The alder height can sometimes reach fifteen meters in height, but more often it does not exceed ten meters. Young branches have a rare pubescence, sticky. The trunk covers a smooth bark of gray. The leaves are egg-shaped, they are densely pubescent on both sides.
Flowers are collected in earrings. Female flowers are short oval, as a rule, 3-8 pieces per group, male flowers - sessile, longer ones, collected in 3-5 pieces. Single-seed nuts (fruits) are elongated cones. The tree blooms in March and April. The alder seedlings ripen in autumn.
Species, places of growth
Today, forty-seven species of alder are known, twelve in our country. The most common gray and black (sticky) alder. It develops beautifully on drained soils along the banks and in the valleys of rivers and lakes.
Alder seedlings: composition
In folk medicine today, bark, leaves, and alder seedlings are widely used. The instruction says that the stems of the composition contain a lot of tannins from the pyrogall group:
- gallic acid - up to 4%,
- tannin - up to 2.5%.
In addition, they contain many organic acids, glycosides, flavonoids (including the catechin group), phytoncids.
Useful properties of alder
In herbal medicine, alder has taken a worthy place, and sometimes it is not easy to find a replacement for it in the treatment of a number of diseases. Alder seedlings are most commonly used, although medicinal preparations are prepared on the basis of both the leaves and the bark of the plant. They have on the human body the following actions:
Their use is recommended for:
- inflammation of the colon and small intestine (enteritis, colitis),
- duodenal ulcer and stomach,
- dyspeptic disorders of the digestive tract,
- articular rheumatism
- rheumatic fever,
- inflammation of the respiratory system.
Alder stems: instructions for use
It is an effective astringent containing tannins based on tannin and gallic acid, galactose, phosphoric acid, and pentosans.
Indications for use
Tincture and infusion of seed fruits are recommended for chronic and acute colitis and enteritis. In the form of infusion or decoction of almond stems, they are used in a spoon (canteen) three times a day. Used and tincture, which used alder blossoms. The use of this drug is limited to 25 drops not more than three times a day.
Dry extract (thmelini) is recommended to take 0.5 grams up to six times a day.
Alder seedlings are produced in cartons weighing 100 grams.
Storage conditions and shelf life
Store raw materials should be in a dry place, protected from light. Shelf life of fruit heads - 3 years.
Alder inflorescences in folk medicine
Folk healers recommend preparations based on stems for digestive disorders, including swelling and pain. In addition, the stems are considered an effective diaphoretic. Alder cones are recommended for colds and frostbite, dermatitis and tired legs, skin ulcers and itchy rashes, scrofula and long-healing wounds.
The decoction is effective for burns, inflammation of the gums, bleeding from the nose, pharyngitis, sore throat, allergies, hemorrhoids. It is successfully used for douching in inflammatory diseases in women.
Heads in cosmetology
They are also used in cosmetology of alder seedlings. Their use as a means of promoting hair growth, reducing hair loss and fat, struggling with seborrhea, gives excellent results. In these cases, every day you need to rub the scalp infusion into the scalp.
Alder stems quickly relieve irritation and inflammation of the skin, reduce greasiness and porosity. Many women celebrate their tonic effect.
Decoction of seedlings
Four grams (a tablespoon) of seeds should be poured with a glass of boiling water and boiled on low heat for a quarter of an hour. After that, the composition should be cooled at room temperature and strain. Take 50 ml three times a day before meals.
According to patients, a significant improvement in well-being comes (even with chronic colitis) after a few days of admission. The decoction can be taken with dysentery, used for gargling with sore throats and other colds.
Ten grams of seedlings pour a glass of boiling water and put the composition in a water bath for fifteen minutes. Then cool, strain and bring to the original volume with boiled water.
Take 50-70 ml three times a day, thirty minutes before meals. Infusions and decoctions of the seeds should not be stored in the refrigerator for more than 2 days: they lose their healing properties.
Like the vast majority of medicinal plants, alder seedlings cannot be taken without restrictions. Contraindications for this raw material are primarily associated with individual intolerance to phytomeans as a whole or to its individual components. In addition, the use of alder-based products for pregnant women, nursing mothers and children up to twelve years is not recommended.
Alder black description
- Large soon growing deciduous plant - Alnus glutinosa. The barrel is flat or tending upward in a small arc. About 90 centimeters in diameter, in cracks and with dark brown bark. Sometimes it can grow with several massive trunks from one hummock, thus creating curtain growth from trees. This type of growth is inherent in trees that live in ponds and swamps.
- Bark originally shiny, brown with a green tinge, covered across the trunk with light streaky tubercles (lentils). Later it becomes darker, almost black or dark brown with a green tint. Over the years, aging, becoming cracked.
- Crohn at an early age is ovoid or pyramidal in shape, becomes rounded over the years. With almost horizontally growing branches from the trunk. Fresh shoots have a triangular shape, sticky, greenish in color, the surface is smooth with a rare pile. Large branches have on their surface small protuberances of light color, from which resinous matter oozes, covering the entire surface with a resinous layer.
- Leaves acquire an ovoid shape, directed by a sharp end towards the stem, are rounded, with a diameter of 4–10 cm, with a well-developed petiole, with a wide-angle cone, and a rounded edge at the end. The surface is smooth and shiny on top, green or dark green, the underside is slightly lighter and with fibers at the intersection of the veins. Fresh leaves sticky. In the autumn time of the year, they retain their color until the fall, having fallen on the ground, eventually turning brown.
- Flowers same sex Female with a lot of flowers, combined buds in the form of oval earrings, hanging on long legs in the lower area of the shoots. A man's smaller, 4–7 centimeters long earrings that appear on the shoots in their upper part. Staminate flowers are formed in the spring season. Pistils, on the contrary, fall time. Pollination occurs through the air, moving by the wind. For better pollination, flowering begins before the appearance of leaves, in spring, approximately from April to May.
- Fruit are oval cones, measuring about two centimeters in length. At the beginning of growth they have green color, and in the process of ripening they become dark. Grow up on a long leg to 3-4 pieces. Cones inside are filled with flat brown nuts, up to 2.5 millimeters in size. Ripen from September to October.
In the central part of the Russian Federation ripened cones, all winter they keep on the alder. And at the onset of spring, the fruits open up and release seeds directly onto unmelted snow. Small nuts, falling on the snow during thawing, fall into the water and float further downstream. In other cases, they are simply carried by the wind. Fruits appear almost every year, but large yields occur every 3–4 years. Young trees growing in open places begin to bear fruit only after 10 years, but those that grow in forests, after 30 years.
Pests and diseases
- Like all living things, the alder sticky is also able to hurt, and it also has its parasites, Taphrina is one of these pests. It leads to the appearance of scales on feminine catkins, damaging them.
- Taphrina alni is another specimen from the same family; it forms the so-called “witch's broom”, which is a certain number of heap clusters of small shoots that have sprouted from dormant infected buds. The leaves shrivel and stains appear on them.
- The fungal parasite Taphrina sadebeckii, causing spots on the leaf surface. Leaves affected by Taphrina tosquinetii suffer greatly. Foliage twisted, crushed, covered with a gray bloom, and shoots die.
- But not only foliage and flowers are sick, roots also suffer from infection. They form cancerous tumors, and after some time, Alnus (alder) dies from the action of the parasite Plasmodiophora alnus.
The use of black alder
All that is in black alder can be used in the treatment of diseases of the digestive tract, chronic enterocolitis, and acute intestinal infections. To restore and improve the intestinal microflora, and treatment of dysbacteriosis are used drugs created on the basis of substances obtained from black alder.
Chronic constipation is well treated with Alglutin extract, made on alcohol and black alder leaves. This is one of the best laxative drugs. A well-prepared foot bath helps to relieve fatigue after a hard day’s work. A decoction of the leaves of the tree facilitate the course of colds. The recipe is quite simple, from 20 grams of leaves, filled with a glass of hot boiled water, infusion decoction and used in the treatment.
Alder bark is made from alder bark. Which well helps in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, problems with gynecology and common cold.
From the cones of black alder, too, make broths that have useful hemostatic and binding properties. Well helps in the treatment of burns and inflammation of the skin. Stops bleeding from the nose and treats periodontitis. More doctors prescribe this remedy for phytotherapy of the duodenum and gastric ulcer. The recipe for decoction of alder cones is also simple: you need to take 2 tablespoons of cones and place them in a glass of boiled water. Slightly insisting, use as prescribed by a doctor.
Black alder root will be especially useful for women. Since it is very fruitful effect on the function of the reproductive system. To make a tincture, you need to pre-crush dry alder root to the powder, then pour three tablespoons of the prepared powder up to this boiling water and make douching for the night.
From gastritis and enteritis, there is a good potion made from black alder cones and snake highlander roots. All equally taken ingredients mix well and boil filled with a glass of water.
Another complex decoction of alder fruits mixed with plantain leaves, fennel fruits, sandy immortelle, leaves and cassia fruits, pharmaceutical chamomile and St. John's wort grass will help against spastic colitis. The herbs are boiled in two glasses of water for 15 minutes.
From which we can conclude that the alder is black in the price of traditional healers, as it is:
- effective diaphoretic
- pain killer.
Her especially useful to use when arising:
- common cold
- malaria and dysentery,
- chronic enteritis,
- from tiredness and swelling of the legs.
The alder has a bark of dark brown color with cracks, young branches are smooth, often sticky, reddish-brown. Leaves broadly obovate or nearly rounded, obtuse or notched at the apex, with a serrated edge. Young leaves are shiny, sticky, and fully developed - from above - dark green, bare, below - light green, almost bare.
Flowers dioecious: staminate - in long earrings, pistillate - in short oval inflorescences, perianth reduced.
Fetus - A small nut with a narrow membranous wing.
Alder blossoms in early spring before leafing, in March - April.
Green scalescovering female flowers, by the autumn they grow, become woody, blacken and form seedlings - the so-called alder “cones” that hang on the tree all winter.
Fruit ripen in September - October.
Description of alder
The plant is hardy and loves shade. The leaves always stay green, even when they fall. They contain a large amount of nitrogen, because they are a good fertilizer for the soil.
In ancient times, it was said that the alder is a mystical plant, because when it is cut down, wood can change in color, take on a red color after white, and compare this phenomenon with blood.
The branch of the alder is a symbol of the resurrection, some still believe that the souls of the people who live in the alder live. Alder was used as a talisman, talisman, amulet, thus it was possible to protect your home. Wood plants are valued for their strength and the fact that it does not rot, with it could make flutes, shoes and swords. In the economy, the plant serves as a good deterrent for the bear.
Common alder species are common:
1. Gray alder belongs to a low tree species or large shrub, has a superficial root system. Leaves egg-shaped, slightly pubescent.
2. Black alder is one of the best medicinal species, can reach a height of 20 meters, has a dark brown bark, the leaves are large with teeth. The plant is found most often in wetlands.
3. Red alder has a straight trunk and beautiful leaves. Reaches heights up to 35 meters.
4. White alder is distinguished by light gray bark, alternate leaves that have biconteous edges, are located on the petioles. Fruits are flat, single-seeded nuts. You can meet this species in the Urals, West Siberia and the Caucasus.
5. Sticky alder is a high deciduous plant, has a dark-brown bark. The leaves are dark green, shiny and rounded. Fruits are small nuts that have a narrow wing. This species of alder lives up to 200 years. It occurs most often in Central Asia.
6. Shrub alder is a small tree, it reaches no more than 5 meters. It can grow rapidly, it is not affected by the type of soil, but it loves moisture very much.
The use of black alder
All parts of the plant help with problems with the digestive tract, if intestinal infection worsens, with enterocolitis of a chronic nature. Also often preparations based on black alder are used for dysbacteriosis in order to normalize the intestinal microflora more quickly.
From the leaves of the black alder they produce an extract on alcohol “Alglutin”, which is one of the best laxatives, with the help of which chronic nature of constipation can be cured. A decoction based on black alder leaves helps to relieve colds, it is also used for foot baths, thus relieving fatigue. To prepare it, you need to take 20 grams of leaves, a glass of boiling water. Insist warm.
Black alder bark is well used for gynecological diseases, problems with the digestive system, and colds. With her cooked tincture on alcohol.
Fruits of a black alder apply to broth, they possess the knitting, styptic action. The decoction will help if the gums bleed badly, stops nasal bleeding, relieves inflammation from the skin and heals burns. Also, the agent may be prescribed by a doctor for a stomach or duodenal ulcer. To cook the broth from the cones of black alder, you need two tablespoons of the fruit to fill with a glass of boiling water.
Black alder root helps to restore the female body, a positive effect on the reproductive system. To prepare the tincture, you will need a dry root, you must first grind it into powder, then dissolve three tablespoons of powder in a liter of boiling water, and douche before bedtime.
When enteritis, gastritis, it is good to use such a collection for the stomach, it is necessary to take the fruits of black alder and the root of a mountaineer snake, mix everything well, pour a glass of water, boil.
Such a collection will save you from spastic colitis - pharmaceutical chamomile, black alder fruits, fennel fruits, St. John's wort grass, sandy immortelle, plantain leaves, cassia fruits and leaves, all pour two cups of water, boil for 15 minutes.
Botanical characteristics of alder
Alder is a tree, whose height is about 20 m, and a powerful trunk can reach 50 cm in diameter. Young fluffy branches are supplemented with petiolate leaves of a wide elliptical shape. Alder blossoms in April. Same-sex flowers are collected in elegant inflorescences, earrings. Seeds are in cones until spring and only in March they spill out.
Alder is gray
Gray alder is a low tree or large shrub with a shallow root system. This species has ovate leaves with soft hairs. Small flowers are presented in the form of earrings. Flowering in gray alder occurs at the end of March, it is pollinated by the wind. The fruits ripen in late October, but the bumps themselves open in February.
Высокая черная ольха представляет собой 20-метровое дерево с темно-коричневой корой и крупными зубчатыми листьями. Staminate flowers in elongated earrings are formed from autumn. The fruit appears in their sinuses. Black alder prefers lowland marshes and lakeshores, as well as settles in the floodplains of rivers. Flowering tree begins in April. Black alder forms unique pure forests, also meeting among coniferous and deciduous plantations.
Slender red alder with a thick crown and an unusually straight trunk surprises with its beautiful leaves with pronounced veins. The tree can reach a height of more than 35 m. Purple male earrings may appear before the foliage blooms. Small female egg-shaped earrings first have a green tint, and by winter they acquire a bright red color and become cones, amazingly decorating a tree.
White alder is incredibly similar to a large shrub with a special egg-shaped crown. The light gray bark is unusually smooth. The next leaves with sharp biconteous edges are located on the petioles and are completely non-sticky. White alder has bisexual flowers, which are earrings. The fruits of the plant are presented in the form of flat single-seeded nuts. Such an alder is found in Western Siberia, in the Urals, in the Caucasus and in some CIS countries. This wonderful tree grows on the forest edges of the forest, along the banks of the ponds, as well as on abandoned arable land.
Bush alder is a small tree that does not grow above 5 m. Shiny leaves no longer than 10 cm long have a double-toothed edge. Unlike other types of alder, such a tree blooms at the same time as the egg-shaped leaves are blooming. Shrub alder grows quickly and is not picky about the soil. She quietly tolerates shady places, a little frost. However, it is surprisingly demanding on the moisture of the earth. Shrub alder can be easily found in the Far East, in Eastern Siberia and in the European zone of Russia. This variety is suitable for creating hedges.