Catalpa is an extraordinarily beautiful tree that can be a bright and worthy decoration of any backyard. Mayan Indians called it the "tree of happiness." Not bearing any fruit benefit, and not having any useful qualities, catalpa is valued for its high decoration and beauty, especially during the flowering period.
Catalpa: original tree
There are only 13 varieties of such a tree, and the catalpa in the Moscow region is grown in only 4 species. Catalpa appeared in Russia in the middle of the 19th century. And initially it was grown in botanical gardens as an exotic plant. Gradually adapting to the climate of the Russian regions with their harsh winters, the catalpa became widespread and tolerates temperatures of -25 degrees calmly. Catalpa, whose photo fully conveys the beauty and originality of this unusual plant, has another name - “tree with elephant ears”, which she received for large heart-shaped leaves. In Indian fairy tales, they personified the hearts of warriors. A feature of the catalpa is the preservation of the greenery round and very shady due to the large size of the leaves of the crown almost to frost.
Catalpa flowers are fragrant, delicate, often covered with dotted spots, very beautiful, have white or cream color and are collected in large, like chestnut, panicles inflorescences, the length of which can be 20 cm. Externally, they resemble bells, their flowering lasts a long time. Catalpa blooms 5 years after planting, in June-July. It is only good for gardeners, because at this time the trees no longer bloom.
Catalpa - pasta tree
Catalpa is a tree whose fruits resemble long icicles. In fact, they are green pods, inside of which there are a large number of seeds that are remotely similar to dandelion seeds and fly away after opening in different directions. It is because of these pods, which reach a length of 35-50 centimeters with a width of about 1.5 cm, is also called the "macaroni tree" for its similarity with pasta or spaghetti hanging from branches. In the absence of winds, fruit can hang on a tree all winter.
Catalpa is a tree that is characterized by a straight trunk and gray bark with thick plates. Individual wild forms are a source of valuable wood, which is similar in characteristics to oak wood.
Catalpa in landscape design
Grows catalpa (tree) quickly. It is not capricious and resistant to adverse conditions. It harmoniously looks like a single plant in the foreground (at the entrance area of an office, shop or cafe, in a prominent place in front of the front side of the house) and in the alley landings and parks as their component. Looks great catalpa, a photo of which conveys all the beauty of the plant, when making the shoreline of reservoirs. Harmoniously, you can combine species with golden and purple leaves. In the modern world, catalpa, which withstands air pollution and is drought tolerant, is widely used for urban greening, replacing traditional poplars and lindens. All kinds of such trees are wonderful honey plants. Catalpa can be made the center of the composition, surrounding it with a hedgehog of cotoneaster or hawthorn, keeping the decorative effect all season.
In suburban areas and homestead territories, the most widespread are catalpas magnificent and catalpas bignonevial. Delivered from North America, they are capable of reaching a height of 30 meters in their homeland. In domestic conditions, the tallest tree can grow up to 10-12 meters.
Catalpa is great
Catalpa is magnificent - a fast-growing tree, the annual growth of its trunk can be 1 meter. The plant got acclimatized in the climatic conditions of central Russia. Reaching a height of 10 meters, it is characterized by a slender straight trunk, a wide crown and large, about 25 cm, oval leaves, which bloom an order of magnitude earlier than in other species. Catalpa is a magnificent drought-resistant, light-requiring, negative attitude to the groundwater adjacent to the surface. By mid-June, it is covered with numerous panicles of light cream and pink inflorescences, in yellow stripes and brown specks. Flowering, depending on the region, lasts from 2 weeks to 1 month.
Pignoniform and ovoid catalpa
Bignonia catalpa is characterized by spreading branches forming a broad rounded crown. The height of the tree is 10-12 meters, the bark has a light brown tint, friability, large wide leaves about 20 cm in length, pubescent from above. Flowering is long, about 1.5 months, occurs in July-August. Bignonia catalpa is represented by several varieties:
- Nana. It is characterized by a compact, spherical crown, reaching 2-4 meters in diameter.
- Aurea. At the beginning of the growing season stands out golden leaves.
- Ken. The leaves are characterized by a green center on a yellow background.
- Purpurea. It is characterized by red-brown leaves when blooming.
All varieties grow rather slowly, with the highest resistance to winter hardiness in Nana.
The ovoid catalpa is found in multiple shrub forms. In contrast to catalpa, bignonevidnoy and magnificent has a short growing season. Her shoots have time to wood until the onset of cold weather, so the plant almost does not freeze. Able to withstand 29 degrees of frost.
Catalpa should be grown in a well-lit area, protected from cold winds that can break large leaves of a tree. A sapling needs to be planted in a planting pit, the depth of which is 70-120 cm. When planting several trees, the distance between them should not be less than 3 meters. As a soil, a mixture of sand, peat, leaf soil and humus is suitable in a ratio of 2: 1: 2: 3. Making a landing hole of 5-7 kg of wood ash will be very useful. After planting, the catalpa, the seedlings of which are recommended to be immediately watered and mulched in peering circles with peat soil, begins to grow actively with proper care.
Features care for catalpa
Catalpa, the reproduction of which is done by cuttings, layering, seeds, calmly refers to the transplant, which is best done in early spring. Watering the plant is recommended once a week, 15-18 liters per unit of plant. Catalpa, like any plant, is good for dressings, which are recommended to be done 2-3 times per season. Making slurry will be productive (approximately 5 liters for 1 tree).
An important element of catalpa care is pruning, aimed at removing dry branches and forming a crown. It is required to conduct it annually, in early spring.
It is recommended to cover young catalpa seedlings for the winter, this can be done with the help of burlap or mulch in tree trunks. With age, the catalpa will need less and less covering for the winter.
The Chinese legend of catalpa says: once in ancient times monkeys and elephants were at enmity between themselves. If monkeys were captured by monkeys, they hung their tails on the trees. If elephants were captured by monkeys, elephant's ears were hung on the trees. So it appeared on the planet of catalpa.
Decorative catalpa is a very beautiful evergreen or deciduous tree, the height of which does not exceed 20 meters. The shape of the crown is rounded. In most species, the leaf plates are opposite, there are also whorled ones, they have long petioles and a heart-shaped form, their size is approximately 30x17 centimeters. This tree blossoms very effectively. The length of fragrant flowers is about 7 centimeters, they have a funnel shape and cream or white color, specks and spots of dark color are located in the throat. Flowers are part of pyramidal paniculate erect inflorescences. The fruit is a hanging pods of a pod-like shape, the length of which reaches 0.4 m. Inside these fruits there is a huge amount of volatile seeds. Such a plant blooms in the second half of June or the first days of July, while unusual fruits do not fall off the tree during the entire winter period.
Catalpa is a moisture-loving plant, therefore it is necessary to water it once a week, especially during the hot and dry period. In that case, if the tree feels the lack of water, then its decorativeness will greatly decrease, as the leaves will lose the turgor and sag. For 1 adult catalpa for 1 irrigation, 20 liters of water are taken. In the event that the summer period turned out to be wet or cool, watering can be reduced to 2-3 times per month. The same amount of watering is required for a plant with a pruned tree trunk. After rain or watering, it is recommended to loosen the surface of the soil in the near-ground circle to a depth of 0.3 m, at the same time performing weeding. If there is a prolonged drought, then the number of irrigations should be increased.
Do not forget to systematically feed the tree. To do this, it is necessary to add a solution of rotted manure to the soil (1:10), while from 5 to 6 liters of nutrient mixture is taken for 1 adult tree. This feeding is carried out 2 times per season. In the spring, it is recommended to feed the catalpa with Nitroammofosca, and in the fall - with phosphate and potash fertilizers, at this time it does not need nitrogen.
Pruning is recommended in the spring before the buds swell. During this procedure, all injured, dried, frost-damaged, disease or pest branches should be cut. Forming a tree, as a rule, is made with a trunk height from 120 to 200 centimeters, above which the plant forks into a spreading low crown of 4 or 5 skeletal branches. After some time, if necessary, the skeletal branches of the plant are shortened, while the thickening stems and branches must be removed.
Diseases and pests
Catalpa is highly resistant to both diseases and pests. But in the case when the plant is very weak, spanier flies can live on it. In order to destroy them, it will take 2 times to process the plant with a pyrethroid (Phostak or Decis). Even on this plant can live stem pests - horntails, they are hymenoptera, while their adults are very similar in appearance to hornets. The wood of such a tree serves as a place for laying eggs by adult females. After some time, the larvae appear from them, paving the way in the wood, and then blocking them with drill flour. Catalpas infected with such larvae weaken and gradually dry up. Most often, the horned-tailed specimens die, but it should be remembered that if the tree is completely healthy and strong, then no pests are afraid of it.
Catalpa can suffer from verticillary wilt (wilt), in this case from the middle of the summer period at the bottom of its crown you will notice yellowing, wilting and dying off of the leaf plates. Such a fungal disease is quite serious, often because of it the tree loses the leaf plates only on one side and looks outwardly one-sided. If the disease is just beginning to develop, then the plant can be cured, for this it should be watered under the root of Rovral or Maxim, and also treated with Fundazole or Topsin-M. In order to prevent trees can be sprayed with fungicides such as: Kvadris, Previkur or Falcon.
Cultivation in the suburbs
In the event that you are going to cultivate such a tree in the middle lane, then frost-resistant species and varieties should be selected for planting. Such a magnificent view as catalpa has the greatest frost resistance. In mid-latitudes, it is still possible to grow bingo-shaped and ovate catalpa. The following varieties are also suitable for cultivation in the Moscow region:
- Aurea. Color foliage golden.
- Pictah The color of the leaf plates is variegated, motley.
- Nana. This compact form is non-flowering.
- Captivity. The flowers in this variety terry.
In order for catalpa cultivation to be successful, it is necessary to remember several important nuances. For planting should choose a sunny area, the ground at the same time should be wet neutral loam. Catalpa should be located in dense coniferous plantings or on the south side of the building. The first 2 or 3 years the plant needs to be protected from wind gusts, and it should be well covered for the winter. Older specimens belonging to winter-resistant varieties do not need shelter for the winter. In the event that they still freeze over strongly, then with the onset of the growing season they will be able to recover quite easily.
How to grow from seed
Seeding on seedlings produced in February or March. Immediately before sowing, seeds should be immersed in tepid water for 8–12 hours. Sowing can be done in the autumn, while soaking the seeds should not be. In the substrate, you need to make grooves, in which the seeds are then laid out, they should be sprinkled on top of a layer of soil. Capacity covered with glass or film, and cleaned in a warm (20 to 22 degrees) and a well-lit place. Do not forget to protect the crops from direct sunlight, and also provide them with systematic ventilation and watering. The seedlings that have got stronger during the winter are planted in open soil in the springtime, when the threat of recurrent frosts is passing away (from about the middle to the end of May).
Cuttings should be harvested in the second half of the summer period. The length of the cuttings is approximately 8 centimeters, with several buds present. For their preparation should choose adult copies. For rooting, the cuttings are planted in a soil mixture consisting of sand and peat, and then covered with a transparent cap on top, which will help create the necessary greenhouse effect. Care for cuttings should be exactly the same as for seedlings. Understand that the cuttings are fully rooted, can be on the appeared young leaf plates. They are planted in open ground from mid to late May.
Catalpa vulgaris (Catalpa bignonioides), or Catalpa bignonioides
In the wild, you can meet it in North America, this species prefers to grow on river banks. The height of such a plant can reach 20 meters. Spreading crown has a wide-round shape. Color pale bark pale brown. In such a tree, leaf plates of pale green color deserve special attention, outwardly they are very similar to lilac foliage, but they are larger. Their length reaches 20 centimeters, and width - up to 15 centimeters. Their front surface is bare, and the purl is pubescent along the veins. If you rub such a leaf, you can feel a not very pleasant smell. The length of fragrant white flowers is about 5 centimeters, they have two yellow stripes in the throat, and there is a brownish-red speck on the surface. They are part of loose pyramidal inflorescences, which are 20 centimeters wide, and 30 centimeters long. Duration of flowering about 20 days. The fruit is a narrow, long (about 40 centimeters) pod-shaped box, inside there are small seeds. Cultivated since 1726. Decorative forms:
- Aurea (gold). The color of the foliage is rich yellow.
- Kene. Yellow leafy plates have green veins and a speck of dark color in the center.
- Low (nana). This bush form has a crown of spherical shape.
Catalpa ovata (Catalpa ovata)
Originally from Central China. The height of such a tree is about 10 meters, but when grown in a garden it rarely exceeds 3.5 meters. When cultivated in middle latitudes, such catalpa is often frosting, so its height in this band is no more than 150 centimeters. In fragrant white and cream flowers, the pharynx is colored purple. They are part of panicles, reaching a length of 25 centimeters. The fruit is a long (about 0.45 m) pod-shaped box. This species is distinguished by its light-loving, it also needs nutritious and moist soil.
Catalpa Fargesa (Catalpa fargesii)
In nature, you can meet in Western China in the warm forests. The height of such a deciduous tree does not exceed 20 meters. Conversely, whole simple sheet plates that look like lilac foliage have green color and petioles of ten centimeters length. On their front surface is not as thick pubescence compared with the purl. Длина пурпурно-розовых либо розовых цветков около 35 мм, на внутренней поверхности венчика находятся пятнышки темно-пурпурного окраса. Метельчатые соцветия состоят из 7–15 цветочков. Зацветает данный вид на 4 недели раньше по сравнению с иными видами катальпы. Такое дерево является высокодекоративным.
Катальпа гибридная (Catalpa hybrida), или катальпа шаровидная
This hybrid is created by crossing the egg-shaped catalpa and ordinary catalpa. This plant in height reaches 16 meters and has a rounded crown. Large pale green leafy plates on the bottom surface are pubescent. If such a leaf is rubbed, then you can smell a not very pleasant smell. Large loose inflorescences consist of flowers, reaching a length of 25 mm. This type is most popular in landscape design.
In the wild, many species grow on fertile, moist soils, reaching 20 m. There are also taller specimens, up to 25 m. In culture, these are large shrubs, compact or medium sized trees. Their root system goes several meters deep and is sensitive to any mechanical damage. Trunks are rarely linear, with tree forms they are quite massive, branched. The bark is dark gray, tuberculate, with deep cracks. Side shoots are long, widely separated from the trunks, forming a powerful crown.
The leaves are simple, large, heart-shaped, green, with elongated thin petioles, whole edges, pointed tips. Located opposite or mutovchato. The size of leaf blades is up to 30 cm in length, about 15–18 cm in width. They look like elephant ears. A network of thin veins is clearly visible on a smooth or slightly rough surface.
The flowers are bisexual, about 2–3 cm in size, funnel-shaped, resembling bells. Petals with a tubular accrete base, lobes folded outward. The color is cream, white, peach, pink. Zev is decorated with contrasting dots. The stamens are bright yellow. The corollas are collected in raceme-shaped paniculate inflorescences of 10–25 pcs. Catalps shape, shades of petals resemble chestnut.
Flowering plant begins in mid or late June. The crowns of trees and shrubs in this period are covered with a thick veil of petals, the delicate scent attracts the surrounding bees. Plants are wonderful honey plants.
Fruits form in August. These are thin pods up to 40 cm long, green in color, hanging on the branches. Under the shell is a lot of small, light seeds, equipped with wings. The pods can be kept on trees throughout the winter.
Pignoniform or common
Catalpa bignonioides - one of the most common types. Natural habitat - the north-eastern territories of North America. These are deciduous medium heights, up to 10 m, trees with a spreading dense crown. The trunks are covered with dark brown thick relief bark. The leaves are heart-shaped, smooth, large. Their size is twice or three times the palm of an adult person. In the spring, they have a yellowish tinge, with the onset of summer they become bright green.
The inflorescences are white, pink or ivory, up to 30 cm in size. The inner part of the petals are with dark red flecks. The fruits are long, hanging, with the onset of the first frost colored brown.
Trees withstand cold up to -30 ° C, can grow in a temperate continental climate.
Catalpa Bignoneiform Nana
Straight short, up to 6–7 m, trees with dense and very dense spherical crowns. The bark is light brown, rather smooth, thin. The leaves are bright green, about 15 cm in size, dilated at the base, with pointed tips. The variety is highly decorative, moisture-loving, does not tolerate extreme heat, drought, and is demanding on the composition of the soil. Prefers friable nutritious loams. It grows rather slowly, does not bloom.
Bunge, or Manchu
Catalpa bungei originally from North China. The official name of the species was in honor of the German botanist Alexander Bunge, who first discovered and described it. This massive tree is about 7–10 m high. Crohn thick pyramidal. The leaves are dark green, located on thin petioles, large, with a rounded broad base, finely toothed edges, tapered towards the apex.
The flowers are about 3 cm in size, pale pink, with crimson dots on the inner side of the petals, gathered in corymbose inflorescences of 8–10 each.
The view has an average frost resistance. At temperatures below -15 ° C the plant is frozen.
Catalps are decorative, contain biologically active substances.
According to technical properties, woody wood resembles oak. Often the plant is called American or French oak. The most common source of lumber is the longest catalpa.. This is a fairly massive breed that grows in Haiti, Cuba, Jamaica and other Caribbean territories. Other species do not grow enough wood.
The core of the logs is grayish-brown, with a pronounced natural pattern. Sapwood is lighter. The fibers are straight, the structure of the material is uniform. The density of dried wood is 690–800 kg / m 3. The catalpa is resistant to swelling, fungal damage, and well machinable.. Used in the manufacture of furniture, parquet, finishing materials. At home, wood is used to build ships, to build skeletons of low-rise buildings.
The bark, leaves, flowers contain a complex of resins, tannins, glycosides, essential oils, tannins. Dried raw materials are used in alternative medicine for the treatment of diseases of the digestive and respiratory systems, infectious pathologies, inflammations of joints. Infusions of flowers washed cuts, ulcers, they are applied to the boils. In veterinary medicine, leaves are added to livestock feed to prevent parasitic infections.
Due to its high decorative and adaptive qualities, catalpas are excellent for landscaping streets, creating hedges, and garden ensembles. Large dense foliage produces a lot of oxygen, delays dust. Flowering trees are very picturesque, look good in group and single plantings, able to decorate any landscape. Catalps are perfectly combined with coniferous shrubs, jasmine, hawthorn, holly.
It is necessary to approach the choice of place responsibly Catalps do not tolerate transplants, excessive shading. They need well-lit, protected from strong winds, flat areas with slightly acidified, drained soil. Groundwater should be at a great depth. Distance from other large plants, walls of houses, capital fences, communications - not less than 3 m.
For planting choose the best two-year seedlings. Work carried out before or after the end of the active growing season, ie, in April or October.
Pre-mix the soil from:
- humus - 3 parts,
- leaf soil - 2 parts,
- peat - 2 parts
- wood ash - 2 parts,
- River sand - 1 part.
Pits are dug with a depth and width of about 80 cm. About 10 cm of drainage is poured from stones and crushed bricks onto the bottom, then half the height is filled with soil. The roots are placed in the hole so that the neck is slightly above the surface.
After planting, the plant is abundantly watered. Circle in front of the barrel mulch peat
Catalpa needs a lot of moisture. One copy requires about 20 liters of water per week. In the dry period, you need to moisturize twice as often. If there is heavy rainfall, reduce the number of waterings to 2 times per month. Even with daily rains, you should additionally water the trees at least once a month.
In the absence of mulching pristvolny circles regularly loosen. This prevents stagnant moisture.
Trees are fed with overheated organic matter, mineral mixtures. About 2 times a month in spring and summer can be poured under the roots by a bucket of liquid solution of cow manure. In April, it is recommended to apply nitrogenous fertilizers, before adding buds to add a mixture of phosphate, potassium salts.
In the early years, only freezing and diseased branches are pruned.. Do it at the end of March. With the advent of full-fledged skeletal shoots, crown formation can begin. Usually, the catalpas are given a decorative look, exposing the trunk to a height of 120–180 cm, cutting branches in accordance with the desired shape. Overly zealous can not, because the plants are restored rather slowly.
Thermophilous species need protection from frost in winter. Their crowns must be covered with sacking, and the roots with a thick layer of leaves or spruce leaves.
Diseases and pests
Parasites subtropical plant rarely affected by fungal infections, it is also resistant. The main enemy of catalpa is Spanish fly. Eaten edges of the leaves, holes indicate the appearance of a pest. Get rid of the parasite with insecticides.
The fungal strain Verticillus usually appears when the drainage is improperly organized or insufficient loosening. The crowns of the trees are covered with brown spots, there are many dried shoots.
Catalpa is usually not diluted with seeds. This is a troublesome, time-consuming method. Planting material is first soaked for 12 hours in warm water, then sown in containers with soil to a depth of about 1 cm. Before germination, cover the surface with glass or film. They contain seedlings at a temperature of 20–22 ° С and water them 2–3 times a week. In the second year of life, they begin to harden sprouts, regularly bringing them to the street in the summer. A year later, transplanted into the open ground.
Cutting - the traditional vegetative propagation method of catalpa. For breeding, two-year-old shoots with developed buds are separated from adult specimens at the beginning of June, cut into cuttings about 8 cm long. For 2 weeks, cover with a glass flask, daily moisturize the substrate. A year later, the cuttings form their own root system, the first leaves appear on them. Plants are transplanted into the ground in the spring, so that they can get stronger.
They called him "katoba", however, a little later it was renamed Catalpa by the Italian scientist and botanist Skopoli. It was he who first studied and described the catalpa, opening this exotic plant to the world.
Bignonium genus combines from 10 to 38 types of catalps. Some of them are cultivated in the southern strip of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, the rest, you can only see in the wild.
Catalpa is an unpretentious and fairly easy-to-care plant, so if you want to decorate your garden area, giving it beauty and unusualness, then it is exactly what you need.
Catalpa species and varieties
Bignonia catalpa - in the wild, the tree can be found in North America. It grows on the banks of rivers. The plant reaches a height of 20 meters. Catalpa has a sprawling crown of a rounded shape. The bark of the catalpa is thinly lamellar with a light brown color. The leaves are large light green, in appearance resembling lilac.
Inflorescence plants have a pyramidal shape. In width, they reach 20 centimeters, and in length - 30 centimeters. The inflorescence consists of small fragrant flowers of white color with red-brown specks. The flowering period is 20 days, after which long, narrow fruits in the form of pods with small seeds begin to form.
Beautiful catalpa - North America is the birthplace of this type of catalpa. An adult tree reaches a height of 30 meters and has a wide pyramidal crown with large light green leaves and thin gray bark.
The inflorescences of the plant are panicle-shaped and consist of small pleasant-smelling cream-colored flowers with purple specks. The fruits of catalpa are small boxes that crack when ripe and drop seeds to the ground.
It is a tree with a height of 8 to 10 meters. In the wild, its height can reach 20 meters. The crown of catalpa is thick, having a pyramidal shape. The leaves are large dark green shade. Small flowers are collected in large, racemes pleasantly smelling white inflorescences with purple specks. The flowering time of the plant falls in the middle of summer.
Catalpa Aurea - this type of catalpa reaches a height of up to 8 meters and has a dense, pyramidal crown with large light green leaves. The tree blooms in June. Flowers are small, fragrant, collected in large inflorescences of white color with brown specks.
Hybrid catalpa - The tree grows up to 20 meters and has a round crown with spreading branches. The leaves are large, light green with a slight pubescence. The plant blooms in mid-summer with beige-white flowers with purple throat, gathered in loose large brushes. After flowering, long pods are formed.
Catalpa Farghez - In the wild, the plant is found in the forests of Western China. The height of the tree reaches 20 meters. It has a wide, dense, spherical crown with a thick dark green leaf cover.
Blooms catalpa in June. Purple or pink flowers with an orange pharynx are collected in large, friable, pleasant-smelling brushes. After flowering, long and thin fruits in the form of pods are formed.
Catalpa planting and care in the Moscow region
Planting a catalpa and caring for it is not much different from any other ornamental tree. Catalpa seedlings can be purchased in the nursery or grown from seeds on their own. It is necessary to plant a young tree in the garden plot in the spring, before the sap flow begins or in the fall, when the trees lose foliage.
For catalpa landing, it is necessary to find a site with good illumination, which will be closed from winds and drafts. This is necessary because the tree has a very fragile leaf cover, which is easily traumatized by gusts of wind and strong drafts.
It will also be a plus if the site groundwater will be as deep as possible under the ground. Catalpa loves space, so between a young plant and other trees it is necessary to observe a distance of at least 5 meters.
Catalpa loves water, so watering should be systematic and carried out once a week. In the dry period, it is increased to two times. If the tree does not have enough moisture, its foliage will lose elasticity and sag. For watering an adult tree, you must use 20 liters at a time.
If summer is cool and rainy, watering should be reduced to twice a month. The same amount of watering necessary and zamulchirovannoy catalpe. After adding water under the tree or after rains, the ground around the trunk should be loosened, removing weeds in parallel. With prolonged drought, the frequency of watering should be increased.
The soil for catalpa should consist of humus, sheet soil, sand and peat in a ratio of 3: 2: 2: 1. 7 kilograms of ash and 50 grams of phosphate rock should be added to this substrate.
Land for planting should have an acidity of not more than 7.5.
Transplanted catalpa in two cases: if an adult tree has grown and there is little space for it, or if it is necessary to transplant a young plant from a pot to an open ground. Tree transplantation can be carried out both in the spring before the start of sap flow, and autumn, when the tree drops foliage.
It is better to transplant a tree together with a lump of earth, with which an adult tree or a young sapling grew before. The planting pit is dug up the same depth as when planting a catalpa, the composition of the soil mixture also does not change. After transplantation, it is necessary to tamp the soil and water the plant abundantly.
Fertilize the tree should be systematically. For this purpose, a solution of rotted manure diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10 should be added to the ground where the catalpa grows. An adult tree needs 6 liters of such top dressing, and a young seedling needs from 2 to 3 liters.
Top dressing is carried out twice a season. In the spring, nitroammofoska is applied to the soil under the tree, and in the fall - phosphate and potash fertilizers, since at this time the plant needs nitrogen.
Kidney catalpa appear in late March - mid-April. It all depends on what band of tree in Russia grows. The flowering period begins in mid-June and lasts about a month.
Catalpa flowers resemble exotic and beautiful small orchids that smell like apple flowers. Flower petals have wavy edges and a white or cream shade with yellow stripes and purple specks in the throat. The size of the flowers reaches up to 7 centimeters. They are collected in large and long inflorescences resembling the "candles" of chestnuts.
Catalpa trimming and shaping
Pruning catalp spend in the spring, until the moment when the kidneys swell. During pruning, only injured, dry, frozen or damaged branches or pests are removed.
Usually, a tree is formed by creating a stem with a height from 120 to 200 centimeters; the tree above it will branch out, forming a spreading, low crown consisting of 5 skeletal branches.
After a certain period of time, if necessary, the skeletal branches are shortened, and the thickening stems are removed. As a result, a dense, beautiful rounded crown with light green leaf plates is formed.
Preparing catalps for winter
Catalpa does not tolerate cold. Especially their "fear" of young trees. For this reason, the tree should be prepared in advance for the winter. For this purpose, it is necessary to wrap the trunk with sacking, and cover the soil around the tree with a thick layer of dry foliage and cover with spruce leaves. Thus, it will be possible to avoid the freezing of the root system. With the onset of spring, when the frost is completely stopped, the tree is freed from shelter.
Следует учесть тот факт, что по мере своего роста и развития, катальпа становится все более морозоустойчивой и лучше переносит зиму. The most frost-resistant variety is catalpa ovoid, and the weakest, freezing almost to the ground - catalpa Aurea. However, this variety is able to fully grow over the summer.
Catalpa of seeds at home
When growing catalps from seeds, they should first be stratified. It is necessary to sow seeds in the end of February, the beginning of March. Before sowing, seeds should be soaked in warm water for 12 hours. You can also sow them in the fall, but in this case, you do not need to soak the seeds.
In prepared soil, small grooves are made in which the seeds are laid out and powdered with a layer of substrate. The box with seedlings, covered with a layer of film and cleaned in a lighted, warm place. The temperature for good germination of seeds should be at least 25 °.
Crops must be protected from direct sunlight, systematically watered and ventilated. Saplings grown during the year can be planted in open ground when the threat of frost passes.
Catalpa breeding cuttings
When growing catalpa using cuttings, planting material should be harvested in July. The cuttings should have a length of 8 centimeters, they should also be from 2 to 4 buds. When preparing material for planting, you should choose an adult catalpa.
In order for the roots to appear on the cuttings, they must be planted in the ground, which will include peat and sand, then cover the box with the cuttings with a film and put it in a warm and bright place. Hoopoe for cuttings should be the same as for seedlings. When the cuttings rooted on them will appear young foliage. The landing of the finished young in the open ground can be made in mid-May.
Varieties and grades of catalpa
The natural habitat of this exotic plant is North America, Asia and the West Indies. There are 11 known species. Some of them are grown as an ornamental tree or shrub in many countries.
The leaves of the catalpa are rounded or in the form of a heart; they keep on the branches until frost, dropping with their arrival. The flowers are fragrant, white, pinkish or cream with purple streaks from the inside, bell-shaped, gathered in large panicles or clusters. Flowering is long, mainly in June-July. Catalpa at this time looks very beautiful, as can be seen by looking at photos of a flowering plant. Fruits up to 50 cm long in the form of a narrow box with flying seeds resemble pods or icicles in appearance. In the absence of strong winds, fruits can hold on to the branches throughout the winter, giving the snow-covered trees an unusual appearance.
On the territory of Russia, several varieties of catalpa are well established:
- Egg - with a short growing season, is found in the form of shrub in several trunks.
- Gorgeous - fast-growing tree, reaches up to 10 m in height, with large leaves and a wide crown.
- Bignoneiform with sprawling branches and rounded crown, blooms continuously for about 1.5 months.
These species are well adapted to the conditions of central Russia, withstand even cold enough strong. Gardeners fell in love with catalpa for beauty during flowering, which happens in the summer, not in the spring. Other ornamental shrubs and trees by this time have faded.
Breeders deduced several varieties of bignonium catalpa, which are distinguished by elegant foliage:
- Aurea - with golden yellow foliage at the beginning of the growing season, often grown as a coppice culture,
- Nana - with a crown resembling a ball, up to 2-4 m in diameter,
- Kene - with a dark green middle and streaked on yellow leaves,
- Purpurea - foliage red-brown shades at the time of blooming.
The most promising of these decorative forms for growing in the middle lane is Nana, as the most winter-hardy.
Planting catalpa seedlings
A well-lit place is optimal for catalpa landing, but it also grows in partial shade. These trees look great along garden paths, near a pond or in the center of a lawn. For planting it is better to purchase an annual sapling.
Tip To purchase a catalpa seedling, it is best to contact a garden center or a specialized nursery in a nearby area. In this case, the acquired plants will be maximally acclimatized for cultivation in their area.
This culture is not so demanding on the soil, but prefers moist, not too acidic, rich in organic matter and drained. The best time to plant is early spring. To plant a seedling, it is necessary to dig a hole about 0.7-1.2 m deep. If there are several trees, it is necessary to keep a distance of about 3 meters between them.
When preparing the planting substrate, mix in a ratio of 2: 2: 1: 3 river sand, leaf earth, peat, humus. Add wood ash and phosphate flour to the prepared pit. Place the seedling in the resulting mixture, bury it, pour it well and grind the surface with peat. The root neck of the tree must be flush with the ground. Therefore, planting a plant, you need to consider further sedimentation and compaction of the soil.
Proper tree care
On well-drained and fertile soil, the catalpa will grow without any problems, significantly stretching in height and giving a large increase in green mass each season. Plant care consists of:
- timely watering,
- sanitary pruning,
- introduction of organic and mineral supplements,
- shelter seedlings for the winter.
It is recommended to water the catalpa every week for 2 buckets per plant. If in the summer there is no particular heat, watering can be reduced to 2-3 times a month. In addition, several times during the season it will be necessary to loosen the soil in the near-stem circle with the removal of weeds.
Young trees require special attention. They need to be covered with winter spruce branches so that they do not freeze out. You can also wrap the barrel with a burlap several times. Mature plants are less afraid of frost. Sometimes it is enough just to mutilate a tree trunk with dry leaves until cold. Nevertheless, in severe frosts, catalpa may partially or completely freeze, but then grows in the next season.
This crop, like other ornamental trees, requires pruning, mostly sanitary. In the spring, damaged, dry and weak branches are removed.
Culture propagation methods
Catalpa breeds in ways such as:
When propagating by cuttings, they are cut in the second half of summer with a size of about 10 cm and planted in a substrate consisting of peat and river sand. To survival was higher, growth promoters are used.
Seed method is also quite common. Seeds are soaked for several hours in warm water, then sowing them in a container with soil under the film to a depth of 1.5 cm. They can be planted both in the fall and in the spring. With the advent of shoots film cover is removed, picking them as they grow.
What pests and diseases threaten catalpe?
The plant is quite resistant to diseases and pest damage. But it can be attacked by the Spanish fly, which is capable of bringing great harm to the tree in the form of deformation of the shoots. It is necessary to treat the plant with an appropriate garden insecticide. In addition, with improper care of the soil around the tree there is a probability of its being affected by the fungus verticilli, which leads to partial drying and even to the death of the plant.
An exotic catalpa plant will decorate a park, garden or garden plot, will bring a certain amount of originality and surprises to the overall composition. And with proper care, the tree for many years will delight the gardener with active growth and lush flowering.
Description and characteristics
Catalpa belongs to deciduous and sometimes evergreen crops that grow to 5-6 meters with a home content, and up to 35 meters with growth in natural conditions. As it grows and develops, the tree forms a single sturdy trunk, on which a dense spherical or oblong crown is placed. The thin, cracked bark is colored a beautiful dark brown color. The main decorative value is the foliage of catalpa.
It is presented in the form of smooth plates with large sizes - up to 25 centimeters, and bright green color. The shape of the leaves varies, but most often there are heart-shaped or broadly ovate leaves. Throughout the season, it retains a rich color, and during the period of leaf fall, it does not turn yellow, but falls green.
The first flowering begins at the age of 5-10 yearsand the period itself occurs at the beginning of summer, in the process of which numerous paniculate inflorescences appear in the ends of the lateral processes, in which white or cream flowers of a tubular form. Double-breasted beaters are cut into soft petals with different shapes. The colors of catalpa have many similarities with chestnut, however, their size is much larger. In the area closer to the center there are red or purple dots, as well as yellow stripes.
When the pollination period ends, thin pods with a round cross-section and large length ripen on the tree.. As for their sizethen it reaches 40 centimeters, while the thickness is equal to 1 centimeter. Ripe fruits look spectacular on flexible legs, resembling icicles in green. In late autumn, their tones become dark, and they remain hanging on the tree until the beginning of spring. The fruits contain oblong seeds resembling the seeds of legumes.
The type is characterized by surprising frost resistance, therefore it is very well suited for harsh climatic conditions. The tree looks very elegant and can grow up to 35 meters in height. On a strong straight trunk is a lamellar bark. The leaves reach 30 centimeters in length and are painted in dark green tones. Leaflets are attached to the branch with long stalks. The flowering period begins on reaching 10 years of age., and blooming begins at the beginning of summer, when light-cream tubular flowers appear between the branches. After a month, the tree looks like a real flower arrangement,
Tree breeding methods
For reproduction catalpa at home, used seed and vegetative methods. Each of them has its pros and cons, so which one of them to stop is up to you. Gardeners use a specific method based on their capabilities and experience. When choosing seed propagation, after harvesting ripe fruit, remove the seeds from them and move them into a paper bag. Before that, you need to prepare containers with good garden soil.
At the end of winter, planting material should be soaked overnight in warm water at room temperature. Then you can deepen the seeds in the ground for 5-10 centimeters. It is important to cover the selected container with a transparent lid and move it to a room with good lighting and a temperature range of 15-25 degrees Celsius.. It is important to regularly ventilate the room and irrigate..
The first shoots will break out of the ground after 21-29 days. Then the cover can be removed. Seedlings are grown in heat and beyond. In the spring, after hardening for one week several hours a day, the culture can be transplanted into open ground.
When July-August comes, young shoots can be cut into 10-centimeter cuttings. The cut sections must be treated with “Kornevin”, and then planted vertically in a tank with sandy-peaty soil. You can keep plants on the street, in a place where there are no drafts and precipitation. During the first two or three weeks, the cuttings are best covered with plastic bottles.
During the first month, the cuttings will take root, but they still will not be able to transfer the upcoming wintering season. They are better placed in the room, otherwise negative temperatures can lead to death. In the autumn, seedlings can get rid of the leaves. Do not worry, this is a normal process.. In the spring time will begin active development of new leaflets. Already in the middle of spring, the culture can be planted in open ground.
Features of planting and care
When choosing a site for landing a catalpa, give preference to large areas with good light and no drafts or strong winds. At the same time, the tree develops well in shaded conditions. The plant can be planted in a single or group way. creating on its basis lush alleys.
- By planting catalpa is better to start in the first half of spring, pre-moistened soil.
- Each seedling is placed in an individual pit with a depth of 70-120 meters (depth of the root system).
- The bottom of the cavity is poured out with a drainage layer with a diameter of 15-20 centimeters. When planting a catalp, it is important to leave the earthball above the surface. In the future, the plant will settle, and the root neck will be at ground level. It is important to keep the distance between the trees within 3 meters.
- Immediately after planting the seedlings, the stem circle should be mulched with peat composition.
Catalpa develops well in fertile compounds with a rich nutrient content and excellent breathability.
If we are talking about planting in heavy, poor soils, then they must first be dug up with gravel and compost. When planting, avoid places with close groundwater and high acidity. Optimum acidity - neutral or weak.
If you have correctly fulfilled all the planting conditions, further care of the catalpa tree will be very simple. It is enough to water the culture regularly and avoid drying out the substrate. If there is no natural precipitation, up to two buckets of water should be made at the root of the tree. Once a month, the land should be loosened and cleaned of weeds.
In early spring, as well as 1-2 times over the summer, trees should be carefully fed using a solution of rotted manure, compost and superphosphate. It is important to alternate top dressing and choose taking into account the characteristics of the soil composition.
Adult cultures winters of middle latitudes normally carry, but young individuals need reliable additional shelter.
- Lush crown of seedlings is better to cover with burlap, and the trunk and kidney with fallen leaves or spruce branches. When spring comes, you need to get rid of shelter.
- If you find frozen branches, you need to prune them.
- Before the beginning of the growing season, it is necessary to form the crown, however, it is important to be careful not to cut too many branches.