Perennial Chinese carnation is a frequent guest at the dacha plots. Planting and growing Chinese carnation is not difficult. In this case, the plant quickly takes root on almost any soil. The planting of these perennial flowers can be done in flowerbeds, mixborders, alpine slides and rabatki. They, along with mimulyusami and undersized dahlias, are used as curb plants, thanks to the bright and variegated flowers look great on the background of green lawns. Chinese perennial carnation is used in the landscape design of the country house due to its decorative and unpretentious care.
Brief description and color varieties
This beautiful perennial plant has been cultivated in the culture for more than one century. During the breeding season, a huge number of varieties of Chinese carnations have been created. Their distinctive feature is the bright color of buds and unpretentiousness in the care. Such flowers grow in the form of a dense bush. The height of their stems reaches 45-50 cm. On sale you can find dwarf varieties of Chinese carnation, the stalks of which do not exceed 15-20 cm. The narrow leaves are arranged in pairs on the stems. Some modern varieties have twisted leaves. Stems end with flowers of various colors. They can be white, cherry, maroon, red, pink.
For landscape design cottages there are various varieties of such perennial carnations: simple, semi-double, terry. Their coloring can be one-, two-color, motley, with a border or "eye". The size of the flowers in this type of Chinese carnation is different. They can be large, small, medium. In this case, the smaller the flowers, the more they bloom on the bush at the same time. Plants form seeds in fruit boxes in August.
Place to plant on the plot
For planting a Chinese perennial carnation, we select only warm, well-lit areas. It develops well and blooms even in conditions of light penumbra. Soils should be fertile, light, well drained. This plant does not tolerate stagnant water. Fertilize the soil with organic matter and mineral fertilizers before planting flowers. Soil liming is also necessary.
If we plant seeds
Planting perennial Chinese carnation in the country can be done in the following ways: seeds or grown (acquired) seedlings. To cultivate flowers in the first way, in May we spread the seeds on the surface of loose, well-moistened soil. Since this plant is distinguished by its cold resistance, it is not necessary to cover them with plastic wrap or glass. Sprinkle seeds of Chinese carnation with a thin layer of vermiculite, or a good compost.
How to sow on seedlings
For self-cultivation of Chinese perennial clove seedlings in March, seeds are sown in March in boxes with a light, nutritious, well-drained substrate. Sprinkle them with a thin layer of soil and cover with white paper on top. For germination maintain a temperature of 16-20 degrees. The soil in the boxes should be moist. After 7-10 days, shoots of flowers appear. During this period, the room temperature is reduced to 14-15 degrees.
Diving and landing at the cottage
A few days later, when the first pair of true leaves appears at the seedlings, we pick them into peat pots with nutritious soil mixture. When the seedlings are well strengthened, we plant it at a permanent place of cultivation on the site directly from the pots. We transplant the plants to the open ground at the end of May.
Flowering period, plant description
Chinese perennial carnation blooms throughout the summer. Currently, scientists are working to create a hybrid that will begin flowering earlier. Inflorescences have a light and pleasant aroma. At the end of flowering long seeds are formed, which by negligence can be easily damaged.
A bush of such carnations is not high and reaches an average of 20 cm. The plant has thin long stems. The leaves are arranged in pairs, may be narrow or wide.
Chinese carnation is a perennial plant, but in our country it is grown only a few years. This flower will be actively used by florists in their compositions, therefore not only amateurs, but also businessmen grow it.
In Russia, and especially in its middle zone, such a plant is grown as an annual and used for this seedling. Biennial or perennial carnations can be sown in open ground with seeds. Remember that such a landing is possible only when the soil is heated to at least about 15 degrees Celsius. This temperature is usually reached at the end of May.
Before sowing the seeds of Chinese carnation, soak them in a solution of succinic acid, which can be easily prepared using the instructions. Leave the seeds to dry, but not completely, even if they are only slightly moist.
The selected area must be prepared for sowing properly. First, dig up the soil, and secondly, remove all weeds. When the soil is prepared, grooves are made in it a few cm in depth. Material for planting is sown in such grooves, sprinkled with soil on top and moistened with a spray bottle.
Do not use regular watering, so you can wash the seeds from the soil. To prevent spring temperature drops from destroying plantings, cover them overnight with a plastic film.
Seeds in this condition will sprout a month. When young shoots will give a few sheets, your planting should be thinned out and leave an optimal distance for growing carnations. Those plants that you removed from the garden, you can safely use as seedlings and plant them in any other place.
Growing at home
To grow seedlings of Chinese carnation, sow the seeds need around the beginning of March. For planting need any wide container. Lay the bottom of such a container with drainage and add soil for growing seedlings over it.
The whole sowing process will take place in stages:
- Spread the planting material over the soil surface, sprinkle with earth and spray with a spray gun,
- The container should be moved to a bright room, the soil should be moistened as needed, but in this case it is not necessary to cover the planting film with a film
- At the first occurrence of sprouts you need to lower the temperature in the room, so you will avoid ugly stretching of seedlings,
- When a few leaves appear, you need to plant young plants in separate cups and leave them in them before transplanting into open ground.
Transplantation of seedlings occurs in the period when the probability of returning frost is completely over. Approximately 7 days before transplanting to the garden, you need to harden the seedlings. Gradually take out the plants on the street.
By increasing the forwarding time there. Do this until the seedlings can be carried out all night. Transplanting should be carried out by transferring the coma to the ground. The pit for planting should correspond to the earth coma.
For more information on growing Chinese carnation in the video:
Chinese carnation is a perennial plant. In the first year after sowing, a strong and healthy bush will grow on your plot, and the next season you will achieve a beautiful flowering.
If you do not want to wait, then you can plant varieties of annuals, which are beginning to bloom from the first year. After sowing, these plants will begin to bloom in a few weeks.
Growing Chinese cloves in the open field will not cause you much difficulty. To get started, choose a good site with normal lighting and without stagnant water. It is better to make a high bed, do not allow planting in the lowlands.
For planting fit both partial shade and open sunny area. Between plants, save 20 cm of free space, so the cloves will not interfere with each other.
General characteristics of the flower
Chinese carnation is a perennial and grows in the form of a bush. The height of such a shrub can vary from 10 to 50 cm in height, it all depends on the variety. The plant has thin and smooth stems, and the leaves are straight and narrow. Flowers are often solitary and can reach up to 5 cm in diameter. The structure of the flower depends entirely on the variety. So, there are terry, simple and semi-double buds.
The color palette of such plants is quite wide: it can vary from white, cream to raspberry and cherry flowers. There are hybrid varieties that can combine several shades at once.
Features of growing Chinese carnation from seeds
A distinctive feature of this flower is that it can give self-seeding. During the winter, the fallen seeds stratify, and with the onset of the first heat, they begin to germinate. Gardener can only transplant plants in the right place.
In specialized stores You can find seeds of various varieties. Sowing can be done directly in the ground or in containers. The second option is optimal, because, in this way, you will be able to provide the seedlings with the necessary care and the flowers will grow strong and healthy.
When to plant seeds in open ground?
Sowing seeds should be done immediately after the snow melts and the earth warms up a little. The optimal period for landing is the beginning of May.. Pay attention to the fact that this plant does not tolerate low temperatures, so planting should be done at a time when it will not be cold at night, otherwise you will need to cover the carnation with film.
Before sowing, seeds are soaked in succinic acid for 20 minutes. After soaking, they should be left for some time, however, they should not be dried out.
Before landing ground should be prepared. Remove the weeds, loosen the ground and make small grooves where the seed will be planted. Pay attention to the fact that during planting it is impossible to locate the seeds very close to each other, otherwise sprouted stalks will be very weak. Seeds germinate well at air temperatures of +20 ºC during the day and +15 ºC at night. To protect plantings from freezing, you can build a small greenhouse.
The first shoots begin to appear within 3 weeks after planting. If the plantings are very thick, remove all weak shoots, thereby thinning the bed.
When to plant seeds in a container?
It is possible to plant carnation seeds in a container in April. For planting should take a fertile soil, if not, then the appropriate composition can be prepared by yourself. This will require sand, soil and perlite. It is perlite that takes all the excess moisture and provides air to the root system of the plant.
Note that a drainage layer should be laid out at the bottom of the container. You can germinate seeds at room temperature, do not forget to constantly air the seedlings. When the first shoots appear, the glass from the container can be removed, otherwise the sprouts can burn. If it's cloudy, you need to organize additional light source for seedlings. For this you can use ordinary fluorescent lamps.
When and how to dive seedlings?
When the sprouts will be on three leaves, you can begin to plant them in different pots. Carry out this procedure should be very careful not to hurt the roots of the plant. After the picking, the Chinese carnation should be well moistened.
Planting seedlings in open ground
It is possible to transplant a Chinese carnation on a bed in the beginning of June. For transplanting, choose a sunny plot, it is advisable that at lunch there be no direct sunlight on the plot. Sometimes, by the time of planting in open ground, flowering may appear on some plants. This factor does not affect the adaptation of Chinese terry pink to new conditions.
When planting plants should be observed spacing between the bushes in 25 cm.
What and when to feed a carnation?
When feeding, follow these tips:
- do not use organic fertilizers,
- top dressing should be carried out no more than 3 times during the whole growing season,
- use complex fertilizers, which contain potassium and other minerals,
- At 2 years of life, the plant should be fertilized with fertilizer that contains calcium.
Pests and diseases: control methods
When growing cloves from seeds, you can encounter various viral diseases that affect not only the leaves, but also the root system.
To the most common diseases include the following:
- Fusarium wilt. The main symptoms are as follows: the flower stems gradually acquire a dirty yellow color, and the plant tissues begin to dry out. In the end - the plant dies. There are no methods to combat this disease, you can only carry out prevention and treat the plant with a drug such as Baktofit.
- Viral diseases are manifested in the form of oppressed growth and discoloration of leaflets. Sick plants should be removed immediately, so that the virus has not switched to other flowers. The tool by which you removed the plant should be well sanitized to avoid further infections.
- White rot. You can fight this disease with the help of chemicals. The first signs of the disease - the appearance of brown spots on the plant.
- Brown rot to say that the humidity is very high. To eliminate this disease you need to use the appropriate chemicals.
- Rust appears in the form of yellow-colored pads, which eventually become brown in color. Experienced gardeners recommend bordeaux acid to combat rust.
When growing a mix of carnations from seedlings or seeds You may encounter the following pests:
- Spider mite. This insect appears in dry air and high temperature. Such glue wraps around the plant with its web, during its life it reduces the plant immunity. To combat this insect, you can use chemicals such as Fitoverm or Iskra.
- Thrips. Such pests deform the stem. Thrips appear if the air humidity is very high.
Insects cause great harm to carnations, therefore, preventive measures should be carried out on time.
Growing Chinese carnations in the open field
Under favorable weather conditions, the first shoots of perennials appear already at 7-10 days. Sprouts are very sensitive to a decrease in temperature at night, so we cover them with plastic wrap. The most suitable temperature for germination of Chinese clove seeds is 16-18 degrees. With a strong increase in air temperature, seedlings are strongly drawn out. Young plants are transplanted into flowerbeds when they are strong enough. Pinching seedlings over 2-3 pair of leaves promotes tillering of flowers.
When buying grown seedlings of perennial Chinese carnation, the plants enter the flowering period much faster. Flowers are planted on the prepared beds with an interval of 20-30 cm (depending on the variety). With a strong thickening of the stems can stretch. Many gardeners propagate this type of plant by dividing the bush. When choosing a method of planting such flowers focus on their capabilities. Planting carnations mulch rotted leaves.
Caring for these flowers can overpower even a beginner florist. It is enough to follow a few rules and be attentive to the appearance of the plant. We water the Chinese carnations only when the soil dries out a little. For it, frequent and abundant watering is simply destructive. During the drought period, we water the plants a little more often, avoiding strong drying out of the ground. The beautiful appearance of the bush and flowers of carnations testifies to the correct mode of watering.
These perennial plants are very responsive to top dressing, but at the same time it is necessary to observe the measure when applying fertilizers. Depending on the fertility of the country soil, we make top dressing 2-3 times a month. Calcium fertilizers are applied only in the second year of the plant's life. We regularly weed weeds and loosen the soil. To extend the flowering period, prune the stems with faded buds. For ripening seeds, we leave only a few copies on those bushes that we want to propagate.
Diseases and pests
Flowers are prone to diseases such as rust, fusarium, root rot, spotting, septoria. Affected specimens are deleted and destroyed. Carnations can be damaged by spider mites and aphids. Damaged parts are cut and destroyed. For the prevention of the attack of pests of the plant is treated Bordeaux liquid.
Preparing for the winter
In our climatic conditions, the Chinese perennial carnation winters quite well. In late autumn, the flower stems are cut off at a height of about 10 cm above the ground. Many do not warm at the cottage bushes of this plant for the winter. To prevent the carnation from freezing in extreme cold, we cover it with peat, sawdust or fallen leaves. With the onset of spring we remove the shelter.
When the Chinese carnation blooms
Carnation Chinese terry growing from seed when planting a photo
Период цветения гвоздики китайской длится с июня по август. На сегодняшний день усилия селекционеров направлены на создание гибридов с более ранним и продолжительным цветением.
Цветы обладают едва уловимым ароматом. After flowering, slightly elongated seeds ripen, and may be damaged if handled carelessly.
Carnation Chinese grows bush height from 10-15 cm to half a meter. Stems thin, erect, some varieties have characteristic nodules. Leaf plates of elongated shape with pointed tips, arranged in pairs, depending on the variety, can be narrow or wider, twist slightly at the ends. The leaves and stems are green, may have a bluish bloom.
Cultivated Chinese carnation since 1702. It is a perennial plant, but in the conditions of central Russia, single- and biennial varieties are grown. Chinese carnation is also in demand in floristics: it is grown not only on the amateur level, but also on an industrial scale.
When to plant a Chinese clove in the ground with seeds
Seeds of cloves Chinese photo
In conditions of central Russia, annual varieties of Chinese carnation are most often grown, which is still better to grow through seedlings. Perennial or biennial varieties can be sown immediately in a flower bed. It is possible to sow the seeds immediately on the bed (in the open ground) when the earth warms to the range of 15-18 ° C and the air temperature reaches 20 ° C. Approximately in terms of such conditions occur in the second decade of May.
Before sowing, soak the seeds for 20 minutes in a solution of succinic acid, which is prepared according to the instructions. Give them a little dry, but do not dry completely, you can just get wet with a paper napkin.
Dig a site, remove weeds. Make the beards with a depth of 1-2 cm. Mix the treated seeds with agrovermiculite, sow gently, sprinkle with agrovermiculite on top. Moisten crops (it is better to spray out of a fine sprayer, because the soil should be slightly damp, and not flooded). To protect daily temperature fluctuations, cover overnight with a film or build a greenhouse over the crops.
Under these conditions, seeds germinate over 3 weeks. When the shoots grow up and get stronger, give a couple of these leaves, it is necessary to thin the crops, leaving a comfortable distance. Plants torn out for thinning can be used as seedlings.
In regions with moderately cold winters, good self-seeding cloves are noted.
Growing Chinese carnation seedlings at home
Carnation Chinese cultivation from seed photos of shoots
Start sowing Chinese carnations for seedlings in late February and early March (some gardeners recommend sowing as early as January, if you have an early spring in your region). You will need a container or any wide container. Put any drainage on the bottom, fill it with a universal substrate for growing seedlings or prepare it yourself: garden soil with added sand and vermiculite.
- Spread the seeds over the surface of the soil, sprinkle with vermiculite (it promotes seed germination), spray from a fine dispenser.
- Place the crop tank on the bright window sill, keep the air temperature at 20 ° C, the soil should be constantly wet. You can not cover the film.
- When the shoots seem to be necessary to lower the temperature to a level of 15-17 ° C, so that they do not stretch.
- After the appearance of two true leaves, plant sprouts in separate containers, where the seedlings will continue to grow until transplantation into open ground.
- When the plants grow, pinch the tops, leaving 4 true leaves, and what is higher, cutting them with scissors. This provokes the growth of lateral shoots and will allow you to get powerful bushes with abundant flowering.
Seedlings of Chinese carnation looks like a photo
It is possible to replant into the ground, when the threat of return frost is completely passed. Plants by this time can already throw color. A week before planting, harden the seedlings - first take them out to the garden for a few hours, then increase the length of time that the seedlings are able to spend the night outside.
Replant by transshipment of earthy coma. Luna must be appropriate for this size. The root neck is flush with the soil surface.
Growing conditions for Chinese carnation in the open ground
Chinese Carnation - a perennial plant. As a rule, in the first year after sowing, a strong healthy shrub is formed, and abundant flowering begins in subsequent seasons (several buds may still appear in the first growing season). In addition, many one-year-old varieties have been developed to bloom in the first year - they bloom several weeks after sowing.
Growing carnations is easy, you should follow only some of the recommendations. It all starts with the choice of a place for landing. In order for the plant to grow well, it is necessary to choose a drained area without stagnant moisture. Do not land in the lowlands; if ground water is close to the surface, build a high bed. Perfectly the Chinese carnation feels on the cultivated garden earth. Ideal loamy soils.
Chinese carnation annual planting and care photos
Can be planted in the open sunny area and in the penumbra - flowering is equally lush. To support the flowering process, fertilization will not be superfluous. Before planting, dig under humming or compost. In a strong shade, the plant is able to produce a small amount of buds per season, but it does not carry much decorativeness.
Even in the annual varieties of the season rhizome grows. So that the plants do not interfere with each other, the optimal distance between them is 20 cm. The thickening of the plantings leads to poor air permeability, which can provoke the defeat of diseases.
Absolutely for all plants seed reproduction is applicable, perennials can be propagated by dividing the bush.
Reproduction clove Chinese cuttings
Perennial Chinese carnation breeds vegetatively.
First, you can root cuttings. Use shoots without buds that have 3-4 leaf nodes. Cut off the stalk, stepping back from the lower node about 1 cm, remove all the leaves from it (the node) and make a couple of longitudinal cuts. Remove the remaining leaves as well, and shorten the uppermost ones by half. Planted stalk planted in pre-calcined sand, pour, cover the top with a glass jar or cut plastic bottle. The sand should not dry out. The stalk will take root after 3 weeks, then it can be transplanted into open ground.
Reproduction by layering
Tall bushes (height 0.5 m) can be propagated by layering. To do this, make a hole, bend the stem to the ground, make cuts on the node - in this place there should be contact with the soil, fix the layouts with a bracket, sprinkle with earth, the tip of the shoot should be above the soil surface. Water throughout the rooting period. In the next season, separate the young sprout from the parent plant and transplant.
Reproduction by dividing the bush allows you to get several new plants, fully preserving all the signs (double, color petals). The method itself is not complicated, but not suitable for all varieties. Most of them have a taproot root, they cannot be divided. Varieties with well-developed rhizomes can try to divide. The best time is spring time before flowering. Carefully dig up a bush, divide it into several parts, each of which should contain three living points of growth. Plant delenki in prepared holes for the size of the root system, squeeze the soil around the seedling with palms, pour.
How to care for Chinese carnation outdoors
Chinese carnation cultivation from seeds when planting a photo
In order for Chinese carnation bushes to begin to bush, it is necessary to pinch the tops of the stalks at the seedling stage (see the video above).
After planting in open ground, the Chinese clove needs moderate watering, weeding, and periodic fertilizer bearing. Perennials need to be prepared for wintering.
How to feed
To bloom was lush, will require feeding. It is enough to feed 2-3 times per season (after transplanting seedlings, at the beginning and during flowering). Some gardeners consider it permissible to apply supplements up to 3 times a month. Give preference to potash and complex fertilizers, with a low dose of nitrogen.
Cut faded buds from the bushes (you can leave a few to collect the seeds). To rejuvenate perennial bushes (about half a meter), by August they can be cut a little.
Chinese Carnation in Landscape Design
Chinese carnation in landscape design photo
Thanks to the pomp and brightness of the blooming of the carnation, the Chinese are loved by many gardeners.
Neat low bushes look great along garden paths, they are used for edging flowerbeds, creating live borders, giving picturesqueness to the facades. An island or bouquet planting on the background of a lawn is a great way to use Chinese carnation in landscape design. When grown on an alpine slide will need to take care of the nutritional value of the soil.
Half-meter specimens will serve as background plants, you can combine different varieties, combining in height, color.
Chinese carnation is grown not only in personal plots, it can often be seen in parks, squares.
The origin of the name and some history
Carnations Chinese Perennial Flower Photos
Cloves this plant is called in Russia. The Chinese carnation (Dianthus chinensis) means “divine flower” in Latin, the second component of the name is due to the country of origin. It was from China that it came to Europe, and also lives in the natural environment in Korea and Mongolia.
The origin of the carnation is shrouded in legend. It is divine because it was loved by Zeus and Jupiter. And there were flowers thanks to the wrath of Artemis, which hit the cowgirl. He annoyed the goddess of hunting with annoying singing, this flower appeared from the drops of his blood. The whole story of the popularization of carnation is associated with struggle and sorrow. This beautiful proud flower, shining like a torch, became a symbol of great historical events (the French Revolution, the Great October, the Second World War).
The Chinese carnation is a more “peaceful” member of the Carnation family. Initially, the distinctive features of the species were strokes of burgundy hue on the petals. More than three hundred years of active breeding work significantly diversified the appearance of the plant. There are many varieties with monochromatic (white, pink, red, purple, burgundy, purple and even blue) colors.
There are two-color varieties: the edges of the petals are dark, or vice versa, the core is dark with a lighter shade to the top of the petal. There is a simple, terry and semi-double form. A simple corolla consists of 5 petals, there are notches and fringes at the ends, and a terry flower consists of several rows of petals. Depending on the grade, the diameter of the corolla varies from 1-4 cm.
The best varieties of Chinese cloves with photos and names
Chinese carnation varieties with simple flowers are as popular as the Chinese terry carnation. The care of the latter is also carried out according to the general rules, besides a longer bloom is noted.
Thanks to the work of breeders given the widest choice of varieties:
Dianthus мик Diamond Mix ’photo
Brilliant - bushes 25-30 cm high, inflorescences terry, dark red shade,
Vesuvius - thirty centimeter bushes flare with an orange-red tinge of inflorescences,
Schneeball - Chinese carnation variety about 30 cm tall, snow-white, double flowers,
Tenderness - a plant in height within 40-45 cm, flowers terry, snowless,
Feuerball - plant height is 25-30 cm, flowers terry bright red,
SnoufayrF1 - the stems are stretched to a height of 20 cm, the flowers are semi-double, the colors are double: the eye is bright pink, then the shade is lighter,
Black and white - a variety with thirty-centimeter stems received such a name because the inner part of the petals is maroon, the outer one is almost snow-white, and the flowers are terry.
Especially popular series:
Charm F1 - blooming cloves about 20 cm tall, most often grown as a container culture. There are six pure shades: coral, red, pink, scarlet, white, there can also be a mix,
Parfait F1 - crumbs with a height of only 15 cm, non-double flowers, large. The series has two varieties: Raspberry Parfait - a dark pink core turns into a dark pink shade of petals, Strawberry Parfait - a rich pink eye, petals of a more delicate shade,
Telstar F1– bushes 25-30 cm high. There are seven sub-varieties:
Chinese Carnation Crimson Charm Dianthus chinensis фото Crimson Charm ’photo
Crimson - fiery red flowers,
Picotee - fiery red petals with a fine snow-white border,
Pink - pale pink shade
Purple Picotee - purple petals with white border,
Scarlet - bright red flowers,
White - white flowers,
Telstar Mix - a mixture of shades.
Medicinal properties of Chinese clove
Carnation Chinese white photo
In addition to decorative, Chinese carnation has a number of medicinal properties. Used only by traditional medicine. For the preparation of therapeutic agents (infusions, decoctions, oils) mainly used the ground part of the plant, the roots are rarely used.
The medicinal properties of Chinese clove are due to the rich chemical and biological composition of substances. Among them: glycosides, saponins, a number of alkaloids, some flavonoids, various vitamins, coumarins, tannins. Unblown buds and flowers in large quantities contain essential oils.
Reception means has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, diuretic, diaphoretic, hemostatic and analgesic effect.
Chinese clove decoction is used for gynecological and proctological diseases, chest pains. It is also recommended to drink the decoction with frequent fainting, decoction of the grass is a good remedy for diarrhea. Revealed antiparasitic action (allows you to destroy flat, round, tapeworms, various bacteria and even viruses). Rinse your mouth with a decoction - the destruction of pathogenic bacteria helps to improve its condition, there is a pleasant taste and freshness of breath. Decoction of flowers - a means of enhancing potency.
Infusion of seeds is an excellent diuretic. Infusion of flowers has a therapeutic effect on uterine bleeding.
The result of a comprehensive study of Chinese scientists are proven information about the ability of components of Chinese clove oil to inhibit the development of cancer cells.
There are no contraindications to the use of Chinese clove-based products, but individual intolerance is possible.
Preparation of medicinal raw materials
As a medicinal raw material, all parts of the plant are used: roots, stems with leaves, flowers and seeds.
Dig up the roots with a garden spade, clean it off the ground and rinse well under running water. Then blot with a napkin or towel. Cut into small pieces, lay out a thin layer on a newspaper or a special grid for drying. Dry in a well-ventilated place with good ventilation (attic, carport, i.e. out of the reach of moisture). You can quickly dry in the oven at a temperature of 45-50 ° C.
Spread dried material in fabric bags and store for two years. After the expiration date, it makes no sense to apply - the medicinal effect is lost, replace with fresh raw materials.
Prepare the above-ground parts (stems, leaves, flowers) during dry weather during the daytime (after the dew). Cut off the stalks almost under the root. Separate the flowers and dry separately as the roots (on a net or dry litter, spread out in a thin even layer). The stems can be collected in a bunch and dried by hanging. Such raw materials should be stored in fabric bags or paper-cardboard boxes for no more than one year.
Seed collection during the period of their ripening. Gently pour out of the fruit-box. Store in paper bags. Seeds remain viable for 4-5 years.
Features and varieties of Chinese carnation
Chinese carnation can be found on almost every household plot. Her unpretentiousness and bright colors of long flowering did their job - the plant has gained immense popularity among gardeners. The variety of this flower delights.
In Europe, the plant came from China, from which it got its name. Chinese Carnation - a perennial plant growing bush. Some varieties are grown as an annual crop. Initially, Chinese carnation was characterized by variegated burgundy strokes on the petals. Currently, the selection of Chinese carnation has about 300 species.
Separately I would like to highlight the view Geddevig LanciniatusBred in the middle of the 19th century by a St. Petersburg gardener. This species is also called “bordered” carnation, because of the border around the edge of the flower petal.
Chinese perennial carnation grows compact or spreading shrub. The height of the bush is from 10 cm (dwarf varieties) to 50 cm. The stems are thin, smooth, with characteristic knots of the carnation family. Листья прямые, узкие, продолговатой формы (некоторые сорта имеют закрученные листья). Цветки китайской гвоздики одиночные, в диаметре достигают до 5 см (в среднем 2-4 см). Строение цветка в зависимости от сорта может быть махровым, полумахровым или простым. Окантовка лепестков имеет бахрому или зубцы. Цветут кусты китайской гвоздики белым, розовым, коралловым, малиновым, вишневым цветом.Some varieties combine several colors, diluting the base color with a darker or lighter edging and “eye”. The variety of Chinese carnations can be seen in the photo.
The most popular varieties of Chinese carnation:
- "Charm is a magic mixture."
Planting Chinese Carnations
Chinese carnation is well developed and actively blooming in warm, sunny or semi-shaded flower beds. Delightful bushes grow on the east (southeast) and west side of the site. In the shade, plant growth is possible, but the desired flowering effect is unlikely to be achieved.
The soil for the Chinese carnation is suitable loamy or sandy. Well drained and moderately fertilized soil is planted before planting by adding lime or dolomite flour. Excess moisture Chinese carnation does not like, and stagnant water simply destroy the plant.
Important! Chinese carnation does not tolerate cultivated land and requires liming of the soil.
The carnation seedlings are planted in the open ground in spring at an average temperature of 20º, and the division of adult bushes is possible in the fall. The distance between seedlings should not be less than 20 cm.
Reproduction of Chinese carnation seeds
Chinese carnation is propagated by several methods:
For annual varieties suitable only seed method of reproduction. Perennial varieties of Chinese carnation can be propagated by all methods.
Seeds of cloves are brown and oblong in shape. It is worth sowing them in March, although some growers start sowing in January. Peat ready soil mixtures are not recommended for growing clove seedlings, it is better to take garden soil with the addition of river sand.
Before sowing, seeds should be soaked in amber acid and slightly dried (do not dry to the end). Moisten and sow the seeds in the seedling containers. Depth of seeding should be small, up to one and a half centimeters. A greenhouse effect is created in the containers: cover them with a film or glass.
The optimum temperature for seed germination is 18-20º. The first shoots appear after 10 days, after which the film is removed, and the containers are exposed to a well-lit place. If the light is not enough, and the seedlings began to stretch, light is needed. When the first true leaflets appear, the seedlings swoop.
When a seedling grows up and forms 4-6 true leaflets, it is pinched, thereby ensuring the pomp of the future bush.
In open ground, seedlings are planted in May, when the threat of recurrent frosts is over.
Cutting and division of Chinese carnation bush
Cutting, as a way of breeding Chinese carnations, is quite simple. However, when cutting, it is worth observing some rules.
- For the preparation of cuttings taken young shoots without buds.
- The cuttings are cut into 2-3 knots, the lower cut at a distance of 1 cm from the knot. The upper part is cut, and all the leaves are removed.
- Longitudinal cuts are made on the handle.
- Harvested material is germinated in containers with sand under shelter (film or can). The temperature and humidity under the shelter should be constant.
Rooted cuttings quickly enough. Higher bushes can not be grafted, and propagated by layering. The principle of this method is the same, but the layouts are not cut, but bend down to the ground and are poured with earth.
By dividing the bush, only some varieties of Chinese carnations with a fibrous root system multiply. All properties of uterine bush with such reproduction are preserved. In spring or autumn, the bush is dug out, and the rhizome is neatly divided so that at least 3 buds remain in each part.
Chinese carnation care
Like any cultivated plant, Chinese carnation needs care.
Fertilizer. With dressings Chinese carnations should be careful. The plant does not tolerate manure, so you can not use it as a fertilizer. Potash and complex mineral fertilizers for garden flowers are introduced 2-3 times per season (in spring and in the middle of summer). In the second year of clove growth, calcium supplements are necessary.
Watering. Chinese carnation tolerates moderate drought. Therefore, it is better to skip watering than pour the plant. After each watering, the soil around the bush is weeded, thereby providing air access to the roots.
Diseases and pests. Chinese carnation with improper care affects many fungal diseases: fusarium, rust, root rot, etc. Having noticed the first signs of the fungus, remove the plant, and the place of growth process with special means.
Of pests Chinese carnation is afraid of spider mites and aphids. In preventive measures, plants are treated with Bordeaux mixture.
For abundant flowering, faded shoots are cut throughout the summer. In winter, the green part is cut off, leaving 10 cm above the soil level. Outdoors, planting and caring for Chinese carnation does not require special skills.
Using Chinese Carnation in Landscape Design
Many varieties allow wide use of Chinese carnation in landscape design. Bright flowers will become an ornament along the path, border flower beds. Varieties different in height can be used in mixboards and discounts.
Chinese carnation decorate and rock garden. For gardening balconies and gazebos Chinese carnation planted in flowerpots. Photos with Chinese carnations just beckon to create their own, designer and unique composition in the garden.
As partners of carnations are great marigolds, not flowering green plants, forget-me-nots. In flowerpots, joint planting of carnations with pansies gives a stunning effect. But the neighborhood with tulips is not recommended, due to the defeat of plants with the same diseases.
Chinese carnation worthy of attention. Frost-resistant, unpretentious in the care of the culture pleases a long flowering and riot of colors.
Chinese carnation is a frequent “guest” on any flowerbed. Such love flower growers to this plant is not accidental. In addition to its attractive appearance, caring for Chinese carnation is possible even for a novice gardener. Differs flower long flowering. During blooming, the color of the petals can be white, red, pink. All of them are so light and airy that it creates a feeling like flowers are small clouds that rise above thin green stems. There are flowers one and two colors. Even on the surface of the petals can strips, specks or "eyes".
The color size is 10-50 cm. The stems of some varieties are equipped with nodules. On thin shoots concentrated pointed leaves of elongated shape. Some types of Chinese carnations have leaves that are able to twist to the bottom. On one flowerbed you can plant a plant of various species, among which will be terry, simple and semi-double flowers. Believe me, this combination will make your flower bed unique and interesting.
A simple flower includes 5 petals, but in their terry 20. There are notches or fringe on each petal. There are varieties with small flowers, the diameter of which is not more than 1 cm.
Types and varieties
Let us dwell in more detail on the most well-known and in high demand among gardeners of varieties of Chinese carnation.
- Color Magician. When choosing this variety, you can grow flowers of pink and red, which are mixed with white. The height of the decorative culture will be 28 cm
- Ideal Rose. Compact sizes are characteristic for this variety. Its height reaches 18 cm. The color of flowers is purple-pink, and the flowering period is long,
- Telstar Purple Picotee. This variety can be attributed to the dwarf, as its height is about 23 cm. The plant leaves are presented in contrasting shades and are concentrated as concentric circles around the central part of the flowers. But in the center of this color color is red-pink. With the time it turns white,
The carnation of this variety has large buds. The opening of the buds is fast, but this process takes a long time.
- Brilliant. This variety is a plant that grows sprawling bush. Its height reaches 28 cm. The color of the shoots is green, and in the nodes it is dark red. The flowers are terry type, their size is 4.5 cm. They have a dark red shade, and petals are toothed,
- Vesuvius. This variety has the appearance of a shrub whose height is 28 cm. The color of the shoots is green. The flowers are terry type, and their size reaches 5 cm. The color is orange-scarlet, and the leaves are fringed,
- Lucifer. The height of the bush reaches 28 cm. The shoots are green in color, and in the nodes it is dark red. Flowers of terry type, presented in orange-red color.
Features of growing from seeds
High demand for Chinese carnation is due to the fact that the plant gives self-seeding. During the winter, planting material is stratified and germinates as soon as it is warm. And then you just need to plant the formed seedlings. Chinese carnation can be sown immediately in open ground or germinate the house change first. When this is the second option preferred, because in the room it is possible to create all the efforts for the full growth of decorative culture.
Sowing on seedlings
The reproduction of annual varieties of Chinese carnation occurs by seed, but the perennial is propagated by the division of the bush or cuttings. Planting activities should be carried out in the spring - in early March. But planting planting material in open ground is best in May. In this case, the Chinese carnation will not suffer from light frosts.
Lay a drainage layer on the bottom of the prepared container. In the ground to perform shallow grooves and otparit seeds there. Above a little tuck to the ground. Seal it is not necessary. Now you need to moisten the soil and cover the container with glass. For the germination of planting material is considered the optimum temperature of 20 degrees. All that is required of you in the future is to regularly air the seedlings, water them and monitor the formation of the first shoots. After a few days, thin threads of new plants are formed. Now the glass can be removed, otherwise the seedlings can burn out.
During the day temperature indicators should be +20 degrees, and at night - not lower than 17 degrees. If it is rainy outside, then due to insufficient natural lighting it is necessary to provide artificial. Above the plants is to install fluorescent lamps. Include them only in cloudy weather.
As soon as 3 true leaves are formed on the plants, they can be planted in separate pots. This procedure is called picking. To carry out it carefully so as not to harm the root system. After picking young saplings must be watered.
Sprouting in open ground
It is possible to plant Chinese carnation seeds in an open ground in the early spring, as soon as the snow melts and the ground warms up. The difficulty in growing is that it is necessary to maintain the temperature at night. Low temperature adversely affects the planting material, so that the seedlings must be covered with foil.
Before performing the planting seeds must be soaked in succinic acid. Keep them there for 20 minutes. Prepare the solution according to the instructions. Remove the treated planting mothers from the solution, lay on a napkin so that it dries. Soil at the site to plow, remove weed crops and perform shallow grooves.
When sowing, place the seeds close to each other is impossible.
To prevent neglect, it is necessary to combine the seeds with sand and send the mixture into the grooves. Top with a little ground and water. To ensure uniform temperature conditions at night and during the day, it is necessary to cover the crops with film at night. You can also perform a mini-greenhouse. After 3 weeks you can see the first shoots.
If the plants are planted thickly, then you should remove the weak seedlings, but larger seedlings at an optimal distance from each other.
The peculiarity of the Chinese carnation is that it is not picky in its care. But in order for it to bloom long and beautiful, it is worth performing a series of simple manipulations.
It is necessary to water a Chinese carnation once in 7 days. Although this decorative culture tolerates drought quite poorly. During intense heat, watering should be regular and abundant. When moisturizing, it is necessary that the oxen does not penetrate the buds, as this will adversely affect flowering and may lead to the development of diseases.
Home plants need additional fertilization. Thanks to them, the blooming of carnations will be long and abundant.
If you grow a clove in a substrate without soil, you need to feed it every 7 days. If a mixture of soil and substrate is used for cultivation, then fertilize once every 2 weeks.
Fertilizing for Chinese carnation, growing as a perennial, it is necessary from the second year. For these purposes, use potassium or complex formulations intended for flowering crops. On 1 bush leaves 5 g of fertilizer.
Make a feeding should be careful not to injure the root system. It is forbidden to apply fresh manure and chlorinated formulations.
To extend the flowering period of the plant, it is necessary to cut the stems with already withered buds. After trimming, feed the soil using mineral fertilizers, loosen and pour. Then after a certain period of time you can see new shoots. Inflorescences that you like can be left to get seeds.
Chinese carnation - decorative culture, which has many advantages. Among them are abundant, long-term flowering, simple care and fastidiousness to the type of soil. And if at registration of a bed to use several varieties of this amazing plant, you can get an original and bright flower composition.
Descriptions and types of plants with photos
As an ornamental plant, the flower has been grown for several centuries. During this time, many hybrid varieties have been bred. The carnation is characterized by terry inflorescences of various shades, located on high stems, the height of which varies from 15 to 35 centimeters. Particularly popular are small compact bushes, framed by lush flowers. In appearance, it is divided into simple, terry and semi-double types.
Diana F1 Crimson (Diana F1 Crimson)
This species was bred by Dutch breeders. Diana is equally suitable as a home plant, as well as for decorating borders. This species will decorate any flower beds due to its bright and large flowers, the diameter of which is 5-7 centimeters. The height of the stem is 20-25 centimeters.
- Diana blooms from July to cold
- Does not like overmoistening or drying out of the soil. In the heat of its flowers should be sprayed twice a day,
- She needs good aeration, especially in rainy weather.
Feed up twice a month during flowering, alternating organic and mineral fertilizers. Depending on the subspecies, flowers can be white, purple, bright pink, crimson, fiery red.
Grace F1 Crimson (Grace F1 crimson)
Another representative of the carnation Dutch selection - Grace F1 Crimson with bright red double flowers and white stamens. The diameter of the flowers ranges from 6 to 8 centimeters, the height of the stem - 25 cm.
- Early bloom. Seeds are planted in April. The first shoots appear in 10 days,
- In the open ground bushes remain compact, without losing decorative.
You can grow them at home in pots. Grace blooms from June to September.
The peculiarity of the terry species in the petals with serrated edges and cuts. Plant blooms from early to late summer. Small flowers with a diameter of one to four centimeters. On one stem can be located one or more flowers, forming a kind of bouquet. Terry carnation mix has almost no odor. Ideal for growing at home.
The eye-catching coloring of the Vozroheya species immediately caught the attention of flower growers. The stems have many branches, covered with flowers of dark crimson color with white, thin edging. The diameter of the flower is 3-4 centimeters. The maximum height of the stem is 40 centimeters.
- Planted withers from March to April
- Abundant bloom from July to September
- Unpretentious care.
Carousel (Merry Go-Round)
Carnation Chinese terry Carousel refers to the dwarf species. Its stalks are knotty, covered with many white flowers with a red center. Their diameter is 5-6 centimeters. An interesting combination adds sophistication to the look.
- Not afraid of the cold
- Shoots appear after 6 days,
- It blooms from summer to late autumn.
Chinese carnation planting and care
Regardless of the grade of Chinese carnation before planting you need to choose the right place. Plant a grass plant on the sunny side of the plot or on the slightly dark side. In the absence of the sun in abundance, garden carnation is drawn out and practically does not bloom.
Tip: Choosing the right place you need to remember that Dianthus chinensis loves moisture, but does not take root when water stagnates in the ground. Therefore it is necessary to think over good drainage. To get rid of excess water will liming the soil.
The choice of soil is influenced by climatic conditions. In the northern regions, carnation grows well on loose and sandy soil. The main condition - the site should be located on the south or south-west side. In the southern regions, preference is given to soil with a high content of clay.
Несмотря на то, что изначально растение – многолетник, гибридные сорта являются однолетними. Высаживают их ежегодно. Землю подготавливают с осени, перекапывая, добавляя компоста (травянистый настой) или перегноя.
- Per square meter of land - one bucket of humus or grassy infusion,
- High peat,
- Wood ash - half a liter jar.
Soil digging depth of no more than 20 centimeters with the removal of weeds, slowing the growth of crops. Perennial carnation, as well as one-year, is unpretentious in care. All she needs is regular watering, fertilization.
Watering and feeding
Chinese carnation, the photo of which is below, needs care, including mandatory watering and fertilizing. Care for the plant is not difficult. Excessive water is destructive. Ground watering once a week will be enough.
As the seedlings get stronger and empty a couple of leaves, they feed with the use of phosphorus-containing mixtures, superphosphates. The amount of fertilizer depends on the fertility of the soil. In the future, cloves are fed no more than three times a month during the vegetative period. In winter and autumn, the plant planted at home does not need any additional feeding, and watering is carried out as needed.
Biennial and perennial varieties tolerate cold well in temperate climates. They can not insulate. Before the onset of constant cold weather, the stems are cut off, leaving 10 centimeters, and covered over with peat, sawdust, fallen leaves.
Reproduction by cuttings
The method of cutting is simple. For this method choose young shoots without buds. They should have 2-3 small areas forming lateral branches. From the main stem the shoot is cut at a distance of one centimeter. Shallow cuts are made in length. Cuttings grow in containers filled with sand, maintaining stable moisture and temperature.
This method is suitable for plants with a root system with appendages, in which there is no stem. Propagated in this way is desirable in the spring, before flowering. The bush is disconnected, and each formed bush is planted in a separate, prepared hole. It is desirable that each of them had at least three buds. Divided bushes retain all the decorative and characteristics.
A type of fungal disease affecting a plant with high humidity in its soil, high nitrogen content. A flower may become sick, the seeds of which were originally infected. To determine the disease can be darkened areas on the stems at the base. With no treatment, the stalk in this place becomes thinner and breaks off.
It is necessary to observe moderation of irrigation, to provide good ventilation, use clean soil. At the first sign of the earth and the plant is treated with Fundazole powder, limit the number of irrigations.
The disease is detrimental to adult plants. It is characterized by the appearance of depressed, dark spots at the base of the stem. The risk increases if asters, gladioli and other plants susceptible to fungal diseases are blooming nearby.
If spots appear, you need to get rid of infected stems or the whole flower. Nearby plantings are treated with fungicides.
Unobtrusive insects infect plants in dried conditions. You can see them on the microscopic white dots on the inside of the sheet. Later, the spots merge, and the damaged leaves become brown, dry and fall off.
Prevention: Permanent spraying, processing plants garlic or onion infusion. At the initial stage, treatment with concentrated soap solution, colloidal sulfur with further washing with plain water helps.
It affects the root system and shoots. Larvae feel at ease in acidic soil and are able to destroy an adult plant in a short time. For prevention, you need to regularly destroy weeds, lime the soil and add wood ash to it.
Thrips and aphids
They are carriers of viral diseases. Suck the sap of the plants. Their appearance is noticeable by the presence of small light strokes on the leaves and the deformation of the buds and flowers.
At the initial stage, plants can be treated with garlic infusion, and insecticides are applicable for cardinal measures. The treatment is carried out every week until the complete disappearance of insects.
Application in landscape design
You can grow several varieties at once to decorate the backyard plot. The variety of types and colors are widely used as a decoration of garden paths, flower beds, alpine gardens.
Carnations can be planted not only in open ground, but also in flowerpots placed in the open air, houses and balconies. It combines marigolds, pansies, forget-me-nots and stunted, non-blooming greenery. The plant does not tolerate neighborhoods with tulips and other species susceptible to the same diseases.
Growing a carnation from the Middle Kingdom is easy for even an inexperienced florist. Unpretentious care and excellent decorative properties made it popular. The advantage of the possibility of growing in temperate climates, typical for the middle zone of the country. Competent approach, compliance with the above rules - a pledge of a flowering garden and eye-candy in the house.