Cucumbers are perceived by inexperienced gardeners with non-capricious plants; in any case, this crop will yield a crop. But there are a number of rules and manipulations that will allow you to significantly increase the amount of crispy cucumbers collected from the whips.
At one time, I firmly engaged in the study of the secrets of planting and caring for cucumbers, and since then the culture has always endowed me with a rich harvest.
Tips for planting cucumbers in the ground
Regardless of how you are going to plant cucumbers in the ground - seedlings or seeds - the rules of this manipulation will be common to both methods. Best of all this culture in soils with aeration, drainage, as well as light and rich in humus.
It is advisable to change the place for planting every year and return to the former garden bed no more than once every five years, otherwise the plants will be exposed to diseases.
It is possible to transfer cucumber seedlings to the ground when the plants have 4 true leaves. Focus on the state of the soil - it should be warm enough, in addition, warm weather should be established without the threat of night frost. In the same period, it is recommended to sow cucumber seeds in the beds.
Ideally, the bed for cucumbers is prepared in the fall. After harvesting the predecessor, rotted cow dung is introduced (6 kg / m 2), and the earth, along with the fertilizer, is dug up on the floor of the bayonet.
Immediately before planting cucumbers into the ground, it will be right to bring in the organic matter again, which will feed the actively growing lashes:
- mullein solution (fresh manure and water 1: 5),
- chicken manure (diluted with water 1:20),
- any mineral complex.
The best option for planting cucumbers in open ground is to create warm beds. The height of the box should be at least 25 cm, it should be cut in layers with mown grass or straw, compost and nutritious soil.
An organic cushion will provide natural drainage as well as warmth so loved by cucumbers.
On the prepared garden beds are organized with a diameter of 10 cm, located at a distance of 50 cm from each other. It is not recommended to plant close cucumbers - the overgrown whips will fight for a place under the sun, and there may not be enough nutrition with moisture for a large number of plants.
Additional fertilizer is not needed in the wells - for the initial growth will be enough of those organic fertilizers that you made in the preparatory stage.
In the organized holes vertically planted cucumber seedlings, after which the soil at the stems carefully, but watered abundantly. To make it easier for plants to adapt to a new place and a night cooling, place arcs and cover the bed with geotextile.
Within a few days you need to monitor how the sprouts take root and control soil moisture.
I prefer to plant cucumbers directly into the ground. The technology of sowing is absolutely the same: wells are made, seeds are placed in them, covered with a layer of earth from 2-3 cm. The bed is plentifully shed and covered with geotextile until the day temperature is 20-25 degrees.
There are some tips that will help you not to miscalculate with the planting of cucumbers and suggest how to do it correctly:
- If you are afraid that you may unexpectedly return the cold, sow cucumbers in several stages. They can be planted from mid-May to mid-June, so you can fill free holes with seeds at least every weekend.
- For planting it is better to choose hybrids - modern varieties are resistant to diseases, tolerate temperature fluctuations and are characterized by high yield.
- In melons there is a specific feature: the seeds increase germination rates every year and a greater percentage of female flowers are formed. In order for a long-awaited sprout to appear from each hole, and a lot of cucumbers hang on the lashes, choose seeds that have been packed from 2 to 6 years ago.
Formed beds need to shed boiling water before sowing seeds and planting seedlings. A solution of copper sulphate is prepared (1 tsp of powder per 10 liters of boiling water), with which the soil is watered at the rate of 3 liters per 1 m 2. Treated in this way, the beds are left for a day, after which they can be organized into holes and planted cucumbers.
After the emergence of seedlings and adaptation of the seedlings, it is necessary to carry out a comprehensive and continuous care for cucumbers: lack of moisture, abundance of weeds or deficiency of nutrients will negatively affect the development of plants.
Cucumbers love a moist environment, with a lack of moisture, the plants develop slowly and give a poor harvest. But the overflow can also lead to sad consequences - the roots will start to rot and you will lose the culture. To avoid these troubles, water the bed should be "according to the testimony," checking soil moisture and assessing the state of foliage.
On hot days, it is permissible to carefully, under the root, pour warm water even twice a day, and on rainy days it is sometimes necessary to organize drainage grooves in the garden bed in order to take away the excess from it.
Here are some tips for organizing the proper irrigation of cucumbers:
- need to water strictly the soil, but not the plants themselves,
- gourds like warm water from 18 0, the liquid of such temperature is quickly absorbed by the root system of cucumbers,
- organize drip irrigation or water cucumbers from watering cans - a strong jet of hose will blur the soil, exposing the roots, or break plants,
- correlate the volume of water for irrigation with the age of the plants - the young shoots do not need a lot of moisture, but the overgrown lash requires 1 bucket per bush,
- water cucumbers in the morning or in the evening, in the afternoon droplets of water on the leaves can cause burns.
The main problem of open beds is active evaporation of moisture from their surface. To avoid this, after the adaptation of the seedlings and the appearance of 3-4 true leaves on shoots, it is recommended to mulch the soil. A constantly maintained layer will protect the bed from drying out and weed seeds falling on the ground.
On average, cucumbers need to be fed up to 10 times per season. Fertilization takes place in several stages in different ways:
- The first organic and mineral dressings are produced when growing seedlings and sprouting on the bed. As a fertilizer, it is good to use infusion of green grass, mullein (1 l. Of solution per 10 l of water), chicken manure (1 l. Of fermented solution per 10 l. Of water + 2 cups of ash), and also a mixture of mineral compounds (15 g. Of urea , 15 grams of potassium sulfate and 50 grams of superphosphate per 10 liters of water) or any ready-made humic fertilizers.
- With the beginning of fruiting, it is necessary to provide the cucumbers with mineral dressings, especially rich in potassium and nitrogen. It can be any complex fertilizer containing these elements.
- Every 2-3 weeks whip must be generously sprayed. For foliar feeding of cucumbers, a mixture of 5 gr is usually used. ammonium nitrate, 8 gr. potassium sulfate, 10 g. superphosphate, which must be dissolved in 10 l. water. As a rule, this ready-made solution is enough for 30 m 2.
Organic and mineral fertilizers are applied to cucumbers four times: when shoots appear, at the beginning of flowering, at the fruiting stage and in the middle, in order to increase the crop yield.
In addition, you can regularly, once every 10 days, sprinkle the soil with wood ash.
Loosening and hilling
If the land in the garden has not been mulched, regular soil loosening will be required. It is not necessary to deeply bury the chopper - it is enough to introduce it with careful movements, so as not to damage the root system, by 2-4 cm.
Ideally, you need to loosen the beds after each watering - this will not allow the weeds to grow, and will also provide access to oxygen to the roots of cucumbers. If you do not have the opportunity to work with the hoe so often - it is enough to do this manipulation once a week.
During loosening, do not move the lash: carefully lift them and return to their previous position. To protect the stem from the fungus, as well as to expand the root system of the plant, it is necessary to spud several times per season.
Ways to increase yield
The yield of cucumbers directly depends on the number of female flowers on the lashes. How to work with the culture so that it brings more fruits?
- warming the seeds before sowing helps to increase the number of female flowers,
- plant different varieties and hybrids, they will actively pereopilyatsya,
- in late-ripening varieties, you can pinch the tip after the formation of 5 true leaves - this will provoke an active growth of the lashes,
- in dry weather, ringing can be made — a light circular incision under the first leaves, which hinders the outflow of food to the roots and increases the formation of ovaries,
- in the period of budding, you can reduce the number of waterings, the plant in a light state of stress will tend to actively multiply,
- the first ovaries are removed without pity - this will give the root system enough time to strengthen;
- regularly inspect new whips and pinch those that formed male flowers,
- You can use growth hormones that promote the active formation of female flowers.
Tie stalks regularly, as the weaving plants bear fruit more upright. In addition, you need to collect cucumbers every 2-3 days, not allowing them to outgrow.
Seed and seedling preparation
Cucumbers are planted in the ground with seedlings or seeds. In the seedling method of cultivation, the first cucumbers are harvested a fortnight earlier than when planted with seeds. Pre-seed treatment:
- A month before sowing cucumbers for seedlings or into the ground, large and full-bodied seeds are taken and heated near heating devices at a temperature of +25 ° C. This technique provides early fruiting, amicable germination and reduces the number of barren flowers.
- For disinfection, cucumber seeds are pickled for an hour in an infusion of garlic (30 g of crushed garlic heads infused in 100 ml of water) or kept in a solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate).
- Prepare a nutrient solution: in 1 liter of water mixed 1 tbsp. l Nitrofoski and wood ash. Cucumber seeds are soaked in it for the night.
- Then the seeds are washed with clean water, placed in a wet cloth and left at a temperature of +20 ° C for two days to swell. Make sure that the seeds do not germinate, but only a little nod.
- The final stage is hardening. Seed day kept in the vegetable compartment of the refrigerator.
Such presowing preparation concerns only varietal cucumber seeds. To warm up and handle the hybrid is not necessary.
Cucumber seeds are sown in April approximately 2-3 weeks before planting seedlings on the beds. Separate containers or peat pots are prepared for seedlings., fill them with soil mixture from:
- humus - 1 part,
- peat - 1 part,
- small old sawdust - 0.5 parts.
At 10 liters of cooked soil add 2 tbsp. l wood ash and 1.5 Art. l nitrofoski.
When the second true leaf appears, seedlings of cucumbers are fertilized with warm (+20 ° C) solution of nitroammofoski or nitrophoska (1 tsp. Diluted in 1 liter of water).
One week before landing on the beds, seedlings begin to hardenby exposing it to fresh air for several hours.
Planting seedlings and cucumber seeds in the ground
A bed for cucumbers is chosen well lit, protected from drafts, with fertilized loose soil. At the same place cucumbers can be planted no earlier than after 5 years. The optimal predecessors for them are siderats, carrots, legumes, beets, tomatoes, cabbage, onions, corn, potatoes, peppers, green cultures. It is impossible to plant cucumbers after the representatives of the pumpkin family, because they are subject to the same diseases.
In the autumn, the plot designated for planting cucumbers is prepared as follows:
- digging up
- To reduce the acidity of the soil, peat or wood ash, slaked lime, dolomite flour or crushed chalk are introduced, and green manure land is planted,
- make organic matter (manure, humus, peat or compost) on 1 square. meter - 6–8 kg,
- make mineral fertilizers on 1 square. meter: potassium sulfate - 6 g and in sandy soils - superphosphate.
If a bed is prepared in spring, then by 1 square meter. meter contribute:
- organic - 8–10 kg,
- superphosphate - 20–40 g,
- potassium sulphate - 10–20 g,
- ammonium nitrate - 10–15 g.
The day before the cucumber seedlings are planted, the bed is watered with very hot water with copper sulphate (for 10 l - 1 tsp). 3 liters of solution are poured into each square meter of bed.
Cucumber seeds sown on the prepared areawhen the soil warms up to a temperature of at least + 10–12 ° C, and air is up to + 15 ° C using one of the methods:
- in rows with 70–90 cm between rows and a distance of 15–20 cm between the holes, deepening the seeds by 3–4 cm (2 seeds are planted, of which one seedling is left after thinning),
- nests - 60 x 60 or 70 x 70 cm, sowing 4–5 seeds each.
When the temperature drops below + 15 ° C, crops are covered with a film at night.
Cucumber seedlings are planted on open beds when the soil warms up to + 17–20 ° C. Seedlings should form 3-4 true leaves. With the threat of night frost, a bed of seedlings is covered with a film.
The development of cucumber bushes in the ground, yield and taste of fruits depend on the quantity and quality of watering. Before the flowering period begins, the plants are watered once a week, consuming from 3 to 6 liters per 1 square meter. meter. In the fruiting phase, cucumbers should be watered more often: once every 2-3 days, having doubled the water flow. In dry hot weather, cucumber beds will have to be watered daily.
Watered necessarily warm (at least 20 ° C) and settled water early in the morning or in the evening, trying not to splash the leaves and do not wash away the soil at the roots. To do this, use a watering can with a divider. Moisten the soil 15 cm deep.
In rainy weather, watering reduces. Excess moisture causes fungal diseases and root rot. When overmoistening, dig drainage grooves.
Attention! Dark green fragile leaves of cucumbers indicate a lack of moisture, and pale green - an excess.
Weeding and loosening
Bye seedlings young, the soil is loosened with simultaneous weeding after irrigation. They do this carefully, to a depth of no more than 4 cm, in order not to damage the cucumber roots located in the upper soil layer. Subsequently, in addition to loosening, vines are spud for the formation of additional roots, which is a good prevention of fungal diseases.
Top dressing of cucumbers in open ground
For intensive growth of cucumber bushes, their active fruiting requires systematic feeding. The first dressing is carried out at the stage of the appearance of the second or third leaflet at the seedlings or 7–10 days after planting the seedlings in open ground with organic or mineral complex fertilizers in the following proportions:
- organic - in a 10-liter bucket of water, dilute 1 liter of a thick mullein or fermented solution of bird droppings and 2 cups of wood ash,
- complex mineral fertilizers - 50 g of superphosphate and 15 g of urea and potassium sulfate are diluted in a 10-liter bucket of water.
Subsequent fertilizer cucumbers spend every 15 days. The amount of potassium and nitrogen fertilizers introduced during the fruiting period is doubled. Fertilizing is carried out under the root of plants in the evening, always after watering with clean water.
In addition to fertilizing at the root, cucumber care includes foliar top dressing. They are used as an addition to root dressings, as well as during long cold spells, when the root system of plants is not able to absorb nutrients from the soil. Foliar feedings alternate with root. For their use they use the same solutions as for the root, but 2 times weaker.
Good result gives the use of unconventional fertilizing cucumbers:
- Wood ash - is used up to six times for the whole season: as an additive to the soil mixture when sowing cucumber seeds for seedlings, in the phase of formation of the second leaf, during flowering and during fruiting - 1 time in two weeks. It is applied simultaneously with organic fertilizers or buried in the top layer of soil (the plants are watered after this).
- Yeast accelerates the process of rooting. Soil bacteria, fed by yeast, are activated and enrich the soil with nitrogen and oxygen. Such feeding is carried out up to three times per season. In a bucket of water, dilute 10 g of dry yeast, add 2 tbsp to enhance the fermentation. l sugar or jam, insist a few hours. One liter of the resulting solution is diluted in 5 liters of warm water and watered at the root. Watering should be carried out when the soil is already well warmed.
- Honey top dressing is carried out during the flowering of cucumbers to attract pollinating insects. In one liter of heated water dilute 1 tbsp. l honey and sprayed foliage.
The form of cucumbers indicates a lack of nutrients or mistakes in care:
- arched and curved fruits are the result of cross-pollination of hybrids or irregular watering,
- the fruits narrowed in the middle (with a “waist”) are the result of a temperature difference or irrigation with cold water,
- light curved tips of cucumbers are formed due to a lack of nitrogen,
- pear-shaped fruits indicate a lack of potassium.
Formation of cucumber bush
Немаловажной составляющей ухода за огурцами при выращивании в открытом грунте является правильное формирование куста, непосредственно влияющее на качество и количество плодов. To stimulate the formation of lateral shoots with female flowers, the main stem of late-ripening and mid-ripening varieties is pinched after the fourth or fifth leaf. Early varieties do not pinch, as female flowers they are formed on the main stem.
During prolonged rains in thickened plantings vines are recommended to tie to the trellis to avoid getting gray rot. To do this, stretch the ropes between the meter pins driven into the ground, and tie cucumber sticks to them.
Garter solves several problems:
- saves usable space on the plot,
- protects against the development of diseases arising from the contact of plants with the ground,
- as a result of better illumination of cucumber bushes, the fruits are tied and grow faster,
- facilitates the care of cucumber bushes and harvesting.
To avoid injury to adult plants, the garter is started when the vines reach a length of 30 cm. It is convenient to use special nets for the garter of cucumbers, which stretch the trellis. Cucumber lashes are placed on the grid cells and vines begin to trail on them.
Pest and disease control of cucumbers
Cucumbers in open ground are more susceptible to disease and pests.
The most common diseases of cucumbers:
- Mealy dew is a fungal disease in which white scurf appears on the leaflets and petioles. Without treatment, the plants die. Immediate measures are to remove weeds that contribute to the spread of the disease, to use fungicides and to treat with sulfur-containing preparations.
- Cladosporiosis is a fungal disease that mainly affects plants that are contained in high humidity conditions and are subject to temperature changes. When identifying characteristic signs in the form of grayish-black specks on leaves and fruits, curvatures and growth of greens, they are treated with benzimidazoles.
- Perinosporosis, or downy mildew, is also a fungal disease. Manifested in the form of education on the leaves of yellow spots or plaque with the further death of plants. The main methods of dealing with the disease: prophylactic treatment of seed with a solution of potassium permanganate, maintaining crop rotation, removing diseased cucumber bushes and processing the remaining fungicides.
Of the pests most often open ground cucumbers strike:
- Aphid - prefers young leaves. The affected leaves twist and wrinkle, the plants stop developing and die. Insects up to 2 mm in size can be clearly seen with the naked eye. Their distribution contributes to wet and moderate weather. For the destruction of pests using insecticides, which are recommended to alternate.
- Minerals affect open-air cucumbers during fruiting. The larvae of the fly-miners gnaw through the tunnels inside the leaf plate, as a result of which whitish patterns appear on the leaves of the cucumbers. If the number of affected leaves is insignificant, they are cut off and buried. With a large spread of pests use the same drugs as against aphids.
Harvesting and storage
For the active formation of new ovaries and high yield in the initial period of fruiting, cucumbers are harvested in 2–3 days, and with the beginning of a mass harvest - in a day. It is not recommended to leave crooked, overgrown, sick greens. It is impossible, picking up cucumbers, to lift or move cucumber lashes, so as not to damage the adventitious roots that form in the places of their contact with the soil.
The best time to pick greens is morning, when the fruits are saturated with moisture. Collected cucumbers can not be left in the sun. They are stored for long, so they canned, salted or pickled. To save for one to two weeks, cucumbers are placed in a saucepan, poured with cold water, tightly closed with a lid. Water needs to be changed daily.
Depending on the purpose, cucumbers of the following sizes are collected:
- 8–10 cm - for conservation,
- 8-18 cm - for salting,
- 12 cm - for cooking salads and fresh consumption.
If you collect cucumbers often, small fruits are formed for preservation. More rare harvest harvests cucumbers for lettuce and pickling.
The first stage of cucumber growing is planting the crop in open ground, which can be carried out both by seed and seedling. In regions with a temperate or cool climate, to which a large part of the Russian Federation belongs, hybrid varieties of vegetables grow best. Special attention should be paid to the quality of seed - weak seeds with defects will not be able to produce healthy plants and tasty fruits.
Cucumbers in open ground can be planted with seedlings or seeds
Growing seedlings is considered the most acceptable option for cucumbers, since the seed of this crop is very sensitive to negative factors and can quickly die. An important condition - the seedlings must be strong so that the seedlings are well established in the open area. However, transplanting a vegetable is also difficult, so you need to focus on the climatic features of a particular region.
Attention! Strong seedlings are a guarantee of normal growth of the crop and a good harvest; therefore, special attention should be paid to the growing of seedlings.
Site selection and soil preparation
It is necessary to choose a site for cultivation in a well-lit place, which is protected from the winds - drafts have a negative effect on the formation of female ovaries and reduce the harvest. To protect the landings, you can make a natural hedge of potatoes, corn or legumes - by the time the crop is planted, they will have sprouted. The best precursors for cucumbers - cruciferous (cabbage), tomatoes, peppers, beans, peas. To prevent diseases, the vegetable is not recommended to grow more than two years in the same place or after melon crops.
Planting should be placed in bright places on the beds with a slight elevation.
The soil needs to be prepared in the autumn - to dig and apply organic fertilizers. Three weeks before planting, it is recommended to feed the soil again using complex mineral fertilizers. You can buy them in special stores or prepare it yourself from 10 g of nitrogen, 12 g of phosphorus and 12 g of potassium. It is better to do the beds for culture on a small elevation, and to form a small shaft on the leeward side.
Warm beds well protect plants from cold
In regions with a cold climate, it is better to grow cucumbers on the so-called warm beds. To do this, take the plant garbage (except tomato, cucumber or pumpkin tops), which is harvested since autumn. It is recommended to use fallen leaves, mowed grass, straw, sawdust. They are mixed with the soil and form beds of 50 cm in height, after which they are shed with warm water and tamped. Next, the soil is fed and planted seedlings or seeds.
Important! Temperature control is very important for planting and growing cucumbers. Despite the fact that they are considered a thermophilic culture, with strong heat (above 28-28 degrees), growth and development of the ovaries stops.
The optimal time for planting cucumbers is the period from the end of May to mid-June, when the threat of frost is over, the soil temperature should be at least 16 degrees. It is best to focus on the weather conditions of the region - if you plant the seed in the cold ground, it will soon die. An important role is played by pre-treatment of seeds, which will destroy pathogens and improve germination.
The soil must be prepared and well heated.
Table. Instructions for planting seeds of cucumbers in open ground
When planting cucumbers seedling method, you need to place from 3 to 6 plants per 1 square meter, depending on the selected variety. Saplings of tall varieties should be less - 3-4 by one meter, and bush-type plants - 5-6. Cucumbers have a fragile root system, so when transplanting, care should be taken not to damage the roots. After planting, seedlings are better covered with a film, and at a temperature of more than 25 degrees, slightly lift it. After the seedlings are well established, the shelter is removed, and the plants, if necessary, tied to the trellis.
Seedlings should be handled with care so as not to damage fragile roots.
Important! Planting cucumbers does not need to be thickened too much - rare plants, which receive a sufficient amount of sunlight and air, will produce much better fruit than densely planted plants that overlap each other.
How to care for cucumbers in the open field
Caring for cucumbers is reduced to timely watering, loosening the soil and removing weeds, which are carried out according to certain rules.
Cucumbers should be watered plentifully, but not over-wetting the ground
Proper watering is the most important step in cucumber care. The lack of a sufficient amount of liquid reduces the quantity and quality of fruits, and even varieties that are not prone to bitterness will become unpleasant to taste. Calculate the amount of fluid that is needed for planting in an open place is more difficult than for plants in a greenhouse, so you need to focus on the state of the earth. When watering the following rules must be followed:
- young bushes on average require 10 liters. water per square meter, and adults the same amount of fluid for each plant,
- watering plantings every 5-7 days, with a strong heat increase the frequency of watering,
- it is better to carry out the procedure in the morning or evening, and not to pour water under the root, but along the grooves so that it does not fall on the leaves,
- Before irrigation, it is better to heat the liquid to room temperature, since cold water can damage the plants.
The main indicator that cucumbers need to be watered is drying of the soil. For normal growth and development, the land around the plants should always be loose, slightly damp.
Cucumbers can be mulched mowed grass or hay
In rainy weather, watering should be stopped altogether, and in case of heavy rainfall, drainage grooves can be made around the bushes - an excess of moisture can lead to rotting of the roots.
After watering, the ground surface must be loosened to avoid evaporation of moisture and the formation of a crust on the ground. At the same time, it is impossible to remove the whips - you can only slightly raise them, after returning the soil to the place, but do it very carefully so as not to damage the delicate skin and leaves.
Tip! To prevent the evaporation of moisture and the formation of a crust, you can mulch the ground around the bushes with mowed grass or ripened hay. If the crust is still formed, in some places it is necessary to make holes up to a depth of 15 cm.
You need to feed cucumbers several times a season - nutrients will ensure good flowering and the formation of strong, healthy fruits. To do this, you can use both organic fertilizers and mineral complexes.
Organic and mineral complexes are suitable for fertilizing cucumbers.
- Organic fertilizer. Organic - the best option for feeding cucumbers, as it contains all the necessary nutrients. Most often, gardeners use manure - 10 liters of water are taken per liter of mullein, the solution is slightly shaken and they are poured over the plants at the rate of one liter of the finished product per bush. You can take chicken manure, which is bred and used in the same way as manure, and to improve the effect, add two glasses of ash to the solution.
- Mineral fertilizers. Most of all planting cucumbers need phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium, and they can not only be applied to the soil, but also spray the leaves. For basal fertilizing, they usually take 15 g of urea, the same amount of potassium sulfate and 50 g of superphosphate, and for spraying - 10 g of superphosphate, 5 g of ammonium nitrate and 8 g of potassium sulfate.
Recipes of folk remedies for feeding cucumbers
It is not always convenient to measure the amount of substances necessary for entering into the soil, and some of them are poorly soluble in water. Accordingly, it is more expedient to use special mixtures that can be bought in stores - the method of use and the dosage can be found in the instructions for the preparation.
The curved shape of the fruit - a sign of lack of nutrients
If you carefully consider the ripened cucumbers, you can determine what substances they lack. With a deficiency of potassium, the fruits become pear-shaped, and when there is a shortage of nitrogen, their tips become light and curved.
Attention! As an organic fertilizer for cucumbers, you can use only cow dung - horse contains a high concentration of ammonia, which, in contact with the soil produces nitrates, penetrating into the leaves and fruits. Eating such cucumbers in food is dangerous for health - they can cause serious poisoning of the body.
Shaping and pinching
Properly shaped bushes bear fruit better.
The formation of bushes and the pinching of shoots contributes to abundant fruiting, but the procedure must be carried out taking into account the variety of the crop - hybrids and pollinated plants have different conditions and rules of nipping. The most common scheme is as follows:
- a few weeks after planting, the young shoots are tied up to supports, making a loop on the stem,
- on bushes leave one main stem and side branches, and buds and shoots that grow in the axils of the first four leaves are carefully removed,
- the next 5-6 shoots, which grow on a bush, are left, but their tops need food to be left so that a whip 20 cm long remains,
- then leave the process length of 30-40 cm, and their upper part you need to pinch,
- lateral whips that grow above the rest are tied to a support, and their length should be no more than 50 cm,
- the main shoot (no longer than 60-70 cm) must be shifted through the support and tied up neatly.
More information about garter cucumbers in the open field can be found in our article.
Important! Early varieties and plantings that grow in the piling, do not need to carry out the formation. This procedure is considered mandatory for mid-ripening and late varieties growing on vertical supports.
Secrets to increase the harvest
Proper care is far from always enough to produce a bountiful crop. Experienced gardeners often use techniques and tricks that contribute to the formation of a large number of ovaries and an increase in fruiting.
You can increase the yield using proven techniques
- Mixing varieties. Planting different varieties and hybrids of cucumbers in one area contributes to their over-pollination - however, there is a risk that the fruits will be deformed or crooked.
- Reduced watering. Watering is stopped before the very flowering of the culture, and the lack of moisture contributes to the formation of a large number of female ovaries. It is important not to overdo it, otherwise the harvest will be great, but cucumbers will be bitter.
- Banding The procedure involves applying shallow cuts around the stem under the first pair of leaves, which makes it difficult for the roots to drain to the roots and contributes to the formation of a large number of ovaries. Ringing can be carried out only in dry weather.
- Attracting bees. To attract bees to the site, you can plant honey plants on it or arrange containers with a sweet, fragrant liquid.
Bees and other pollinating insects are able to increase the yield of cucumbers
Harvest should be taken immediately after the appearance of the first fruits, as each cucumber left on the bush delays the formation of new ovaries. It is better to cut them with garden shears, without tugging or twisting the whip, as the injured plants bear worse. It is recommended to remove yellow or diseased leaves with the fruits.
Proper care of cucumbers growing in the open field will provide a bountiful harvest of strong, healthy fruits that can be eaten in any form.
Top dressing of cucumbers
To get a good harvest, cucumbers must be fed, on average, 5-6 times per season, otherwise they will start to hurt from a lack of nutrients, and the fruits will become small and ugly. The first feeding should be done even after the first thinning of the seedlings (and in the seedlings - during its cultivation) with solutions of organic and mineral fertilizers. From organic fertilizers, you can use mullein (1 liter thick solution per 10 liter of water) and chicken manure (the same amount of fermented solution), preferably with the addition of ash (2 cups per 10 liter of water). From mineral fertilizers (if used separately from organic fertilizers), 15 g of urea, 50 g of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium sulphate must be taken to feed 10 liters of water. During the period of fruiting in the feed for cucumbers, it is desirable to additionally increase the amount of nitrogen and potash fertilizers by 2-2.5 times.
In addition, it is advisable to sprinkle cucumbers with the same mineral fertilizers every 15-20 days, taking 5 g of ammonium nitrate, 10 g of superphosphate and 8 g of potassium sulfate for 10 liters of water for foliar top dressing (this amount is enough for 30 m 2 of the tapestry). Кроме того, хоть пару раз помимо них огурцы стоит подкормить все тем же внекорневым способом микроудобрениями, особенно важно их давать огурцам, растущим на шпалере.
Кстати, о шпалерах – при выращивании огурцов на них нижние боковые побеги надо обрезать, чтобы они не стелились по земле
Методы увеличения количества женских цветков
Since the yield of cucumbers depends on the formation of female flowers, in addition to the usual care when growing varieties with a mixed type of flowering, it is also worth doing something to increase their number. Some ways - about pre-sowing seed heating, pinching the top bud in late-ripening varieties at the seedling stage with four to five true leaves, reducing the number of waterings during budding and pinching the lashes with male flowers - has already been mentioned here. In addition, you can use the ringing of the stems. To do this, you need to make a shallow annular incision around the stem with a sharp knife just below the top two leaves. Ringing is possible only in dry weather. There are also special preparations - growth hormones, some of which are designed to ensure that there are more female flowers on cucumbers and other vegetables with fruits.
Adding an article to a new collection
Caring for cucumbers in the open field is quite simple, but has some special features. We will tell about them in this article.
The growth of cucumbers can be restrained by the wind, as it enhances evaporation and takes away carbon dioxide, which is very important for the formation of female flowers. Therefore, the first thing the plants need to sow properly in a suitable place protected from the wind. This factor is especially important during flowering. And continue to care for the lash will need a standard way: water, feed, spud, loosen, weed and protect the borage from diseases and pests.
How to water cucumbers in the open field?
Proper watering is very important for the growth and fruiting of cucumbers. With a lack of moisture, the fruits will be small, and the taste qualities will not particularly please you. Irregular watering is the main cause of cucumber bitterness. And even varieties that are genetically free from bitterness may not meet your expectations.
Usually, cucumbers are watered every 5-7 days, but in hot weather - much more often. If, when grown in a greenhouse, regularity of irrigation can be roughly calculated, then with outdoor plantings it is more difficult to do, since it is necessary to focus on weather conditions and constantly monitor the condition of the soil.
Of course, during prolonged rains watering is completely stopped. And sometimes cucumbers protect against waterlogging at all: they lay drainage grooves so that the water does not stagnate. Otherwise, the roots may rot. In the heat of cucumbers watered as the soil dries. At the same time it should become wet to the full depth.
Cucumbers are watered early in the morning or in the evening when the sun sets. Water temperature should be between 12-20 ° С
When watering young plants per 1 square meter, they consume 10 liters of water, and adult cucumbers need so much liquid for each bush. It is also necessary to take into account that young plants are watered more often than adults.
Cucumbers in open ground watered along the grooves or by sprinkling. But if, when grown in protected ground, the leaves of the plant can be safely doused with water at any time of the day, then you should be careful with watering cucumbers in open beds: if water gets on the leaves in sunny weather, they will get burns.
Loosening and mulching the soil
After each watering and rain, the soil between the rows is loosened to a depth of 4-8 cm. To do this, lash gently lift or move aside, and after loosening return to its original place.
Loosening helps to avoid water evaporation and the formation of a crust on the soil surface.
It is also useful to mulch the soil between rows with straw, dung, peat, sawdust, kraft paper or polyethylene.
Mulching with black foil reduces the temperature of the soil by 2-4 ° С, therefore such cucumbers feel better in the heat
Pinching and tying cucumbers
After the formation of 6-7 leaves, the main stem of the plant is nipped over 5-6 leaves. This stimulates the branching of the bushes, the development of lateral stems with female flowers and increases the yield.
So that during prolonged rains gray rot does not develop in the thickened borage, plants are tied up on a trellis: strong pegs about 1 m high are driven into the ground, a rope is tied between them and the cucumbers are tied up.
With such a competent care your cucumbers will give a good harvest. But do not forget to collect the fruits regularly (3-4 times a week), since late delivery will restrain the growth of new cucumbers.