Among the garden flowering shrubs lilac - one of the most unpretentious plants. Moreover, it is characterized by active and rapid growth. Young shoots simply attack space and require regular pruning, otherwise the bush will turn into a thicket. However, when planting seedlings, they do not always take root. And often it is not so in improper soil, and in non-compliance with the timing of planting. Too early or late disembarkation leads to freezing of tender shoots. When to plant a lilac to seedlings successfully rooted and did not die?
When planning the cultivation of lilac, it is worth considering two points:
- growing region and its climatic conditions
- what is the root system of the seedling.
Based on this, and determined the time of landing, which can be:
- in the spring,
- in the fall.
Spring planting lilac
Like most plants, lilac survives well if planted in spring. During this period, active sap flow begins. Growth processes are enhanced both in the upper and in the aerial parts. Over the summer, the sapling builds up a developed root system and numerous young shoots. In the winter, he leaves a strong bush.
Seedlings with a closed root system root best in the spring. Lilacs in pots already have quite good roots, which are intertwined with an earthy clod. In this case, the risk of damaging their minimum, simply by crossing the sapling along with the ground in the hole.
It is important to have time to plant a lilac before the formation of inflorescences. Flowering seedlings in a pot can not be touched. Their planting is postponed until the end of summer or until autumn.
When to plant a lilac in the summer?
If the spring planting time is missed, it is possible to plant the lilac in the month of August. For Moscow region and the central region is even preferable. Spring is late in this region, and summer is short. August planting will allow seedlings to take root before the arrival of frost and better survive the winter. Bushes with an open root system are definitely planted at the end of the summer or even later.
Advantages of autumn planting seedlings
For the southern regions, lilac planting should be postponed until September. In August, it is still too hot and seedlings root poorly, especially if there are problems with watering. But in early autumn, the temperature is declining, and the rainy season begins. Saplings grown over the summer tolerate transplant well and manage to take root before the first frost.
Selection and preparation of a place for planting lilacs
Lilac grows well on loose, fertile land, in which a lot of humus. Problems may arise if the soil is alkaline, it must be neutral or acidic. For acidification, sheet compost is introduced into the planting well.
Shrub does not like areas where groundwater is located close to the surface. Knowing this problem, it is advisable to arrange a lilac landing site on a small embankment, and to make good drainage at the bottom of the pit.
The planting hole is dug in advance, its depth depends on the soil on the site.
The poorer it is with nutrients, the deeper the hole should be (up to 1 meter). Then it is filled with a prepared soil substrate. As fertilizers, ash and superphosphate are added. If the soil is highly acidic, the ashes are put more.
When creating a hedge, the distance between the holes makes 70 cm to create dense thickets. Most often, the bushes are planted at a distance of about 2.5 meters.
The optimal time for planting shrubs in spring and autumn
When it is better to plant a lilac - in spring, summer or autumn, depends on the planting material purchased. Saplings with open roots should be planted immediately after purchase.
They best take root in August, they have time to take root before winter, and give good growth next spring.
Container seedlings with a closed root system can be planted throughout the warm season - from April to September inclusive, they tolerate transplant more easily.
How to choose planting material
There are about 30 natural species and many hybrid varieties of lilac. Hybrid thermophilic varieties are often grown on rootstocks.
Most varieties in conditions of central Russia grow well without a stock. therefore It is desirable to choose the root culture of their own.
Caring for her easier, the bush is not threatened with degeneration into a wild form with improper pruning.
In addition, own-rooted lilacs are well restored after frosting, they are more durable and healthy than grafted specimens. If you buy seedlings with an open root system, they are immediately planted in open ground. Therefore, the time of purchase must correspond to the favorable season for planting - this is April, May or August, September.
A visual inspection will help you choose a sapling correctly. If it has open roots, they should be well branched, about 30 cm long, shoots without signs of diseases and pests.
What you can plant lilac in the open field
Lilac feels good if you plant it alone. The plant will soon grow, and will be pleased with abundant flowering.
It is a pity that the blooming of lilac is short, only a few weeks. Therefore, in the garden it is planted next to other ornamental shrubs that have other flowering periods.
Looks great lilac next to Chubushnik.
Hortensia of various varieties, viburnum, cherry, decorative varieties of maple, coniferous shrubs - this is not a complete list of neighbors for lilacs.
Step by step instructions for planting lilac in spring and autumn
The method of planting lilacs in open ground depends largely on whether the seedling was purchased - own-rooted or grafted.
Step-by-step instructions for planting your own lilacs:
- Before planting on a lilac seedling pruned all broken and dry branches.
- A landing pit for a bush is prepared in advance.
- Lilac is placed in it so that the root neck is at ground level.
- The roots are covered with earth, slightly shake the shrub to fill all the voids, and trample down.
- Make a radical hole, so that during irrigation water accumulated under the roots of the plant. Along the perimeter of the crown also make a recess to retain moisture.
- Water, consuming about 5 liters of water for 1 bush.
Planting a bush grafted on ordinary lilac, it is placed in the hole a little above ground level, making a small mound (8 cm). This helps in the future to reduce wild growth that can drown out the main variety.
The plant, grafted on a lilac Hungarian or stock privet, buried in the planting hole 6 cm below the soil level. This is necessary in order to subsequently transfer the plant to its own roots.
Landing lilacs in autumn is similar to spring. Choose a day when the sun is hidden behind the clouds or a warm evening. Sapling before planting a little pruned roots and crown (2 buds).
Plant care after planting
Before rooting occurs, a lilac seedling is shaded from direct sunlight. Regularly watered with settled water, loosen and mulch the soil. After about 1–2 weeks, shading can be removed.
In the first two years, if fertilizers have been applied to the planting hole, the sapling does not need any additional feeding. In the second year it can be fertilized with urea. Then they make annually complex mineral fertilizers and slurry.
In the early spring and autumn, after leaf fall, prophylactic spraying of bushes against diseases and pests is carried out. In the summer, they free the land from weeds, loosen the soil in pristvolny circles, pour lilac once a week, if there is no rain.
In April, before bud break, annually all broken, diseased and frozen branches are pruned. In the third year after planting, the bushes begin to form, removing all the excess, leaving only 8–10 strong shoots.
Proper annual pruning is important for heavy flowering.
You can not cut all the flowers for bouquets, next year such a lilac will not bloom. Shrubs need to leave at least 1/3 of flower stalks, because it is at their base that the flower buds of the next year are laid.
Adult bushes do not need shelter for the winter. In the fall, water recharge irrigation can be carried out; in young saplings, you can prune the tree trunks with a layer of peat or sawdust up to 10 cm high.
The timing of planting lilacs
You can plant shrubs at almost any time of the year. The only thing worth paying attention to is the type of the root system. If a lilac seedling is in a container, i.e. the root system is closed, it is possible to plant a bush even in the summer. If this flowering shrub was purchased from an open root, then the planting process is carried out in the fall or spring. However, not all so simple. When planting in autumn, the bush should be at rest and not bloom or actively grow the foliage. In addition, if the shrub has already begun to throw off the leaves, with the time of planting or transplanting it is better to wait until spring. Otherwise, the plant will not have time to fully take root before the winter frosts.
Planting in the open ground in the spring is carried out before the start of sap flow. As soon as the ground froze and the risk of frost returning is minimal, you can plant it.
If you are faced with a choice in terms of planting, give preference to the autumn period. The advantages of the autumn planting include the fact that in the spring the shrub, in addition to rooting and developing the root system, spends quite a lot of energy on flowering and foliage growing.
Video "Autumn planting lilac, what are the advantages"
Although lilac and unpretentious, when choosing a place on this shrub on your site, you should follow the following recommendations:
- the soil should be wet and moderate,
- ground water is not higher than 1.5-2 meters from the surface,
- acidity should be neutral
- the presence of sunlight for most of the day,
- protection from strong winds.
Lilac is better to plant on a small slope or flat terrain with good drainage.
Being quite unpretentious ornamental shrubs planting lilac is not a big deal.
- If the shrub is located in the landscape composition, the distance from the previous plant should be at least 2 meters.
- The size of the landing pits depends on the size of the root system. It is advisable to dig them several times more than the container of the plant. The pit should be filled with a nutrient mixture, which consists of compost, superphosphate and wood ash.
- Just before planting, the branches are slightly shortened, and the damaged roots are completely removed. If planting is carried out in the spring, for a more effective and speedy engraftment, the root system should be soaked in a biostimulatory solution, for example, “Kornevin”.
- Shrub placed in the center of the planting pit and straighten the roots.
- The plant is covered with a mixture of nutrient soil, then compacted in layers.
- Already planted lilac shrub is poured abundantly with water, and the soil around the root collar is mulched.
Departure after landing
As mentioned earlier, the lilac can be grown without the knowledge and skills in the field of gardening, as this plant is absolutely unpretentious. However, subject to these recommendations, the ornamental shrub will be flowering and lush for quite a long period of time.
Top dressing lilac
If enough superphosphate, ash and compost were added to the landing pit when planting lilacs in the fall, fertilizer should be applied from season 2, if it is nitrogen trace elements and from 4 if it is organic.
Phosphoric and potash nutrients contribute in the autumn months no more than 1 time in 2-3 years.
This plant responds very well to wood ash, which can easily replace fertilizing with various fertilizers. It is better to make it in liquid form, having previously mixed 200-300 g in a bucket of water.
Watering and loosening
In the period of flowering and active growth lilac should be watered quite often. As soon as the soil dries, you can safely moisten the soil.
The optimal depth of soil loosening under lilac is 5-8 cm, and the frequency of the procedure is 3-4 times per season.
Lilacs can be grown as a shrub or as a tree. To give the bush a magnificent shape, for 3-4 years after planting lilacs, 8-10 of the most even and beautiful branches are left, and everything else is cut off. The main shoot is also shortened.
If you want to make a lilac tree, leave only the strongest branch. From it, all the buds located below 60-70 cm are cut off and 7-8 upper pairs are left. Then one of the paired branches is pulled out and no more than 7 branches remain.
Sanitary and thinning pruning is best done in early spring, but if necessary they can be carried out throughout the season. In order to obtain bulky clusters, flower buds should also be partially cut.
Lilac is one of the few ornamental plants that does not require special care and looks gorgeous. This shrub grows well, not only in the Moscow region, but throughout the middle region of the country.
Choosing a place
Depending on the type of lilac, its variety and design idea of the garden, the plants are planted with single plantings, in small groups or hedges. For lilac you need to choose an open sunny place. Best of all, when the sun illuminates the lilac bushes all day. In extreme cases, bright lighting should be present at least from morning to afternoon. In the shade and even in the penumbra, lilac grows several times slower. In addition, it is not so abundant and colorful flowers, the shape of the bush in the shade loses its decorative effect - the shoots are drawn out, the foliage is less dense.
Landing lilacs should not be thickened. Tall, highly branched varieties are best planted in single plantings. Smaller ones grow well in groups of 3-5 bushes or in spacious alleys. The distance between plants with a single planting should be at least 2.5-3 m, with a group and in the alleys - not less than 1.5 m. When planted with a hedge, the distance can be reduced to 1 m. plentiful and full.
If your site is in a lowland, but you still want to plant a lilac anyway - do not despair. You can always find a way out. In such a situation for the lilac do on, sytynoy hill, like an alpine slide, just a little higher. The height and area of the hill should be sufficient so that the roots do not get wet and freeze.
The place for lilac should be protected from strong winds, especially when it comes to less winter-hardy varieties. In addition, the lilac should not be planted in wetlands and lowlands, which are flooded in spring with melt water, and in the fall they collect rainwater. Lilac does not tolerate stagnant water, some roots can rot and die off. Therefore, it is advisable to choose a small elevation with good drainage and low groundwater deposition no closer than 1.5 m to the soil surface. Very good to have a lilac on the gentle southern or southeastern slopes. If the plot is flat, without elevations, the lilac will successfully grow there, but you need to take care of a good drainage system.
The best time for planting any varieties of lilac is from mid-August to late September. By this time, the lilac is already on the verge of a rest period, the growth of shoots stops, the movement of juices slows down. At the same time, winter is still far away, the weather is warm enough, the ground is still well warmed up. Therefore, seedlings planted in August and September, will have time to root well and prepare for the winter.
Do not focus when planting for the presence of foliage on seedlings. In lilac leaves are kept until frost. When they fall off, the optimal landing period will be long gone. When planting seedlings in a favorable period of care for them is reduced to a minimum. It is enough to have abundant watering immediately after planting and one or two moderate irrigations before the onset of frost (in case of dry weather and no rain).
Unfortunately, it is not always possible to plant the plants on time. For one reason or another, the period may be missed or, on the contrary, unknowingly, someone may purchase seedlings in early spring. What to do in this case? Of course, you should not despair. They can be planted at another time.
Late autumn planting
If you plant a lilac in October, when only a couple of weeks are left before the onset of frost, you need to take measures to protect the roots of the plant. After watering, it is necessary to mulch the stem around a thick layer of dry loose material. It can be wood chips, straw, peat, needles, dry foliage. The thickness of the mulch layer must be at least 20 cm. Then it will stop the process of soil freezing and give the seedlings time to root.
If you are late even more, and the frost is coming from day to day, then the landing will have to be postponed until spring. And the seedlings need to prikopat obliquely in a place protected from frost, as is done with the planting material of fruit trees. In this case, it is also necessary to prepare in advance for the spring planting pits for lilacs, because they plant it very early, when digging is quite difficult.
Spring landing is the most troublesome. Прежде всего надо постараться успеть ее сделать до начала вегетационного периода растения, т. е. до пробуждения почек. При нашем климате это довольно сложно, поскольку у сирени вегетация начинается очень рано – в это время даже не всегда еще успевает сойти снег.The second difficulty lies in the fact that rooting will occur very slowly and difficult - after all, the main forces of the plant will be spent on the development of aboveground parts. Both processes will slow down each other, the plant in the first year will be stunted and weak.
In order to facilitate engraftment, the following measures should be taken:
- root seedling process stimulator of root formation,
- remove flower buds
- regularly water the seedling and loosen the tree trunk.
For a good growth of lilac need fertile soil, medium lightness, with neutral acidity, not too wet. Lilac is taking root on poor soil, but it will need to be pre-fertilized with organic matter - rotted manure, bird droppings or compost. Fertilizers can be scattered over the surface of the soil or applied in liquid form in the tree trunks circles.
Too light sandy soils should be strengthened by adding alumina or black soil. Excessively heavy clay soils make it easy - they make peat or leaf humus. In clay soil, lilac roots rot and die from oxygen deficiency. Too acidic soils are repaired by adding hydrated lime, dolomite flour and wood ash. Neutralization of the soil will need to be repeated periodically, since the soil will tend to return the initial level of acidity.
Lilac shrub description
A deciduous plant with a height of two to eight meters has many trunks, whose diameter can be up to twenty centimeters. Young shoots covered with smooth barkand the old trunks - fissured gray-brown or gray bark.
Cirrus-separated or solid, opposite leaves in length reach twelve centimeters. They appear in early spring and do not fade until the frosty days in the fall. Depending on the type of lilac, dark or light green leaf plates can be ovoid, heart-shaped, oval or elongated with pointed tip.
From late April to early June, drooping panicles up to twenty centimeters long appear on the bush. They consist of pink, purple, blue, purple, lilac or white buds. Flowers are a chetyrehzyubuy calyx with two stamens and a cylindrical long corolla. From them comes a very nice, delicate and delicate flavor.
With proper planting and caring for lilac in favorable conditions in one place, a shrub can grow and decorate a garden for a hundred years.
How to plant a lilac?
When to plant a lilac? In the autumn the plant is impractical to plant, because it is badly taken root. Therefore, it is best to engage in planting in the spring or in the second half of July until the end of summer.
In spring, shrubs should be planted before bud break, so that the seedling spends strength on the formation of the root system, and not on the growing season.
When choosing a young plant for planting should pay attention to the following points:
- the optimum height of the seedling should be between fifty and seventy centimeters,
- the root system must be well-branched and have light brown elastic roots,
- the seedling must be at least three or five skeletal branches.
For lilac choose a well-lit place with fertile soil. Mineral and organic fertilizers are added to poor or sandy soil before planting. In the prepared pit will need to add:
- wood ash - 300 grams,
- superphosphate - 30 grams,
- compost or humus - 15 kilograms.
Pits for lilac should have sheer walls and be 50x50x50 cm in size. Their bottom is covered with rubble, expanded clay or other drainage. On the drainage layer in the form of a mound, fertile soil is poured, on which the seedling is installed. The root system of the plant is straightened and filled with soil mixture. It is necessary to ensure that the horse neck was above the ground by three or four centimeters. Landings are watered, and the near-stem circle is covered with mulch, as which peat or humus can be used.
When planting in the open ground of several seedlings, the distance between the holes is made from two to three meters. On one lane should be planted no more than five bushes. To young seedlings are well rooted, they pritenyu their first time, making a small canopy and shielding from direct sunlight.
Features care for lilacs
Lilac unpretentious, so care for her a lot of time does not take. In spring and summer, in dry time, it will be necessary to water the plants several times, pouring about thirty liters of water under each bush. In late summer and early autumn, watering is done only if it's hot without rainy weather.
Three or four times a season around the planting weeds are removed and the soil is loosened to a depth of four to seven centimeters.
In the first two or three years after planting lilacs in open ground, plants are fed with a small amount of organic or nitrogen fertilizers:
- For each plant will need from one to three buckets of slurry, which is prepared from cow manure and water (1: 5).
- Under each bush - eighty grams of ammonium nitrate or fifty grams of urea.
Organic fertilizer more efficientTherefore, experienced gardeners use them most often.
Every two to three years, adult plants are fed with phosphate and potash fertilizers, which are applied to a depth of six to eight centimeters. For each lilac bush you need:
- double superphosphate - 40 grams,
- potassium nitrate - 35 grams.
A good complex fertilizer is ash, which is previously diluted in water (for 8 liters of water - 200 grams of ash). After making the dressings all the plants must be watered.
Since the shrub is able to suck all the nutrients out of the ground in one or two years, experienced gardeners recommend that the lilac be transplanted to a new place three years after planting.
Transplants are practiced in August, when the lilacs bloom. Before transplanting a plant, remove all unnecessary, dry and damaged branches and shoots. After that the bush is dug round and taken together with an earthen clod. A new pit should be larger than the root system of lilac, because it still needs to add nutrient soil mixture. After planting, the bush is covered with soil and watered.
Rooted cuttings of lilac is quite difficult, therefore, when selecting and harvesting, the following recommendations should be followed:
- Preparations of cuttings are engaged during flowering or immediately after it.
- Cuttings are selected on young plants. They should be of medium thickness and lumbering. It is necessary that each segment has two to three nodes.
The upper cut of the cuttings do at right angles, and the bottom - obliquely. After that, the upper leaves are shortened by half, the lower leaves are removed completely and the segments are placed for about sixteen hours in the preparation solution, which is intended for rooting.
Rooting is better in a special box or greenhouse, which is filled with a mixture of peat and sand (1: 1). Soil before planting the cuttings is treated with the drug Maxim or Fundazol. A twenty-centimeter layer of soil is filled with a soil mixture, which is covered with a five-centimeter layer of calcined river sand.
Before planting, the lower part of the segments is washed under running water, after which they are placed in the prepared substrate. The distance between the cuttings should be such that their leaves are not in contact. The segments are sprayed with water and covered with polyethylene.
Rooting should occur in the penumbra. It is necessary to air the landings every day and make sure that the ground does not dry out. Once a week, the cuttings are recommended to be sprayed with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, which will protect them from fungal damage.
Approximately in one and a half - two months, the cuttings will take root, and they can be planted in open ground. However, if rooting occurred in the fall, transplants are engaged in the spring. In winter, the cuttings planted in the ground are covered with spruce branches. The bushes grown from cuttings will grow well and bloom in the fifth year.
Reproduction by layering
This is the easiest way to reproduce lilac, for the implementation of which is chosen starting to woody young escape. It should be at the base and after another eighty centimeters drag wire and put in a groove with depth two centimeters. Everything must be done carefully so as not to damage the bark. The soil is attached to the soil by studs, and its tip should remain on the surface.
During the summer, weeds need to be watered and removed around the weeds. When the top of the shoot grows up to fifteen centimeters, it is half-spud with nutritious soil. Then, one or two more times, it will be necessary to pour fertile land under the regrown shoot.
In the autumn, in places of constriction, the cuttings are cut and divided into parts, each of which must have roots. Delenki can immediately be planted in open ground to a permanent place or grow on a temporary bed. Young plants should be covered for the winter with dry peat and spruce branches.
Adult lilac bushes for the winter is not necessary to cover. Can freeze only varietal plantsin which frostbitten twigs are pruned in spring. Instead, new shoots will quickly grow on the shrubs.
Having studied the recommendations for planting lilacs, even a novice gardener will be able to plant a shrub in the open ground properly. With further good care every spring lilac will delight with its beautiful and fragrant inflorescences of white, lilac, pink, purple, lilac, purple or blue.