Gardening is a favorite hobby of many of our fellow citizens. In other years, only the presence of a private plot allowed to keep the family budget afloat, and today the vegetable garden can be considered as a source of fresh and environmentally friendly products for the family table.
But in order to get a rich harvest, it is very important to master the competent technology of tillage, because otherwise you will not be able to provide a normal vegetative process for the crops grown by you. In particular, it is very important to know how to make the beds in the garden. This article is devoted to the consideration of this issue.
Initial soil preparation
If you are going to use some area under the beds, it is necessary to process and dig as thoroughly as possible, simultaneously freeing it from debris, plant roots and trees. If you are planning to make beds on a plot where any homestead buildings were previously located, you will have to spend a lot of time cleaning it from debris. As a rule, in this case, a lot of glass, clusters and remnants of boards remain in the ground. All this must be removed.
In addition, after this, it is desirable to bring there a layer of normal soil, from which the beds will be formed. Of course, you can try to grow plants on the remaining soil, but its fertility will be a big question.
Of course, the creation of beds always begins with the delineation of boundaries and digging, but it is important to remember that high crop yields can largely depend on other factors. Before you make the beds in the garden, it is also important to choose their location in relation to the cardinal points. One should not approach this issue lightly, since the yield of plants depends on the correctness of the choice of place.
Let's give some generally accepted rules that should guide the creation of sites for the cultivation of various crops. So, ridges for vegetables are located in the direction from north to south. It’s best to make them rectangular. It is considered that it is more convenient to process ridges if they are 1.2 m wide. The length can be any, it all depends on your preferences and the size of the plot.
The paths between the ridges make a width of at least 40 cm, but it is preferable to provide even wider aisles, as in this case it is possible to strengthen the edges of the ridges using boards or slate.
Approximately the same requirements apply to the breakdown of flower beds or rabatok. Of course, their corners are much better to do rounded, as such, they look much better. Before you make the garden beds correctly, it is preferable to outline their future boundaries with the help of twine and a few pegs. Do not forget to indent, since otherwise you will not have space under the aisles.
Dig the soil to start from the edge of the string stretched along the border. Shovel need to work so that you get a neat and well-defined line. In this way we dig up the entire border of the bed. Be sure to pay attention to how dense the ground is at the depth of a spade bayonet. If there is a lot of clay, you have to dig two or three bayonet shovels deep. Or use a cultivator or even a tractor.
Use a hoe or hoe!
After removing the layer of turf, you will find that under it there is quite decent, but still somewhat dense soil. If the land is too dense, it is preferable to treat it with a hoe, since in this case you tear the roots of the plants, and the soil structure becomes much better. Since it is not easy to make a garden with your own hands, it is necessary to purchase all the necessary tools for tillage in advance.
In a word, the creation of beds is quite troublesome and time consuming. That is why it is worth taking care of preserving the results of your work, strengthening the resulting ridges. The easiest way to use the boards, scoring pegs to maintain them. But much more durable is the blind area of bricks or natural stone. In addition, it looks much more beautiful.
When making a garden with your own hands (including beds), you should not forget about the accuracy of your work. Such a personal plot will give you a lot of positive emotions!
We advise you to do the lining not immediately, but after the second or third season, because before that the soil will have to be shaken more than once. Facing will make it difficult to carry out this work with due care.
And how to make beds in the garden, if you want to get a harvest from them as early as possible, starting from April-May?
We make warm beds
In order to get a rich harvest of melons and cucumbers in our middle zone, the natural vegetative period is not enough, because the land is warming too late and freezing quickly. Since it is easy to make a warm bed, you can correct this annoying misunderstanding without spending money on building a greenhouse or even a greenhouse.
By the way, what is it? In this case, before starting the development of the site, it is necessary to dig a ditch with a depth of 40-50 cm, which completely repeats the contours of the future bed. Layers of manure are laid there, which must be alternated with the rests of the tops, rotten wood and similar organic residues. It is also allowed to use kitchen waste.
Before you make a warm bed, you can also buy horse manure. It heats up best. Throwing a layer of waste flush with the edges of the ditch, we lay fertile soil on top of them, and the thickness of its layer should be at least 40 cm, as otherwise the roots of the plants can burn.
After that we cover the finished bed with a film and leave it for a couple of days. When the ground significantly warms up, you can plant seedlings. It is better to combine this method with the installation of film cover. In this case, the planting of plants can begin almost immediately after the snow melt and the disappearance of strong morning frosts.
Here's how to make the beds in the garden. There are some difficulties with this, but as a result you will get an excellent harvest of your own vegetables.
These beds are located at the same height with the garden, do not protrude above the soil and do not go deep into it. The location of the beds, their width and length depend only on the preferences of the gardener. The distance between the rows is usually done no more than 50 cm in order to gain access to the plants for care. For marking the beds, they stretch the rope or use a special garden marker.
Standard beds are good to do on flat areas, which are evenly illuminated by the sun.
For arranging narrow beds, only a flat surface with good lighting is suitable. Their feature is a fairly large row spacing (up to 1 m), moreover, the width of the beds themselves is only 45 cm. The narrow beds slightly rise above the soil surface (20 cm).
In the place where it is planned to break up the beds, they dig up the ground and apply fertilizer (the aisles themselves are not fertilized):
- dolomite flour,
- complex of minerals.
This type of beds is also called the beds by the method of Mittlider - a scientist who invented it. In order to increase the yield in high beds, he recommended regular watering and fertilizing of industrial production, excluding compost and manure.
High beds (without use of boards)
For the arrangement of high beds pre-mounted frame with a height of 90 cm and a width of 120 cm, which will be filled with nutrient soil. Sizes of high beds can vary. The basis of the frame, except boards, are:
- Brick or stone. A bed of such material not only looks beautiful, but will stand for many years. The disadvantages of a brick frame include its cost, more time to create, and difficulty in dismantling if necessary.
- Vine. The most accessible material that allows you to give the beds different forms, but will not last long. In addition, you still need to learn weaving.
- Sheets of plastic. Such a frame is easy to give the desired shape, it does not break and will stand for a long time. But some species are not suitable for this purpose because they contain harmful substances in the composition.
- Metal. With its help it is easy to mount a portable bed and decorate it with paint. However, such a framework will be expensive and will require the services of a welder, as well as additional corrosion protection.
- Slate. Quite inexpensive material (you can use the remnants after the repair), easy to assemble, but requires careful handling because of its fragility.
Features of arrangement of beds
You can get a rich harvest with the rational use of space on the ridge and competent combination of vegetable crops. Plants planted in the same area should have no competition for nutrients, light and place on the ridge.
The table shows data on the compatibility and incompatibility of vegetable crops.
Like, for example, carrots and radishes. It takes only 3 weeks to harvest the early ripe radish, so it can be sown in rows with carrots. It will be a beacon for weeding, as it rises faster than carrots. The carrots will only rise, and the radish can already be removed.
An important stage in the arrangement of beds is soil preparation. It comes down to digging and fertilizing (mineral, organic). The amount and type of fertilizer depends on the soil structure.
In the spring, when the earth is ripe, you can begin digging the soil. If the garden is small, it is enough to have a shovel and a rake. A cultivator is required to cultivate a large area. Land readiness can be determined by the old fashioned way. Grab a fistful of earth from a depth of 10 cm into a fist, squeeze to a ball. If a lump disintegrates when dropped from a height of 1 m, the earth is ready for landing.
By the weeds growing on the plot, it is possible to determine the acidity of the soil. If there are wood lice, plantain, horsetail, sedge, then the soil is acidic and in the fall it should be lime. Lime-pushonka will help. Consumption 100-400 g per m². Evenly scatter on the surface of the ground, where in the spring vegetables will be planted, dig, disassemble lumps with a rake.
Basic rules for creating beds
For all types of beds it is important their location in relation to parts of the world. Any plant develops faster with good light. Uniform lighting and minimum shading can be obtained by placing the ridges from north to south. The sun, making a circle over the sky, illuminates the plants all daylight hours.
Mitlayder bed - a great option for owners of small areas
Summer residents with hilly terrain of the site are faced with the problem of watering. In case of improper arrangement of the ridge, the water during irrigation will flow towards the slope and not all plants will receive the necessary moisture. If the angle of inclination to the horizon is more than 10 ° -15 °, it makes sense to position the ridge across the slope on its southern side.
The optimum ridge width is from 100 cm to 120 cm. The height depends on the structure of the soil. On heavy soils - 30 cm, on light - 20 cm. Row spacing (paths) is 30-40 cm. Rows for sowing should be perpendicular to the long side.
We will not discuss simple beds without decoration, they are of no interest, since they do not bring special beauty and aesthetics to the summer cottage, their main purpose is the production of vegetables. Of interest are beautifully designed beds or made by special technology. Let us dwell on several types of garden ridges:
- fenced in
- by mitlider
What are good fenced ridges?
The device of a stationary, enclosed ridge has its pros and cons. The garden gets a more well-groomed appearance, moisture when watering does not flow into the tracks, the earth is not sprinkled. But the cultivator is not plowing the earth. We'll have to take a shovel or pitchfork and dig them manually.
For the construction of the sides you can use various materials:
- flat slate,
- purchased fences.
If the construction of the house left boards, slate or brick, it is worth saving to use them for the construction of fences. Otherwise it is worth buying finished products. On sale there are fencing for the ridges of galvanized metal and metal with a polymer coating. Such fences are easy to install, carry to a new place. Their big plus is durability.
In our article we will explain how to make vertical beds for cucumbers and what are their advantages.
Here you will learn what are the advantages of growing crops in the beds along Mitlayder.
To make the beds of boards, just read our tips and purchase all the necessary materials!
Arrangement of a high ridge
The construction of high ridges in the garden or garden solves many problems:
- Facilitates the work of the gardener, removing the load from the back.
- Improves soil fertility.
- Protects against slugs.
- Decorates the garden (garden), creating an original landscape.
- Provides plants with essential nutrients.
- The earth ripens earlier.
- It is convenient to put the arc and organize a mini-greenhouse.
Not only vegetable, but also ornamental plants grow well on high ridges. We will understand how to fill it. Organic matter will be needed. For the first layer - branches and fallen leaves. The second layer needs turf, dry cut grass, straw, food waste. The third layer is rotted manure. The top layer is fertile garden soil.
Properly laid out substances will overheat and supply the plants with everything they need. This range can be operated for more than one year. After 5 years, all substances will completely decompose and turn into high-quality humus.
The simplest material for the manufacture of boxes for high ridge - wood. At the bottom of the box need to lay a fine-meshed mesh (protection from rodents). Inside the walls upholstered with foil. This will protect them from moisture and increase service life. The optimal construction height is 75 cm, width 100 cm.
The American beds of Dr. Mitlider caught on with many Russian gardeners. Its technology allows you to get a guaranteed yield, independent of the vagaries of the weather. After reading about the device of such ridges, you can eventually become one of the successors of his method.
According to Mitlayder, the ridge should be made up to 10 m long, 45 cm wide. The length is not so important and depends on the size of the garden, but the width plays an important role. The doctor believes that plants with such width develop better, since they do not interfere with each other.
Another rule when creating such a ridge. For uniform distribution of moisture, the surface must be horizontal, the edges are decorated with earthen bumpers for its retention during watering.
Recommendations for the design of beds
Fashion trend - the original design of vegetable ridges. High ridges, as seen in the photo, can be arranged under the style of any garden. The fence, framing the walls of high ridges, will unite in a single whole the garden in the rustic style and the vegetable garden.
If the box was built from old boards, you can decorate it with iron corners. They will not only decorate it, but also add design strength. Beautiful look high ridges with walls lined with colored bricks. On the sides you can put pots with indoor flowers, it will be an additional decoration of the garden.
You can decorate and plants. Calendula, marigolds, planted next to vegetables, not only decorate the garden with their bright flowers, but also serve as protection from various pests, scaring them away with their smell.
Plastic or wooden plates with the name of the variety is also a design element. Names of vegetables can even be written on cobblestones or large pebbles and put them next to the plants. Such signs serve as decoration and a good reminder where what is planted and in what time frame. In the autumn, after harvesting, it will be possible to do an analysis of the work done. Decide which variety was productive, which one should be discarded.
Planned garden arrangement need to fall. Draw a plan of the garden. To determine the size of the ridges and their design. Purchase the necessary materials and fertilizers. Prepare the ground. Autumn is the ideal time to build high ridges. A lot of stuff for refueling. In winter, you need to plan a planting scheme and buy seeds. In the spring, you can gladly plant vegetables on properly prepared ridges.
Preparatory work before the arrangement of beds
Own garden is a source of vitamins and minerals useful for the human body. However, its existence requires often put a lot of effort.
So that the procedure of treating the soil does not cause numerous inconveniences, it is necessary to know how to choose the best distance between the plots and determine the plan for growing vegetable crops. For these purposes, you need to learn some of the nuances.
First of all, gardeners should find out the values several characteristics of your garden:
- land area,
- the presence or absence of watering,
- soil quality
- degree of solar lighting
- the location of the garden relative to the cardinal points
- присутствие компонентов ландшафтного строительства,
- параметры местного рельефа (наличие географических склонов, выступов).
Согласно наличным условиям огороднику необходимо определиться с формой и величиной грядок. The main part of the garden plots is characterized by planting seedlings at the sites in the form of rectangles or squares.
But this form should not be mandatory. It is determined by the needs and taste of the gardener. That is, a mound can have absolutely any shape.which provides ease of weeding and saturation by moisture.
The main recommendations in determining the size and location of beds
Make a decision on how to make the beds, it is possible only after researching the characteristics of the garden. In this case, the gardener should know that they can not be extremely narrow or wide.
The optimum size of the site should provide ease of soil treatment, as well as the presence of all the required conditions: solar radiation, partial shade, good soil.
Agronomists recommend gardeners to divide the site into areas up to 1 meter wide. With this size of the site, it will be comfortable to plant seeds and seedlings in the soil, and in the future to take care of the grown plants.
If we talk about the length, the strip for the beds can be placed in length from one to several meters. This is determined by the objectives., which put the gardener in front of him.
It is required to find out in advance the necessary height of the site. The owner can choose classic trench beds that are rationally used for growing solanaceous crops, pumpkins, and corn.
In the presence of heat-loving varieties of plants, it is necessary to increase the height of the beds in accordance with the needs of seedlings. This applies to berries, tomatoes, cucumbers and carrots. For the construction of a high site, the gardener must decide on what material he is going to make the wall for the site.
Options in this situation may be several. Borders are usually used for beds of asbestos cement shields, polymers, wood or metal sheets. If emphasis is placed on an environmentally friendly material, it is required to process it to protect against the ravages of time.
In most cases, iron or copper sulphate is used for this. After the separation of land area on high beds for tomatoes, cucumber plants and other vegetable crops, the owner will be able to take advantage of such positive moments:
- the acceleration of the formation of fruits
- ease of tillage: excavation of beds with high walls is not required, since it is enough to clean the area of weeds beforehand and make garters,
- the possibility of using lightweight water saturation system,
- good harvest
Regarding the location of the beds on the ground, we can say the following: professionals here recommend installing plantings in the direction from the south to the north.
The southern outskirts guarantee favorable conditions for the vegetative development of vegetables and strawberries demanding to heat. Northern margin allowed to adapt for cultivating undemanding garden crops. Such a solution will make it possible not to think about the problem of insufficient illumination and low thermal conductivity of the soil.
Non-standard ways of dividing beds
Not every gardener can claim that his plot is characterized by a completely flat surface, excellent soil and the presence of round-the-clock watering, which helps to organize drip water saturation of plants.
The main part of the gardens does not have such advantages. Because of this, people are forced to resort to non-standard approaches.
How to design longline beds?
Owners of kitchen gardens with an incline rarely manage to properly level the site, eventually obtaining the best relief for planting seedlings. In such a situation, it is possible to construct a tiered bed.
It provides excellent yield in the presence of a small land area. The layout of such a platform allows to level the uneven terrain and the lack of free space with fertile soil.
It is possible to build a longline garden without any special difficulties. First of all, it is necessary to determine the number of tiers, molding and material for the construction of the site, the preparation of the main cleaning tools.
For the construction will need to use the following tools:
- electric screwdriver (mains or battery powered) or screwdriver,
- slope indicator relative to ground level
- saw (electric or manual),
- frame elements (boards, plastic products, nets and others).
To build a bed in several tiersIt is necessary to do the following:
- split garden plot
- to mount the skeleton of the main tier,
- mount the main tier
- cover the lower part of the tier with a grid of metal or polymers,
- fill the lower part of the tier with drainage components (fine gravel, sandstone, sawdust and other),
- fill the tier with soil.
The construction of the upper tiers is carried out according to a similar plan. At the final stage it is required to level the grounds on all tiers using garden tools.
A horticulturist is required to decide which material will be used to cover the interscale paths in a multi-layered structure to facilitate access to seedlings in the future.
Use of container beds
When there is a problem with soil fertility, gardeners have thoughts about how to make a garden bed for planting tomatoes, cucumbers and other popular garden crops. To solve such a problem, you need to use special containers.
The use of containers seems to be an improved version of the high site discussed above. Of course, in this case there are some nuances. They are here as follows:
- considerable length of the walls of the beds in height (approximately 0.5 m),
- possibility of filling with fertile soil,
- big operational resource,
- ease of maintenance.
Saplings in containers are at a considerable height relative to the ground. Therefore, for thinning beds gardeners do not need to bend down under the hot sun.
When choosing this option, the beds facilitate the irrigation and soil treatment in containers. If we talk about the list of crops that are recommended to grow on such a site, they are as follows:
- leguminous plants (peas, beans, lentils, etc.),
- garden and salad onions,
- pepper and stuff.
Cultivation of garden crops on narrow beds
Gardeners, who have a plot with a small land area, can get acquainted with the theory of cultivation of plants on a narrow bed. It is recommended to grow vegetables in elevated areas that are approximately nineteen centimeters high. It seems important to make mineral and organic fertilizers for a specific project.
You can plant plants using the Mittlider method (a foreign specialist in the field of garden and agriculture). This method has a special characteristic. Its peculiarity is the presence of a huge distance between rows of narrowish soil strips.
This method, designed by American agricultural machinery in the mid-twentieth century, is intensively used by modern gardeners, who realize the importance of sufficient ventilation of seedlings that were planted in narrow areas. After selecting the best format of the site, the gardener can improve it for the cultivation of specific vegetable crops.
Gardeners who are trying to find an answer to a question affecting the proper manufacture of berry beds can use a multi-tiered platform. A plot with several sites is suitable for growing ampel varieties of plant organisms (begonias, petunias, and others).
When the garden area has a small area, you can use a vertically oriented planting. In this case, a relatively good option is the choice of the stepped construction of the location of the soil boxes.
For some stupid cultures (plants of the legume family, cucumbers) it is recommended to use a vertical design. At the same time, stairs or arched elements are used. Such an organization of the site will not only make it more beautiful, but will also greatly simplify the activity of gathering fruits.
A small area allows you to form a bed of container type. In the event that the sites are rationally located along the periphery of the site, the size of the occupied area is significantly reduced.
Such sites are used to increase the yield of melons and cucumbers, when the plants do not have enough time to go through all development cycles due to the cold soil.
For the manufacture of warmed beds, it is necessary to remove the soil depth of about 45 cm. Next, you need to pour into the pit manure with tops, sawdust, unused food and other organic matter. This is done until the level of the mound is equal to the level of the ground. After that, you need to put a good ground with a thickness of 40 cm to avoid burning plants.
So we learned how to make the beds. If you carefully read the above information, the question of how to make the beds should not arise anymore.
Choosing a place
Some vegetable crops, such as peas, dill, sorrel, lettuce, are able to grow in partial shade. But most plant species are not able to fully mature with a lack of light. Therefore, when placing the beds in the garden plot, first of all they are guided by their illumination - it is desirable that they are heated by the sun from the very early morning to 6-7 pm.
Decorative garden plantings
When choosing a landing site, the following requirements must also be taken into account:
- you should not plant plants in lowlands or on the northern slopes, where the soil freezes through deeper than in even areas, the yield in these places will be low, plus the water in this place will constantly stagnate, which can lead to rotting of the roots
- the plot should not have a strong slope, otherwise the water during irrigation will simply drain off it, and the plants will receive less moisture
- there should be no large trees, buildings and fences that can shade the plants
- they should preferably be located north to south so that they are evenly illuminated by the sun during the day
- for growing vegetables for a family of 3-4 people, about 1 hundred is sufficient, the rest of the territory can be planted with potatoes, berry crops and flowers
- to make the plot look neat, try to make the “correct” beds of the same width and length, standard sizes - 3,5x0,8 m
- Do not forget about the compatibility of plants: some of them do not get along well with each other
Standard bed sizes
In principle, you can make a bed of any length - up to 10 m. We agree, these beds look original. But constantly bypass them when watering is very inconvenient. It is better to prepare a mound length of 3.5-4 m. This size is considered optimal. Or break a long bed into two with a small path. This will greatly facilitate your movement around the site.
The standard width is 0.8 m.Do not save space (!) And in any case do not make it wider. Maybe you can reach the center of the beds when planting and scatter the seeds, but now weeding will turn into a real torment. Do not believe? Conduct an experiment and prepare a small but wide mound. Believe me, next year the desire to make beds of this size will disappear.
More compact option, a width of only 0.45 m, make for carrots. This culture does not like thick planting - sprouts should be well purged. For the same reason, try not to locate tall plants next to the carrot. Otherwise, you will significantly reduce its yield. On thickened landings, it will grow shallow.
Shape and height
The form can be any
Making the site, we can decorate it with beds of different shapes, from standard rectangular to triangular, trapezoidal or oval. Ideas for unusual beds on the network abound. The main thing is that it is convenient to approach them from any side for watering and weeding.
The height of the embankment depends on many factors, including the type of plot. In most cases, they are enough to raise to a height of 35-50 cm. This will be enough so that the roots of the plants do not rot. Too high beds - up to 0.8 m - are usually made on highly wetlands. But such facilities are very laborious. Plus, they will need to bring to the site at least a pair of KAMAZ fertile soil. On one small bed it will need at least half a ton.
Often the rise of the beds is also required for the cultivation of heat-loving crops, for example, cucumbers. After all, on high beds the land warms up much faster. Getting an early harvest without this is often impossible.
Raise the beds sometimes and just for your own convenience. To care for plants in this case is much easier. Consider only, on the beds of great height, the earth dries out much faster, so you have to water the plants more often. Experts advise to raise also a place for landing in areas located in the shade. The optimal height of the mound in this case is 50 cm.
Arrangement of high beds
The use of high boxes-beds
The box for it can be made from available tools: boards, plastic, metal or stones:
- At the bottom it is better to put a metal grid - it will protect plants from the ubiquitous rodents.
- As a drainage, use crushed stone, expanded clay or broken brick. The thickness of this layer is 10-15 cm.
- It is better to prepare the prepared soil with agents from pathogenic microbes and pests. If you do not want to use chemistry, mix the earth with a small amount of wood ash - it will protect plants from harmful bacteria.
- You should not fill a bed on the most sides with soil - it will constantly get enough sleep on the walkway. It is necessary to leave about 5 cm.
In wetlands you need to take care of drainage.
When finding a plot in a lowland or marshy area, growing many types of crops on it becomes a problem. Vegetables and berries on it if they ripen, then due to excess moisture quickly deteriorate during storage. Their taste also changes - they accumulate much less sugars. To avoid this, take care of the drainage of the wetland area.
Most gardeners know that cabbage, gourds, squash and cucumbers require more moisture to grow than other crops. But it turns out that it is also possible to grow massive garlic heads only in areas rich in moisture. On dry land, even with abundant watering, it is rarely large.
For the above-mentioned types of plants, drainage is not required (unless, of course, the stagnation of water in the beds is insignificant). The territory for the cultivation of other crops is better to drain.
For arrangement of drainage on wetlands and removal of excess moisture from the roots of plants it is necessary:
- lay a ditch 50-60 cm deep along the perimeter of the beds
- cover it with a layer of a 20-25 cm layer of a mixture of sand and rubble
- on top of scribbling light sawdust or humus
- the very last upper layer is ordinary ground
This technique is mainly used for decorative purposes - beds raised to different heights, look very impressive. It is worthwhile to construct such constructions even with a lack of space for landing. However, their number is always limited. It is always more difficult to care for plants growing in multi-storey structures.
Plus, planted in such constructions only need cultures that have an underdeveloped root system: Some varieties of flowers, strawberries, lettuce, parsley, dill and other types of greens. Very decorative look on these beds and stunted tomato varieties.
For the construction of multi-tiered beds, special boxes can be knocked out of wood. It is extremely undesirable to use metal - it quickly heats up on the sun, and the earth in them will dry out even faster. If this is necessary, paint the metal containers with light paint - light surfaces heat up less.
Often used for such structures and ready-made boxes, racks or containers of suitable size. You can place on the shelves and large containers filled with earth.
Planting plants without fencing
Such mounds are used when planting a large number of plants. They have a small height and outwardly are bulk trapezium without the use of boxes. True, such mounds will have to be done every season - during the winter they settle down.
Make a shallow ditch in the area of the path, reclining the ground on the ridge. Smooth the ground with a rake. The bed is ready.
Again - the drier the land on the site, the less should be the height of the embankment. In the swampy areas, dig the paths as deep as possible and make the bed higher. Even it is not necessary to do this on sandy soil - just kick your feet on the excavated ground with your feet, marking up the location of the tracks.
Box for beds
Planting plants in the box
Decorative option, limited box - a favorite method of many gardeners. Ведь уход за ними (поливка и прополка) значительно упрощается. Использование коробов – неплохой способ защиты от размывания грунта. К тому же дорожки между ними всегда будут чистыми, без потеков и луж. Как правило, тропинки закрываются деревом, плиткой или бетонируются, чтобы трава не смогла пробиться сквозь землю.
Прежде чем приступать к установке коробка, место для грядки необходимо подготовить –вскопать землю, тщательно удалив все сорняки. Carefully level it with a rake, so that the water during watering or rain can be evenly distributed over the entire surface. When digging, you need to capture a little more. Otherwise, the roots of perennial plants will again break out of the ground. Pulling them out of the box will be problematic. It is better to dig up the started area twice in spring and autumn.
Weeding often takes a lot of time from summer residents. If the site is large, it turns into a serious problem. In the garden you just have to spend the night and night.
To reduce the time spent on endless weeding, prepare the so-called smart beds. The principle of their manufacture is simple. To protect plants from weeds after planting, cover the gaps between shoots of sawdust, needles, straw, or dried up last year's foliage of trees.
Mulch the soil and with the help of shelter with a dark film. It is spread before planting, making small holes for plants. Transparent film for these purposes is not suitable - weeds with the access of light will continue to develop.
It is proved that mulching significantly (almost 30%) increases the yield. After all, the closure of the top layer of soil protects against weathering of the fertile layer and rapid drying. Plus, beneath a layer of organic substances, beneficial microorganisms and earthworms multiply faster. With this method, you can quickly put in order even abandoned areas - it is enough to cover the ground with weed overgrown with weeds for a couple of years.
Unfortunately, in the wetlands, mulching often leads to a sad result - hiding the soil leads to water stagnation in the beds, and as a result, plant rot. But in this case, mulching may be useful. The only difference is that you should not cover the ground for winter and in early spring. Wait until the earth dries well.
Do not use mulch during rainy seasons. If the summer was hot, with the help of mulch you will get rid of not only weeding, but also frequent watering. Moisture under it will evaporate much more slowly. In wet areas, be sure to prepare drainage along the perimeter of the beds to divert its excess.
The soil raised above the ground warms up much faster.
Getting early harvest in our climate is not so easy. At the first recurrent frosts, tender shoots planted in open ground will simply die. Surviving plants will be stunted and sick. In this case warm beds are an ideal way out for growing. They can be used for many types of crops: first greens and radishes, heat-loving cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkins, eggplants, tomatoes, etc.
Consider the basic rules for creating warm beds and methods for growing each of the crops on them:
- They can rise above the ground or, on the contrary, be constructed below the ground level.
- They are buried in the ground by no more than 0.5 m. This is quite enough to protect the sprouts from the spring frosts. With a greater depth of the plant will be in the shade and will drag.
- Raise them to a height of up to 0.5-1 m. In principle, they can be made even higher - care for them will only be easier.
- The first is laid the drainage layer of fine crushed stone and sand. You can replace it with a broken brick, but learn that with time this material can decompose under the influence of moisture.
- The next layer is plant waste. The heat released by their decay will serve as a natural heater. Prepare such a bed is better in the fall, during the harvest. As a "warm layer" you can use cut tops or any weed grass left after weeding. Most importantly, she did not have time to form seeds.
- For cucumbers, pumpkins and zucchini, manure is more often used as a warm layer. When overheating, it heats up much more. The same crops as tomatoes, dung, as well as pure humus, are contraindicated. Plants on it will only increase the green mass. Harvest on manure, you can simply not wait - the ovary will immediately fall off. Therefore, for warming up the tomato, use ordinary vegetable waste.
- The last layer is fertile land. It is filled with a thickness of at least 30 cm.
- Novice gardeners sometimes complain that their neighbors have high yields on warm beds, but for some reason they do not grow anything. Indeed, if a layer of grass or dung is only slightly “sprinkled” with earth, it will simply be impossible for the plant roots to harden in it. Yes, and nutrition for sprouts is clearly not enough. Overheating plants are only a layer of insulation. Therefore, without a solid layer of land, you will not achieve harvest.
- Further, over the garden, arcs are placed, which are covered with a film. Covering material such as spunbond (agrofibre) for these purposes should not be used. It can be spread directly on the ground in case of return frosts or used as an additional shelter. Unlike polyethylene, agrofibre has many holes through which the precious heat will freely go outside.
This bed "works" for about 4 years. After its complete exhaustion, a new one is prepared, and the rotted plants are used as fertilizer when digging up the beds. For the first two years, the most heat-loving crops are planted on a warm bed - cucumbers, pumpkins, zucchini, eggplants, etc. For the third or fourth year, any vegetable crops can be planted in this place - from carrots, beets, onions to potatoes.
Paths in the garden
The paths in the garden look very nice. They significantly improve the overall landscape, make it more luxurious and stylish.
Perfectly will look in the garden and brick beds, which set off the beauty of flowers, give them a special elegance.
Creating your own curbs, you can divide the garden into certain areas.
What else can you use the remains of bricks?
From them you can make: thresholds for waiting rooms, supports for pillars (during the creation of fences, for example), as well as decorative bridges for the garden. They can be "thrown" both through any reservoir (pond, lake.), If you have one, or through large flower beds. It will look very beautiful.
Lumber was selected for the enclosing walls of the beds. It is cheaper, easier to work with, it has a low thermal conductivity.
Strictly speaking, these are already battered boards from wooden flooring, which it was decided to replace. And well-preserved boards will be used for decoration of high beds.
The thickness of the boards - 40 mm, width - 150 mm. One of the planes is planed, which will facilitate further painting (see photo 2). Since the height of the beds will be 30 cm, then 20 long boards and the same short boards are needed for 5 beds.
Photo 2. Boards for making beds
For neat and even joints of the board it is necessary to face it - that is, to cut the edges at a right angle. Preliminary marking is done with a square (see photo 3).
Photo 3. Pre-marking boards
After marking the sharply sharpened hacksaw on wood, the ends of the boards are cut strictly according to the marking (see photo 4).
Photo 4. Cutting boards in accordance with the markup
You can, of course, use jigsaw, however, in this case, the probability of removing the file is great and the cut will be uneven.
It is very convenient to use a manual circular saw - in this case, all the boards are laid out in one row, marking is done (for example, with a chalk cord) and the ends of all the boards are aligned in one pass.
Using a tape measure, mark the required length of the boards, mark it with a square and cut off the excess (see photo 5).
Photo 5. Mark the required length of the boards
It is quite convenient to use a hacksaw as a square - for most hacksaws, the angle between the handle and the blade is straight, with a slight deviation (see photo 6).
Photo 6. Using a hacksaw for marking.
To make the appearance of the structure more accurate, as well as to protect yourself from injuries and splinters, you can use a milling machine to remove straight chamfers. We set the width of the removal on the maximum reach of the cutter (see photo 7).
Photo 7. Expose width chamfering
And we mill straight chamfers on all boards along the perimeter (see photo 8).
Photo 8. Making straight chamfers
As a result, we get neat and sharp edges (see photos 9 and 10).
Photo 9. Finished boards
Photo 10. The same, but from a different angle
Preparing a place for the beds
We stretch the cord with two wooden pegs and measure the necessary distances with a tape measure, mark the position of the beds and paths along the line of the cord (see photo 11).
Photo 11. Marks the position of the beds and paths.
The line along the tensioned cord will be the base, with its help you can put all the beds in one row (see photo 12).
Photo 12. Baseline
Assembly of boxes
Next, collect the boxes. A simple and effective way is using nails and a hammer (see photo 13).
Photo 13. Build boxes
The two knocked together identical parts - the upper and the lower - are fastened with wood screws with wood screws using metal plates (see photo 14). For example, it can be perforated suspensions for mounting plasterboard, cut into three parts.
Photo 14. The connection of the upper and lower parts of the box
Collected in this way, all 5 beds have short sides along the cord according to the marking made earlier. If necessary, we cut the ground under the boxes so that the upper parts of the boxes are approximately at the same level (see photo 15).
Photo 15. Garden beds are located on the plot.
Now we are going to “fix” the position of the wooden boxes from being accidentally shifted to the sides or up and down. To do this, with the help of the grinder, cut into 80-90 cm segments from the metal corner (see photo 16).
Photo 16. Cut metal corner
Corners need 20 pieces - 4 corners for one box (see photo 17).
Photo 17. Finished corners
Using a small sledgehammer or hammer, hammer the cut corners into the corners of the boxes (see photo 18).
Photo 18. Corners clogged in the corners of boxes
To limit the possible displacement of the ducts up or down, we fix the boxes with the help of bolts with a diameter of 6 mm. To do this, we drill through holes through the corners and boards of the boxes hammered into the ground (see photo 19).
Photo 19. Drilling holes
And with the help of bolts (see photo 20) we secure the boxes to the corners (see photo 21).
Photo 20. Such bolts are used.
Photo 21. Corners attached to boxes
After fixing all the boxes, it is necessary to prepare their internal filling. To do this, with a bayonet spade we dig out a fertile layer of earth by 1-1.5 bayonet depth and move this land to the last bed of the cart (see photo 22).
Photo 22. Dig a fertile layer of soil
Now, with a stapler, we sheathe the inside of a wooden box with a tarpaulin or old plastic wrap (see photo 23). Thus, the wooden walls of the beds to some extent will be protected from moisture, which means that they will last longer.
Photo 23. Sheathing the inside of the box
Photo 24. Box sheathed inside
At the bottom of a dug pit with a layer of 10–15 cm, pruned branches of trees are laid, old raspberry stalks (except, of course, sick and affected by pests) and above the branches we pour the same layer - 10–15 cm - fallen leaves, dried compressed grass or others organic residues from the site, garden or vegetable garden (see photo 25).
Photo 25. Backfilling boxes
Carefully spill water on all disposed organic waste with water (see photo 26). In 1.5-2 years it will be an excellent humus. If there is a possibility, then you can, of course, also lay a layer of manure.
Photo 26. The branches and leaves in the box are watered.
And the final stage - we toss the upper fertile layer of earth from the next bed into the newly prepared one (see photo 27). Thus, we are preparing a place to lay the lower layers of the next bed.
Photo 27. Throws a fertile layer of soil
It is advisable to cover the land with a small slide - after a while the earth will settle by 5-10 cm, depending on the degree of compaction of the lower layers (see photo 28). Thus, consistently fill all the beds. We moved the land for the last bed from the first bed (see above).
Photo 28. Soil piles up with a small slide
After filling all the beds with earth, you can do the improvement - paint the wooden walls on the outer sides, pave the paths with tiles, brick or stone, lay wooden ladders for easy movement.