Alstroemeria is a bit like a lily. I grow it for more than three years. Decorative culture does not place high demands on the ground, this is its advantage.
Alstroemeria - a real garden decoration! I placed this flower separately from others. In this article I want to share the secrets of growing alstroemeria. All the beauty of the plant can be seen in the photo.
To quickly get gorgeous flowers, you need to grow seedlings. If you sow seeds in open ground, they will germinate 2 years. At home, seeds sprout in 20 days. Growing seedlings is simple. Subject seed stratification. After purchase, place them on the shelf of the refrigerator, after 3 days, remove and sow in pots.
Prepare a fertile soil mix, bury the seeds by 1.5 cm. To get the seedlings faster, cover the pots with cans. Seeds germinate well at a temperature of + 18 degrees.
For those who do not want to mess around with a transplant, I recommend sowing alstromeria in compact pots (peat tablets are very popular).
If planting material is in favorable conditions, shoots appear after 3 weeks. I advise you to moderately water them.
Before planting in open ground, fertilize seedlings with a twenty-percent solution of mullein. Add the tool when the plants form one strengthened leaflet.
The second feeding is carried out after 30 days. Take 5 g of superphosphate, 2 g of nitrate and 2 g of potassium sulfate and dissolved in 1 liter of water. Seedlings in the common box require picks.
Before planting in the ground, I recommend hardening them. Thanks to this procedure, the immunity of future plants will be strengthened. In the spring, when the weather is warm in the yard, take out seedlings to the garden.
Spend the third dressing after 20 days (use the same composition). Growing seedlings is a very effective way to grow. Plant alstromeria when the weather is warm. Remember that frosts are destructive for young plants. Well, if the soil warms up to + 20 degrees.
Requirements for soil, loosening, application of other fertilizers
The flower takes root in the open sunny area. Before planting, remove weeds, enrich the soil composition if necessary. Alstroemeria feels good in loose, neutral, fertile soil. You can plant a plant in a sandy, clayey soil.
Be sure to loosen the ground, so the roots will get more air. The day before planting make compost. I advise you to place seedlings at a distance of 40 cm. The size of the holes should be 30 cm. Make sure that the root system is not cramped.
If a tall variety is selected for planting, increase the size of the wells and the distance between the specimens. In order for the plant to get moisture longer, lay drainage at the bottom of the pits. I recommend using broken rubble, but if there is none, lay claydite.
Lay the compost on top of a layer of 7 cm. Planting seedlings with an earthy clod. If peat pots are used, do not remove young plants. Fill the hole with soil, gently compact, then add water.
Watering, gardening care
I advise you to water the bush regularly but moderately. Alstroemeria blooms well, if you periodically loosen the soil and make feeding. Remove the weeds in time, as they disrupt the growth of ornamental crops. If you see that Alstroemeria is attacked by pests, use insecticides.
Mulch the soil when the air temperature reaches + 23 degrees. The plant can intensively grow roots, but form few flowers - this is its drawback.
If you want Alstroemeria to bloom for a long time, be sure to grumble with sawdust, peat or bark. Thanks to mulch, the plant gets moisture longer. Loosen the soil gently, try not to touch the fragile roots.
When the plant begins to bloom, remove the withered flowers. Experienced gardeners advise thinning bushes: cut down weakened branches, as well as those that grow inward.
With moderate humidity, water a flower 1 time in 7 days. If drought occurs, add water 2 times a week.
The soil should always be slightly hydrated, but bad when the roots suffer from excess moisture. If the plant is watered too often, the root system will start to rot, causing the shrub to die. The plant, which lacks moisture, grows dull and loses its decorative effect. After you add water, loosen the area and remove each weed.
The shrub needs fertilizers. I advise you to alternate between organic and mineral compounds. If you feed Alstroemeria on time, it will bloom for a long time. When the plant is actively increasing the green mass, you need to make nitrogen supplements, and during the formation of buds - preparations with phosphorus. Alstroemeria positively perceives wood ash.
How to propagate an ornamental plant
You can use not only seeds and seedlings, but also rhizome. After flowering is complete, scrub the shrub and divide the roots into several parts. Select the largest delenki, prepare pits in advance with a depth of 7 cm.
Before planting, process cuts with crushed coal. Miniature plants are best kept on the windowsill. I note that the division of rhizome is an effective way of reproduction. Thanks to him, Alstroemeria preserves varietal qualities.
Preparing for the winter
Shrub blooms about two months. When the flowers wither, you will need to carefully cut them at the base. In early November, shorten the branches to 25 cm.
Perform mulching using:
Mulch protects shrubs from freezing. The benefits of alstroemeria are that it is resistant to diseases, but if it is not properly cared for, it shows signs of gray rot.
The plant is covered with light serous bloom. Finding gray rot, remove the affected areas, then apply fungicides (preparations should be made in the soil).
If individual specimens are severely affected, they must be removed, otherwise the disease spreads to other cultures. Sometimes Alstroemeria is attacked by ticks. Acaricides are effective in combating such pests. If the shrub is attacked by caterpillars, insecticides should be used. You can use the universal drug Actellic.
Caring for a garden crop is simple, the main thing is to fight pests and bring water moderately. The root system should not be allowed to rot. Plant alstromeria in open ground when the weather is warm!
Growing alstroemeria at home
The family to which this plant belongs, consists of more than 200 species. Alstroemeria is a herbaceous plant. It differs in upright flexible stem and tuber root system.
Alstroemeria flowers are very beautiful. They reach approximately 6 cm in diameter. They may have a different color ranging from pale yellow, pink, and ending in purple and red. On each petal you can see thin dark stripes.
South America is a rather warm region where this plant came from, so flowers need appropriate conditions.
Lighting is an important part of care. It is logical to assume that Alstroemeria prefers light and heat. A pot with seeds is better to put on the south side.
To Alstroemeria did not get burns, in the summer it should be put in the shade.
Fluorescent lamps can help you create the right lighting for flower growth. If you want to see Alstroemeria blooming for a long time, then the light day for it should last about 14 hours. Also, do not forget that heaters, convectors and stoves can adversely affect the plant.
Alstroemeria is rhizomatous perennial herb. You can buy it in a specialized store. In nature, it grows in Chile, Peru.
Alstroemeria has been known for a long time. The Incas called her the plant of the gods and spoke of her magical properties. Now this flower is called the plant of friendship, luck, wealth, and prosperity. Outwardly, it resembles a lily, daylily.
The main characteristics of the flower are as follows:
- This is a perennial plant, the stems of which are flexible and upright.
- The root of the form is similar to the spindle. It is strongly branched.
- In height the plant can reach from 80 to 150 cm.
- The leaves of the flower are unusual, with a bright green tint.
- The flowers are small, in diameter can be up to 5 cm. They are collected in large umbrellas, each of which can be from 10 to 30 inflorescences.
- The beginning of flowering occurs at the end of spring, the beginning of summer.
- The main shades of colors: yellow, pink or red. Some varieties of flowers can be decorated with stripes or dots.
- The fruit of the flower is a box with seeds.
- There are many varieties of this plant. Between themselves, they differ in growing, flower height, color inflorescences.
How to prepare for landing
Proper preparation is important here. It will be necessary to select healthy seedlings for planting, to determine the place on the site, or to choose the desired pot. Of great importance is the proper preparation of the soil.
Recommendations on the selection of seedlings and varieties:
- Alstroemeria is a heat-loving flower. He needs a mild winter and a warm climate. But breeders brought varieties that can withstand under cover in a bit of cold.
- There are varieties bred specifically for the warm strip.
- Acquire the plant should be in a specialty store or agricultural company.
- Choose varieties that are adapted to the climate of the region where the flower will be planted. The consultant can figure out how to grow the selected variety.
- You can buy either seedlings or seedlings.
- Before you buy a sprout, you should carefully examine it for visible damage, signs of pests and diseases.
Recommendations for choosing a seat:
- In greenhouses, greenhouses, at home, it is possible to grow alstroemeria. Species that are resistant to frost, can be planted in open ground.
- Low varieties suitable for growing in containers placed on the site. In the cold season, the flower should be brought into heat.
- For flower beds and flower beds should choose tall species.
- Place for planting should be warm and sunny, but it is desirable to choose a penumbra.
- In the selected area should not be drafts, strong winds.
Recommendations for the selection and preparation of soil:
- The soil should be neutral or slightly acidic (sandy, clayey), the soil is nutritious and light.
- Before planting a plant, prepare a place: drain it, dry it.
- Before the day before planting alstromeria, the place must be properly prepared: dig, loosen, pour compost.
How to plant a plant in the open ground
This should be done in the last month of spring.when the air temperature is at least 20 degrees. It is necessary to pave for landing at a distance of half a meter minimum. The depth of the holes should be not less than 35 cm, but not more than 40, diameter about 60 cm.
At the bottom of the hole should put a drainage layer: small gravel or stones. After that, all the pits need to add rotted compost. Planting a flower in the hole, you need to gently sprinkle it with soil. After planting, abundant watering is recommended.
Alstroemeria does not like waterlogging and dryness. It is necessary to water flowers moderately, but adhering to a regularity. The main thing is not to flood the plant, so as not to begin rotting the root system.
Enough once a week to do watering., and in dry weather, their number should be increased to two in 7 days. The soil around the flower should always be slightly moist a couple of centimeters deep.
A few words about feeding
The first feeding - compost is applied during planting. Next, you need to feed the plants regularly three times a month. To do this, use organic or mineral fertilizers. During the growing season should be fertilized with mixtures containing a large amount of nitrogen. During flowering fertilizer should be applied with phosphorus. Periodically, you can feed and wood ash.
How to prune and cover the plant
In the flowering period, you should remove faded buds.. In this way, more flowering and growth of new buds can be achieved.
Before the cold, the upper part of the flower is trimmed and the root system is covered. For the latter apply lapnik, peat, fallen leaves. Above you can put more covering material. In the spring all this will need to be removed.
How to deal with pests, diseases
Alstroemeria flowers are relatively resistant to pests and diseases. But if you do not follow the recommendations for watering, then infection of the plant with gray rot is possible. Struggling with it with a solution of fungicide or foundationol.
Possible defeat flower caterpillars, slugs. These pests need to be collected by hand. If thrips, spider mites appeared on the plant, then it is necessary to use Actellic.
How to grow alstroemeria in greenhouse conditions
Before planting, the soil must be properly prepared and dug up. Important: peat, humus, sand, deciduous soil should be in the soil. Before planting plants, you can disinfect the soil by treating it with a special agent.
When planting it is convenient to use the grid, it must be placed on top of the ground. The grid will help support already grown plants.
It is important to withstand the temperature. Then, when the foliage grows during the day should be 15 degrees, at night - 13. During the flowering period, the optimum temperature is from 18 to 20 degrees. If plants are grown all year round, then in a cold time in a greenhouse the temperature should not fall below 10 degrees.
Watering in the greenhouse produce drip method. In winter, watering should be reduced. About plants need to regularly loosen the soil. Fertilizing with nitrogen-potassium fertilizers is also necessary, they make it twice a month. In winter, the plant needs additional lighting.
How to grow alstromeria in the apartment
It is quite possible, only following recommendations should be followed:
- For plants choose a spacious pot with a depth of more than 25 cm.
- There should be a hole at the bottom of the pot.
- You should choose the right place for a flower, where half the day there is a small shadow and half the day the rays of the sun fall.
- Watering should be done every 3 days.
- Fertilize is not necessary.
When growing alstroemeria, the flower should be given care and attention. If during the cultivation of Alstroemeria, planting and care adhere to all the rules and recommendations described above, then this exotic plant will delight your look with its beautiful flowering.
Location and lighting
Alstroemeria, if you grow it from seed, better on the south side of the apartment, because alstroemeria loves light and heat very much.
Alstroemeria is best not to put in places near convectors or other heating devices. We will discuss further how to maintain the humidity of the air necessary for a flower and how to water alstromeria correctly.
Temperature mode: winter-summer
Alstroemeria is a flower very sensitive to temperatures and especially to their differences. An important factor in the content of alstromeria will be to maintain the correct temperature depending on the season.
In winter, the temperature should be maintained at 13-15 ° C, in the extreme case the flower will withstand the temperature at 8 ° C. At higher temperatures, the flower buds will not open, and in the spring Alstroemeria will not please you with its color.
In summer, the flower will be sufficient at room temperature not exceeding 28 ° C. If the temperature is higher, the leaves and flowers will fall off and the flower will stop growing.
Observe the temperature regime is quite simple, the main thing is not to overdo it in providing heat to Alstroemeria.
Proper care is the key to abundant Alstroemeria blooms.
To Alstroemeria pleased flowering, you need to properly care for it, following the rules of irrigation and air humidity, as well as timely feed the plant. It is absolutely not difficult to do this, and you will notice the results of your care from the very first weeks.
Watering and humidity
In watering Alstroemeria has its own subtleties, and they depend, as well as on temperature, and on the season.
For example, in summer and during the growing season, the plant must be watered in such a way that the earth can dry out. Watering is better with settled soft water, in which there is no chlorine.
Since in winter, alstromeria does not develop as actively as during a warm season, in winter it should be a little less watering, but in such a way that the flower does not dry out.
If you overdo it, the water will stagnate in the roots and the rhizome will begin to rot, and the result will be a lack of color for the next season.
If you keep alstroemeria at the right temperature, it will only need spraying during periods of extreme heat or drought, but if the plant is on the windowsill next to the convector, you must spray the alstroemeria at least once every three days with soft defended water.
To feed the plant need not very often, usually two or three feedings per year is enough.
And during the most active flowering, the plant can be treated with a solution of ash: 1 tablespoon dissolve in 3 liters of water.
All about transplanting
Альстромерия разрастается довольно быстро, и со временем ей становится тесно в горшке. Alstroemeria transplantation at home is a simple process, but everything must be done consistently.
Most often, alstroemeria is transplanted in the spring in a deep pot, the diameter of which is 4-5 cm larger than the root system. In order for the plant to feel comfortable, drainage should be laid out on the bottom of the pot for about a quarter of the volume.
- Carefully get the alstroemeria out of the old pot.
- Clean the root system from the ground and inspect the rhizome (in the presence of damaged roots - cut them).
- Dip rhizome in potassium permanganate for disinfection.
- Into the prepared drainage pot pour the substrate.
- Plant a plant.
- Sprinkle the plant with soil, a little ram and pour.
Feed the transplanted plant can be 2 weeks after transplantation, when the roots have already taken root.
Alstroemeria reproduction at home
The popularity of Alstroemeria is growing every day, and more and more often growers propagate Alstroemeria at home. Reproduction can be done in two ways: vegetative and seminal method.
Alstroemeria seeds are planted in late February - early March. When growing alstroemeria from seeds, the plant will bloom no earlier than in the third year.
Before planting seeds in a pot, they must to stratify. The stratification process is rather long and lasts up to 2 months. For stratification, seeds are kept at a temperature of +2 to +4 ° C, and then gradually the temperature is raised.
After the stratification process, seeds can be soaked in water and left for 5-6 hours. After that, they are planted in the ground to a depth of about 3 cm, sprinkle with soil on top and slightly moisturize.
From above the container with the planted seeds is covered with a film. Seeds need to be ventilated and removed for several minutes once a day. If everything is done correctly, after 10 days you will notice the first shoots, and after two weeks, several leaves will appear on the plant.
Division of rhizomes
The method of division of rhizomes is more popular in the reproduction of alstroemeria. In this way, plant the plant in spring. In order to propagate alstroemeria in this way, you should pull the plant out of the pot as carefully as possible so as not to damage the plant’s rather fragile roots, with a clod of earth.
Only after you have fully reached the plant, the roots must be shaken off the ground and rinsed with water. The rhizome is divided, cutting it with a thin sharp blade vertically. After separation, all sections of cuts must be treated with coal.
In the prepared pot pour the soil and planted the rhizome so that it is freely located in the pot. Top delenku sprinkled with a handful of sand and soil. Alstroemeria must be planted in such a way that the root neck is not more than 7 cm deep into the ground.
Alstroemeria can be planted in this way at the end of summer: the roots will have time to take root until the cold weather.
How to deal with possible pests and diseases
Diseases of alstromeria are better not to heal, but to take all necessary measures for prevention. Even if the plant looks healthy, the treatment with Fundazol several times a year will not harm it.
"Fundazole" suitable for the treatment of diseases such as root rot, phytophthora, fusarium, which most often appear due to overflow and excess moisture in the root system, as well as from gray rot, which damages the plant that lives in a room with high humidity and in poorly ventilated rooms.
Alstroemeria can be attacked by thrips and ticks, which appear as a result of a temperature violation, if the room is too warm and the air is dry. You can fight them with insecticides such as "Aktara" or "Confidor"watering the soil.
As you can see, even a beginner can grow alstromeria. This flower of extraordinary beauty requires some subtleties in the care, but all efforts applied to its cultivation will return to you a hundred-fold result in the form of a beautiful plant with beautiful color.
Temperature conditions and dressing
Despite the love of heat, excessive heat can ruin a flower. The maximum air temperature in summer should be 28 ° C. If it is higher, then alstroemeria is likely to wither, and the flowers and leaves will fall.
Try to avoid drugs in which there is a lot of nitrogen, otherwise only leaves will develop, and buds will not. For alstromeria, it is better to choose fertilizers with a high phosphorus content. Potassium is also beneficial.
In winter, try to keep the temperature around 15 ° C. Indicators that are below 8-10 0 C are detrimental to the flower. If you ignore this condition, the culture simply does not dissolve and will not be able to please your eye.
You should also pay particular attention to fertilizing. At the very beginning of flowering, the plant will be useful to fertilize it with ashes. This will require diluting a tablespoon of the funds in 2-3 liters of water.
The rest of the time Alstroemeria can be fed twice a year.
Irrigation and transplanting
When watering Alstroemeria room need to consider a few nuances. First, in the summertime it is important to irrigate the plant so that between the procedures the earth dries out a little. It is better to take non-chlorinated water, it is well suited for watering.
Secondly, in winter time it is necessary to limit the amount of watering. In the cold period, the flower does not grow as much as in summer. This means that excess water can provoke root rot. But it must be ensured that the soil does not dry out.
In winter, it is also necessary to take into account the temperature regime. If the thermometer is low, then watering should be less abundant.
Alstroemeria in the pot is not much in need of spraying. This can be done only when the air temperature is very high or when the plant is located near the heater. In this case, try to spray a flower at least once every three days.
As for transplantation, it should be done correctly, adhering to some rules. Alstroemeria usually grows rather quickly. For her, the best option would be the substrate, which contains various trace elements necessary for the growth and development of the plant.
The soil should consist of:
- leafy ground (2 parts),
- pine bark (part 1),
- humus (1 part),
- peat (1 part),
- perlite (1 part).
Transplant is better to do in spring. The pot is chosen several centimeters more than the root, and drainage is made at the bottom. When transplanting it is important to ensure that the root system is not damaged.
If you propagate alstroemeria with seeds, the grain must first be stratified. This procedure implies imitation of weather conditions in winter. Stratification is necessary so that the seeds germinate better. The temperature regime is very important: about 2-4 degrees. Stratification usually lasts from two to three months.
After this time, the seeds are moved into the water. Keep them there need about 6 hours. At the end of this time, the landing material can be considered ready for disembarkation. Sowing seeds too deep is not worth it, enough 2-3 cm. After planting the soil is watered.
In order for the grains to sprout faster, you need to cover the pot with foil. It is necessary to remove it several times a day. In open form, hold the container for 10-15 minutes. The first shoots can be observed in two weeks.
This is a vegetative breeding method, which is quite common. It is worth carrying out this procedure in the spring, although sometimes it is possible at the end of the summer. The main thing that the roots had time to settle down in a pot, until the cold comes.
- Remove the plant from the pot along with the ground. This should be done carefully so as not to damage the roots.
- Rinse the roots, and remove the remnants of the earth.
- Cut the root vertically with a thin sharp knife.
- Sprinkle the place cut coal.
- Pour earth into a pot and place the root. The pot should be taken in such a size that the plant could easily fit there.
- Cover the root with soil. At the same time it is necessary to ensure that the root neck is in the ground at 7 cm.
In general, planting and caring for alstroemeria at home is not so difficult and does not require special skills. Although for good growth the flower requires proper watering, temperature control and transplanting. But such efforts are fully justified: the plant will delight you with beautiful flowers and decorate your house for many years.
All varieties are divided into three groups of hybrids:
- Dutch - with wide petals and contrasting spots inside the flower, grown in greenhouses for cutting,
- Ligtu - hybrids obtained in the UK at the beginning of the last century, shortly after flowering, plants die off,
- Dr Salter - hybrid varieties differ in stripes or dashes on the inner petals, inflorescences are compact.
There are hybrid varieties with a wide variety of colors - bright yellow, white, peach, orange, burgundy, pink, red, blue. Beautifully contrasting colored petals. Most types of thermophilic, have similar requirements for care.
Preparing for planting flowers
Alstroemeria is planted in a flower bed when the threat of night frost is over.
Some varieties begin to bloom in April. They are grown for seedlings in a greenhouse or on a windowsill, and already formed seedlings are planted in open ground.
Before planting, the plot is dug up, weeds are removed. The friability and lightness of the soil is the key to good alstroemeria blooming. The plant prefers a sour, fertile soil. To improve the structure of the soil, high-moor peat, leaf humus and sand are added to it in equal parts. If the soil is sandy, then you do not need to add sand.
Of the hundreds of varieties, the following are popular:
- Beauty - with lilac or light purple flowers, bush height up to 170 cm, blooms in spring and autumn,
- Harmony - bronze petals with black strokes, grows up to 160 cm, blooms in April and September,
- King Cardinal - scarlet flowers, like orchids, the height of the bush up to 150 cm, blooms from spring to the onset of cold weather,
- Virginia - blooms from June to November with white large flowers, bush height up to 70 cm,
- Regina - pink beautiful flowers, plant height up to 2 m, blooms from April to June and again in September.
The choice of variety depends on the place of cultivation and the desired color of alstroemeria.
Site preparation and soil
Alstroemeria loves the sun, but you can plant it in partial shade. Plants do not tolerate temperatures above 30 ° C - they can get sick and refuse to bloom.
The soil should be well drained, light and fertile. Before planting, you can make peat, leaf humus and sand on the bed.
Planting alstroemeria in open ground
Alstroemeria landing time is spring. When will the winter dormancy, the plants are planted in flower beds in the garden. Landing time depends on the region and weather.
All types of alstroemeria carry small negative temperatures, so the tubers in the open ground can be planted as early as April. They are planted in seedlings even earlier - in the beginning or in the middle of March.
Caring for flowers in the garden
Growing alstroemeria is an easy task. Planted in a bed of flowers watered, fed, protected from pests and weeds.
In cold regions, garden alstroemeria are dug up like dahlias and store rhizomes until spring.
If in winter the air temperature does not fall below -10 ° C, flowers can be left in the ground, simply by mulching and covering with spruce leaves.
Watering should be regular, but you can not flood the plants. If moisture stagnates, the rhizomes will start to rot. Alstroemeria is watered once a week, but in the hot summer you can do it every 3 days when the top layer of soil dries out.
After each watering the land is loosened.
Closer to the autumn, watering is reduced, preparing the plant for wintering. After some time it is stopped altogether, they cut off the entire green upper part, dig out the rhizome and carry it away for storage.
Top dressing and fertilizer
Top dressing alstroemeria love. Fertilizers are used for flowering plants, for example, Fertika Lux. Feed the flowers once a week or 10 days. The soil before making the dressing watered.
You can make as a fertilizer compost or leaf humus during the spring planting of flowers on a flower bed.
How to prolong the flowering of Alstroemeria
Thanks to top dressing and regular watering, the flowering of Alstroemeria can continue throughout the warm season. To extend this period, you need to trim the bush, remove excess shoots and faded flower stalks. After that, new floral arrows begin to grow.
The ideal air temperature for alstroemeria blooms is 12–17 ° C. In the greenhouse, the buds open even in winter.
Technique trim and cover
After planting the flower of Alstroemeria shoots many shoots. They need to be cut monthly to the plant remained strength for flowering. Cut on average 1/3 of the bush - this allows the remaining stems to bloom longer and brighter.
In autumn, the entire above-ground part of the plant is cut off, and for it comes the winter period of rest.
Alstroemeria is sheltered for winter only in the southern regions, where there are warm winters. For shelter use agrofibre, fallen leaves, lapnik, sawdust. In central Russia, it is advisable to dig up this flower for the winter from open ground and store it in a cool, dark place.
How to deal with pests and diseases
- The plant can be affected by fungal diseases with excessive moisture and lack of lighting. A white / gray bloom or a brown, wet spot appears on the leaves and stalks. Noticing the first signs of the disease, alstromeria is treated with systemic fungicides. Damaged leaves are cut and burned.
- On the flower can settle various insect pests. If the summer is hot and dry, a spider mite can start. Its presence is easy to detect by wilting leaves and thin cobweb that entangles the plant. With tick fight with acaricides.
- Flown on a bed of aphids, bugs, thrips and other insects are destroyed by insecticides. If necessary, the treatment is repeated until the plants are fully cured.
Methods for breeding alstroemeria
The plant is propagated by seed or root division in early spring. The seed propagation method is not suitable for hybrids, since the external signs of the flower are not preserved. The fruits of alstroemeria are very fragile, at the slightest touch to them the peel bursts and the seeds scatter in all directions. Therefore, before collecting the ripe seeds on the site, the plant is covered with gauze.
- Before germination, the seed material is subjected to stratification - sent to the refrigerator for 2 months.
- Alstroemeria is sown in containers for seedlings in March.
- Grown up seedlings are transplanted into a flower bed at the end of May.
With this method of growing flowering occurs at 3 years after planting.
During reproduction by rhizome, daughter plants retain all varietal characteristics.
It is necessary to divide a root in the fall, after completion of flowering.
- Alstromeria neatly dug, and then neatly divided into 2 or 3 parts.
- Sections are treated with fungicides, and new plants are planted in containers with fertile, breathable soil and entered into the room.
When to dig and how to keep rhizomes of flowers
Autumn rhizome dig and transferred to the basement for storage.
This is done when the time of night frost begins, and the exact date depends on the region. In the northern regions, the roots need to be dug in early September, in regions with a warmer climate this can be done in October.
Before digging, the above-ground part of the plant is cut, leaving the stems about 15 cm long. Remove the rhizomes with forks. Carefully, to not damage, shake off the ground, give a little dry. Store in sand or sawdust in the basement.
The use of alstroemeria in landscape design
Alstroemeria is most often used as a cut-off culture - in bouquets. It is grown not only in flowerbeds and greenhouses, but also in tubs, which can be rearranged to any place at will. Kadadochnye culture in the summer put up in the garden, and in the winter are entered in a room with a temperature of 9 - 10 ° C.
Alstroemeria looks great in mixborders with annual flowers and conifers. For bright, variegated varieties pick a solid background - light green or blue decorative fir. Yellow and orange alstromeria look beautiful against their background.
Alstroemeria in room culture
"Peruvian lilies" can be very tall, with two-meter stalks. Such varieties are actively bred in greenhouses and greenhouses for commercial cutting. Dwarf alstroemeria is grown in rooms, not growing above forty centimeters. The most common indoor varieties.
To grow such alstromeria in two ways.
For sowing alstromerias in February-March a soil mixture is prepared from two parts of leaf and one part of sod land. Washed coarse sand and fibrous peat are added as baking powder, which, besides, slightly acidifies the soil.
The substrate is well mixed, then freeze or washed with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. A layer of expanded clay is poured at the bottom of the landing tank with an obligatory drainage hole, and a prepared soil mixture is piled on top. The soil is moistened.
Seeds are placed on the surface, slightly pressed into the substrate, sprinkled with a thin layer of soil, the sown container is packed in a plastic bag and sent for stratification to the lower “vegetable” section of the refrigerator for a month.
Можно высеивать цветы в торфяные таблетки
При этом дважды в день приоткрывают полиэтиленовое покрытие, удаляют конденсат и при необходимости увлажняют грунт. По окончании стратификации пакет с контейнером размещают в очень светлом месте с температурой 20-25ºС.
Cover seedlings with plastic wrap
Sowing regularly air and moderately moisturize. With a short day of light, it is useful to arrange additional lighting up to 12 hours a day, as in the homeland of the Andes. Germination is necessary to wait from ten days to a month. After germination, the polyethylene coating is removed. At stage 2-4 of these leaves, seedlings dive into separate “teenage” cups with a drainage layer and optimal soil. When the developed root system fills this tank, young alstroemeria is transplanted into a larger container. This plant blooms in the second or third year.
Alstroemeria seedlings in hand
Alstroemeria in a pot
Alstroemeria seedlings from tuber parts
The adult plant has a developed tuber with numerous points of growth. During the period of semi-subsidence, after flowering in summer or autumn, such alstroemeria is dug out and a large tuber is dissected by a sharp blade into sections having at least five to ten points of growth. Sections are powdered with crushed charcoal, separated plants are planted. Flowering can be expected in the future summer season.
Alstroemeria (or Alstroemeria) - a flower of great beauty
Attention! It should be borne in mind that all parts of the tender exotic "lilies" contain poisonous juice, which can cause irritation of the skin and mucous membranes. They are not grown where there are small children and pets.
Further care for alstroemeria
- Illumination. "Peruvian lily" requires bright, but mostly diffused lighting. Best of all, it will develop in the south-western and south-eastern windows. Mandatory shading is required on the south side. In the summer of Alstroemeria balcony "holidays" are useful.
Alstromeria needs a lot of light
Avoid stagnant moisture
Carefully trim the alstroemeria
Fundazol for indoor plants
Alstroemeria in the open field
In the middle lane, alstroemeria often decorates summer areas with annual lush flowering. For open ground, tall varieties are suitable for which a great variety have been bred: crimson with a yellow speckled phial “Mozart”, golden “Eldorado”, pink “Primadonna”, white “Albatross”, dark purple “Indigo” and dozens of others that embody the most whimsical combinations of exquisite shades.
Alstroemeria inticancha indigo
To plant Alstroemeria saplings on your plot, they can be obtained from seeds in the same way that is used for indoor varieties - February sowing in loose, slightly acidic soil, stratification during the month, germination in good light, temperature 20-25ºС and high humidity, picking on stage 2-4 of these leaves. Apply also sowing immediately in open ground in April. Such seedlings will bloom no sooner than the third year. In addition, in April-May, a mature tuber or part of it, separated from the parent plant, can be planted on the plot.
The place where alstromeria will grow should be well lit but inaccessible to the scorching rays of the midday sun.
Important! Avoid stagnant moisture and high standing of groundwater.
Soil for planting "Peruvian lilies" is prepared in advance. She must be:
- nutritional. Compost is added for this purpose,
- slightly acidic. Provided by peat moss or bark of conifers,
- friable, with good water and air permeability. If necessary, sawdust or chopped straw is introduced.
Good results are obtained by planting tubers in meter ridges up to 20 centimeters high. They are planted at intervals of 40 to 60 centimeters, deepening up to 15 cm. A horizontal large-meshed grid is installed above the ridge to support tall stalks with weighty flowers.
Alstroemeria or Peruvian Lily
Further landing care includes:
- weekly watering with soft water
- systematic weeding and loosening.
- complex feeding once a week during the flowering period.
- acidification of the soil with peat mulching. This operation will prevent overheating of the tuber, in which alstroemeria stops growing and blooming.
Alstroemeria does not tolerate high temperatures, for example, when air temperature is +28 and higher, it stops growing and quickly drops flowers.
In the fall, the stems are cut to a height of 7-8 centimeters and cover the plant with spruce branches, bark and dry leaves. In the middle lane for resistant varieties of such shelter, as a rule, is sufficient. In order to fully insure alstromeria from freezing, its tubers are dug in the middle of October, dried and stored until spring under the same conditions as dahlia - in the basement or cellar, at low, but above-zero temperatures.
Alstroemeria in greenhouses
Alstroemeria in greenhouses
The basic conditions for the growth and flowering of alstroemeria are carefully observed in greenhouse culture:
- light day is not shorter than 12 hours
- temperature not lower than 16 and not higher than 20ºС,
- the soil is fertile friable, slightly acidic. Plants are conveniently planted in separate containers with a diameter of 25 cm,
- watering with soft water is regular, but moderate,
- high humidity,
- support net for tall stems with powerful flowers.
Distillation after a cool dormant period allows you to get blooming "lilies" almost all year round.
Alstroemeria in the greenhouse
Growing alstroemeria as a business
Having mastered the cultivation of "Peruvian lilies", you can extract a certain income from this process:
- sell seeds. Alstroemeria seeds ripen even in the open ground of the middle band, and its germination lasts 3-4 years. Sell self-produced seeds will help the Internet.
- trade seedlings or tubers. More troublesome occupation associated with packaging, distribution and limited only by the spring season. However, it will make more profit than selling seeds,
- to grow alstroemeria for cutting. The most profitable method that requires considerable investments in the initial stages. Nevertheless, these costs pay off in a maximum of two years, and in the future they bring a constant tangible profit.
Alstroemeria, despite its exotic origin and unusual to become, is not among the most fastidious cultures. Her cultivation is successfully mastered by both amateur growers and owners of profitable greenhouses.
Alstroemeria white and lilac shades
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Landing
- 3.1. When to plant
- 3.2. How to plant
- 3.3. Transfer
- 4. Care
- 4.1. Growing up
- 4.2. Watering and feeding
- 4.3. Breeding
- 4.4. Wintering
- 5. Pests and Diseases
- 6. Types and varieties
Planting and care of alstroemeria (in short)
- Bloom: in spring and summer, in September, the plant may bloom again.
- Landing: sowing seeds in the ground - in April or May. Sowing seeds for seedlings - in late February or early March, planting seedlings in a flower garden - in the second half of May.
- Lighting: bright light in the morning or after 16.00, in the afternoon - partial shade.
- The soil: neutral or slightly acidic, moisture permeable, friable and nutritious. The best grounds for growing alstroemeria - clay or sand.
- Watering: regular and moderate: once a week in normal summer weather and twice as often in drought.
- Top dressing: three times a month with complex mineral or organic fertilizers: in the spring the plant needs nitrogen, and from the moment of bud formation - phosphorus and potassium.
- Reproduction: seed and rhizome division.
- Pests: spider mites and caterpillars.
- Diseases: gray rot
Alstroemeria flower - description
Alstroemeria - plants with succulent spindle-shaped roots, erect flexible stems, in the upper part of which are arranged in a regular manner slightly curved thin whole linear leaves. A characteristic feature of alstroemeria is resupination: leaf stalks are twisted 180 º, and because of this, the upper side of the leaf plate is at the bottom and the lower side is at the top. Pink, yellow, lilac, orange or red flowers, most often spotty, consist of six lanceolate or spatulate petals arranged in two circles, with the petals of each circle usually differing in color and shape. Almost always there are dark longitudinal strokes on the petals, which are closer to the center of the flower and become thinner and shorter. At the base of the petals of the inner circle are nectaries. Six stamens with elongated anthers are also arranged in two circles. Alstroemeria blooms in spring and summer, and with good care in many species and varieties after the break, in September, re-flowering begins. The plant is pollinated by insects and hummingbirds. The fruit of Alstroemeria is a box with a lot of spherical seeds that can spread without any intermediaries: when ripe, the fruit bursts and the seeds fly away.
In the middle lane, the plant may freeze in winter, so alstroemeria is grown in a greenhouse, greenhouse or apartment. In the open field, the Peruvian lily can be cultivated only in the southern regions.
When to plant alstromeria.
Alstroemeria can be propagated by the seed method, and you can buy plants in the garden pavilion and plant plants on your site, especially since alstroemeria from seeds will bloom only a year or two after planting, and you can see the flowering of its seedlings this year. Those who are going to use their own collected seed for reproduction should be aware that the generative method does not preserve the varietal characteristics of the mother plants, and only species alstromeria makes sense to propagate by seed. Unless, of course, you decide to bring out any new variety of Peruvian lilies. From the foregoing it follows that it is better to plant seedlings purchased in the store in your garden. However, the planting material of the variety you need may not be on sale, and buying seeds of various garden forms and hybrids of alstroemeria is not a problem, therefore, for the initial cultivation of this crop, the seed propagation method still has an advantage over the vegetative one.
You can sow the seeds directly in the ground in April or May, and after three weeks get alstroemeria shoots, but it is better to first grow the seedlings at home, and then transplant it into a flower garden. Alstroemeria seeds are sown on seedlings in late February or early March.
How to plant alstroemeria.
Alstroemeria seeds are stratified for a month in the vegetable box of the refrigerator, wrapped in a damp cloth, then sown in a moist fertile substrate to a depth of 1 cm, cover the container with glass or film and contain at 18 ºC without irrigation. If you do not want to bother with picking seedlings, then sow Alstroemeria in disposable cups, and even better - in peat pots, from which you do not even have to remove the seedlings when transplanting to the ground.
Shoots will begin to germinate in 3-4 weeks. Care for them, as for any other flower seedlings: moderately watered and make two or three dressings before planting in open ground. The first feeding is carried out with a weak solution of mullein (1:20) in the developmental stage of the first true leaflet. For the second feeding, a solution of 6 g of superphosphate, 3 g of nitrate and the same amount of potassium sulfate in 2 liters of water is used - this volume is enough for you to fertilize 10 seedlings. If you sowed alstroemeria in a common container, then at the developmental stage of the seedlings of three true leaves they swoop in separate cups, and a second dressing is made five days after the picking.
Two weeks before planting in a flower garden, seedlings begin to harden in the open air, daily increasing the duration of “walks” until the seedlings can spend the whole day outside. At the same time, the third time you can feed the seedlings with the same solution, which was carried out the second feeding. Alstroemeria seedlings survive in open ground in the middle or at the end of May, when warm weather sets in, the threat of recurrent frosts is past, and the soil warms to 20 ºC.
Planting alstroemeria and caring for it in the open field is as simple as sowing and growing seedlings. Highlight a plant site protected from wind and drafts and illuminated by sunlight early in the morning or after 16 hours. From the burning midday sun alstromeria can protect light partial shade from the bushes or trees. The soil of the plant requires a neutral or slightly acidic, moisture permeable, friable and nutritious. The best soils for growing Alstroemeria are clay or sandy, and if the soil in your area is heavy in composition, dig it a day before planting with a baking powder - humus (rotted manure), compost (leaf humus) or top peat.
Alstroemeria saplings are planted in the usual way: at a distance of 30-50 cm from each other, holes with a diameter of 35-50 and a depth of 25-35 cm are dug out to fit the root system of the plant. The taller variety you plant, the larger the holes should be and the distance between them. To improve drainage, a handful of fine gravel or expanded clay is thrown to the bottom of the hole, then a layer of compost 7-8 cm thick is placed and a seedling with an earthy clod is rolled over it (directly in a peat pot if you sow or swoop seedlings). The remaining space of the hole is filled with nutritious soil, the surface of the area is compacted and plentifully watered.
Alstroemeria care consists of regular watering, feeding, loosening the soil, removing weeds, protecting the plant from diseases and pests and preparing it for winter. In the care of Alstroemeria there is another mandatory item: mulching the surface of the site. When the soil warms up to 23 and more degrees, alstroemeria in the open field begins to intensively grow the root system, and at the expense of flowering. If you want to get a beautiful flowering shrub, cover the soil in the flower garden with at least a centimeter layer of organic mulch (sawdust, peat, shredded tree bark), which will protect the ground from overheating. And to remove weeds, which after mulching will become much smaller, and it will be possible to loosen the soil through mulch.
During flowering, do not forget to remove faded flowers from the bushes. From time to time thin out the bushes if they become too thick: remove weak, thin and growing shoots in the depth of the bush.
Watering and feeding alstroemeria.
Watering alstromeria should be regular and moderate: once a week in the usual summer weather and twice during the drought. The soil on the site must be kept in a slightly damp state. With excessive watering, the roots of the plant will start to rot, and from lack of moisture, alstroemeria will lose its decorative effect. After moistening, slightly loosen the soil around each bush, while removing weeds.
In order for the greenery of Alstroemeria to be bright and its flowering abundant, the plant should be fed three times a month with organic or mineral fertilizers. During the period of active growth of green mass, nitrogen supplements are preferable, and from the beginning of bud formation and flower opening, the plant needs phosphorus more. From time to time, scatter wood ash under bushes.
Alstroemeria reproduces easily. On the seed method, we told you in detail. Those who are already growing alstroemeria in the garden, can breed it vegetatively once every two years, namely by dividing the rhizomes. They do it after the end of flowering: the bush is dug out and cut with a sterile knife into several delenok, which, in addition to a part of the rhizome, must have several strong shoots. Large parts are immediately seated in pre-prepared wells, pre-treated sections with coal powder, and small ones are planted in pots and placed in a greenhouse or on a window sill for growing. It is possible in March or April, without digging up a bush, to separate several delenok from it and immediately plant them in the ground, but only powerful bushes propagate in this way.
Alstroemeria in winter.
Alstroemeria blooms for about two months. When the flowers fade, the arrows are cut as close as possible to the base. With the onset of deep autumn, Alstroemeria shoots are shortened to 20 cm, after which the bush is covered with a thick layer of dry foliage or spruce branches, and on top of it with a film, which is covered with garden soil mixed with humus. Such a shelter will protect the roots of the plant from freezing.
Pests and diseases of alstromeria
Beauty Alstroemeria is resistant to diseases and pests, but if it is watered excessively, it can be affected by gray mold. At the first signs of this fungal disease (fluffy gray plaque on the ground organs), the affected parts of the plant should be removed and the bushes and the soil around them should be treated with a fungicide solution. Strongly affected by gray mold specimens should be removed so that they do not infect neighboring plants.
If alstromeria is poorly cared for, spider mites or caterpillars can strike it. Caterpillars are destroyed by insecticides, and ticks by acaricides. Such drugs as Actellic, Aktar and Akarin will cope with any kind of harmful insects.
Sometimes alstroemeria can damage slugs that eat its leaves. To protect the flowers from mollusks, bark the surface with the bark of a large fraction or enclose the area with a groove with rubble through which the slugs will not move.