Ferns can be found from coniferous forests to the tropics, in almost all natural and climatic zones. A garden fern is most often an indigenous person of the same locality where the plot is located.
Such a selection of crops allows you not to worry about the acclimatization of plants and the creation of special conditions for them. In addition, ferns growing in Russia are no less decorative and attractive than tropical species, but it is much easier to care for them.
Which garden ferns to prefer? Are there any species in our forests worth decorating an alpine slide, a flower bed or a group planting of conifers?
Ferns in the garden: unpretentious views
If at home flower growers often grow exotic species, then in the garden - the very place for plants more adapted to frosty winters, hot summers, cold autumn rains and other vicissitudes of the Russian climate. And there are a lot of such species adapting to planting and caring in the country, ferns.
One of the first can be called asplenium. Although many ferns belonging to this genus are quite thermophilic, there are varieties whose openwork leaves tolerate wintering in the middle lane. Plants prefer penumbra, where they willingly form rosettes of medium-sized, but very attractive leaves that retain their decorativeness from early spring to snowfall.
Low-income woodsia is a medium-sized garden fern, in nature preferring to settle on rocky outcrops and even on old walls. The height of the crown of small fluffy leaves, depending on the type, reaches only 5–20 centimeters. At the same time, the plant belongs to long-growing ferns, and in one place it exists perfectly for up to three decades.
The ladder forms a dense bush up to a meter high. The peculiarity of this fern growing in the garden is the constant formation of new foliage.
Orlyak is considered to be one of the most common ferns in the world. His curtains can be found in the Arctic lands and in Australia. For the middle band, this aboriginal species is perfect as a garden culture. Triple carved leaves rise high above the ground and can become a haven for early bulbous. When planting a fern in the garden and caring for it, the bracken can quickly grow. Therefore, it is important to immediately take measures so that the culture does not go beyond the area allocated to it.
Osmund or Purest is the largest representative of the family in the middle lane and in the south of Russia. In nature, it can be found only in the forest zone of the Caucasus and eastern Asia. And in the garden where the fern grows, it will become the center located in a damp corner of the flower bed.
On the Alpine roller coaster will find another place nekaprizny garden fern. This bladder is a small shade-tolerant plant with elegant foliage that disappears for the winter.
Planting and caring for garden ferns
To decorate the garden with ferns, plants from the neighboring grove and from the garden center will do.
But if in the first case, a carefully dug bush gets into the ground almost instantly, and the gardener may not take measures to further protect the roots, then the fern brought from far away is threatened with drying and death.
In order to protect the plant from the loss of moisture that is critical for the culture, the rhizomes are wrapped with a damp cloth or moss before transportation, without disturbing the remaining earthy ball. If the leaves before planting have time to wilt, they will not restore elasticity, even after watering. To simplify further care, planting garden ferns is carried out immediately.
The place is chosen so that the greens do not suffer from direct sunlight, and the soil retains a little humidity as long as possible. Plants are undemanding to the composition of the soil, as long as the substrate is loose. Sandy mixes with a high content of humus are well suited.
If the plant is taken from the forest, it is useful to collect land here and fill the landing hole with it. This will speed up the acclimatization of the fern in the garden.
In the future, the plant is important to regularly water with a frequency of 5-7 days. And carry out dressing using complex tools, including organic and mineral supplements.
The optimum temperature for garden ferns is 15–25 ° C. On summer days, especially in well-lit areas of the plant, more moisture is required, and they are excellent for healing irrigation with foliage irrigation.
If a fern planted in a garden grows quickly, then within three years it can grow and require thinning and restriction. This is done in early spring, carefully removing old specimens and carrying out the division of the bushes. Along the way, it is necessary to delineate the boundaries of the section designated for the garden fern by inserting a special grid, geotextile, slate or planks to a depth of at least 20 cm.
Features of the structure and reproduction of ferns
In addition to the division of adult bushes, some ferns can be propagated by budding. This should be done at the beginning of autumn. The developed healthy sheet plate is inclined to the ground and sprinkled on the edges with moist soil so that the central vein remains on the air.
An overprovided leaf of a garden fern in the spring will give the grower some tiny daughter rosettes. They should be separated very carefully, trying not to damage either the above-ground part or the rudiments of the roots. Planted small ferns in the garden.
If you use the features of the structure of ferns and their reproduction, you can wait for the spores to ripen on the back of the leaves.
First, the spores are well dried in paper envelopes, then, in the middle of winter, they are sown on top of the substrate collected where the fern grows. In the moistened soil, the disputes will have to stay up to a month until the first signs of the emergence of new plants become noticeable. In February, the sockets are transferred to the greenhouse, and with the advent of heat transplanted into the ground at a permanent place.
Garden fern: general characteristics
Each fern variety is unique in its own way.. These plants differ not only in size, but also in the cycle and form of life, as well as in structural features. Their appearance, which helps to recognize the fern in them, unites them. Few people know that this is the largest group of spore plants. They have many features. They have not only various forms of leaves, but in addition they are resistant to excess moisture and naturally plastic plants.
What types of ferns are suitable for growing in the garden?
Today, many gardeners who are familiar with the features of planting fern and care in open ground, are engaged in its cultivation in their plots. It is used not only as a decoration of gardens and reservoirs, but also often serves as one of the main elements that allows you to create beautiful landscape compositions.
In the world there are several types of winter-hardy fernthat can grow in the harsh conditions of our country:
- Orlyak ordinary. Very beautiful plant, the roots of which have healing properties. In height, this species reaches 80 cm.
- The ladder is female. A plant whose height does not exceed 1 m. Can grow in one place up to 10 years.
- Shchitovnik male. A rather tall plant that can grow up to 1.5 m. It can be successfully propagated with the help of segments of rhizomes. A great choice for growing in the garden. It is undemanding to leaving.
- Bush bush. Tall evergreen plant from the family of ferns.
- Ostrichnik ordinary. The main feature of the species is the ability to create spectacular lush thickets in a short time. It is undemanding to illumination, therefore it can be grown without problems both in the conditions of full shading, and on the open place.
- Asplenium. Also known as Kostenets. The plant is thermophilic, but there are also frost-resistant types of aspenium, which easily tolerate cold up to - 18 degrees. This type is very often chosen by gardeners as a decor.
- The nesting asplenium. A unique plant that can be grown even without soil. A heap of foliage, snags and tree trunks can be a breeding ground for it. In length, the plant does not exceed 1 m. If desired, special dwarf varieties can be bought in shops for gardeners.
- Bulbaceous asplenium. It is known by another name - deciduous fern. Its homeland is New Zealand. Perfect for growing in the garden. To survive the harsh winter, the roots must be protected with dry leaves, or they simply dig it up and keep it in the cellar until spring with an earthy clod. It belongs to the number of medium plants, has a length of 60 cm.
- Vivipating asplenium. It differs from other species in the way of reproduction. In the process of growth, buds form on the upper side of the leaves, which, after entering the ground, form new specimens.
How to choose a place on the site?
If you like sympathy for this plant and want to see it on your plot, then you need to get acquainted with the rules of planting fern. First you need to understand that fern is a shade and moisture-loving plant. With this in mind, you need to find a place for him and plan care activities. Surely you on the site there are darkened places that you constantly empty. This is where you can plant a fern. This is a unique plant that can easily endure the conditions under which other representatives of the flora cannot survive and show active growth even without regular dressings.
To correctly calculate the depth of the hole, as well as the distance between adjacent bushes, you need to focus on the size of an adult plant. If you have chosen for planting a long-ripening fern species, make sure that it has as much space as possible. Otherwise, when it grows up, the fern can strongly press the plants located next to it. Or you can do otherwise and artificially limit their area.
Do I need fern lighting?
The fern feels great even in conditions of total darkening, but still it should not constantly remain without sunlight, otherwise it will negatively affect its leaves, which will quickly turn yellow and begin to fade. And then the fern will take a completely different look, on which you did not even count. It grows best therewhere a lot of diffused sunlight. But in any case, do not let it fall into direct sunlight.
Soil for planting
One of the important points to consider when growing a fern is the soil for planting. Best of all, the plant feels in loose and well-absorbed soil. The soil should be structured so that water does not stagnate and putrefactive processes occur on the roots. To do this, be sure to add before planting river sand or other drainage.
The most optimal soil mixture should include:
- 2 pieces of land
- 2 parts peat,
- 1 part of sand.
Be sure to water the hole well, and then gently place a bush in it. Try to keep as much land as possible on the roots, in which the bush grew before transplanting. This will accelerate his survival in a new place.
One of the important issues to be addressed by gardeners, who plan to plant a fern in the garden - find a suitable place for him. It should be located in the shade and be provided with a sufficient amount of diffused sunlight. If you are going to plant a fern dug out of the forest, then try to keep as much of the soil as possible in its roots. In this case, the plant will take less time to settle down on a new place and start growing.
How to care for a fern in the garden?
If you want the fern to quickly take root after transplantation and gain green mass, you need to make sure that the ground was always well hydrated. Please note that every 4 years fern will have to be renewed and thinned. Watch for the appearance of old, sick and damaged leaves and remove them in a timely manner, but do it very carefully.
If you decide to grow in your garden non-frost resistant varieties, be sure to take care of their shelter for the winter. For this you can use peat or dry foliage. This is the only thing you need to know in order for a garden fern to grow well in your area. Feeding is optional. There is no need to engage in pest control, for which it does not represent much interest.
How to water?
During the first season after landing ornamental fern especially needs moisture. Therefore, you will have to ensure that the soil is constantly wet, not only in spring, when the plant enters a phase of active growth, but also in summer, when prolonged droughts often occur.
- The plant must be watered in such a way that not only the roots, but also the leaves receive moisture, for which they should be sprayed.
- After watering, it is recommended to mulch the soil around the bushes using coniferous paws. This will reduce the evaporation of moisture, as well as make fern roots stronger and more resilient.
During the whole season, the land in which the fern grows must be kept loose and wet. Avoid water stagnation, as this may lead to rotting of the roots. By following these care guidelines, you can create optimal conditions for the normal growth of the garden fern.
Top dressing in the garden
Fern fertilizer is optional. However, it will still be useful if you want the plant not to lack nutrients and grow and develop well. Start to carry out feeding can be in early springwhen young shoots appear. Fern equally well reacts to organic and inorganic fertilizers.
Withering plants, yellowing or drying leaves is a signal indicating a lack of minerals and nutrients. In this case, it is necessary to feed with liquid mineral fertilizer, which is desirable to be applied to the soil with water.
At certain moments, many gardeners begin to wonder at what time the fern should be transplanted at the cottage.. The most suitable time for this is spring.when the plant comes into growth. However, you can do this a little later. But be careful when you dig it up, because it is very important not to injure the root system.
Try to keep as much land as possible on the roots of the plant, and after transplanting, water the fern well. Do not forget that after planting the soil always settles. Therefore, it will be enough for you to dig a shallow hole for the plant. Make it so large that all the roots fit easily into it when you uncover them.
When the ornamental fern bush is in the hole, correct its positionso that the top of the rhizome is located at ground level, then water it well. Immediately begin to fill the hole with earth. So you can avoid the appearance of the air gap and simultaneously strengthen the roots of the soil.
Landing a decorative fern ostrich is best suited for land with a predominance of organic matter. If you have problems with this, then you can water the shrub with ordinary water at the time of transplanting, but with ArganiQ for the garden, observing the consumption rate of 300 g per bucket of water. Due to this, the fern will be able to quickly adapt to a new place.
How to multiply?
Most often, the fern is propagated by dividing the adult bushes. However, there are species that can to propagate and budding. It is advisable to do this procedure at the beginning of autumn. To do this, choose a healthy and well-developed bush, bend it to the ground, and then pour on top of the moist soil around the edges, trying not to touch the central vein.
Also, the fern, including the ostrich, is well propagated by spores. To do this, they need to be collected after flowering, spread out on paper, where they have to dry thoroughly. Around mid-January, they can already be sown in a substrate collected in a place where the fern grows.
The fern does not need a special presentation, although not all of us have had the opportunity to see this plant. Despite this, he is very popular among gardeners, who often try to leave room for him in his garden. Grow a fern ostrich in the country - not such a difficult task as it may seem at first glance. Unlike other plants, it feels good in conditions of strong shading, and is not particularly picky about soil fertility.
Care for him is also not a big deal. It is only necessary to ensure that the soil is always wet and loose. This is more than enough for this plant to show active growth every season and to please the gardener with its bright foliage.
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Garden fern: general characteristics
Fern varieties differ from each other in size, cycles and life forms (woody and herbaceous), and structural features. However, outwardly they are very similar, many do not even suspect that this is the largest group of spore plants. Ferns differ also in various forms of leaves, resistance to excess of moisture and ecological plasticity.
How to choose a place on the site for garden fern
Fans of this plant should know how to plant a fern. First of all, you need to understand that without exception, all species of this plant love shade and moisture, so the fern has its own specificity of planting and care in the future. If there are secluded dark places in your country house where other plants feel uncomfortable, you can plant a fern there. It easily transfers destructive conditions for other representatives of the flora and can grow in the soil without fertilizers.
The depth of the hole and the distance between adjacent bushes is determined from the size of the adult plant. If you plant long-rhizo species of fern, take more space for them, because they can strongly press the adjacent plants. You can also artificially limit their area.
What should be the soil for planting
To the question: what kind of land do ferns love, is it easy to give an answer even to a novice gardener. Of course, the soil should be loose and well absorb moisture. So that the water in the ground does not stagnate and does not provoke the putrefactive processes on the roots, you will need river sand or other drainage. To the excavated ground, add peat and sand in a ratio of 2: 2: 1. Moisten the well well and gently place the plant in it. On the roots of the fern should be as much as possible of the soil in which it grew before transplanting. This will help him to settle down faster in a new place.
Top Fern Care Tips
The main condition for the rapid and proper growth of any garden fern is sufficient soil moisture. Every three to four years, the plant must be renewed and thinned. Remove old, diseased and damaged leaves, but very carefully. If you planted not frost-resistant ferns, then do not forget to cover them for the winter with peat or dry foliage. Here, perhaps, are all the basic tips on caring for a fern garden. Plants do not need specific feeding, and pests are indifferent to it.
How to water a garden fern
In the first year after planting, the plant should be watered regularly. Pay special attention to watering during the spring growth and summer drought. During watering, do not forget to spray the leaves, and not just moisten the roots of fern. It is good then to mulch the soil around the plant with coniferous paws. This will help the soil to retain moisture longer and strengthen fern roots.
Fern feed in the garden
Fern fertilizing with fertilizers is not a necessary, but important condition if you want to provide plants with useful substances, to create conditions for full growth and development. It is best to feed the fern in early spring, when young shoots are just starting to grow. It equally well transfers organic and inorganic types of fertilizers. If the plant fades, the leaves turn yellow or dry out, then it simply lacks minerals and nutrients. It is necessary to purchase liquid mineral fertilizer and improve the condition of the soil with water.
Gardeners reasonably wondered when it is better to transplant a fern? This is usually done in the spring when the plant begins to grow. If you transplant a fern later, carefully dig it out so as not to damage the root system. Try to keep the land on the roots, and at the end of the transplant, water the plant abundantly. Since the soil settles after planting, dig a hole shallow. The hole should be such that the rhizome freely placed in it, when the roots bloom.
Place the fern in the hole so that the tip of the rhizome, where new leaves will grow, remains on the soil surface, cover with water. Earth fall asleep directly into the water, so that there is no air gap, and the roots are well established with soil and do not dry out.
Ferns feel best in the earth, rich in organic matter. To do this, when transplanting ferns in the garden instead of plain water, pour them “ArganiQ” for the garden at the rate of 300 g per bucket of water. This procedure will help the fern to adapt painlessly to a new place. A little patience, and transplanting fern garden will not be difficult for you.
Features of breeding garden ferns
The main method of breeding ferns is the division of adult bushes. To know exactly how to divide the fern during transplanting, you should familiarize yourself with the special literature. But some species of this plant multiply by budding. Perform this procedure in early autumn. A healthy, developed leaf is tilted to the ground and sprinkled with moist soil along the edges, without affecting the central vein.
You can also propagate the fern with spores, which need to be dried well on paper, and then, in mid-January, sow over the substrate, previously collected where the fern grows. In wet soil spores should be a month or until the first signs of germination. In February, the outlet should be transferred to the greenhouse, and with the advent of heat transplanted into open ground.
Description of the culture, its famous varieties and varieties
About 200 of these wonderful plants are known in the world, most of which are inhabitants of tropical forests. If you look at the various types of ferns in general, the following biological features of the plant can be noted:
- Perennial herbaceous shrub.
- Externally, the fern can look like a low grass, and quite an impressive size of a tree.
- Under the ground is a medium-sized creeping rhizome.
- Above the surface there is a dense stem consisting of wired tissue.
- Culture has no real leaves. From the stem away so-called fronds - primitive leaf plates. Their formation occurs in the spring in the roots.
- Reproduction occurs with the help of spores, which are in brown bulges, clearly visible in the photo of the underside of the leaves.
- Ferns are ideal plants for shady corners.
- Planting is possible both in open ground and in flowerpots.
Attention! Cultivation of thermophilic representatives in the middle lane is possible only in the room.
The following types and varieties feel perfectly in the open soil of temperate climate:
- Ostrich bird - it can be called the most common type of ferns found in gardens. This type of care requires a minimum.
- Orlyak ordinary - young shoots of this species are eaten.
- Male Chitovnik - often found in the forests of the middle belt.
- A fern fern - most of its varieties have an unusual reddish color. For example, leaves Burgundy Lace painted in wine tone. Especially catchy these varieties look in the fall.
How to plant a plant and care for it
Although the plant does not belong to the capricious, in order to obtain beautiful, lush bushes it is necessary to comply with certain requirements.
- The place in the open ground where the planting will take place should be in the shade. The plant withers in the sun and can quickly die.
- The soil in the place of the planned cultivation should be loose, as the roots of the plant are demanding to the presence of air.
- Absolutely all varieties prefer wet soils. Therefore, the care of the plant should include abundant and frequent watering. At the same time stagnation of water is unacceptable. Landing should be accompanied by a good drainage device. Mineral fertilizer can be added to water for irrigation 2-3 times per season.
- Planting ferns on a flower bed in open ground, preferably in the spring, as soon as the fronds begin to blossom. In the warm season, with good care, the plant survives well.
- Planting should take place immediately after digging out the process so that the roots do not have time to dry and the leaves to wither.
- Basic care for ferns - timely watering. Especially you need to follow this in the first year after planting and in hot, dry periods.
It is very good if there is an opportunity to mulch the soil under the plant with coniferous needles. This will keep the soil loose and moist, which will have a positive effect on strengthening the root system. Of course, the maintenance includes regular removal of old or broken leaves. This will not only give the plant an aesthetic look, but also contribute to the growth of new wai.
Such varieties as listovik and nomadic are not particularly frost resistant. In the winter they need to cover the leaves or a small layer of peat.
Fertilizer, fertilizing, as well as fern breeding methods
Ferns do not need to be fed on fertile soils. Fertilizer on depleted soil is best to make in advance, in the preparation of flower beds in the autumn. Suitable organic and mineral complexes containing nitrogen.
When planting a fern, you can put a little peat in the hole, which will act as a fertilizer and soil baking powder at the same time.
Ferns breeding gardeners spend three methods:
- separation of root offspring,
- by budding
The first method is the fastest and easiest. It is most often used for breeding all varieties. The main thing here - good watering after separation of the process.
The second method is more labor-intensive and is only suitable for some species, for example, a multi-row one capable of forming buds on leaves. They are detached and germinated in moist moss. Quite a common way - the reproduction of spores. They are collected, scraping from a sheet, dried and scattered on the surface of the substrate. Care consists of everyday spraying. After a month, spores germinate and in the next season you can already plant plants in the ground.
With what plants do the ferns in the garden combine and what diseases and pests threaten them
Due to the beauty of openwork leaves and bushes in general, ferns occupy an honorable place in the design of the site. Photos of such compositions are very natural and beautiful.
Attention! The rhizome of a fern quickly spreads on the site, therefore the installation of limiters is obligatory.
The combination of fern with lilies and an arrowhead at the pond will give the site a special charm. On shady rock gardens can be placed low varieties next to flowering creeping plants, such as periwinkle.
It can be said that the combination of ferns in the garden is possible with any shade-tolerant plants: hosts, astilba, dream, etc.
Diseases, subject to the rules of care, the plant is not affected. Of the pests can be noted slugs and caterpillars that damage the leaves.
Fern can be called a bright decoration of the shady area, which does not require much attention. Its cultivation is available to absolutely everyone, even gardeners who have no experience.