Fruit shrubs

Methods of breeding mountain ash: cutting, grafting, seed method

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Rowan ordinary loved by Russian gardeners. In the old days, it was planted near houses to protect households from the evil eye. This tall, beautiful tree retains its decorative effect in all seasons of the year. It is not only decorative, but has healing properties, as well as rowan berries are used to make pastilles, jams, jams, liqueurs and tinctures. A detailed description of the characteristics of this variety of mountain ash can be found below.

Description of ordinary mountain ash

Rowan - a tree with a height of 5 m and above. Sometimes it can reach heights of up to 20 m. In an adult tree, a crown is 6 m wide. It has a perfectly even trunk. Therefore, rowan wood is very often used in joinery.. The trunk and branches are smooth, grayish shade.

Mountain ash

Beautiful leaves of mountain ash are oblong and have an elongated shape. Single-pinnate, alternate. Thanks to the leaves, rowan is so popular in landscape design.

Enters fructification for 5-7 year after landing. Stable yields from 30 years of age. Abundantly fruits every 3 years. It blooms in late May, early June. Berries appear in September. When ripe, they are red or black. The color of the berries depends on the variety of mountain ash.. Berries are round, usually with bitterness. There are varieties of mountain ash with a sweet taste. Despite the fact that they are inferior in taste to other berries, they are useful. Due to its beneficial properties, it has been successfully used in traditional medicine.

How to grow a tree and get fruit

Rowan grows and develops on any soil, so to grow a tree will not be difficult. It is better if the soil is wet, but not swampy. Does not like sour soils, so you need to proizvodkovkov before planting.

Suitable for planting 2-3 summer seedlings. Best season for landing - This is the middle of autumn in warm areas. In the cold mid-September. Possible landing in the spring.

Mountain ash is best to plant in the fall

For landing you will need:

Land for landing to prepare in advance. Dig and clean from weeds. If planting several trees, the distance between them is 4-5 m.

Dig a hole 80 cm deep and 50 cm wide. If the seedling has a strong root system, then the planting hole should be larger. Such that the roots fit freely in it.

In the soil, which was removed when digging the hole, add:

  1. Superphosphate 600 grams.
  2. Humus 12 kg.
  3. Potassium salt 130 grams.

All components are thoroughly mixed with the ground.

Pour drainage layer on the bottom of the pit. Pebbles or coarse sand are suitable as drainage. On the drainage pour a mound of cooked land. Put a rowan sapling on it. In the center to drive a peg. Straighten the roots and cover with soil. Trample it around the stem. Water abundantly. The soil around the tree mulch humus. Tie it with a string to a peg.

Tree care

  1. Rowan unpretentious care. He likes abundant watering. Lack of moisture will retard the growth and development of the tree.
  2. Regular loosening of the soil around the stem. Rowan gives abundant basal growth, which must be removed to avoid shrub. There is no need to leave hemp.
Bottom rowan mountain must be removed
  1. For the best growth and development of rowan need feeding. Spring need nitrogen fertilizers:
  • Korovyak 1 kg.
  • Urea 10 grams.
  • Ammonium nitrate 15 grams.

The components are diluted in 10 liters of water.

In the autumn make phosphorus-potassium.

  • Nitroammofosk 20 grams.
  1. Tall rowan varieties require forming pruning. In the spring cut dry branches. The cut is made at an angle of 45 degrees.

With the gathering of the fruits of mountain ash should not be tightened. First, it is pecked by birds. Secondly, it becomes tasteless. therefore harvesting occurs at the end of August, beginning of September.

Seed propagation

The most popular and simple breeding of mountain ash is seeds. For this method, the collected seeds in order for them to ascend must undergo a stratification of 3-6 months.

Rowan seeds

To prepare the seeds for plantingtear ripened handful from rowan. Gently rub the berries, and thoroughly wash the seeds with running water. After that, pereshat with peat. Place the mixture in a container, and put in a cool place at a temperature of 1 degree.

If there is no basement, put the seed container on the top shelf of the refrigerator. Do not forget to moisturize. After the time the seeds must turn on. Now take out the tank with the seeds in the air. Dig in the snow. In the spring to plant seeds in open ground.

To plant seeds, dig a plot. The soil should be loose and fertile. Free it from weeds. Add humus, superphosphate and potash fertilizers. Planting seeds is carried out in the grooves with a distance of 25 cm from each other. The depth of embedding into the soil is 2-3 cm. Fill it with light soil (mix humus or peat with the ground).

Thickened shoots will need to thin out. Leave 8 cm between plants.

Further care for plants consists of:

Reproduction overgrowth is not a difficult method of reproduction. For a good result, you must follow the rules:

  1. For breeding, the growth is taken 2-3 years of life.
  2. Carefully separate it from the mother tree.
  3. Leave the seedlings in place to grow.
  4. After two years, the grown bush should be transplanted to a permanent place.

To get good layouts for breeding, used two year old shoots.

Breeding scheme of the rowan by horizontal layering

Maternal bush must spud. Be sure to fertilize with humus. Shallow the soil shallow. Remove collection grass.

From the adult bush to dig the grooves. Depth 10 cm. Lay shoots in the grooves. Strengthen it with forked hooks. In order for the shoots to take root better, make small cuts on the bark. A rowan stalk to tie up to a peg. Two years later, if the cuttings developed a good root system, the stalk is transplanted to a permanent place.

Vocabulary

This breeding method is complex and is used for breeding varietal rowan.

For the stock take seedlings of simple rowan. Since the bark of her plastic, so it is easily separated, and provides a good engraftment.

Stages budding simple rowan

Erythrobes rowan engaged in early August. The process is the same as apple trees, pears and other fruit trees. The difference is the cultivation of rowan sapling.

Read more about reproduction of fruit trees and plants:

  • Proper reproduction of raspberries
  • Methods for reproduction of cherries at home
  • 4 ways to multiply plums

One year after budding, cut the stock on the thorn. Height will be approximately 28 cm. On it remove all the kidneys. An escape that grew from a grafted bud should be tied to a thorn.

A year later, begin to form the crown. The top part of a sapling is removed. Where the kidneys are close together. The cut is made at an acute angle to the trunk.

For planting in parks and alleys, a tree is formed high; for gardens, the crown is cut so that it is not tall.. Usually 3 skeletal branches are laid in the first tier.

Since the mountain ash starts to get up very early in growth, landing should be carried out in the autumn. Fertile, light soils are recommended for planting. Organic, phosphate and potash fertilizers are applied as a top dressing.. The trees are planted according to the 6 * 4 or 6 * 3 m scheme. The holes are prepared with a depth of 60 cm and a width of 80 cm. A layer of drainage is placed at the bottom of 10-15 cm. A pair of humus buckets is placed on it. As well as superphosphate 250 grams, potash salt in the amount of 100. Top cover with soil, and plant seedlings.

Seedlings during the growing season are watered regularly. Weed. So that the earth does not dry out under them, the near-stem circle mulches with peat, humus or straw.

In the autumn you need to whiten the trunks to protect against sunburn in the spring.. So that the young trees do not freeze out, in the winter they need to be tucked to a height of 30 cm

Common ashberry in winter

Fruits for mountain ash are made once every 4 years. When planting it is shortened. In subsequent years, carry out the removal of sick, damaged branches. It is recommended to thin out the crown once in 5 years.. Older trees need rejuvenating pruning. In this case, the main branches are shortened by ⅓ length. After the rejuvenating pruning, be sure to make a top dressing. Organic and mineral fertilizers are applied under the near-stem circle of mountain ash.

Rowan for its decorativeness is perhaps the first among the trees. She is beautiful at all times of the year. In winter, it is decorated with red beads of berries. From spring to autumn there is a riot of foliage colors. And the more so because rowan is not only an ornamental tree, but it is also very useful. It is successfully used in folk medicine for diseases. Therefore, it is desirable to plant a beautiful mountain ash in your garden.

Rowan ordinary: description of the plant

This is the most famous plant that has good decorative qualities. The berries of this tree are used both in the food industry and in medicine. In addition, the fruits of mountain ash serve as food for birds in the winter season. This type of plant is grown in many countries around the world. Fine tree develops not only in European countries, but also in Central Asia.

Prefers mountain ash ordinary temperate climate, nutritious soil and a lot of light. It often grows singly, without creating thickets. The advantage of the tree is that it is perfectly adjacent to different types of plants. Mountain ash trees are not demanding to care. Therefore, to grow on your site can anyone.

Propagated mountain ash:

  • cuttings
  • seeds
  • grafting
  • layering
  • root suckers.

The root system is well developed. Therefore, adult specimens do not need watering. The tree grows up to 12 m tall. The crown has a round shape, tracery. The young shoots are greyish, but over time they turn brown.

Leafy plates are green, matte. Closer to winter, they change their color to golden red. The buds are white, form lush inflorescences. Fruits are round, saturated red. Up to 100 kg of berries can be collected from one tree, which are used to prepare various infusions and compotes.

Methods of breeding mountain ash: seeds

One of the easiest methods of reproduction is usually mountain ash is planting seeds. This method does not require much effort, so even beginning gardeners will be able to cope with it.

The collection of planting material is carried out in late autumn. Grains are extracted from ripe berries, washed under running water and dried thoroughly. The finished seeds are kept in wet sand at an air temperature of about +5 0 C.

Sowing the seeds are carried out in early spring. For this make grooves up to 8 cm deep. It is necessary to place the seeds evenly. On top of everything fall asleep wet sand with a thickness of 1.5 cm.

On 1 m 2, should be placed about 250 grains of mountain ash.

After planting, water the beds carefully. For this purpose, it is recommended to use fine feed to prevent seed leaching.

The first thinning is carried out after the shoots appear above the ground surface. The distance between the seedlings should be 3 cm. After the appearance of 5 leaves, the procedure is repeated. In this case, the distance between shoots should be at least 7 cm.

Watering of seedlings should be only after the topsoil dries well. This should be done 2 to 3 times a week. Also, do not forget about loosening the soil and removing weeds.

For those who want to get a constant abundant crop of mountain ash, it is recommended to plant on the site several different plant varieties.

Proper care of the seedlings includes timely feeding. To do this, use a liquid organic fertilizer. Up to 5 kg of manure should be added per 1 m 2. Seedlings are transplanted to a permanent growing place next autumn.

Vaccination rowan on mountain ash

For an ordinary variety, the best way to vaccinate is in a spray. To implement this procedure will need to prepare cuttings. Separating plots from shoots is recommended in January. Harvest the stocked cuttings in a bundle and prikopat to the ground to a depth of no more than 15 cm.

Rowan grafting is done in spring. It is necessary to use the strongest stalk on which buds appeared. Before grafting it, the lower part of the soil should be cleaned and cut off in the form of a blade. On the reverse side, you will need to cut a small portion of the cutting at an angle to the first bud.

For quick rooting, it is necessary to process the graft with garden decoction.

At the top of the main plant, make a 3 cm depth splitting and place a graft in it. The place where the two elements are connected, wrap with polyethylene and carefully tie a thread.

Grafted seedling placed in a greenhouse. It is necessary to dig into the ground to the junction. The best soil in this case will be a mixture of sand and peat. Other types of soil are not recommended, as they are not able to pass air well.

In order for the sapling to develop properly, it is necessary to systematically moisten not only the substrate, but also the air. As soon as the elements successfully grow together, you can plant rowan at a permanent place of growth. But before you carry out the procedure, you will need to cut all the shoots on the cart.

Rowan breeding cuttings

This method is often used by gardeners. To grow a new plant, you need to use green or lignified shoots. Of course, it is better to give preference to the first species of branches, since they take root much faster.

Reproduction green cuttings

Planting material harvested in the first week of summer. Each stalk should be from 10 to 15 cm long and with several healthy buds.

The cut is recommended to do only at an angle.

Soak the cuttings in a growth stimulator before planting. Keep in liquid for about 6 hours.

To plant a copy should be on a previously prepared area. The first thing to do is dig up the ground. Sprinkle the top with plenty of dry river sand. Its layer should be within 10 cm.

In order for the stalk to better root, one should make several small cuts in the lower part and one above, above the bud itself.

In August, the rooted specimen must be transplanted to a permanent place of growth. Cover the cuttings with plastic tops and keep them in this condition until the first signs of development appear.

Caring for planting material involves periodic airing of the greenhouse, as well as systematic watering. As soon as the seedlings take root, it is necessary to carry out feeding. To do this, dilute 30 g of ammonium nitrate in 8 liters of water. Fertilizing is recommended once every two weeks.

Reproduction by lignified cuttings

In order to implement this method, it is necessary to use cuttings only from annual shoots. They should be cut in the second part of September. Cut cuttings should have a length of 15 to 20 cm with several buds.

It is necessary to plant the specimens on the day of their preparation. The cuttings are placed in loose soil at a distance of 15 cm between the elements and 70 cm between the rows. Then the area is abundantly watered and mulched with peat.

Rowan reproduction by layering

Before you grow a mountain ash from a branch, you need to remember that in this case only one-year shoots are used. To do this, the upper part of the branch must be tilted to a previously prepared groove. Over the entire length, fix it with metal clips. It is recommended to pinch the upper part of the shoot.

After the appearance of the first shoots (10 cm), they should be covered with humus. Repeat the procedure as soon as the shoots reach 15 cm in height.

It is best to perform the procedure in the spring when the soil warms up well.

Separating the layers need only next spring. At this time, and transplanting seedlings to a permanent place of growth.

Rowan propagation by root layers

Every year, a lot of offsprings appear around the red fruit of the mountain ash They are the perfect option for growing young trees. To do this, they are separated and placed in a separate groove.

The depth of the dimples should be within 80 cm, and the distance between the specimens is about 6 meters. Each groove must be filled with a mixture of manure, wood ash, and garden soil. After planting, each plant will need to be poured abundantly with water at room temperature.

All seedlings that have taken root, pruned. For this, the upper part of the central trunk is removed with a sharp knife. Lateral twigs are cut in spring.

Breeding rowan ordinary is a simple procedure. To achieve the desired result, and grow this beautiful tree on your plot, you need to follow all the recommendations. Only then, your garden will sparkle with new colors.

Description of the species

The mountain ash (lat. Sórbus aucupária) is a tree, in rare cases it is possible to meet a bush. There are about 150 species.

Where grows mountain ash:

  1. Distributed in Europe, the Caucasus, the Far North, the Urals. In the highlands is more common shrub.
  2. In nature, a tree grows in separate specimens in glades, in forests, on forest edges.
  3. It is planted in gardens and on summer cottages, it decorates the territory almost all the year round and possesses useful properties.

Дерево холодостойкое, выдерживает сильные морозы и ветра. Может расти на открытой местности или в тени. Высота дерева 10−15 м, зацветает в мае или июне. Цветки белого цвета, 1 см в диаметре, собраны в пышные соцветия на конце веток дерева. Рябина листья имеет крупные, состоящие из 7−15 листочков.From August to September, fruits with an orange-red hue begin to ripen. Many gardeners believe that the fruit of the mountain ash is a berry, but in fact it is an apple, just its size is small, up to 1.5 cm. The fruits are edible, have a bitter-sour taste, they stick on the branches for a long time. After frost, the bitterness of the berries disappears, they become tastier.

Breeding methods

Usually, trees are planted around the perimeter of the plot, so that the grown up specimens do not obscure the territory. It is important to observe the distance between seedlings of 4−5 meters. The tree is sensitive to air pollution and will grow poorly in the city.

Now there are enough varieties in the fruits of which there is no bitterness. All of them are formed from two varieties of the ordinary mountain ash: Moravian and Nevezhinskaya, by crossing them with other varieties. IV Michurin for a long time engaged in the cultivation of sweet varieties, crossing common mountain ash with hawthorn, chokeberry, pear. Rowan pollinated crossTo get the fruit you need to plant several varieties. If there is no place on the territory to plant several trees, it is possible to plant different seedlings into one specimen.

Species rowan breeds with seeds. From the fruits get the seeds, clean them from the pulp. Store until spring in wet sand, in a cellar or in another cold place. In the spring they are sown in the ground and watered in a timely manner. For watering use a fine sieve. Seedlings need to thin out, removing weak copies. It is important to loosen the soil and remove weeds, and in the spring to fertilize the plant with liquid organic fertilizers. After two years, the seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place, they will bear fruit for 4−5 year.

All valuable varieties propagate vegetatively.

In January, selected cuttings and dropping them in the soil, leaving until spring. In early spring, they choose a young stock (what they will be planted for) of mountain ash or hawthorn. On the upper part of the root, a split of 2–4 cm is made, a strong stalk with buds is taken, its lower part is cut with a wedge and inserted into the split. The upper part of the cutting is cut at an angle, treated with garden pitch. The vaccination site is fixed with a film. Then the seedling is dug and planted in a greenhouse. It needs to be watered regularly. If the splicing of the stock and the graft was successful, the sapling is planted in a permanent place in the garden. The upper part of the stock is cut.

Green cuttings must be harvested at the beginning of summer. Take those shoots that have leaves and fresh buds. Cuttings should be cut at an angle, the required length is 10−12 cm. In order for the cutting to take root, it is placed in a root growth stimulator for several hours. Cuttings with roots are planted in a greenhouse, they need to be watered from a watering can with a spray.

Seedlings need to harden, so that they are well settled in a permanent place. To do this, open the greenhouse first for several hours, then the time is constantly increased, and then the film is removed for the night.. If the seedlings are well caught, fertilize with nitrogen fertilizers. Next autumn, young bushes are transplanted to their permanent place.

Reproduction by lignified cuttings is as follows:

  1. You need to cut a good annual shoots from branches 3-4 years of age. The length of the cutting 15−20 cm
  2. Each cutting must have at least five live buds. They should be cut off at the end of September.
  3. The cuttings are planted into the ground immediately after cutting, the distance between each cutting is 15–20 cm, and between the rows 60–75 cm.
  4. They are added under the slope, two buds should remain above the soil.
  5. Cuttings should be plentifully watered, compact the soil around and mulch.

Layering and root suckers

Carry out the procedure in spring when the soil is warm enough. It is necessary to bend down and fasten a good one-year-old shoot with a metal bracket. When it grows 10−15 cm above the soil, it is covered with earth for rooting. A year later, the young layers can be separated from the mother bush and plant yourself.

In the ordinary mountain ash many offspring are formed, which depart from the root. In spring, they can be separated and planted as an independent tree to a permanent place. Sapling need to be watered, fertilized. Remove weeds around it and timely pruning.

Interesting facts about mountain ash

  1. Since ancient times, mountain ash was considered a magical tree, able to drive away evil spirits. She was landed at the entrance to protect the home. From young branches they made crosses to protect themselves from the evil eye.
  2. The name "mountain ash" refers only to varieties with red or yellow fruits. Aronaceous varieties are not rowan; they are its close relatives, their biological name is “aronia”.
  3. Rowan - a unique tree that can adapt to the most severe conditions. Maintains temperature of -50 ° C, strong winds, lack of moisture.
  4. Rowan flowers are honey plants, berries can be eaten, tinctures made from them, decoctions, dried, frozen. The wood is very durable, easy to process, various wooden products and furniture are made of it.
  5. The fruits contain many different vitamins and are used in traditional medicine. However, on the basis of mountain ash, there is not a single medicine created by pharmacists.
  6. It grows in Europe, Asia and North America. In total, there are more than one hundred species of ordinary mountain ash in Russia, about 30 of them.
  7. Fresh fruits are stored for several months, they can be dried in the oven at low temperatures.
  8. Rowan serves as a garden decoration all year round. First, it blooms, then fruits begin to appear, which remain on the branch even after frost. Its leaves and berries adorn the garden with the onset of autumn.

Rowan devoted poems, artists often depicted it on their canvases. The ornament in the form of a rowan branch was embroidered on clothes, tablecloths, towels and curtains.

Features

There are a lot of varieties and varieties of rowan, there are undersized varieties and tall trees. The color of the berries and inflorescences in this tree can be different. Depending on the variety, the color of the fruits of mountain ash varies from bright orange to white. To spread it in the country, it must be properly inoculated.

In the wild, mountain ash is propagated by seeds that carry various birds. The fruits of these trees are sour, with bitterness. Rowan garden varieties delight delicious, fragrant, sweet berries.

Propagation of garden varieties of mountain ash has some features. There are several ways to reproduce this tree at home: planting seeds, cutting and budding.

  1. When planting seeds, you need to properly collect and prepare planting material. Seeds must be harvested from the ripest berries. Then, they are thoroughly washed and dried. In early spring or late autumn, the seed material is sown in open ground. Pre-soak some time in warm water. Planting depth is about two centimeters. Top seeds sprinkled with earth, humus and dry foliage.
  2. Rowan propagation using cuttings more simple and easy way. Cuttings can be both annual, woody, and young, green. Lignified cuttings harvested and planted in the fall. To do this, cut the necessary number of annual shoots from the tree and plant them in open ground. For propagation by green cuttings, any tree will do. As the planting material used young, green tops of the shoots. Prepared cuttings, planted in the spring, in a greenhouse or greenhouse.
  3. Budding. This method involves the inoculation of a garden bud, varietal rowan on a sapling. This method of breeding rowan is quite complicated and requires certain skills and compliance with certain rules.

Varieties of mountain ash in nature set. For optimal growth and fruiting of each species of mountain ash certain climatic conditions are necessary:

  • The most famous and popular species is the mountain ash.
  • No less popular and widespread - the mountain ash is an alder.
  • Very often you can find another type of rowan trees - Tibetan.
  • Kashmir This type of mountain ash is resistant to low temperatures, therefore it is quite common in Russia.
  • Mixed This variety of rowan is most characteristic of Sakhalin, Japan, and so on.
  • Rowan aria. It belongs to tall species, prefers lime soil.

Choosing a landing site rowan

Rowan is a fairly tall tree, so it is advisable to plant it along the border of the garden so as not to obscure the area, for example, along the perimeter from the north side. Rowan can grow on any, even poor soils, but still prefers fertile soils - light and medium loam, good water retention.

General view of the mountain ash. © Mehmet Karatay

Planting mountain ash

It is planted in the fall or early in the spring - usually until the end of April, as it moves off early in growth. For a more generous harvest, it is better to acquire several varieties of mountain ash: single-sowing plantings, although prone to self-fertility, are still less fruitful.

Plant trees at a distance of not less than 4-6 meters from each other. Pits are dug in depths and widths of 60–80 cm. They are filled with a mixture of compost soil with a fertile surface layer of soil, to which are added a handful of ashes and superphosphate and 2–3 shovels of three-year-old manure humus (fresh, uncured manure burns the roots). After planting, rowan seedlings must be watered and shortened by the central conductor, and the next year, young and lateral shoots.

Rowan care

Rowan care is reduced to the timely removal of overgrowth, which is often formed at the root collar, and shoots growing below the grafting site, as well as watering, fertilizing and loosening the soil, forming the crown and controlling pests and diseases. Since the mountain ash in the spring quite early and quickly start to grow, pruning and dressing plantings should be carried out as soon as possible and tight deadlines. At the same time, weak and broken shoots are cut out in young plants, the longest ones are shortened to the outer bud.

When pruning fruit plants should take into account the nature of fruiting. In species and varieties of mountain ash, fruit-bearing on the growth of last year, the shoots are only slightly shortened and thinned crown thinned. Plants with a weak increase make rejuvenating pruning for two to three-year-old wood to cause the growth of new shoots. In the rowan trees, bearing fruit on various types of fruit formations, they shorten the semi-skeletal branches, systematically thinning and rejuvenating the noses.

Since the third year of life, young mountain ash must be fed with mineral fertilizers. The most effective triple feeding: in the spring, before flowering, make 20 g of nitrogen. 25 g of phosphate and 15 g of potash fertilizers per square meter. meters in the summer, in the summer - 10-15 g of nitrogen and phosphate and 10 g of potash, in the fall, after harvesting, - 10 g of phosphorus and potash. Fertilizers are buried shallowly, slightly digging up the soil, after which the planting is plentifully watered.

Rowan inflorescence. © martainn

Rowan varieties

Everybody knows the common ash, but many people do not suspect that many varieties with tasty and healthy fruits have been derived from it.

  • ‘Alai major’ - one of the most valuable varieties of this culture. When hybridization used a mixture of pollen of different breeds of pears. Its fruits are very large (over 4 g), scarlet-red, resemble cherries, juicy, with a slight tartness, but without bitterness. The variety is skoroplodny, universal. The harvest from one adult tree reaches 150 kg.
  • 'Bead' - fruits on the 4-5th year after planting. On a low tree ripen red fruits ripen to taste reminiscent of cranberries. The variety is winter hardy, resistant to diseases. Yields are stable.
  • ‘Vefed’ - received from Nevezhinskaya Rowan. A low tree bears fruit steadily. Fruits are orange-pink, shiny, weighing up to 1.3 g. The variety is characterized by high winter hardiness.
  • ‘Grenade’ - hybrid of mountain ash with hawthorn large-fruited. Tree height 3-4 m. Fruits the size of a cherry. The taste is sweet and sour, without bitterness. Winter hardiness and high yield. Fruits in the age of three.
  • 'Beauty' - the result of the crossing of mountain ash and pear. The tree forms a wide pyramidal crown, its height is 5–6 m. It fruits abundantly and annually, the fruits are large, 1.8–2.2 g, of a rich orange-red color with an oblong shape uncharacteristic for rowan. The taste is somewhat tart.
  • 'Hope' - tree is undersized. Fruits (1.8–2 g) contain a large amount of biologically active substances. The variety is characterized by rapidity and high yield.
  • ‘Ruby’ - plant of dwarf type (2–2.3 m) with a spreading crown. Dark ruby ​​fruits (1.8 g), pleasant sweet-sour taste.
  • 'Titanium' - the variety was obtained by crossing a mountain ash with a pear and red-leaved apple trees. This is a medium-thick tree with a wide rounded crown. Fruits are dark red with a bluish bloom weighing up to 2 g. Very winter-hardy. Fruiting year.
  • ‘Sorbinka’ - tree srednerosly. Fruits are large (up to 3 g), yellow-red, pleasant refreshing taste. Fruits in the 5-6th year. Crops are plentiful.
Rowan berries. © Mary Shattock

Diseases and pests of mountain ash

Rowan is quite resistant to various pests and diseases. Significant damage is noted only in some years. On the mountain ash tree there are such pests as sawflies, scoop caterpillars, mites. On flowers of a tree tsvetoyedy settle, and on fruits and branches there is a mountain ash moth, an apple fruit sawfly and bark beetles. Rowan crop significantly lower birds.

Rowan propagation by red grafting

The rowan ordinary when propagated by grafting is most suitable splitting method. In January, cuttings of the current year are cut, they are knitted into bunches and instilled vertically in the soil or sand to a depth of 15 cm.

In early spring, an annual seedling is selected for the stock, dug and cleaned of soil clods. In the upper part of the root do split in 3 cm depth. A strong stalk with developed buds is selected, a double wedge-shaped slice is made in the lower part of the shoot so that it coincides with the size of the cleft. The upper part of the cutting is cut at an oblique angle above the upper bud.

The graft is placed in a cleft, the junction is wrapped with a film, the top of the graft is treated with a garden pitch. Ready grafted seedlings are planted in a greenhouse so that the junction is on the ground surface. Sand and peat are used as soil in equal parts. The seedling should not dry out, it is necessary to moisten the soil and the air. After successful splicing, the seedling is planted on a permanent place in the open ground, cutting off the sprouts on the stock.

Green cuttings

Cuttings harvested in the first days of summer. To cutting rowan brought a positive result, you need to know how to cut the cuttings. The length of the cutting is from 10 to 15 cm; the shoots must have developed buds and several leaves; the cut is made at an angle.

Before planting, the lower part of the shoot is left in the root formation stimulator for six hours.

During this time, a greenhouse is prepared: a dredged river sand is poured with a layer up to 10 cm to a dug up and cleaned layer of soil. For better rooting, several cuts are made in the lower part, and in the upper part, cuts are made above the kidney.

At the end of the summer, the seedlings are transplanted to another growing area. Care of seedlings implies watering by spraying, airing the greenhouse at too high a temperature.

Before planting rowan saplings on a permanent place cuttings harden, leaving the greenhouse open. First, the film is removed for a couple of hours, gradually increasing the time and eventually left open for the night.

As soon as the seedlings take root, the greenhouse support is removed and the first feeding with nitrogen mineral compounds (30 g of ammonium nitrate per 8 liters of water) is carried out. The soil around the seedlings is cleaned from weeds and loosened. The following autumn, rowan bushes are transplanted to a permanent place.

Woody cuttings

For reproduction of red rowan woody cuttings take strong annual shoots from two or four-year branches.

They are cut in the second decade of September. Cuttings cut a length of 15-20 cm, each should be about five buds.

Landing is carried out on the same day. In a clean dug up soil planted at a distance of 15 cm between the cuttings, between the rows - up to 70 cm. Planting is made obliquely, leaving two buds from above, one above the ground. The cuttings are watered, crush the soil, squeezing voids and mulch with peat. For successful rooting and further transplantation, the soil is constantly moistened and loosened.

Breeding rowan vulgaris layers

For reproduction of mountain ash with layers in a previously prepared groove, a strong one-year shoots are bent. Carry out the procedure in the spring with well-heated soil. The area under the cuttings dug up and cleaned from weeds.

The shoot is placed in the groove and pressed with wire clips. The top of the shoot pinch. When the first shoots of 10 centimeters in length, they fall asleep to half the humus. The procedure is repeated when the shoots reach another 15 cm. The following spring, the layers are separated from the mother bush and transplanted to a permanent place.

Rowan propagation by red root suckers

Every year around the trunk grows a lot of root rowan sprouts. Sprouts with success use for reproduction in the spring. To do this, they are cut off and transplanted into a separate hole immediately to a permanent place.

Яма для саженца должна быть в глубину и ширину до 80 см. Расстояние между посадками – до шести метров. Яму наполняют приготовленной смесью: компост, питательная почва в равных частях, по щепоти древесной золы и суперфосфата, две лопаты перепревшего навоза. После посадки обильно поливают, обрезают на треть центральный ствол, боковые побеги обрезают следующей весной.

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