must be aware of their load. Pruning happens:
- Short. Trying to leave 2-3 eyes. An example of such pruning is a cup-shaped form, for example, a Crimean bowl.
- Long. The shoots are cut with shears, leaving 6 or more buds on the vine. An example is a large fan formation.
- Mixed Some of the vines are often cut fairly short (knots), and some are long - for fruit shoots. This pruning is the most common and is called pruning on the fruit link.
About how to properly cut the grapes in the fall, read this material.
In order to properly trim a bush, you must take into account the adopted form. And also take into account the morphological and biological characteristics of the variety, weather and climatic conditions, the degree of damage to shoots by frost.
Diseases and pests, such as phylloxera, cause great damage to vineyards. Not only the crop suffers, but the vine does not ripen. And undisturbed shoots do not tolerate winter frosts.
About what to do if phylloxera appeared on grapes, read this article.
Among the most common diseases are mildew, oidium, anthracnose. As well as black, white, gray rot. Even if the site is planted against disease resistant grapes, then you need to remember that adverse weather conditions can trigger the spread of fungal diseases. Therefore, in order to prevent autumn, the bushes and the soil around them should be treated with a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture. In the spring before blooming buds should spray bushes with a solution of the same concentration. But if the signs of diseases appeared on the shoots and leaves, then use a 3% solution of copper sulfate and freshly topped lime. But it is better in this case to treat the bushes with a fungicide.
This video shows the correct planting of seedlings and the proper cultivation of seedlings of grapes from cuttings.
To get a good harvest from the vineyard it is necessary to make some efforts. Namely:
- Prepare a plot and soil for planting grapes.
- Pick or grow planting material.
- Observing all the rules plant seedlings in open ground.
After the seedlings grow, prune and heat up.
- For unloading bush pasynkovanie.
- Increase yield can be due to irrigation and fertilizing with mineral fertilizers. Also for good harvests timely pruning is important.
- Be sure to use for the prevention of fungal diseases spraying Bordeaux mixture. But in the case of the first signs of pathology go to the processing of the vineyard fungicides.
About the correct and effective pruning of grapes for the winter, read the link.
How to plant grapes. Common mistakes
- Planting seedlings with a weak root system - they can either not take root at all, or be delayed in development. In addition, such shoots are unlikely to give a good harvest.
- The purchase of seedlings of unknown varieties may result in the need to raskorchevki and purchase a new one. In saplings that do not correspond to the climatic zone, the fruits do not have time to ripen during the season, therefore in the future also need to be replaced.
- A common mistake is planting grapes near trees and on the north side of buildings on the site. In this case, the plant will spend all the power to grow, the crop will be low and it will be located on the upper shoots.
- Forming a shallow pit for planting, you need to know that this will limit the seedling in nutrients and affect its development.
- Excessive deepening will slow growth due to the effects of low temperatures in the deep layers of the soil.
- But the shallow deepening will affect the consumption of water by the seedling, and will make it impossible to shelter the vine for the winter.
- The thickening of the grape planting will lead to an increase in the number of fungal diseases, besides the seedlings will fight for water consumption and lighting.
- Planting only female varieties without potential pollinating varieties may result in shredding of the crop. It is recommended to plant one pollinating on six “female” bushes.
Planting young grape saplings is a rather laborious process. Not only is the choice of shoots capable of withstanding climatic conditions and soil properties, but also a high-quality preparation for planting. Observance of all nuances guarantees good indicators of development and fruiting of the future vineyard.
When is it better to plant grapes by cuttings
The choice of time for grafting grapes is largely determined by the effectiveness of planting. So, it is possible to meet the information that it is possible to carry out this procedure both in the spring, and in the fall. However, the experience of winegrowers shows that during the autumn planting cuttings often freeze. Do not save them, even measures to protect against frost. Consequently, spring planting is always more efficient and less labor-intensive.
The specific period of grapes grafting in spring depends on the climatic conditions of the growing region. The optimal period is the time when the temperature of the soil at a depth of 25-30 centimeters will reach 8-10 degrees Celsius:
- in the southern regions - the end of March - the middle of April,
- in the central regions - the beginning of April - the first of May,
- in the northern regions - the last days of April - the end of May.
When planting grapes in an open field, be guided not only by calendar dates, but also by weather conditions outside the window - the soil should be warm enough
If you still decide to plant the cuttings in the open ground in the fall, remember that in the northern regions this is not recommended. In other territories, this procedure is carried out two weeks before the onset of frosts: in the southern regions - at the end of October, in the central areas - in the middle of October. The optimum air temperature will not be above + 15 ° C and not below + 5 ° C.
It should be remembered that the cuttings planted in the fall, require additional protection from frost. Most often they do it like this:
- When planting above the hole poured earthen hill up to 30 cm.
- The cuttings are covered with plastic film or covered with a cut-off plastic bottle with three holes.
Harvesting and storage of planting material
Cuttings (Chubuk) are pieces of one-year-old fruiting vine. They can be purchased on the market, in specialized nurseries, or, if possible, prepare yourself. In the first case, there is a risk to be deceived by unscrupulous sellers and to buy grapes of the wrong sort or damaged cuttings as a result of improper storage (the method for checking the suitability of the cutting for planting will be described below).
Chubuki are harvested at the time of the autumn pruning of grapes - after falling leaves before the first frosts. Spring is not suitable for this process, because during winter hibernation the development of shoots does not occur.
In the southern regions, leaves from a grape plant do not always have time to crumble before the onset of frost. Therefore, cuttings can be harvested before this time. You only need to make sure that the vine has ripened. This period begins approximately in the second half of October - the beginning of November.
The tool used to cut rods (knife or pruner) must be sterile so as not to infect the plant.
As a donor, a one-year, well-ripened, flat, non-diseased vine with no mechanical damage on the surface is chosen. Cuttings are cut from its lower and middle parts. The diameter of the branch is from 6 to 12 mm (you must take into account the grape variety). The length of the twig can vary from 20 to 50 cm, the main thing is that there should be at least 2-3 developed buds on the handle.
From the bottom, the stalk is cut off 1 cm to the bud; from above, the stem should fall about 2 cm from the bud.
It is believed that the best breeding results give long cuttings. And experienced growers note that longer cuttings, for example, with 6 buds, are also easier to store until spring (they are cut in half before planting).
Estimate the maturity of the vine will help 1% iodine solution. It is necessary to analyze how the color of the slice on the vine changes when immersed in iodine: a light green color will indicate that the vine has not ripened, a violet-black shade indicates full maturation of the branch.
Chopped chubukov are formed in bundles with a note of the name of the variety, wrapped in a plastic bag and sent to storage. The main task of the storage process is that the cuttings do not wake up and do not go to growth before the desired time. Therefore, they should spend the winter in a dark cool place at a temperature of 0 to +5 0 C. You can choose as a place for storage:
- холодильник (подходит, если черенков немного),
- погреб или подвал,
- яму под землёй глубиной 25–30 см (при этом связки перекладываются соломой и засыпаются грунтом).
Эксперты рекомендуют замочить только что срезанные черенки на сутки в воде, чтобы они вобрали необходимую влагу перед хранением.
Несколько раз в месяц желательно проводить ревизию черенков на наличие плесени и гнили. Rotten copies should be thrown away immediately. And the rods with signs of mold can be washed in a solution of potassium permanganate, dried and returned to storage.
Planting grapes cuttings classic way
Planting chubukov in the ground - the procedure is simple, but time consuming, which includes several steps:
- Awakening and rooting cuttings.
- The organization of the landing pit.
- The very process of seating chubukov in the ground.
- Top dressing of young saplings.
- Watering after planting.
Each of these stages has a number of features, and requires the implementation of certain rules.
Preparation of cuttings for planting
This process begins at the end of winter or at the beginning of March, depending on the estimated time of planting in open ground, and involves the removal of rooting from the state of rest. Preparing chubuks for planting increases survival rate and allows early active growth to begin.
Preparation of chubuk for landing includes several phases:
- Assessment of the suitability of cuttings for planting: a small incision is made on the kidney (it should be greenish) and cut on the twig (the vine should not be dry and green). All chubuki that do not meet these parameters are not suitable for landing.
- Rinse selected rods in a weak solution of potassium permanganate (to eliminate bacteria).
- Putting cuttings into separated or thawing water for 1–2 days (water should cover more than one third of the length).
Heat and moisture remove cuttings from natural winter sleep
The main principle of action of the keel cutter is based on the fact that the bottom of the chubuk should be warmed up, and the upper part should be kept cold so that it does not bloom before the roots appear.
In my opinion, honey is one of the most effective and, most importantly, available stimulants of root formation. I insist cuttings in honey solution (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water) for 12-24 hours. But first I leave them for two days in rainwater and make notches under the lower kidney. Moreover, experience shows that the scratches in the lower part of the chubuk really facilitate and accelerate the process of formation of the roots, if done on cuttings with at least three buds. Such interference harms short rods - very few took root.
Selection and preparation of a site for planting grapes
One of the conditions for high yields is choosing the right place for planting. Grapes are a heat-loving plant that does not tolerate stagnant water. Therefore, determining the place of residence of this plant on the site, you need to focus on the climatic conditions of the region.
In the northern regions and the middle lane, it is necessary to provide the grapes with as much heat as possible, so a spacious plot, protected from cold wind by trees and shrubs growing along the edges, is suitable.
In areas with frequent summer rain, it is important to protect the grapes from excessive moisture and to organize good ventilation. To do this, it is better to place a shrub on a slope or bulk mound.
It is not recommended to plant new vines at the place of old ones for at least 2-3 years after the latter have been uprooted.
In arid regions, the plant must be provided with systematic irrigation or it should be located on the site with close groundwater storage (but not closer than 2.5 m from the surface). Mulching of the soil with grass or covering it with a black film will also help preserve moisture.
On flat areas, bushes are planted in the direction from north to south. It is believed that in this case the grapes will get more sun. Shading of shrubs with tall trees should be avoided.
It is not recommended to plant grapes closer than 2–2.5 m from houses and other structures, since intensive watering of the plant may undermine the foundation of the building. Ideal south wall of the house.
The southern wall of the building is ideal for growing grapes
Grapes do not tolerate the neighborhood with a walnut. Many other plants also affect its livelihoods:
- harmful neighbors: dandelion, wormwood, wheatgrass, plantain, bindweed, beechwood, yarrow, wormwood, nettle, clematis, cornflower, as well as lawn grass, horseradish, corn, tomato, sunflower, onion for cutting, leaf lettuce,
- useful neighbors: sorrel, carrots, peas, cabbage, cauliflower, radishes, beetroot, melon, radish, strawberries, cucumber, dill, beans, onions.
HaveChapters for planting prepare in advance: level and cleaned of old trees and shrubs. Grapes do not like very acidic and alkaline soils, so you should take care of its structure. Planting and embedding siderats (mainly legumes), which are carried out a year before the intended grape planting, will help to enrich the soil.
A pit must be prepared at least 2 months before planting: dig and fertilize.
Scheme and depth of planting grapes
The recommended size and depth of the pit depends on the type of soil:
- on chernozem - 60x60x60 cm,
- on loam - 80x80x80 cm,
- on the sand 100x100x100 cm.
Recommended planting scheme grape cutting
Germinated chubukov planted in the pits according to the following scheme:
- Fertilizers are placed at the bottom of the pit with a layer of 20–30 cm (1 level) and slightly tamped (the composition and proportions are described below).
- Establish a seedling, as shown in the picture: the upper peephole is 5 cm below ground level.
- Fill up with earth on level 2 and trample a little.
- Pour 40-50 liters of water.
- After the water has been absorbed, the pit is filled with soil without compaction and moisture to level 3.
- When planting in the fall form a mound, and in the spring - leave a small hole (15-20 cm).
In parallel, you should organize support for each bush. Upon completion of planting, it is necessary to protect the plants from direct sunlight for the first two weeks..
When planning the placement of a large number of bushes, it is necessary to choose the distance between the bushes in the row. It will depend on several factors:
- type trellis,
- the presence of drip irrigation
- soil fertility
- characteristics of a particular grape variety.
Most often, winegrowers use 2 varieties of vertical trellis: single-plane and two-plane. It is believed that the second can significantly reduce the distance between seedlings in a row without harm to their livelihoods.
It is believed that grapes growing on poor soils without providing drip irrigation will have weak and thin vines. For this reason, the bushes can be planted much thicker than on fertile land with regular watering.
Recommended spacing between bushes in a row depending on the variety:
- for vigorous - not less than 3–3.5 m,
- for sredneroslyh - 3 m,
- for low growth - 2.5 m.
The width of the row spacings should give the possibility of airing the bushes, easy access for processing chemicals, as well as the minimum shading of the adjacent trellis previous ones. The optimum is 2.5-3 m.
For the normal development of a young sapling needs feeding. The first time fertilizers are applied directly to the planting pits. As a rule, for the initial nutrition of grapes use organic fertilizer in the form of humus. Its advantage lies in the fact that the nutrients are given out of it gradually, over about three years. However, there is a perception that humus gives a slight excess of nutrition with nitrogen, therefore it is recommended to add also phosphate (superphosphate) and potash fertilizers (for example, wood ash).
When planting grapes cuttings in the fall, make sure that the humus was swollen enough. Otherwise, it will begin to decompose and release heat, which will warm the roots of the seedling and cause the buds to wake up. Such a bush will die in winter.
Fertilizers are applied in the following proportions to the planting hole of 80x80x80 cm:
- humus - about 7 buckets,
- superphosphate - about 1 cup,
- wood ash - 300 g (1–2 liter jars).
Humus and superphosphate are mixed and digged with clay at the bottom of the pit. Ash is buried in the soil around the seedling, and does not mix with the humus.
Watering after planting
Watering is vital for young grapes, because undeveloped roots are not yet able to provide the plant with a water reserve. At the time of landing 40-50 liters of warm water is poured into the pit. Subsequently, irrigation is carried out approximately three times a week, and then reduced to once every 7–10 days until the end of summer (at least 30–50 l per well). There is no watering during precipitation. After each wetting the soil needs loosening to improve its aeration.
Drip irrigation provides ideal conditions for young seedlings to grow.
Planting cuttings without roots
You can plant grapes in spring and unrooted cuttings. However, in this case, the probability of survival decreases. The plant will develop in the open field much more slowly than when planting germinated cuttings. Leaf formation will occur later, as the plant takes time to form the root system.
Grape chubuk can not root and plant in the open ground in the spring after the preparatory activities
Planting without root can only be done under the following conditions:
- warm weather was established without the risk of frost,
- Harvested twigs are at least 8–10 mm thick,
- the cuttings are pre-prepared for planting (according to the technology described above without germination in the wiper).
Planting cuttings of grapes without roots is carried out, as a rule, in the classical way in planting pits. For greater confidence, it is recommended to plant two cuttings in each hole. If both take root, the weaker must be removed or carefully dig and transplant. It is often practiced to plant unrooted chubuks in a school or garden bed, with their subsequent relocation to a permanent place after the formation of the root system.
In my case, this method causes healthy skepticism. It is rather illogical to spend your time and labor on the preparation and storage of the cubs, their preparation, on arranging the pit and simply sticking into it twigs without roots. As a result, if they take root, then the future viability of the bush is still questionable. I prefer to germinate cuttings in plastic glasses with soil mixture after planting and plant a healthy seedling into the ground.
Planting in glasses, containers and bottles
After preparing the cuttings in the keel cutter, many gardeners plant them in the soil for germination and get this seedling. Capacity for this can be plastic cups, bags, containers or cut plastic bottles, which are filled with a mixture of garden earth, sand and humus (3: 1: 1). Chubuki placed on the soil, gently poured residual soil mixture and watered. It is important that the improvised pots have drainage holes to remove excess moisture.
Sprouting chubukov in the soil allows you to grow a full grape sapling
With the onset of heat, a hardening procedure is carried out, i.e. the capacity with seedlings is carried out to fresh air for several hours a day, gradually increasing the duration of walks. The need for this event is justified by the fact that young plants are very sensitive to temperature changes, and hardening prepares them for life in the open field.
This method is used for growing grapes of late varieties, because it allows you to accelerate the ripening of fruits.
To obtain healthy grape seedlings from chubukov, they are often practiced by planting them on a temporary bed (school). With this method of planting seedlings grow with a strong root system with several strong shoots. This is explained by the fact that the roots of plants are always in a sufficiently heated upper layer of soil with good air access.
Growing seedlings in shkolke requires compulsory feeding of plants, frequent watering and loosening of the soil, persistent weed control, shading in too hot weather
Planting cuttings in school finish no later than the first decade of May. In this case, seedlings grow in the garden until mid-autumn, and then dug and sorted. Quality plants are those that have a growth of shoots of more than 30 cm and at least 3-4 sufficiently developed roots, the rest are rejected.
They can be landed at a permanent place immediately, but it is possible to transfer the planting until spring, by providing the right conditions for storing seedlings (the same as in the storage of chubukov).
To plant chubuk on a temporary bed you need:
- Dig grooves 40 cm deep and wide in the shovel.
- Install cuttings along one of the groove walls at a distance of 12–15 cm from each other and so that 1–2 eyes of the cutting remain above the soil surface.
- Fill the groove with soil to half, firmly tamp with your foot or tamper, pour plenty of water and after it is absorbed into the soil, finally fill the ditch.
- From above make an earthen roller of loose earth, 10–12 cm high, above the upper bud.
- Immediately after planting the cuttings, loosen the soil once again.
Planting in the greenhouse
Recently, the greenhouse method of growing grapes is practiced not only in cold regions. This is explained by the fact that planting in a greenhouse has its advantages:
- microclimate favorable for plant development,
- protection from frost and temperature changes,
- acceleration of fruiting for at least half a month.
In the greenhouse, you should not grow varieties with dense clusters - due to poor ventilation, they often cause fungal diseases.
Before planting the cuttings in the greenhouse, it is necessary to germinate and root them in special containers, growing seedlings from them. At the same time, the preparation and kilchevanie cuttings begin in mid-January, so that in a month to continue growing seedlings in a container with soil.
Landing in the hill
This method of planting is practiced often in the middle zone and northern regions, where it is necessary to improve the heating of the soil and accelerate the beginning of the growing season of the plant. Landing in the hill also allows you to solve the problem with the close occurrence of groundwater.
For planting grapes in this way should:
- Dig a hole about 50 cm deep with a diameter of 60 to 80 cm.
- Put drainage on the bottom (pebbles, broken bricks, gravel).
- Fill it with fertile soil (your land, mixed with humus, sand, peat). It should be noted that the ground must be rammed (poured 20 cm - rammed).
- In the center, drive a peg to which a rooted cutting should be tied.
- Pour a small hill of land with gentle slopes about 20–30 cm high, leaving only the upper peephole.
- Cover up the kidney mulch of grass and organic.
It is better to place the cutting under a slight inclination in order to facilitate the process of covering it for the winter.
Landing along buildings and fences
Grapes are often planted along various structures. The main reason for this decision is that during the day the walls warm up, and at night they give their heat to the grapes growing nearby. This effect allows you to accelerate the ripening of berries for 5-10 days. You can not place planting close to the wall, because its surface will not be able to warm up and the desired result will not be achieved. In addition, a very close neighborhood of grapes has a negative impact on the foundation and condition of the walls of the building.
Landing in the Moldovan way
A variety of grafting is planting grapes in the old Moldovan way (kalachik).
The method consists in the fact that the planting is carried out with the help of not a short cutting, but a large part of the vine, 60 cm to 2 m long. The principle of choice and autumn harvesting of the vine is the same as the chubukov. Landing in this way is carried out in the spring.
The Moldovan landing method involves the following steps:
- The vine is twisted into a ring of 1–2 turns and tied with a rope.
- Soaked in a barrel of water for 2-3 days.
- All lower eyes are removed, only 2-3 buds are left at the upper end of the vine.
- The resulting circle is placed in a pit 70–75 cm deep and 80 cm in diameter so that the remaining buds are placed on the surface.
- The pit is filled with earth to half, trampled down and plentifully watered.
- When the water is absorbed, the pit is filled with soil completely.
- So that the kidneys are not dried, they are covered with earth or mulch.
With this method rooting takes place along the entire length of the vine.
A rich supply of nutrients contained in the wood of the vine will quickly develop a powerful root system along the entire length of such a cutting and provide the first shoots with food.
One of the disadvantages of planting grapes kalachikom is the need for a large amount of planting material.
This technique is not suitable for planting vineyards in large areas with the use of machines, but for amateur wine-growing it is quite acceptable.
Reviews of the Moldavian method of planting grapes
The operation is performed without kilchevanie. You take a well-ripened shoot and in spring, pre-wetting you plant a ring. All eyes, except for the 2 upper blinded. A lot of wood (and therefore nutrients). The survival rate is almost complete. In the first year there is a strong growth, you can do an accelerated formation.
This method is popularly called Kuban landing method. There is a drawback: it takes a lot of vines to plant. But in terms of the power of development, such a bush in the third year will look much more powerful than even a root-peer. Checked it from personal experience. Когда у меня просят саженцы Молдовы, я предлагаю попросить у соседей лозу и посадить таким способом. Невыгодно мне Молдову саженцами выращивать, потому и советую.
This year, planted in this way, some sort of old variety, we always called it a lady's finger, planted just for the sake of experiment, so the result is almost as good as the planted seedlings, about a meter and a half. Moreover, he saddled by simply digging a hole so that the vine could get in, without fertilizers. So I think you can try.
Planting maiden grapes cuttings
The maiden grapes (or partenocissus) have inedible fruits, but are widely used by landowners for decorative purposes. The attractive appearance of the leaves, the ability to grow rapidly, as well as unpretentiousness and disease resistance make the girlish grapes an excellent option for creating a hedge.
Girlish grapes dissolve their lush leaves at the end of May and pleases the eye until late autumn
Partenocissus is easy to propagate by cuttings. Moreover, this can be done throughout the season from early spring to mid-autumn.
If breeding is done in spring or early summer, then the cubs are cut from one-year woody shoots. The optimal length of the cutting is 20–30 cm. The main thing is that there are 2–4 live buds on it.
If the cutting is done in the middle of summer, then molototoobraznye cuttings are harvested: a small segment of last year's vine with one bud is cut, from which the lateral shoot has already grown. If the buds are very close, then 2-3 knots can be left.
The cuttings that are harvested in the summer have a hammer-like shape and consist of a piece of last year’s liana with a knot and a young shoot.
In the ground chubukov planted immediately after harvesting. If this is not possible, then they will calmly wait for this procedure in a container with water. At the same time, partenocissus has almost 100% survival rate, therefore there is no need to treat planting material with rooting stimulants.
Please note that being in water, cuttings of girlish grapes easily take root. But after planting in the soil, these roots die off, being replaced by permanent ones. Therefore, rooting partenocissus in water is a waste of time.
There are several options for planting girlish grapes cuttings:
- Rooting immediately in a permanent place: a small depression of 15 cm is dug out, at the bottom of which a drainage is laid. The handle is lowered into the hole at an angle. In spring cuttings, the lower bud is buried in the soil, and in summer, a piece of last year's wood. This method is used if it is possible to water and weed the entire area of the landing. In the first years, the plant is actively increasing the root system, so the above-ground part develops very slowly. Consequently, seedlings will be lost among weeds and may be accidentally trampled or mown.
- Landing on a razvodochny bed. The disadvantage is that when the moment of transplanting to a permanent place comes, the vines and roots of the seedlings will already be woven tight and it will not be so easy to unravel this tangle.
- Rooting in individual containers (plastic cups, pots, containers). A mixture of peat and sand (3: 1) is used as the soil. Plant care is a regular watering. To plant seedlings in open ground next year. In winter, it is not necessary to bring containers into the room. It is enough to place them in a place protected from the cold wind and sprinkle with dry leaves.
Regardless of the type of planting, girlish grapes must be supported and grabbed from the sun for the first time.
Video: cultivation, care and grafting of girlish grapes
So, planting grapes by cuttings is a rather creative exercise. After all, there are quite a lot of ways to prepare and prepare chubuk for landing. Another choice concerns the technology of their landing in open ground. Whatever way you choose, it remains to believe that your efforts will be justified by the rich and generous harvest of amber grapes.
How to plant grapes in clay and chernozem
Culture in clay and chernozem planted as follows:
- Under the woody stalk prepared fossa, the size of which is equal to 80 centimeters in width and depth.
- The bottom layer is lined with a nutrient layer, the thickness of which is equal to 25 centimeters. It includes 10 buckets of a mixture of humus and fertile soil. It is necessary to compact this layer well and cover it with mineral fertilizers in proportions: 300 grams of superphosphate and potash fertilizer are taken for 3 liters of wood ash. This layer should also be mixed with fertile soil and lay out so that its thickness was 10 centimeters. Only ground lining the next 5 centimeters. When you complete all the manipulations, you will have a recess of 40 centimeters.
- Formed a small mound in the middle of the recess. Insert the seedling into this recess and distribute all its roots evenly. To the level of growth, fill the grapes with fertile soil. Copies of more than 25 centimeters are inserted with a slight slope, and those that are germinated from short-cut cuttings are placed vertically.
- After tamping down the layers and placing the seedling, pour 2-3 buckets of water into the well. When the soil dries a little, loosen the top layer a little.
- It is necessary to water further grapes with intervals of 14 days two more times. After that, the soil is loosened again and mulched.
How to plant grapes in sandy soil
What is different planting grapes in sandy soil from other similar planting processes.
- The difference of this process is that in the summer period the sand warms up faster, and in winter, respectively, it freezes faster. Unlike fertile soil, sandy soil almost does not hold nutrients and moisture.
- When planting grape crops must take into account all these qualities. Because of this, under the sapling the recess should reach one meter. At the bottom of the pit you need to put a particularly dense layer to avoid the loss of nutrients and necessary moisture. This layer should be made of clay and have a height of at least 20 centimeters. From above the layer of nutritious mixes and fertilizer (not less than 25 centimeters) is filled up.
- Seedlings need to be planted in sandy soil to a height of at least 60 centimeters. It will be necessary to regularly water the plant. This should be done 1 time in seven days. The amount of water in one irrigation should be about 40 liters.
How to plant vegetative seedlings
- A deepening is prepared in the soil in the same way as for the woody one. Only the depth of the fossa is different. The height of the pits should be 20 centimeters in sandy soil and 25 in black-earth and clay. All layers are well compacted. It is necessary to water the culture 1 time in 7 days with 20–40 liters of water.
- After shrinking the soil, it is necessary to make a depression of 65 centimeters on sandy soil and 55 in black soil and clay. After quenching, carefully remove the seedling from the container of the planting and lay the seedling together with the ground in the prepared hole. The intermediate distance must be filled with fertile soil, compacted well and filled with 10 liters of water.
- After the end of the landing, next to the vegetative sprout, a tree peg is installed in order to further support it.
- In the first year, you need to leave one escape and remove the others carefully. After that, tie the plant to the established peg.