In Latvia, sweet peas are loved and revered. Long since almost every summer farm was decorated with a colorful, strongly smelling bed of these climbing plants, and with a bunch of delicate flowers they went to visit. With the advent of our newest varieties of large-flowered, multicolored spencer, sweet peas quickly conquered the flower market and became one of the most common in the production of local flower growers.
However, strong, healthy plants and large elegant flowers can be obtained only with proper care and in suitable conditions.
Sweet Peas: Planting and Care
The following summer brought a new twist to the history of sweet peas - flowers with wavy petals appeared. This news was immediately used in breeding, and the development of the current corrugated sweet peas began. In the middle of the last century several different groups of these peas were created, but, unfortunately, the selection of such previously known groups as
(LATHYRUS) If you remove the flowering inflorescences in time, then you will lengthen the period of flowering of sweet peas until the end of September.
Name and History:
Sweet peas - growing and care.
Low varieties of sweet peas can be grown in the ampel form, that is, without support, and for high ones, you can fix a special net or just pull the strings. Planted plants on the balcony can be at the beginning of May. And, of course, make sure that the soil does not dry out in any way. At a tender age, it can even destroy plants.
Location and soil
Sweet peas (Lathyrus odoratus) - Climbing annual plant type Chin family legumes. In the presence of support reaches a height of 2 meters. The leaves end in antennae, with which it clings to other plants or to an artificial support. The flowers are bright with a strong fragrant aroma, thanks to which the peas got its name.
Sweet peas are grown on fertile, acid-neutral soil with deep processing. Another requirement for the soil is breathability. Sweet peas do not grow well in wet areas or near groundwater. The soil for planting this plant should be prepared in advance, not forgetting to make compost, potash and phosphate fertilizers. Fresh manure is not introduced, as it can cause fusarium wilting of the plant. Nitrogen fertilizer also does not make - the plant captures nitrogen from the air.
Planting and care of sweet peas
Sweet peas - an annual plant, revered by many gardeners for an unusual and bright flowering, delicate aroma. In addition, the buds on the sweet pea appear almost all summer, and therefore the lawn will be pleasing to the eye all three warm months. Yes, and the shades of the flowers of the plant are vast, and therefore among the varieties of the fragrant town, everyone can choose their own taste. In addition, the advantages of plants include relative cold resistance (up to - 5⁰ C). Regarding how to grow sweet peas, the best option is to plant seeds. That's about it and will be discussed.
Together with my colleague Valdis Dubovskis, we have been engaged in this wonderful culture for almost 30 years. Our farm can be proud of the largest collection of sweet peas in the Baltic countries, and we have done a lot to popularize and distribute it in our country. Cooperation with the Royal Society of the Sweet Peas in the UK allows us to keep up-to-date information and get the latest varieties that we value and test in our climate. Every year we publish a catalog in which flower growers in Latvia offer seeds of more than 100 varieties - new and already recognized English, as well as almost twenty varieties of our selection.
Sweet peas will best grow in a warm, sunny place. The soil should be loose, rich in humus, nutritious and lime. At the same time, the soil should be prepared to a depth of at least two shovels, since these plants form a deep root system, which allows for a season to form an abundantly flowering two-meter bush. It is better to prepare beds in the fall - in the spring it will be necessary only to loosen the surface.
Sweet Pea Description
This plant has very long taproot roots, reaching up to 1.5 meters in depth. Due to the fact that the root system is very extensive and long, this must be taken into account when planting this plant from seeds. This plant belongs to the highly climbing plants, so when it is grown it must also be taken into account. That is, when it is grown, it is necessary to prepare a site for its distribution. The flowers of this plant have a very interesting shape, variously described in various sources. So, some suggested that the flowers of this plant resemble moths. And the British described it as resembling a boat under sail.
Sweet pea blossoms very abundantly. Flowering begins in mid-summer and ends in deep autumn. After flowering, the first fruits appear. They are bivalve beans, inside of which is from 5 to 8 seeds. The collected seeds retain their ability to grow for a very long time. In storage, they can be up to 8 years and at the same time retain the ability to germinate.
- Spencer. This variety is bred by breeders in England. They are tall and multi-stem plants. Terry flowers sometimes reach up to 50 mm in diameter.
- Galaxy. The plants are tall and powerful, possessing large and beautiful flowers. Flowering begins rather late.
- Multifler-giant. This species reaches a height sometimes up to 1.5 meters. Unlike other species, it has a small number of stems, on which up to a dozen large flowers grow.
- Bijou. A relatively low and multi-stemmed plant with 5-6 large flowers. Mainly used as curbs.
Growing from seed
Growing from seeds is carried out directly by planting in the soil and for seedlings at home.
- Planting seeds in open ground. It is best to plant the seeds of this plant at the end of spring, when warm weather is fully established. This plant is very light-loving, therefore, we select a site for sowing in the open. Carefully dig the soil before planting, preferably with the addition of organic fertilizers. Then, carefully level the rake. Little need to dwell on the preparation of planting material. Seeds are prepared in advance, better in early spring. Soak the seeds in a warm Bud solution. Those instances that have surfaced should be removed, nothing will come of them anyway. Then, the seeds are subjected to quenching, placing in the fridge on the bottom shelf. So, our seeds are ready for planting. In the prepared area we make grooves with a depth of 2-3 cm and at a distance of 20 cm from each other. We spread the seeds in the grooves at a distance of 15-20 cm between them. The land must first be watered abundantly. Then we fall asleep with soft and fluffy earth or peat.
- Planting seeds for seedlings at home. Planting on seedlings, usually begin in early March. As described above, prepare the seeds. We prepare containers for planting, and they must have very high walls. In a specialized store we buy a special earth mixture for seedlings. Fall asleep in the tank and to a depth of 3 cm lay out the prepared seeds. Sprinkle with earth and water well. For a quick shoot of shoots, the container can be closed with a film with holes for ventilation. You can also germinate seeds first by placing them on wet gauze. After two weeks, the peas should germinate and as soon as two or three leaves appear, pinch the top of the shoot.
Planting seedlings in the ground
We choose a suitable place in the garden plot, we dig it up, not forgetting to bring in compost or humus. When the seedlings reach 10-15 cm in height, it can be planted on the site. On the plot we prepare the wells at a distance of 20-25 cm from each other. 2 or 3 plants can be planted in each well. Seedlings should be separated very carefully, and it is desirable that the earth lumps remain on the roots. As soon as the seedlings are accepted, they should be prepared to support further growth, otherwise they will intertwine with each other.
Caring for sweet peas
After you have planted seedlings for the first 2-3 days, it is recommended to shelter them from the sun. As soon as you notice that the plant stuck and went into growth, the coating can be removed. During the week, the plant can give the first powerful side shoots. Water the plant should be plentifully once a week, while it is imperative that the soil is drained. After each watering, it is recommended to loosen the soil around, removing the weeds.
A prerequisite for care is tying this plant. For this fit strained twine or mesh. Periodically it is recommended to follow the direction of development of the sprouts and free them from the plexus among themselves. For the development of adventitious root shoots should spud this plant after watering. Not bad pea applies to feeding. It should be carried out three times per season. We carry out the first immediately after planting the seedlings, sprinkling a mixture of nitrophosphate with ammonium nitrate under each plant. Then, in the middle and at the end of June, we feed this mixture two more times.
Fight against diseases and pests
One of the pests of the plant is the weevil. His adult eats away the leaves, and the larvae cause damage to the plant's root system. For prophylactic control of this pest, before planting, 100 grams of Chlorophos solution is added to the wells. After planting with the same solution, the seedlings themselves must be processed.
Great harm is caused by different types of aphids. For their destruction gardeners use drugs Cineb and Ciram. Processing of peas with these preparations is carried out once every 2-3 weeks. The most common disease of this species is powdery mildew. As soon as the leaves begin to turn yellow and fall off, they must be treated with a solution of colloidal sulfur.
The reproduction of sweet peas
If you succeeded and growing sweet peas as a decorative, fragrant plant you liked, then next year try to plant it in a new place. If this does not work out, then at least replace the top layer of soil at the planting site and do not forget about regular dressings.
How and when to sow sweet peas?
In early spring, seeds of sweet peas are sown in holes of 2 to 3 seeds, keeping a distance of about 20 to 25 cm. However, such plants will bloom only by the end of July. If you want to get an earlier flowering, you should grow sweet peas in a seedling way; seedlings are planted in the middle of May.
Seed preparation for sowing.
It is necessary to engage in the preparation of planting material in the spring: at the end of March - at the beginning of April. Since the seed skin is quite dense, they should first be placed in a glass, filled with hot water at a temperature of about 50-60 degrees and left for a day. Floated seeds immediately need to be removed. After that, before planting peas, seeds should be washed with water at room temperature and placed in a humid environment for germination. This may be a shawl, sawdust or sand, which should always be wet.
And you want to tinker with seedlings. You are welcome!
It is possible to sow sweet peas directly into the ground, but this method does not always ensure good germination, and the flowering begins much later. It is better to grow this culture seedlings. Seeds sow 4-6 weeks before planting. For sowing, it is better to use a special peat substrate or prepare a sterile mixture of 2-3 good and clean garden soil, 1 part peat and 1 part coarse sand in advance (improves breathability and drainage). The desired sowing depth is 1.5-2 cm. Sowing follows protect from mice, as they eat up the seeds, as well as young sprouts.
Speaking of varieties.
Whichever option you choose, it is desirable to prepare the seeds for better germination. Fill them with hot water, degrees 40-50C and leave for 12 hours, maximum for a day. After that, the dark shell on the seeds can be pierced with a needle, since some of them, although they look completely healthy, but sometimes they do not grow up for a long time or do not ascend at all. Seeds with a light coat usually do not need such a procedure. You can sow immediately after soaking, or you can wait until they are nested by placing them in a damp cloth, sand or sawdust. In no case can the dried up seeds be dried, they must be sown immediately.
We grow sweet peas
Also, for the cultivation of seedlings, we will definitely need separate pots! Sweet peas tolerate transplantation very poorly, therefore, even having grown seedlings in separate containers, it is necessary to act very carefully when transplanting so as not to damage the earthy clod and not disturb the root system. We will plant the plants to a permanent place approximately in the middle of May, and we will begin to enjoy the fragrance of flowers in the middle of June.Sweet peas are very fast growing. Since a plant requires a significant amount of nutrients to grow, its highly branched taproot penetrates the soil to a great depth. It is very useful to produce hilling and addition of fertile substrate or compost to the base of the stem of sweet peas to a height of 5 - 7 cm, thus, the growth of accessory roots is stimulated. For sweet peas, timely and sufficient watering is necessary, since a lack of moisture in the soil leads to plant dropping of buds and flowers, and the duration of flowering is also reduced.In general, the cultivation of sweet peas can not be called simpleAndIn most salmon and orange varieties, the seeds are light brown with a soft, fragile peel, which can crack when swelling, opening the way for infection. If harmful microorganisms are present in the substrate, then such seeds may die before germination, or young shoots will gradually die. These varieties recommend sowing without soaking in a particularly sterile substrate.,This plantForVIDEOChoose the most sunny places for planting peas. The sweet pea planted in the shade will bloom, but much later and the flowering will not be as abundant as in the open sun.Here are my seeds in the picture on the right.The place for planting sweet peas is sunny and, if possible, protected from strong winds. Groundwater should not be too close, even though he is a fan of moisture, but does not tolerate stagnant water.Sweet pea propagates by sowing seeds: directly into the open ground, or through seedlings. Street seeding of the plant is produced in May. When cultivating sweet peas in a seedling way, it is necessary to sow seeds 3 times in each pot, previously soaked in warm water for 24 hours. Shoots appear about a week later. Seedlings of sweet peas are planted in late May, and the seedlings are able to tolerate small frosts to minus 5 degrees.Process. The plant requires careful maintenance and care. It is important to systematically and in sufficient quantities produce watering of the flower - every 1.5-2 weeks. Otherwise, if there is a shortage of moisture, the buds become shallow or discarded altogether, and flowering stops. Sweet peas require fertilizing with liquid fertilizers twice - in mid-June and mid-July.Oner
Sweet peas - a very profitable crop for growing in greenhouses for cutting, - a relatively early harvest can be obtained with minimal heating costs and there are no serious competition for these flowers among imported flowers. Greenhouses should be high, with good ventilation and the ability to shade on hot, sunny days, since good quality flowers and a steady crop can be obtained only with a uniform and moderate microclimate.
GalaxyVery democratPompGanichkina advises :)Land for planting need fertile, moderately moist, non-acidic (pH to 7.5).They probably smell really good. Unfortunately, I have trouble with smell after an illness. I believe in the word guests, girlfriends and children that it smells wonderful.The soil should be deeply cultivated, fairly loose and breathable, with a reaction closer to neutral. Acid soils must be chilled. When planting, it is desirable to add well-rotted manure (in no case fresh) or compost, plus phosphate-potassium fertilizers.You should be aware that sweet peas are returned to their former landing site only after 4 - 5 years.For long and abundant flowering of sweet peas, experienced gardeners use some tricks. First, it is necessary to carry out the pinching, and secondly, to cut off the faded branches, leaving several pods with seeds. If these conditions are met, sweet peas pleases with flowering until frost.
And breeder, Latvia, photo of the author
Ошибочными могут оказаться старания увеличить урожай цветов, сгущая посадки. В тесноте душистый горошек плохо растёт, слабо развиваются кусты и часто заводятся болезни, в результате чего значительно уменьшается урожайность растений и качество цветов. Как в саду, так и в теплицах у спенсеров расстояние между растениями должно быть не менее 20 см.
Description of the flower with a photo
Впервые, это было в 1696 году в Италии, душистый горошек был обнаружен ботаником Купани. From there, it was introduced to England, and for 300 years of breeding, specialists managed to bring more than 1000 varieties of fragrant.
The peculiarity of the pea is that its strong shoots can reach two or more meters. Cleverly clinging to the supports by the antennae, the stems stretch upwards, creating a picturesque vertical carpet. Flowers of peas are collected in inflorescences that bloom one after another, and this makes flowering permanent.
The flower itself is very similar to a sailing boat with oars. By the way, individually the parts of a flower are called exactly that: sail, oars, boat.
However, the lianoobrazny plant has dwarf forms, the height of which is about 30 cm. Such a flower does not need support.
Sweet pea blooms two months after the emergence of shoots and continues to delight the gardener with the brightness of the inflorescences throughout the warm season.
After the petals are withering, a fruit is formed, which is a bivalve bean. It is located up to 10 peas beige or dark brown color. If you leave the first pods on the plant, they will have time to ripen, and this will give the opportunity to get their own seeds.
Types and varieties of sweet peas
In garden culture, sweet peas are represented by two species, it can be grown in an annual crop, and there are perennial varieties. Both species are grown from seed and produce strong, ribbed shoots. The ability to cling to anything that gets in the way requires an indispensable support. Therefore, planting a flower should be made:
- next to the walls, which want to give a decorative look.
- along fences that will look like a hedge.
- open arbor high shoots rank fragrant hide from the hot rays of the sun.
The perennial sweet pea is not rich in colors. Most often it is pink or purple flowers, collected in a brush. Many strong lashes reach two meters and require strong mesh support so that the plant can grow and develop freely.
The rank of the one-year color palette is much more interesting. The flowers of this species may be white and blue, pink red, burgundy and blue. Annuals exude a more delicate flavor than perennials.
Sweet pea blossoms from June until the onset of cold weather. Prefers open sunny places with fertile soil and a neutral reaction to acidity.
Do not allow lodging of the stems - this leads to their defeat by disease and decay.
Group of varieties "Spencer"
All types of fragrant orders are divided, in turn, into groups. Among the tall varieties can be distinguished group "Spencer". This is a multi-stem plant with a shoot length close to 2.5 m. Peduncles are strong and consist of 3-5 flowers. The petal itself, or as it is called - sail, has a wavy top edge.
- Variety "Aristocrat" has a deep sweet aroma that exude charming white and pink flowers
- "Sir Arthur" will decorate the garden with tender lilac sails
- “Sir Charles” - scarlet.
Variety group "Kazberston"
Varieties belonging to the group "Kazberston" are multicolored. In their brush is up to 8 pieces. The stems of the plant are long, which makes it popular in garden design. In addition, it looks amazing in the cut.
On a note. It should be remembered that it is better to form bouquets of sweet peas after blooming all the buds in a brush. This is due to the property of the flower "not to dissolve the sails" in the cut.
Pink Cupid Group
For peas from the Pink Cupid group, the wavy edge of the upper petal is characteristic. Its color can be white or soft pastel tones, blue-lilac or pale blue, pink or red. In height, the flower does not exceed 30 cm.
Flowers of both groups described above can be used for flower beds, borders and for cutting.
Group of varieties "Fantasy"
"Fantasy" is a group of varieties that have a miniature height. Growing no more than 20 cm, they serve as an ideal border edging, and are used as a groundcover.
Low flowers create bright multi-colored mats on the site and fill the air with a delicate aroma of beauty.
When and how to sow sweet pea seeds
Cultivate the order of fragrant sowing seeds in open ground or seedling method.
For open ground is applicable as spring sowing, and before winter. Due to its cold resistance, the seeds safely winter in the ground, and with the onset of heat they begin to germinate.
Sowing in the winter
Podzimny sowing has several advantages compared with growing a flower through seedlings. First of all, it is their resilience:
- shoots from autumn crops are not afraid of the spring temperature drops
- they are more adapted to the stress of a transplant
- differ in magnificent flowering throughout the summer season
Autumn sowing is carried out with the onset of frost, but the soil must be ready at least 2 weeks before. It is well loosened, weed roots are selected and leveled. On the ready-made garden bed, grooves are cut down to a depth of 5 cm. The seeds are laid out at a distance of 3-5 cm, covered with dry ground and compacted well. In spring, shoots will appear with the onset of sustainable heat.
At the same time, seeds sown in the ground in late April or early May will germinate. The principle of sowing is the same, only reduce the seeding depth of seeds (up to 2-3 cm).
However, spring crops require more attention: it is necessary to monitor the soil moisture and in no case prevent its drying out. It is best to cover the bed with a film, this will prevent the evaporation of moisture from the surface and create a greenhouse effect.
Soil moisture and temperature within 20 ° С are the main components of the friendly germination of the seeds of sweet peas.
For obtaining early flowers of the fragrant order, many summer residents resort to a seedling method of growing. The difficulty lies in the fact that the plant has a long taproot and does not like it when it is disturbed.
Therefore, it is preferable to conduct sowing in cups, be it peat or plastic. Then transplanting to open ground will take place with less injuries of the root system.
In the first case, the plant almost does not feel the moment of transplantation. And from a plastic container the bush of sweet peas is rolled into the hole along with a clod of native soil.
Before sowing, the seeds must go through a processing stage. First, they are calibrated and removed damaged.
To determine the fullness of the seeds immersed in saline. It is prepared from 1 liter of water and 30 g of salt. The part that was on the surface is removed, and the settled will be used for sowing. But before they need to be washed with salt and soak. Soaking is carried out in hot water and lasts a day. This helps to soften the dense shell of the grain.
Further, to obtain the result in 100%, the seeds are germinated, wrapped in a soft cloth. It should always be wet and in a warm place. At this stage, it is important not to miss the appearance of sprouts.
Spilled peas are distributed into cups and covered with foil. Waiting for germination, the container is moved to the bright window sill. Adequate sunshine will relieve seedlings from stretching. For greater bushiness sprout pinch over 3-5 leaf.
All the activities described above apply to the long-term varieties of fragrant.
Planting sweet peas in the ground and care for them
On May 20, the grown bushes of the order of fragrant can be transferred to the site. If the weather is hot, then planting should be shaded - it will save the delicate leaves of the flower from burns.
When preparing the beds for sweet peas, mineral fertilizers are applied and buried in the soil. The earth should be loose and moisture-permeable, since the root system of the flower goes deep into a long distance. This requires abundant but infrequent watering.
The location of the order of the fragrant is chosen taking into account the light and protection from the wind.
- The photophilous plant does not tolerate drafts, but can grow in light penumbra.
- When choosing a site, consideration should be given to the possibility of installing supports for tall varieties.
- As the stems grow, they should be directed in the right direction to create the intended composition.
Loosening and hilling are also necessary measures in the care of flowers. Hilling stimulates the growth of adventitious roots. This leads to the emergence of new shoots, therefore, to a more lush flowering.
Will help to achieve continuous blooming buds timely removal of wilted flowers. Otherwise, the fruit will be fastened in the form of a pod, and the plant will switch to seed ripening. If there are many such fruits, the plant will stop the development of new buds. In this case, flowering will end within one month.
But if a gardener needs to get his seeds, then a few pods should be left. During this period it is necessary to remember that only 5-10 peas are formed in the valves. Therefore, based on their needs, it is easy to calculate the required amount of seed material.
The collection of seeds of sweet peas
The seed pod is formed by the point of connection of the flower with the stem. This happens after the flower withers and the petals fall. At the initial stage, it looks almost flat and has a green color. As the peas inside the leaflets increase, the pod will thicken and change color. At first, it will turn yellow-green, and at the time of maturation - light brown.
This is the most suitable moment of collecting seeds. The pods are cut off or cut from the plant and left to dry for several days in a dry place with a sufficient amount of air. Then they are carefully opened and pour the contents on a dish with sides. In this form, they should stand for another 2-3 days.
The finished seed material is packed in paper bags and stored in a dry place. Pea seeds are able to survive for 7-8 years.
Diseases and pests of sweet peas
Among the plant diseases, powdery mildew (false and real), black leg and brown spot are most common.
For the destruction of signs of defeat powdery mildew use the drug "Topaz". 4 ml of the product is diluted in 10 liters of water and consumed on 8 m2 before and after flowering.
Black leg and brown spot are treated with the drug "Chom" (10 liters of water +40 g of the product).
Compliance with crop rotation, maintaining cleanliness in the area with flowers, removal and destruction of plant residues play an important role in the prevention and control of diseases. It is possible to return a flower to its former place no sooner than in 3-4 years.
With the defeat of pests (aphid and nodule weevil) use the drug "Flytherm". 2 ml of the agent are added to a liter of water and sprayed on planting of sweet peas. This amount should be enough for 10 m2.
How perennial winter peas
With the onset of cold weather should be put in order planting peas. The stems are removed from the supports and pruned at ground level. Land mulch sawdust or humus. The cold-resistant plant easily tolerates the winter period, and in spring it begins to germinate as soon as it thaws the soil.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Growing from seed
- 3.1. Sowing
- 3.2. Seedling care
- 4. Landing
- 4.1. When to plant
- 4.2. How to plant
- 5. Care
- 5.1. How to care
- 5.2. Pests and diseases
- 6. Types and varieties
Sweet Peas - description
A flower of sweet peas, or a fragrant order was described by Karl Linnaeus in 1753. The root system of the plant is highly branched, pivotal, penetrating the soil to a depth of one and a half meters. Like most leguminous plants, sweet peas enter into symbiosis with nodule bacteria that absorb nitrogen from the air. Stems near the order are lazy, weakly branched, they climb on a support, clinging to it with modified leaves - branched tendrils. The flowers of sweet pea resemble moths, but to the English it seems that they are like a boat under a sail: the rim consists of a large petal resembling a wide oval sail, two side lobes (“oars”) and two coalescent lower petals forming the “boat”. The blooming of sweet pea is abundant. It begins in July and, if properly cared for, continues until frost. The fruits of sweet peas are small, double-leaved beans with 5-8 spherical seeds of a yellow, greenish or black-brown color that are compressed laterally and remain germinating for 6 to 8 years.
Sowing sweet peas.
Growing sweet peas begins with its sowing on seedlings in mid-March. Before sowing, the tight seeds of sweet peas should be soaked in water for 10-12 hours or kept in a fifty-degree solution of the Bud drug (1-2 g per 1 l of water). Then within 2-4 days they are germinated in gauze, wet sand or sawdust at a temperature of 20-24 ºC. As soon as the seeds of the sweet peas are turned, they should be sown immediately.
Store soil of Saintpaulia, Rose or a mixture of humus, peat and sod land in a ratio of 2: 2: 2: 1 is best suited as a substrate. Any of these substrates should be disinfected with a strong solution of potassium permanganate, and cups or pots are best used as dishes for growing seedlings. Sowing is carried out in a wet substrate to a depth of no more than 2-3 cm, folding 2-3 seeds in each cup. If you sow peas in a common box, the distance between the seeds should be about 8 cm. After sowing, the substrate is watered, the containers are covered with film and kept on a solar window sill at a temperature of 18-22 ºC.
Care of seedlings of sweet peas.
When the mass germination of seeds begins, and this can happen in a week or two, you need to remove the film from the crops and lower the temperature to 15-16 ºC - this measure contributes to the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots. Keep the substrate in a slightly damp state all the time and provide the seedlings with good lighting: if you cannot keep seedlings on the southern window, arrange artificial light for 2-3 hours per day. To do this, you can use phytolamp or fluorescent lamp, fixing them at a height of 25 cm above the seedlings and including, for example, from 7 to 10 or from 17 to 20 hours.
In the development phase of 2-3 true leaves, the seedlings are pinched to stimulate the development of lateral shoots. After pinching, the seedlings are fed with a solution of 2 g Kemira in 1 liter of water.
When planting sweet peas.
In the open ground, sweet peas from seeds are planted closer to the end of May, when the soil warms up and the threat of recurrent frosts passes. If by that time the buds or flowers are already formed on the seedlings, cut them off so that all the energy of the plants is directed towards the formation of the root system. It is necessary to carry out tempering procedures with it 10 days before planting. To do this, containers with seedlings are carried out daily to the open air, gradually increasing the duration of their stay until the seedlings of sweet peas can be on the street for a whole day.
How to plant sweet peas in the garden.
Sweet pea likes light heated areas and a moist, well-drained soil enriched with fertilizers with a pH of 7.0-7.5. Before planting seedlings, dig the area to the depth of a spade bayonet with compost or humus, phosphate and potash fertilizers. Do not use fresh manure as a fertilizer, as it provokes fusarium wilt, and do not apply nitrogen fertilizers: they are not needed for sweet peas.
Make a hole in the row at a distance of 20-25 cm from each other and plant 2-3 plants in each. For tall varieties of sweet peas, you must immediately install the support. Keep in mind that the one-year sweet peas in the fall must be disposed of, and it will be possible to replant the plant in this area only after 4-5 years.
How to care for sweet peas.
Planting and caring for sweet peas is not labor intensive. How to grow sweet peas? He needs watering, weeding, loosening the soil, supports, feeding and protection from diseases and pests. Watering should be regular and sufficient, because of the lack of moisture from the plant can fall buds and flowers, and the duration of flowering can be greatly reduced. If summer is without rain, sweet peas should be watered weekly, spending 30-35 liters of water per m² of planting. Extend the same flowering can be, in time, removing wilted flowers.
Tall varieties of sweet peas need a garter to the supports, which use a twine or net. As the peas grow, its stems are sent in the right direction and tied up.
In order to stimulate the development of adventitious roots, hilling of plants to a height of 5-7 cm should be carried out with addition to the base of the stem of a fertile substrate.
With regard to dressings, they are not required, but desirable. At the beginning of growth, sweet peas are fertilized with a solution of 1 tablespoon of Nitrophoska and 1 tablespoon of urea in 10 liters of water. At the beginning of flowering, a solution of a spoonful of Agricola and the same amount of potassium sulfate in 10 liters of water is used for top dressing, and in the midst of flowering, sweet peas are fertilized with Agricola for flowering plants and Rossa, dissolving one tablespoon of fertilizer in a bucket of water.
Sweet pea does not need pruning.
Pests and diseases of sweet peas.
Of the pests for sweet peas, a nodule weevil and various types of aphids are dangerous. Weevil at the beginning of the growing season gnaws around the edges of the leaves of the semicircle, and its larvae devour the roots of the plant. As a preventive measure against pests, when planting seedlings, pour 100 ml of 0.1% chlorophos solution into each well. Таким же раствором нужно опрыскать и сами растения.
Из всех видов тли на душистый горошек может покуситься бобовая, чиновая и гороховая. Эти мельчайшие вредители высасывают из растений соки, деформируя их органы, и заражают их вирусными болезнями. In order to destroy aphids, as well as for the prevention of sweet peas during the growing season, they are treated with Cineb or Cyrus with a 2-3-week interval between sessions during the growing season.
As for diseases, sweet peas can be affected by ascochytosis, powdery mildew, peronosporosis, fusarium, root rot, blackleg, viral mosaic and deforming viral mosaic of peas.
When ascochitoses, brown spots with clear boundaries appear on the leaves, beans and stems of peas. You can fight the infection with two or three treatments of the rank with an interval of 2-3 weeks with a solution of the drug Rogor.
Mealy dew and peronosporosis (downy mildew) appear in the second half of summer with a friable whitish bloom on the leaves and stalks of plants. Over time, the leaves turn yellow, turn brown and fall off. The causative agents of the disease are destroyed by a five percent solution of colloidal sulfur, washing the leaves with it.
Signs of fusarium are yellowing and fading pea leaves. Diseased plants cannot be treated, they must be removed, and healthy ones must be treated with a solution of the TMDT preparation. As a preventive measure, crop rotation should be observed at the site.
From the black stem and root rot in the sweet peas, the root collar and roots darken, and the plant dies. Infected specimens can not be saved, they need to be removed, and healthy ones should be transplanted to another place, disinfecting the soil and plant roots.
Viral mosaic appears as a line pattern on the leaves, and the tops of diseased shoots twist and deform. Plants that become sick with any of the viral diseases must be removed and burned, since they cannot be cured.
multi-stem powerful plants up to 2 m in height with racemes consisting of 3-4 simple or terry corrugated flowers with a diameter of up to 5 cm with wavy petals. The group is represented by varieties of medium flowering period and recommended for landscaping and cultivation in the slice. The best grades of the group:
- – Warrier - A plant with dark purple flowers with white strokes at the base of the boat, located on direct peduncles. The diameter of the flowers is about 4 cm, the sail is wavy, and the oars are bent,
- – Jumbo - a variety up to 100 cm in height with salmon-pink flowers, a white boat, a slightly wavy sail and weakly bent oars. The aroma in flowers with a diameter of about 4 cm is weak, peduncles are straight, strong,
- – Charlotte - The stalks of this variety are up to 150 cm high, the flowers are bright crimson, up to 4.5 cm in diameter, the sail is wavy, the oars are wide apart. The inflorescences of 2-4 fragrant flowers are located on strong peduncles up to 25 cm high,
- – Cream jigantik - a plant up to 175 cm high with large cream aromatic flowers with a diameter up to 4.5 cm, a wavy sail and widely spaced, weakly bent oars. The inflorescences, consisting of 3-4 flowers, are located on peduncles up to 30 cm in height.
In addition to those described, the varieties of the group Spencer Monti, Makhagoni, Flagship, King Lavender, Ayer Warden, Garnet and others are popular,
- created by the Americans in 1910, a group of early varieties with a height of 120-150 cm with inflorescences up to 35 cm long, consisting of 3-4 corrugated flowers with a diameter of up to 4.5 cm. The varieties are recommended for landscaping and cutting,
- created as early as 1895, a group of low-growing varieties up to 30 cm in height with inflorescences up to 7 cm long, consisting of 2-3 medium-sized flowers of various colors. These varieties are recommended for landscaping,
- A group of varieties, created in 1952 in America. These are tall plants up to 2 m in height with strong inflorescences up to 40 cm long, consisting of 5-6 large corrugated flowers with a diameter of up to 5 cm. These varieties of early ripening are recommended for cutting. The best of them include:
- – David - variety up to 140 cm in height with large fragrant dark crimson flowers with white brushstroke at the base of the boat and a wavy sail. Inflorescences consisting of 5-6 flowers with a diameter of up to 5 cm are crowned with rigid peduncles up to 30 cm long,
- – Kenneth - variety up to 1 m high with large dark red flowers, collected in inflorescences of 5-6 pieces. The diameter of the flowers is about 4 cm, the sail is slightly corrugated, the oars are slightly bent, peduncles up to 16 cm long,
- – White pearl - White peas with flowers with a diameter of about 4.5 cm, collected in inflorescences of 5-6 pieces and located on peduncles up to 30 cm in length.
In addition to the described, such varieties of the group as Zhelanny, Peggy, Robert Blen, William and others are widely known.
- this group of heat-resistant varieties was created in 1964. They are an improved version of the Cberbertson-Floribunda varieties. Inflorescences up to 30 cm long consist of large double flowers of various colors depending on the variety. The disadvantage of these plants is an increased sensitivity to the length of daylight, so they are not grown in winter. Recommended varieties of this group for landscaping and cut,
- this group of early varieties up to 2.5 m in height was created in 1960 by American breeders. The plants have strong inflorescences with a length of 35 to 50 cm, consisting of 5-12 corrugated flowers with a diameter of about 5 cm. Varieties are recommended for landscaping and cutting,
- a group of powerful plants with 6-10 large flowers in one inflorescence. Flower stalks are long and strong, the sail is wavy. The best grades of the group:
- – Grace - branchy plant up to 155 cm in height with inflorescences consisting of 5-7 fragrant tender lilac flowers with a diameter of about 5 cm with dark veins and a wavy sail. The height of rigid peduncles up to 35 cm
- – Ramona - variety up to 130 cm in height with bright carmine flowers with a white tongue at the base of the boat and a wavy sail. In one inflorescence, located on a hard peduncle up to 30 cm long, 5-6 flowers with a diameter up to 5 cm,
- the group of early low-growing varieties, bred in 1991 by Russian breeders, filled a niche between the varieties of the Cupido and Biju groups. The height of the plants in this group is from 35 to 65 cm, so they can be grown without supports. Inflorescences up to 20 cm long consist of 3-4 simple flowers with a diameter up to 3 cm. The best grade:
- – Geniana - a plant from 30 to 50 cm tall with very fragrant white-lilac flowers,
- bred in the same year, the group of varieties in height from 65 to 100 cm with strong inflorescences up to 30 cm long, each of which consists of 7-12 corrugated flowers with a diameter of 4.5 cm, is intermediate between Bijou and Multiflora Gigantea.
- – Lucien - a very fragrant plant with a height of 40-60 cm with light pink flowers,
- – Lizette - very sweet peas in height from 40 to 60 cm with bright red flowers.
In the 70s of the 20th century, groups of English varieties Jet Set and German Lizers Kenigspiel were created. Currently, breeding work on sweet peas continues.
Charming Sweet Peas: Seed Growing
For the first time about peas heard in antiquity (Theophrastus), but the real recognition began in the 19th century. Scottish breeder Henry Ekford began to develop new varieties, and very quickly an unpretentious plant gained enviable popularity. The gardener was awarded the highest royal award.
Bright sweet peas, or sweetheart (Lathyrus odomtus) is a magnificent decoration of the garden. This annual plant of the legume family is used for gardening flower beds and terraces. Unusually shaped flowers and a variety of colors conquer the hearts of gardeners.
Description, types and varieties
The plant has a very developed root system, but it does not tolerate transplants. Climbing stems well cling to the support with their antennae, and the flowers can be compared with the wings of a moth. The flowering period of the annual is quite long.
Increasingly, you can find this climbing plant in the landscaping of vertical terraces. Many types of peas reach a height of about 2 meters. Today, breeders brought out popular varieties of dwarf forms that do not exceed 30 cm.
For gardening walls, arbors, arches and balconies using tall varieties of sweet peas. The most suitable will be:
- King lavender
- Blue Danube,
- Cream Gigantic
For cutting and bouquets, you can grow some varieties with durable peduncle and large bright flowers. The flowering period of such plants is rather short, which makes it difficult to further flower reproduction.
- Royal wedding
- Colin unwin
- Brian clough
The most popular are low-growing varieties of sweet peas. Such plants can be used as a border, when creating a flower bed or as a pot specimen. Some common varieties:
The collection of plants includes more than 1000 varieties of various colors. There are white, pink, red, purple and blue shades in flowers.
Location and soil
A place to plant an annual should be chosen protected from the winds, but sunny. Peas grow well in light partial shade. The soil for planting should be fertile and neutral in acidity. Before planting in dense soil, compost and sand are added, which increases its breathability. Fresh manure is not recommended. The flower grows poorly in areas with high groundwater and swampy soils.
When planting in the garden should be preferred solar areas, but with a light penumbra tolerates peace.
Planting and plant care
Sweet peas are quite unpretentious in the care, and the cultivation of this crop - it is not difficult, even a novice gardener.
Planting your favorite flower is best done immediately in the garden, as a seedling method for a plant is not very acceptable. Young saplings are very delicate, and the core root system does not tolerate transplants. The most suitable method for planting - sowing seeds in the ground.
Pea seeds are very hard and need to be pre-soaked before sowing. To do this, put them in a damp cloth for 1.5 hours for swelling. The seeds prepared in this way are sown in the spring to a depth of 2–3 cm in early spring. With proper care, the first flowering occurs at the end of July.
Sweet peas are growing very quickly and need support. For prolonged flowering, you need to promptly remove faded flowers and provide the plant with the necessary care. In dry and dry summers it is necessary to maintain the level of soil moisture by regularly watering the annual. Watering and weeding is the main care for peas.
The flower responds well to top dressing, which must be carried out several times per season. For these purposes it is better to use organic fertilizers, but you should not use nitrogen fertilizers. This is due to the pea's feature of absorbing nitrogen from the air.
In the conditions of a short summer, a rassadny method is used (without a picking). Then the peas are grown from seeds in peat cups, and grown plants are planted in the ground right in cups - this significantly increases the flowering time of the plant. By the way, nipping shoots at a time when the plant has risen by 10-15 cm will also extend the growing season and the bush will become more luxurious, but the plant will bloom a week later.
In order to preserve the variety and further cultivate the peas, it is necessary to collect seeds on your plot To do this, choose the largest and most healthy specimens, which leave flower stalks and pods for the further formation of seeds. They maintain their germination for 8 years. Store planting material to be on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator or in the cellar. Sometimes the plant does not set seed or discard flower stalks, the reason for this may be a sharp temperature drop or insufficient watering.
Sweet peas in landscape design
Sweet pea is a climbing plant that forms many tendrils, blooms for a long time and has a pleasant aroma. These properties make it possible to widely use the annual in garden and plot design.
Tall curly varieties are well suited for the design of arches, verandas, fences. With the help of artificial supports and plantations of peas you can disguise unsightly areas of the garden. Looks great in the background of the flower garden.
Low varieties can be grown in balcony boxes, on the edge of a flower bed or border. Peas blend well with other annuals and coexist nicely with perennial plants. In the ecology of the garden, he brings tangible benefits - enriches the soil with nitrogen, gives nectar to beneficial insects.
As you can see, if you provide this most fragrant annual plant with good drainage and timely watering, it will be a long time to delight you with its flowering. Feel free to plant sweet peas on your plot, cultivation from seeds is easily possible both in open ground and on balconies and terraces.
Features of sweet peas
For the first time fragrant peas, or fragrant, were described by C. Linnae, and this happened in 1753. The stem, strongly branched root system of this flower penetrates deep enough into the soil (up to 150 cm). The fragrant rite, like most leguminous plants, is distinguished by the fact that it enters into symbiosis with nodule bacteria that absorb nitrogen from the air. The shoots are weakly branching climbs. A plant can climb on a support, while it clings to it with branched tendrils (modified leaf plates). The flowers are similar in shape to the moths, but the British claim that they look like a boat with a sail: the corolla contains a large petal that is similar to a wide-oval sail, 2 side petals, which are oars, and a pair of lower fused petals, which are boat. This plant blooms very lush. The beginning of flowering is in July, and if the sweet peas will be provided with the right care, it will last until frost. Fruits are small bivalve beans, inside of which there are from 5 to 8 spherical seeds compressed from the sides, painted in light green, yellow or brownish-black color. They remain viable for 6–8 years.
After the seedlings begin to appear in large quantities, as a rule, it happens 7–15 days after sowing, you need to remove the shelter from the tanks, and they are also rearranged to a cooler place (15 to 16 degrees), thanks to which nodules will be formed on the roots. which fix nitrogen. The soil should always be slightly wet. Seedlings are recommended to put on the southern sill, if this is not possible, then the plants should be organized by artificial lighting from 2 to 3 hours every day. Experienced gardeners recommend for this to take a fluorescent lamp or fitolampu, which should be fixed at a height of 0.25 m above the seedlings. You can turn on such a lamp, for example, from 7 to 10 or from 17 to 20 h. To stimulate the growth of side shoots during the formation of the second or third true leaf plate, you should nip the seedlings. Then seedlings need to arrange dressing, for this purpose use Kemira solution (for 1 liter of water 2 grams).
What time to land
Planting of seedlings of sweet peas in the open soil is produced in the last days of May, after the ground warms up well, and the return spring frosts will be left behind. If the planted plants already have buds or flowers. they should all be removed, since they should spend all their strength on planting the root system.
1.5 weeks before transplanting to the garden, seedlings need to begin to harden. To do this, the plant is daily transferred to fresh air, the duration of this procedure should be increased gradually until such time as sweet peas can not be on the street around the clock.
Land for planting should be sunny and well warmed. A suitable soil for this plant should be wet, saturated with fertilizers, well drained, while its acidity - 7.0–7.5.
Before planting the site must be prepared. To do this, it is digging to the depth of a spade bayonet, while humus or compost, as well as potash and phosphate fertilizers must be added to the soil. It is impossible to fertilize such a flower with fresh manure, since it can cause fusarium wilt to develop. Also note that peas do not need nitrogen fertilizers.
Prepare the holes for planting, the distance between them should be about 0.25 m. 2 or 3 bushes should be planted at once in 1 hole. If tall pea plants are planted, then immediately after planting, it is necessary to install supports near the bushes. Since this plant is grown in mid-latitudes as an annual, then in the fall, plant residues are destroyed, and in this area it will be possible to plant peas only after 4 or 5 years.
Diseases and pests
A variety of aphids and a nodule weevil can cause significant damage to sweet peas. At the very beginning of the growing season, the weevil gnaws out semicircles along the edge of the leaf plates. In this case, its larvae damage the root system, nibbling it. As a preventive measure, it is necessary to pour 100 milligrams of Chlorophos solution (0.1%) from the weevil during the planting of seedlings into open ground in prepared holes. The bushes themselves need to be treated with the same solution.
On the fragrant pot can live such types of aphids as: chinovaya, bean and pea. These sucking insects feed on the sap of the plant, as a result of which its organs undergo deformation. And they are also carriers of dangerous viral diseases. Чтобы уничтожить такого вредителя, а также в профилактических целях кустики на протяжении периода вегетации необходимо 2 либо 3 раза опрыскать Цирамом либо Цинебом, при этом перерыв меж обработками должен составлять 15–20 дней.
Душистый горошек подвержен заболеванию такими болезнями как аскохитоз, мучнистая роса, пероноспороз, фузариоз, корневая гниль, черная ножка, вирусная мозаика и деформирующая вирусная мозаика гороха.
If brown spots with distinctly expressed boundaries formed on the surface of the beans, leaf plates and shoots, this means that the bush is affected by ascochytosis. It must be 2 or 3 times sprayed with a solution of Rogor, while the distance between treatments should be 15-20 days.
In the second half of the summer period, the bushes can become infected with powdery mildew or false powdery mildew (peronosporosis). In affected plants, a loose patina of whitish color is formed on the surface of shoots and foliage. As the disease progresses, yellowing of the leaf plates occurs, then they turn brown and fly around. To exterminate the pathogens of the disease, foliage should be washed with a solution of colloidal sulfur (5%).
If the foliage began to turn yellow and wither, then this suggests that the plant is affected by Fusarium. This disease is considered incurable, therefore, diseased bushes must be removed from the soil and destroyed, and those plants that remained should be sprayed with a solution of TMDT. For preventive purposes it is recommended to observe the rotation of cultures.
If the bush is affected by root rot or black leg, then its roots and root neck become dark, and then the plant dies. Affected bushes can not be cured, so they should be dug out and burned. It is necessary to transplant the remaining healthy specimens, while it is necessary to disinfect the root system of flowers and soil.
When viral mosaic is damaged, a line pattern is formed on the surface of the leaf plates, the upper parts of the affected stems become twisted and deformed. To date, viral diseases are not treated; therefore, diseased bushes must be excavated and destroyed.