String beans is the oldest type of legumes. It enjoys special popularity because of the rich vitamin composition. It is he who makes the beans a welcome guest on our table. They have learned to grow it in all corners of our homeland, although it comes from far South America.
Three types of green beans
- shelling - this bean has a dense parchment shell, the fruits are known beans,
- semi-sugar - a shell of medium hardness,
- sugar (or asparagus) - the shell is almost absent, soft, tender pod, which is commonly used in food.
By nature, this culture is unpretentious, but for some reason gardeners plant it according to the residual principle - wherever it is necessary. And they do it for nothing. Before you plant it, be sure to think about where to do it. Choose a site that is well protected from the winds. The soil should be light, fertile, with moderate humidity. Haricot feels great in areas where potatoes, cabbage or tomatoes have grown.
In the fall, prepare a plot where this crop will be planted, because the soil must be dug in advance and some fertilizer must be applied for the winter. Experienced gardeners recommend the use of complex organic fertilizer. Additionally, you must sprinkle the ground with superphosphate and potassium chloride.
With the onset of spring, continue preparing the soil for planting. To do this, make a complex mineral fertilizer with a high content of potassium. If all fertilizers are applied correctly, the crop is guaranteed. In this soil there are already all the necessary nutrients for full planting and further growth of this culture.
Beans are a heat-loving culture, therefore, it is worth planting seeds when the earth is already warm enough. The temperature of the earth must be at least 18 degreesand the air temperature is 20-25 degrees. By the time it will be the end of May - the beginning of June.
It is worth remembering that rush to planting seeds is not necessary. Before you grow the seeds of beans, they are heated. This procedure should be carried out on a solar windowsill. It will take about two weeks to warm up. The main thing is to remember that warming up should be natural. After that, soak the seeds in a solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes, and then rinse them well in running water. Then soak again, but in simple water at room temperature for two days. Be sure to change the water.
Plant seeds four centimeters deep. For each of them in the soil is deepening. After the seed has been planted, sprinkle humus on each well. The first shoots will go after 10 days.
String beans: cultivation and care
When the seedlings have already reached 7 centimeters in height, it is necessary to pile them up, and the ground around the seedlings to mulch with sawdust or peat. Repeat this procedure for about two weeks and again, when the seedlings close together in dense rows. Before fruiting, the green beans must be fed several times, namely, add superphosphate with wood ash.
Another good dressing - It is a solution of potassium permanganate. Dissolve it in such a way that it is bright pink, and water over the leaves directly into the hole.
Water the beans should be moderate, but regularly: she does not like drought. When the ovary begins to tie, reduce it. Water less often, but more abundantly. The soil should be again mulch at this time.
Very well water this culture with herbal infusion. It is done very simply, but effective for its growth and fruiting. To make it, chop any weeds and put them in a barrel, fill all with water. Insist 7 days - and you can water. Before watering a liter of this infusion is diluted in 10 liters of water.
A few tips on caring for green beans
- Before flowering water it once a week, it can be less. Otherwise, an overabundance of water will have a bad effect on it. She immediately begins to give extra leaves.
- When the plant blooms, watering is doubled.
- After each watering the land must be plowed.
- We need a hole carefully so as not to damage the root system.
- Feed the plant as soon as the first ovary appears.
- If the culture has reached a length of two meters, you need to pinch off its tip so that it begins to grow in the ovary.
Growing in Siberia
Growing beans in Siberia is not as difficult as it seems. Although this culture is thermophilic, nothing is impossible about it. When landing it in the Siberian latitudes choose the right grade. There are many varieties of beans, but early and mid-ripening are best for this area. Since summer is relatively short here, we have to choose such varieties. Beans, which ripen for a long time, are best suited to southern latitudes. In Siberia, you can try to plant it seedling way, namely, under the film, which for some time will accelerate the process of its maturation. Otherwise, the entire care of this plant is the same as in other regions.
What kind of green beans to grow on the dacha
Often, the dacha plots are very small in size. Therefore, summer residents, in order to plant as many vegetable crops as possible, have to save space for planting. Usually, beans are given a place that remains from other crops, and sometimes gardeners forget to plant it in their garden. They make a big mistake. After all, after the harvest of this plant, the land becomes saturated with nitrogen and any crop can be grown on it: the harvest is almost guaranteed.
To plant green beans and not take up much space on the site, choose the right grade. In a variety of varieties of this plant there will always be those that will grow compactly in your summer cottage. For example, the "crane" - a wonderful compact littert. Its fruits have a sweetish taste, which many summer residents have already managed to love. There are several more compact varieties that will occupy quite a bit of space during planting and will delight every summer resident with their harvest.
Beans are an ancient and popular culture that favorably affects the entire human body due to its composition. Its cultivation does not require a huge expenditure of energy and space, but you get a lot of benefits from such a plant. Grow it in your summer cottage and be healthy!
Photos of beans:
Beans are considered one of the most ancient plants cultivated by humans. All variety of species is usually classified into three large groups - shelling, semi-sugar and sugar (asparagus). The main difference is in the structure of the shell.
String beans refers to the latter type, it can be used together with the pods. Depending on the characteristics of growth secrete curly and bush varieties. In addition, the culture is usually divided by the color of the pod.
Most often you can find green, white, yellow and even purple shades of the shell. It has no effect on the taste and quality of the crop. To date, several dozens of varieties that differ in appearance, yield and ripening have been bred.
The most popular ones are:
- Saksa 615. Early variety, ripening period - 50 days. Bush beans, the average height of the plant is 35-40 cm. The pods are emerald in color, slightly curved. The taste is sweet.
- Deer king. Bush variety, medium ripening. Strongly curved pods are colored light beige.
- Panther. Bush high-yielding variety. Maturation term is average. The shell is colored bright yellow. Gardeners celebrate excellent taste.
- Hell Rem. Curly variety, during flowering exudes the smell of forest mushrooms. The pods are pale green, the fruits of pink color. Beans have an unusual taste, used for exotic dishes.
- Purple queen. Bush variety. The pods are long, can grow up to 15 cm. Fruits and peel purple hue, looks very decorative. Most often used for conservation.
- Fatima. Popular curly mid-season variety. The pods can be up to 20 cm in length, painted in a dull green shade. They note high yield and good quality of fruit storage.
When choosing a variety, it is necessary to take into account the ripening period, as well as frost resistance and yield. This allows you to grow a large number of fruits, even in adverse climatic conditions.
When to plant?
String beans - thermophilic culture, the seeds are planted directly in open ground, when there is no threat of spring frosts. In the central zone and the southern regions of Russia, landings are made starting in the second half of May.
In the North, it is advisable to postpone the landing until the first decade of June, when the ground warms up sufficiently and a constant positive air temperature is established. Cold spring green beans are recommended to be planted by the seedling method not earlier than the beginning of June.
Choosing a place
For the cultivation of green beans suitable open and well-lit area. Culture grows well on a light and nutritious soil, it is impossible to allow an increased level of acidity.
Recommended precursors are potatoes, cabbage or carrots. Do not plant beans in clay areas with high humidity, as well as in close proximity to groundwater.
The greatest yield can be achieved on sandy or sandy soils.
Also, beans of this type can be grown in greenhouses, as well as in large containers on the terrace or loggia. For this purpose, it is desirable to choose curly varieties that are more decorative.
Preparation of beans for planting
A few days before planting, you can begin to prepare the seed. To do this, they are placed on special dryers or placed on the battery. In warm regions, the procedure is best carried out in the open sun. The optimum temperature for warming the seeds is 30-35 o C.
When using the dryer, the process takes up to 2 days; when drying, it is natural to keep the seeds for 5-7 days. After that, the seeds are soaked in warm and clean water for a day, every 4 hours the water needs to be changed. If you use purchased planting material, it should be treated with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate a few hours before disembarking.
When grown in northern latitudes, it is recommended to achieve the appearance of sprouts on seeds, usually this happens when soaking beans in warm water for 2-3 days. In the south, this procedure is not necessary.
Land for planting green beans should be prepared in the fall. To do this, during the planned digging, organic matter is applied at the rate of 7 kg / m 2, as well as potassium chloride (45 g / m 2), as well as phosphate fertilizers (25 g / m 2).
In addition, it is recommended to add humus for the winter or lay it on the top layer of soil during planting. 14 days prior to sowing seeds, the plot is plentifully watered with a growth stimulator, and then closed with a film so that the earth can warm up sufficiently. This trick improves seed germination even when planted in cold regions.
How to plant?
After sufficient heating of the soil and the preparation of seeds, you can begin the process of planting.
Carry it out according to the following algorithm:
- On the garden you need to make indentations depending on the density of the soil. The optimum depth of seeding is 2-7 cm. On heavy soils, the beans should be deepened as high as possible to the surface, and on the lungs - deeper.
- Bush varieties are sown in chessboard order in individual wells. In each hole should be placed on two seeds. The optimal distance between rows is 25 cm.
- After planting, you need to level the area and carry out mulching. As mulch used sawdust, humus or peat layer of 2-3 cm. After that, the bed should be plentifully watered with warm, settled water.
For climbing grades, sturdy supports should be installed over the entire surface of the plot. As a rule, wire, stakes or plastic slats are used for this purpose. It is recommended to build U-shaped or X-shaped supports. The support pillars are made in close proximity to each well, but with this method of planting the distance between plants can be reduced to 20 cm.
Departure after landing
Despite the dense shell of the seeds, the planting material grows quickly and fairly together, the beans grow very quickly. The first shoots appear within 5-6 days at an air temperature in the range of 15-20 o C. Young plants are sensitive to temperature and night frost, so the ridge should be covered with film or agrofibre at night.
Shelter can be removed after the first week of growth, at the same time they spend the first hilling.
In addition, when growing green beans, you should observe the following rules of care:
- In addition to the first hilling in 7-10 days after planting, the procedure should be carried out when plants reach 15 cm in height. During the season, the ground should be loosened as the top layer of soil compaction. At the same time, it is desirable to change the mulch in order to avoid the growth of weeds.
- For climbing varieties, pinching tips should be carried out to enhance fruiting. The procedure is carried out when the beans grow to 1.5-2 m in length.
- In addition to spring and autumn fertilizing of the soil during digging, fertilizer is applied twice during the season for the care. The first time the complex mineral compounds are used when the buds are actively formed on the plant, the second time fertilizing is introduced into the fruiting process. A mixture of superphosphate (15 g) and wood ash (50 g) per 1 m 2 is recommended.
- Beans - moisture-loving culture, especially climbing varieties. Watering is necessary to plant moderately throughout the season, during the active formation of buds and fruits, watering is increased.
When grown in wet and heavy soil there is a risk of infection of the bean with infectious diseases. Among these, powdery mildew, rust and bacteriosis are most common.
When the characteristic spots on the plant all the affected areas need to be removed and destroyed. And only after that, complete treatment of all plants with a complex fungicide (Topaz, Fitosporin-M, Skor, copper sulfate, and others) in accordance with the dosage should be carried out.
Harvesting and storage
After the formation of the ovaries, it is necessary to regularly check the planting, because when growing green beans, simply skip the collection period, which will lead to a deterioration in the taste of the crop.
Fruits begin to collect in stages every two days. The term depends on the variety and varies in the range from 50 to 100 days from the moment of planting.
The pods should be plucked at the stage of milky ripeness, it can be determined by the following parameters:
- the pods are soft, bend well,
- green beans are formed inside, no larger than wheat grain,
- fruits reached a length of 10-20 cm depending on the variety.
After the crop is formed, it is harvested every two days; harvesting can continue up to the first frost. Removing the pods stimulates fruiting, so the procedure should be carried out as completely and regularly as possible. If you plan to leave the beans on the seeds, they are left as long as possible in the garden until full ripening.
After harvesting, the entire crop should be carefully examined, discarded pods with signs of illness and rot, and then washed. It is best to store green beans in a frozen form. After collection, it is placed in bags in the required portions, and then put into the freezer. Fresh culture quickly deteriorates.
String beans - a useful and valuable culture, which is a powerful green manure. Today, frost-resistant varieties are bred, so it can be grown in conditions of Siberia and the Urals.
Planting and care is simple, even for beginners. Particular attention should be paid to planting after fruit set, as well as during harvest - the asparagus beans quickly ripen, which directly affects its taste.
Green beans growing
beans, care, turn, sowing, blanks, garden and flower beds July 25, 2014, 12:28 If you prefer a healthy diet full of natural vitamins, you should definitely add dishes from green beans or asparagus beans to your diet.
I grow beans for summer consumption and for harvesting for the winter. Since the bean loves heat, it sowed in early May to eliminate the possibility of spring frosts. Sowing was carried out in a well-prepared soil, added humus in the fall.
He planted a line, the distance between the plants was 20 cm. Since the soil was wet, he did not irrigate. After the shoots appeared, I pulled the tapestries to each bush so that it would twist over them.
And so she grew up. In the process of growth, he made additional fertilizing with liquid fertilizer for plants and with a solution of well-fermented horse manure; the beans do not like a lot of nitrogen fertilizer. Weeding and loosening the soil are required.
And now the result begins to manifest itself, the beans have blossomed. A little more and I do not like the result of their work. Beans are ready for use and for blanks.
I am doing the harvesting for the winter. I pick the beans, wash them under running water, also take some sweet pepper, wash it, remove the core, cut it with slices, take garlic,
В глубокую посуду наливаю воду, довожу до кипения, ложу порезанные крупно стручки фасоли, перец, довожу до кипения, солю, добавляю молотый черный перец, уксус, и быстро укладываю в стерилизованные банки (0.7 литра), добавляю два-три зубчика чеснока, главное что б фасоль не разварилась и стручки не лопнули, закатываю крышками, переворачиваю, укутываю и через сутки готово. Очень хорошая закуска!
Как вырастить стручковую фасоль?
For the cultivation of green beans should be chosen under her sunny place.
The soil should be quite fertile, however, the use of mineral fertilizers containing nitrogen is excluded, as powerful tops will develop, and the pods themselves will be small. Green beans are two types of bush and curly.
When growing bush species of beans, the seeds are laid in rows in rows with an interval of between 25-30 cm, depth 2.5-3 cm. Curly beans require a little more space 35-40 cm between the plants, and for it makes a kind of support or trellis with a height of 1.5 m, as for loaches.
However, the cultivation of green beans of any kind is still better to produce seedlings. For which for a month the seeds are planted in separate jars or pots. The recommended temperature for growing seedlings of green beans is 14-16 degrees, water moderately.
The time of planting seedlings in the ground coincides with the planting of cucumbers, in Siberia it is the middle of May. If after planting the seedlings of beans there is a chance of night frost, then it must be covered with film.
Caring for green beans primarily consists in loosening the soil around the plants. It is enough to water once a week using 1.5-2 liters per plant. During the mass flowering water consumption increased by 1.5-2 times.
They cultivate green beans both on a spatula and to obtain grain. Paddle is an unripe pod. Both have good nutritional value.
The protein content in the grain of beans is 3.5 times more than in potatoes. The shoulder blade contains both protein, vitamins and sugar. It begins to collect as soon as it reaches the right size every 3-5 days.
Shrubs designed to receive seeds are not robbed, leaving until the pods are fully ripe. At the end of the summer period, before the frosts, all the bushes of green beans are removed from the garden, tied up in large bunches and suspended in a warm ventilated place, after a couple of weeks the pods finally ripen. With skillful cultivation of green beans, experienced gardeners even in Siberia can get quite a decent harvest. Be sure to read about the cultivation of onions
How to grow green beans
Green beans received wide popularity due to their appearance in supermarkets, where it attracts attention with its soft green color in the cold season. Meanwhile, the beans are not only very tasty, but also easy to grow.
Green beans - a variety of beans, which, unlike grain, has juicy and long pods with small seeds inside. It is consumed as a whole (along with the pods, which contain most of the nutrients).
There are many varieties, stop howling choices on the so-called asparagus. By the way, in addition to green yellow and occasionally purple. There are green beans bush and curly.
The bush quickly produces a crop, climbing fruit later, but you can collect it right up to frosts. In addition, it is a beautiful decorative culture - get a beautiful fence.
How to choose a place for growing green beans
Growing beans does not deliver. To soil it is undemanding. The main thing that is needed is warm. For this reason, in more northern regions it is better to plant the plant in sandy soil - it warms up faster, or make a warm garden bed, especially if the clay soil and wet climate.
By the way, the beans - a terrific siderarat, plant assistant. Its roots tighten and convert nitrogen from the soil, which can grow near growing crops. Also, the beans deter pests.
When to plant green beans?
Plants are harvested no earlier than the earth properly warms up and the threat of frost passes. For the middle zone of our country, this is the end of May - the beginning of June.
Well, a couple of weeks before disembarking, cover the proposed bed with a sheet of polyethylene to warm up faster. Beans are planted to a depth of approximately 3 seconds. It is rational to plant a shrub either in narrow beds, or in rows - 2-3 rows in a row.
Between plants to leave 7-10 cm, and between the lines - 40 cm. Novice gardeners should know that some bush varieties of beans quickly produce a crop, but fruiting is very short. Therefore, it is possible to do sowing in several terms with an interval of 2-3 weeks. Before planting climbing varieties, two two-meter-long poles are installed and a wire or a special nylon mesh with long intervals is pulled between them.
It is undesirable to use a netting net as a support, since it will be difficult to remove plant loops from it in the fall. Seeds are sown on both sides at a distance of 30 cm from each other. Can be planted with nests.
To do this, in one hole put five beans, and in the middle set a wooden pole. Metal and plastic pegs are not suitable, the plants will not be able to cling to them. When the shoots grow and release the curling arrow, gently direct it counterclockwise.
How to care for green beans?
Although the plant tolerates drought normally, it still needs to be watered systematically - the subsequent formation and development of the pods depends on it. At the end of May, when the seedlings reach a height of 6-8 cm, it is necessary to pinch the top in order to accelerate the development of lateral buds. and loosen the soil. The first dressing with superphosphate is done when the first leaf is formed, the second - with potassium salt during budding. For dressing you can use cow dung: combine with irrigation, dissolving 1: 10 humus in water, or lay out rotted manure on top of mulch to rot ,. When a height of 2 m is reached, pinch plants from above to stimulate the emergence of ovaries.
Why should be grown asparagus beans on the plot?
Tursh is a profitable crop for cultivation. The following are described 7 main "advantages" growing it in the garden:
1. The fiberless structure and delicate taste of young pods (they are also called shoulder blades) and their high nutritional value (the protein content of beans exceeds fish, it consists of about 30 amino acids, tea from the cusps of beans has healing properties)
2. High yield (with proper agrotechnology, 3-5 kg of blades can be collected from one plant during the growing season),
3. Long fruiting period
4. Easy care,
5. Decorative qualities - thanks to the ability to quickly build up a green mass, against the background of which yellow, purple, red or white flowers are scattered with bright spots, the beans can be used for landscaping the site,
6. Increases soil fertility - asparagus beans, like other members of the legume family, fixes and accumulates nitrogen in the soil due to nodule bacteria,
7. As protection against wind and moles - the lush green of the asparagus bean creates an openwork shadow and protects such delicate crops as cucumbers and tomatoes from gusts of wind. To this end, it is planted on the south side of the garden or around the greenhouse. Moles and shrews do not like the smell of beans and bypass the areas along the perimeter of which this crop is planted.
Asparagus beans: planting, variety selection
Selection and preparation of the seat
For the cultivation of asparagus beans choose a sunny place with protection from the cold northern winds. The best will be easy slope areas to the south-west or south. This culture prefers fertile, loose soils. Heavy soils or lowland moist areas for the cultivation of beans are not suitable.
The plot begins to prepare in the fall. When digging, organic (5-7 kg / m2 of humus) and mineral fertilizers are applied: potassium chloride (20g / m2), superphosphate (30g / m2). It does not need nitrogen fertilizing - it accumulates in the soil itself as a result of symbiotic interaction with nodule bacteria. An excess of nitrogen will lead to an intensive growth of green mass to the detriment of fruiting - the number of ovaries formed decreases, the pods form small ones.
The best precursors for asparagus beans are the nightshade (tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants), all kinds of cabbage, root vegetables (beets, carrots, root parsley, celery), cucumbers.
Depending on the type of green beans, there are different ways to grow this crop.
Bush varieties are planted in small rows or in a checkerboard pattern. The inter-row spacing is 0.4-0.45 m, and in the row between the plants - 0.2-0.25 m.
For curling beans you need to prepare a support.
Grow it in such ways:
• Gnezdovoy - 9-12 beans are planted on a round bed with a diameter of 0.8-0.9 m and a structure is constructed of stakes like a hut,
Stake support in the form of a tent
• On a trellis with stretched ropes - this is the best option for liana-like beans. Each plant is provided with the maximum amount of light, the area of food, is well ventilated (i.e. the risk of developing rot is reduced). In addition, with this method of growing harvesting is much easier - the pods are visible
Rope trellis for curling asparagus beans
• Along the walls of buildings, fences - clinging to these supports, the beans in the process of growth form spectacular "green carpets", giving additional decoration to the site.
Terms and technology of sowing in soil
In open ground, asparagus beans are sown depending on the climatic conditions of the regions: in the middle lane it is the second half of May, when the threat of frost has passed, in the northern regions - the beginning of June, in the south - the second half of April. By this time the soil warms up at a depth of 10 cm to + 8-10 ° C.
Planting includes the following steps:
• Sorting beans - for planting choose whole intact seeds,
• Selected grains are left to swell in warm water for 10-12 hours,
• Swollen seeds are planted in a prepared place to a depth of 4-5 cm on light soils and 2-3 cm on loam,
• After sowing, the bed surface is mulched with humus. If there is a threat of freezing, then you need a cover with a film,
• Shoots appear 7-10 days after sowing. If they are thick, they are thinned, keeping 10-25 cm between plants in a row. During this period, loosening between the rows. Aeration of the soil enhances the vital activity of nitrogen-fixing nodule bacteria and, as a consequence, improves plant development,
• When the bushes reach 10 cm in height, they are low in spud.
In the northern regions to reduce the time of harvest it is recommended to grow seedlings at home or in a greenhouse. It is better to plant beans in disposable peat cups right away, so as not to destroy the earthen clod when disembarking a bed - the beans do not tolerate damage to the root system.
String beans planting and care: seeds, soil preparation
Due to unpretentiousness and good yield, not only cereal, but also green beans also enjoy popularity among domestic summer residents. Planting and caring for the crop does not require special experience and costs, so they are suitable for all gardeners. A large variety of varieties allows for the successful cultivation of green beans in any region. The article discusses the advice of gardeners - green beans planting and care, how to prepare the seeds and soil for planting in open ground, as well as pest control and other useful tips.
String (asparagus) beans
Many gardeners who independently cultivate beans in their summer cottage, the most delicious variety of plants is recognized as a leguminous she is an asparagus bean - the asparagus is distinguished by longer pods, but the principle of planting and caring for them is about the same. Growing and caring for beans is not too complicated, and the juicy and nourishing product is ready for serving on the table in the summer. Fresh green pods are available to those who do not have personal land - you can successfully grow asparagus beans at home - on a glazed loggia or windowsill.
Asparagus beans are different from regular stringers in longer pods.
Green beans planting and care
Asparagus and green beans are one species, more precisely, asparagus is one of the varieties of green beans. It is distinguished by a large length of the pods and the lack of clear-cut grains inside them. In addition, the doors themselves are softer, since the hard parchment layer does not grow in them, which gives them good culinary qualities.
String beans - low-calorie product, rich in many vitamins, amino acids, organic acids, flavonoids and mineral compounds. It is widely used in cooking as a vegetable ingredient in salads, side dishes, first and second courses. Asparagus variety got its name for the characteristic taste, reminiscent of asparagus.
Varieties of green beans
- Purple queen An interesting shrub variety that combines fruit and ornamental functions. Gives pods of dark purple color up to 15 cm long. The variety is not afraid of many diseases and it is suitable for planting in different regions.
- Crane Compact plant, reaching half a meter in height. Non-capricious variety with enviable productivity. Delicate taste of fiberless pods is perfectly preserved in canning and in freezing.
- Sachs 615 (without fiber). Spraying early ripe hybrid with a height of up to 45 cm and green pods up to 12 cm. Very popular due to its high vitamin content.
- Oil King. Bush variety with a growing season of 55 days. By the end of the summer gives yellow pods with distinctive taste.
- A common fast-ripening climbing variety, the pods of which grow up to 13 cm in length. Up to 10 pods per season are collected from one plant.
- Winner. A curly flat-leaf variety that adorns the garden of fire-red flowers during its flowering. Brings flattened fruit pods up to 30 cm long.
- Caramel. Early maturing fiberless beans, called by many gardeners the best among the species. Gives short pods with large seeds inside. The plant is popular because of its high immunity to common viruses.
- Fatima. Variety of curling beans with an average ripening period. Growth can be 3 meters, but the foliage is always average. Straight in shape pods correspond - can be by 21 cm. They have a good taste and a delicate fiber-free structure.
- Panther. Another shrub variety with yellow fiberless fruits. Differs in high resistance to fungal diseases and special spicy taste.
- Hell Rem. Curly variety with light pods and rare lilac-pink grains. Differs in characteristic mushroom aroma and high resistance to pests and diseases.
- Neringa. Spray bean variety ripening in 7-9 weeks. It gives green long (14-16 cm) pods with succulent sashes without a parchment layer. The plant is excellent fruits in different conditions, universally in processing.
- Deer King. Kustovaya kind of green beans, which has extremely tasty fruits. Bright yellow ripe pods have dense white grains inside. In the conditions of warm regions, a double harvest per season is possible.
- Bona. Plant with a compact bush up to 40 cm high. Gives rounded pods in 13-16 cm long without a parchment layer with 5-6 white seeds. Valued by gardeners for immunity to disease, good productivity and versatility of use. Ripens in 50-75 days after sowing.
- Blue Lake. A tall variety that needs a strong support. Green pods reach 16 cm in length and reach maturity in 50-56 days after the date of sowing beans. Inside, small white seeds are formed. It is a fruitful hybrid with decent resistance to infections and diseases.
- Sweet courage. Bush plant variety with rapid maturation. Differs cylindrical pods of yellow, growing to 16 cm in length.
- Gina. Kustovoy early ripe variety with slightly curved pods up to 17 cm long. It has excellent qualities that are preserved during canning. Highly valued due to productivity and disease resistance.
- Paloma. Dutch beans for early sowing. Abundantly fruiting 11-12 cm pods of dark green color. Universal in culinary use.
- Bergold High yield bush variety with soft pods without parchment layer. Slightly curved fruit grows up to 14 cm in length and perfectly preserved in ice cream or canned form.
- Nagano. Asparag beans from the Dutch producer. Suitable for sowing with early-medium time. High stability, good yield 13 cm pods. Good in freezing and conservation.
- Mascott Western low-growing variety with ripening 50-55 days after punching. For dense, fiberless pods with a pleasant crunch, Mascott is very fond of the French. You can grow at home on the windowsill.
- Pensil Under Black Wax. Low Italian beans with bushes up to 40 cm in height. Differs in good yield, excellent commodity qualities of fruits, high immunity. The pods grow to 15 cm and are well preserved in conservation and freezing.
- Kentucky Blue Pole. Favorite by many American farmers beans have a growing period of 65 days. Climbing plant with a total length of 2.5 meters. It is very similar in its growth and fruit characteristics to the Blue Lake variety.
- Голд Майн. Кустовая фасоль, называемая некоторыми дачниками сверхсладкой. Крепкие вертикальные кусты дают до 800 грамм сочных стручков.
- Спаржевая фасоль Серенгети. Посадка этого скороспелого сорта возможна во всех климатических зонах. Этот сорт отличает устойчивость ко многим болезням, а также приятные вкусовые характеристики и высокая урожайность.
Green beans: planting and care in the right place
The first thing you need to think about before planting beans is the perfect plot in the garden. To allocate to this plant a place at the last moment, where it will turn out, is wrong, since it is rather capricious in relation to the light intensity and the nature of the soil:
- At the initial stages of development, beans require intensive, but not unnecessarily long, sunlight. They should not reach the plants for longer than 12 hours a day.
- Curly varieties of green beans need to be planted next to the support for lifting branches, and in the absence of such - to make a trellis yourself. The practice of planting three plants with a support in the form of a high tripod.
- Haricot grows well and bears fruit when planted after potatoes, onions, cucumbers, carrots, cabbage, and other root plants.
- Poor precursors for green beans are sunflower, legumes, and legumes, as well as perennial herbs like clover.
- Bush varieties of green beans grow well in the rows of potatoes and cabbage, they do not need supports for weaving.
When is the planting of green beans in open ground
In most cases, the sowing of green bean seeds is carried out in the middle of May - early June. The main indicator is the degree of warming up of the earth at the depth to which they are embedded (5-6 cm). Here, the temperature should be at least + 10˚C. Basically, in the Russian regions, freezing should end by this time. If, according to the weather forecast, a repeated decrease in temperature is promised, the crops will have to be covered with polyethylene or non-woven garden cloth.
Planting of green beans should be carried out to a depth of 60 mm on very loose soils. The harder the ground, the closer to the surface the seeds should be positioned so that the structure of the soil does not interfere with the shoot. Landing scheme:
- for bush varieties: 15-20 cm between the holes and 35-40 cm between the rows, the optimal number of rows for cross-pollination is 4,
- for climbing varieties: 20-30 cm between the holes with the obligatory presence of a strong non-plastic support (the branches can grow very heavy).
In both cases, it is recommended to throw 2-3 beans per well in order to have a germination guarantee. At least one of them will definitely break through. And if it comes up a few, then you will only need to choose the strongest among them, and pull the rest out.
After sowing, water the beds and press down the soil with a rake. When breaking through the seedlings, they should be spud in a timely manner in order to impart greater stability and accelerate development.
How to prepare the ground and seeds of green beans
It is good if the plot chosen for planting consists of nutrient land and, more importantly, well-drained soil. Lush land will allow the beans to independently feed on nitrogen through root nodules. You should not risk planting in clay soils or areas with close groundwater flow - the seeds may simply not come up.
To increase the yield, it is necessary to enrich the land with humus or hot compost before deep digging. Ammonium nitrate with the addition of calcium chloride and superphosphate is also a useful additive. Nitrogen is not needed - if you constantly make the soil loose, it will be produced in excess by the plants themselves.
Preseeding processing of beans:
- Go through the grain, discarding damaged.
- Soak in melt water at room temperature for no longer than 12 hours.
- Before sowing for 3-5 minutes, put the beans in a solution of 2 g of boric acid and 10 liters of water.
Asparagus beans: planting and caring for seedlings
For seed germination before sowing, you can use the following method:
- Pour them into a linen bag (or tie them up with a cloth) and immerse them in a light solution of potassium permanganate heated to 35–40 ° C.
- Rinse the grains with clean running water and wrap in a damp cloth for 5-6 days. It is necessary to keep its humidity throughout this period.
- At a temperature in the range of + 20- + 30 наC and being in a moist environment, the seeds germinate quickly.
Sowing seedling beans is desirable to engage in April. Moreover, it is necessary to place crops in a greenhouse or under a film, since at first they are extremely sensitive to temperature.
It is better to plant according to the 6 × 6 cm scheme - it will be convenient for the plants to grow, but also for the gardener to take care of them. Seeds for seedlings need to lay at a depth of about 2 cm.
- for sprouting and good sprout development, you need to constantly water the soil, but at the same time maintain its looseness,
- after the initial weeding, you can start feeding the plantations with a cowshed (1: 6 with water) or ammonium nitrate (20 g per 1m2),
- you should not just flood the seedlings - the soil is needed wet, but without standing water - so the seeds can ferment,
- during the summer, it is necessary to carry out this feed several more times, but for 10 l of the mixture one should add about 40 g of superphosphate
- to protect against low temperatures in the cold season, it is necessary to cover the seedlings with straw compost or burnt manure in the autumn.
A significant part of the seedlings, most likely, will still be unsuitable for further cultivation. Therefore, in the spring, before transplanting, it is necessary to select suitable plants. Qualitative candidates must have a confident root system, 5-7 good shoots and have a healthy appearance.
Green bean planting and care in the open field
For cultivation of seeds in open ground for asparagus beans it is necessary to allocate naturally illuminated areas with light and nutritious soil. A bonus to productivity will be if in the last season potatoes, cabbage, onions or carrots grew in this land. On clay lands and soils with a close location of groundwater, the beans survive very reluctantly.
In areas with long, cold winters, it is better to start growing green beans in a greenhouse so as not to lose time due to the insignificant warming up of the soil. This culture is very sensitive to cold and usually dies at temperatures below + 5˚C. Because of this, already sown beans are wrapped with a film with an unexpected cold snap.
If an asparagus bean has already grown on a particular plot, it is advised to re-cultivate seed production only after 4 years. This is not a problem, given that after a given plant that enriches the soil with nitrogen, any garden crops grow well.
In the autumn months, the land under the asparagus beans is enriched before deep digging with organic matter, potassium chloride and superphosphate in a volume of 7 kg / m2, 45 g / m2 and 25 g / m2, respectively. Before planting from seeds at the cottage, a fertilizer complex should be introduced with a high proportion of potassium at the rate of 25 g / m2. After laying the seed material, experts advise to pour a bed of humus on top of the bed and up to 3 times during the season to feed the beans with mineral mixtures. The scheme of introduction: in small grooves, conducted parallel to the rows at a distance of 15-20 cm. One feed is necessarily required in the phase of tying the buds.
Asparagus bean seeds are sown similarly to any other legumes. It is necessary to start this when the earth is heated at a depth of 50-60 mm to + 10˚C and the frost stops. The previously selected beans are first soaked for 10 hours in melt water for better germination. Many summer residents slightly tint water with potassium permanganate and bring in growth accelerators there, but this is not a mandatory practice. It is also believed that it is not necessary to soak the seeds if the ground is sufficiently moist during planting.
A few minutes before laying, the beans are also kept for 5 minutes in an aqueous solution of boric acid (0.2 g / l), for enhanced immunity to disease. Following the seeds are put on several pieces in the wells of a depth of 3-5 cm. In the same furrow for bushy varieties of beans between recesses should be left 10-15 cm, and the grooves should be located at a distance of 25-30 cm relative to each other. Curly hybrids should be placed at a distance of 20-30 cm between themselves and 0.5 m between the rows.
Excessive moisture is something that the asparagus bush beans do not really like. Growing should be accompanied by moderate but regular watering once a week with doubling the volume during the flowering period. After watering, it is recommended to loosen the soil around the plants so as not to stop the access of air to the root nodules. We must also constantly pull out the weeds, as they deplete the soil. In order to increase the yield, it is recommended to apply two supplements from mineral complex fertilizers during the growing process.
Green beans: growing from seeds at home
Asparagus beans can quite successfully grow in indoor conditions, for example on a glazed loggia or a well-lit window sill. It is better, of course, to choose the bush varieties that do not rise above 50 centimeters in height. Curly varieties can be planted on the balcony, nor should we be ready for this, that they will entwine it from the inside, turning it into room jungle.
Green beans - growing in a greenhouse
Planting can be carried out as a direct seeding in the tank for growing, and seedling method through peat pots. Planting time depends on individual conditions, you can even organize year-round cultivation. For such cultivation of culture varieties Maska, Fatima, Violetta, Zelenostuvkovy 517 and Golden Neck are well suited.
Growing a house often requires additional lighting equipment, but plants do not need a long light day. The soil for planting should consist of two-thirds of the garden land and one of the humus. You need to constantly keep it loose. Top dressing is desirable - it is enough to use complexes with potassium and phosphorus a couple of times a month. It is worth retaining fruitful branches only when collecting seed material.
Growing asparagus beans in Siberia
Siberia is a rather harsh weather region with a short summer, which does not have the best effect on growing crops. Most varieties of beans in such conditions grow reluctantly, so when planting and care should follow the following recommendations:
- In view of the short season, the quickest varieties should be chosen.
- Beans are heat-loving, so favorable weather has to wait. Sowing is usually done not earlier than the end of May. In the cold spring is better to think about a seedling planting.
- Seeds are best planted dry, without soaking.
- Beans need to spud after the formation of sprouts above 10 cm, so they are not killed by the wind or its own weight.
- Be sure to tie up climbing plants, as there is a lot of rainfall and on the ground leaves and pods can rot.
- During the cold weather is better to cover the film material.
Harvesting should be carried out by ripening the pods. When planting early ripe varieties, harvest begins in August. After removing the ripe fruits, they should be left to ripen in the air, hanging or spreading under a canopy. This allows the remaining pods to reach faster. When frost occurs below -1˚C, the plant can be completely pulled out and also suspended to ripen.
Growing green beans: care after planting
Before the plants enter the flowering phase, the optimum frequency of watering will be once a week. And this is based on hot weather. If summer does not indulge with heat, then you need to adjust the intensity, looking at the leafy part of the beans - an excess of moisture provokes its growth. At the beginning of flowering you need to double the watering. Also, after each watering, it is necessary to loosen the ground so as not to form a crust, which prevents air from reaching the roots.
Superphosphate fertilization can be done after the appearance of the ovary with leaves. The second dressing - while tying buds, using potash salt.
After the plants reach a height of 2 meters, you need to stop their growth by pinching the top. This, by the way, provokes the formation of ovaries.
Common diseases for beans are powdery mildew, white rot, rust, bacteriosis and leguminous ascochitis. The most reliable way to avoid them is to choose high-quality seed material, so it is better that it be bought in a good place and comply with GOST.
At defeat by mealy dew on a pod and foliage white dust or a film appears. To prevent the spread of infection, these parts must be torn off and thrown away or even burned. After that, the bushes need to be sprayed with a solution of milk powder and water (1: 9) twice a week. Experienced gardeners also recommend adding 1 part of baking soda or cider vinegar to the solution.
Harvest time depends on the characteristics of the variety, namely, the growing season. The best time of day for gathering is considered to be morning, when there is still dew on the pods. The removed fruits are better not to overdo, but to collect, while they are green and juicy.
Choice of seeds of green beans
By the time of ripening the beans are divided into early - 50 days before the harvest, the mid-season - 70 days, and the late-ripening - from 80 days. Therefore, in central Russia, in the open ground, you can harvest three different varieties.
In the Urals, late-ripening varieties are best planted with seedlings, this will allow to win two weeks in terms of harvest. But in Siberia, you should look at the early ripening varieties that ripen from 45 to 60 days and, of course, it is better to grow seedlings.
Early ripening varieties are better suited for food use at once, and mid-season and late varieties for freezing.
Green beans - the best varieties
From early ripening varieties, the best are Saks, Melody, Caramel. They have excellent taste and disease resistance.
Mid-season varieties Oleniy root, Crane, Panther have a high yield and are ideal for freezing. Moreover, the taste of these varieties during freezing increase.
They are good for the middle band of our country. Beautiful purple pods with a unique taste gives the Purple Queen variety.
Winner is considered the most successful late-ripening varieties of string beans. It has the highest yield, very long pods and is suitable for freezing.
Preparing for planting green beans
The selection of good planting material begins with the selection of seeds. Immediately reject damaged fruit or change color.
Then they are immersed in lightly salted water and mixed to get rid of air bubbles. Empty, unfit beans will stay afloat, and good full-weights will sink to the bottom. Floated seeds are removed with a spoon. The remaining beans are washed with running water from salt and lightly dried.
Processing seed beans before planting
For disinfection, seeds are immersed in a solution of potassium permanganate for 30 minutes. Then washed and left in water for 10 - 12 hours. Soaking beans for a longer period is not recommended, as it can lead to souring.
Hardening of seeds is a procedure necessary in regions with special climatic conditions. It will increase seedling resistance to nocturnal temperature drops and reduce crop losses. For hardening, soaked bean seeds are placed in a refrigerator for 5-6 hours at a temperature of + 4 degrees.
After soaking and hardening, not germinated seeds are rejected.
Planting Bean Seeds
The bean is a heat-loving plant, so it is important to consider that it begins to germinate only when the soil temperature is more than 10 degrees. In central Russia in the open ground beans are planted after May 20. In the Urals, this date is later than a week, and in the Siberian region, residents should wait until the end of the night frosts and use covering material.
When grown on the balcony, waiting for the frost, the plants are brought overnight in a warm room.
Growing seedlings green beans
Planting seedlings begins a month earlier than planting in open ground. In the same way that cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers are planted, beans are placed in small pots with nutritious soil and put in a warm, well-lit place.
When growing on a windowsill, protect seedlings from drafts and lower temperatures. From cold seeds can stop growing or even die.
Harvesting green beans
Begin harvesting selectively and spend at intervals of one week. Storing beans depends on your taste and choice, in natural, frozen or canned form.
The pods of early varieties ripen first and are stored for a short time, because they very quickly consume moisture. They are best used immediately for food.
Store pods can be in food plastic bags in a refrigerator with a humidity of 85 - 90%. But you can freeze them to increase shelf life. Sweet varieties of green beans are beautiful in pickled form.
The pods of mid-season varieties, cleaned closer to the end of summer. They are stored better than others in frozen form and do not lose their taste. Green beans are cut into 3–4 cm slices, placed tightly in bags and put into freezers.
Late ripening crops yield late summer and early autumn. In the middle lane, they are harvested for the winter, and earlier varieties are immediately used for food.
На семена фасоль оставляют из полностью созревших и слегка подсохших стручков. Вылущенные бобы перебирают и слегка подсушивают на воздухе.
Затем семена прогревают в духовке при температуре 55 – 65 градусов в течение 4 часов. Это убьет болезнетворные микроорганизмы и увеличит срок хранения семян.
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Beans in Siberia
It is difficult to grow beans in Siberia - several pods ripen and that's all. I decided to conduct an experiment - I bought seeds at a store, wrote out a catalog from a private gardener, took a pen-friend from a friend and started to “conjure” in the garden beds.
All the seeds I planted separately, varieties marked on the plan. However, the harvest, as in previous years, I did not get so hot - it did not matter where the seeds were taken.
I understood my first mistake - earlier I didn’t pay attention to the ripening period. I found out: if the beans are not enough for 7-10 days to ripen, all the work will be gone. Therefore, of all the seeds left only early and mid-early varieties.
I decided to conduct a small experiment with seeds. Some planted dry in the ground, others soaked for the night, and others soaked, wrapped in a rag and left to germinate in the heat.
The result surprised me. Half of the seeds from the third group just rotted! After lying in a damp cloth for a couple of days, they turned into a “porridge”.
Seeds from the second group had to be watered after planting so that the sprouted sprouts would not die in the dry ground. The land quickly dried out after watering, and a “crust” formed on it, it was necessary to loosen the earth and help the seedlings. But a lot of seeds simply died, and later the seedbed leaves also dried out.
But the seeds planted dry, rose together even without watering! Apparently, they waited for favorable conditions, got enough moisture and sprouted.
All summer I nursed, fed, loosened my beans. In the autumn from different sites gathered different crops. Now she chose the best in appearance, taste and yield. Something corrected, something changed, and as a result I got my own growing system. I hope that someone else will decide to grow beans in the Siberian land.
1. Choose a variety. Desirable early and tasty.
2. Wait for the weather. Haricot is a heat-loving plant, it is important that it has enough of our Siberian heat. We even have frosts in June, so I sow seeds in late May - early June, it all depends on the weather. While they are in the ground, they are not afraid of frosts.
3. Sow dry seeds. Shoots at a favorable temperature appear in 6-9 days. Now, if the weather is dry, you can water a little so that the roots develop faster. After watering and rains, I definitely loosen the soil, so the beans grow better.
4. Spud so as not to fall from the wind. As soon as the plants grow to 10 cm, I spud them, rake up the ground to the base of the stalk. I repeat this operation in a couple of weeks. Then the growing beans will not fall from the wind or under the weight of their leaf mass. In the first years I did not spud, and it was a shame when the adult bush fell and broke during wind gusts.
5. Feed two times. The first time after the appearance of the third leaflet - it is necessary to increase the leaves. The second time in 2-3 weeks - now the plant grows stems and lays flowers. The more flowers there are, the higher the yield. Fertilizer I take any complex, instant with microelements.
6. Garter. In the south, it may not be relevant, but we need it. The first years without a garter proved it. We have a lot of rainfall, and the leaves, the pods on the ground begin to rot. To prevent this from happening, I, after 2-3 meters, hammer thick stakes into the ground, tie a twine to them at a height of 30-40 cm, and put the stems on a twine. If the beans are high, you can tie up a second time, tying the twine even higher. Now the leaves do not touch the ground and spoil less. The pods also remain clean.
7. Harvest time. In August, the beans begin to ripen. Usually at the end of the month I produce a selective harvest. I collect full pods that have already begun to turn white, but have not yet dried up. Lay them under a canopy, where they ripen well. The pods remaining on the bushes grow faster, because they now get more nutrition. Completely clean the bushes before the frost. We have them at the end of August and in the middle of September. A slight decrease in temperature to -1 ° C will sustain the beans. Only the upper leaves will freeze a little, which is not scary. If big frosts are expected, I pull out the whole plant and hang it under a shed where it is free from frosts down to -5 ° С. So you can not rush to this event, because the fall is always a lot of urgent matters.
How to grow and save
- How to make a sun bed
- Beans are better to plant in two rows.
- The distance between the rows is about 30 cm.
- The distance between plants is 10-15 cm.
- The width of the beds is no more than 50-55 cm, so the beans are better illuminated by the sun and better ventilated.
- If frost is expected, the top can be covered with a covering material.
Dry and freeze
- You can store beans in glass jars (without lids) or in cloth bags. My banks are right in the kitchen. You can store in the cold, because the grain is dry, and nothing will happen to it.
- I also freeze the beans. To do this, I collect ripe, but not yet dry pods, husking the grains, spread them out in cellophane bags and put them in the freezer. I mainly use such beans for salads. Its advantage is that it cooks faster, because it does not need to be soaked.
Proper planting and maintenance of beans in open field
Beans are among the top ten most useful vegetables, so when choosing crops for growing in their garden, it always has a place. In order for the time and money spent to be rewarded with a generous harvest, it is necessary to become familiar with the basic rules of agricultural engineering, planting and care during cultivation in open ground.
Bean plantation is planned for the month of May. Should focus on weather conditions and the correct temperature in the soil, which is indicated by the indicators of 12-15 degrees (at a depth of 10 cm). According to the folk calendar, this period coincides with the flowering of chestnuts.
First you need to plant upright varieties, and after a week you can start climbing species. Culver species of legumes plan to plant in early July. This can be done on the beds from which harvests of early ripe vegetables have already been harvested.
Experienced gardeners perform planting work in several stages: from mid-May to early July with an interval of at least 10 days.
Spray bean varieties need to be sown in the soil in early July
To speed up the harvest, it is recommended to cover the soil in advance with a plastic film to warm up. After planting the seeds, once again cover the bed until the night temperature is at least 12 degrees.
Beans are a heat-loving culture, therefore, it is better to plant the spring in the second half of May, when the threat of frost is over. Young shoots are afraid even of cold winds, which is why many gardeners find its place under the apple trees or along the fence.
The minimum temperature that can sustain bean seedlings does not exceed -3-4 degrees. If the frosts were short, the beans will survive, but their development will be slowed down and yield will be reduced.
Agrotextiles or foils, which are used for the construction of temporary shelter, will help to change the situation.
Variety of varieties complicates the selection. If difficulties arise in determining the range, it is recommended to give preference to proven varieties that are adapted to the climate and weather conditions of the region.
Moscow white green hand 556
A plant of medium term of maturation, 100 days pass from sowing to harvesting. The bush is only 25 cm tall, the fruit has a parchment layer, but very thin. The culture is unpretentious, resistant to wet environments and droughts.
Curly variety mid-early ripening. The ovoid bean has an ocher color with a pale purple pattern. A fruit without a parchment layer and fibers, which makes the structure soft and soft. The plant is tolerant to anthracnose, gray rot.
For the Urals and the middle band
Onar is an early ripe grain bean with an aging period of 80-90 days, recommended for planting in a country house in central Russia. The height of the bushes from 35 to 56 cm, the fruits have high taste.
Productivity from 1 m2 within 200 grams.
Harvesting begins 65-85 days after seed germination. Curly bush reaches a height of 3 m, and therefore needs support.
Marble-pink beans do not contain a parchment layer and fibers, which gives them a delicate structure. On the fruits are visible purple streaks and strokes. The application is universal, in any form of beans retains a unique taste.
Culture has a high yield and nutritional qualities of the fruit. The length of the pods is about 30 cm, the beans are large. Cold resistance and strong immunity make it possible to cultivate and grow a plant in Siberia.
Peculiarity: whips with beautiful fiery red flowers can be used as a decorative hedge.
Shrub type of beans with a maturation period of 1.5 months. Gentle and pleasant taste of tubular fruits will not leave indifferent any gourmet. The length of the string part is about 25 cm. The application of the harvest is universal: harvesting in a dry form, freezing, canning.
To get quick shoots and protect young shoots from disease, seeds should be prepared before planting.
First soak in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for about 20 minutes. After the procedure, the beans are washed with clean water and again need to be soaked in an infusion of wood ash for 2 hours.
On the night before sowing, pea beans are wrapped in a damp napkin for germination at home. And 5 minutes before sowing into the soil they are immersed in a solution of boric acid. This will protect the plant from diseases and pests.
Sprouting bean seeds
Bean seeds begin to sprout after 7-10 days after planting. If the temperature of the air and soil is below the recommended values, the first shoots will sprout after 5-7 days.
It is possible to accelerate the germination process if the seed is soaked in growth stimulants at home. Also contributes to this shelter beds film.
Young shoots need to be tucked up to give them stability.
Irrigation rules and conditions
The plant loves water, so you should not break the watering regime. It is especially important to moisten the soil during the period of pod formation.
The rate of water on the bush is determined by eye, the procedure is carried out 1 time per week, the main thing is not to let the soil dry out. The best irrigation fluid is rainfall. Experienced gardeners use distilled water, the temperature of which is not lower than 18 degrees.
Beans like water, so you should not allow the soil to dry
What dressings to use on the bed
The culture is responsive to fertilizer. After preparing the soil for planting will need to make at least 3 dressings.
The first procedure is performed after 3-4 weeks after germination. Ideal to use complex fertilizer, rich in nitrogen and phosphorus. Also suitable superphosphate at the rate of 30-40 grams per 1 m2.
After 3 weeks you need to feed a second time, it is necessary for the formation of fruits (10-15 grams. Potassium salt per 1 m2). The third time nutrients are administered after 3 weeks.
Overdoing with fertilizers is not worth it, you can provoke the growth of foliage and reduce the ovary of the pods.
Beans are one of the few crops that pests do not attack. Can appear unless slugs.
It is possible to prevent their invasion by timely weeding, as the weeds grow and create a favorable habitat for the parasites. When slugs are detected, you can install several traps, from which you need to periodically remove insects for disposal.
The correct timing of the harvest in the country or garden
Terms of harvest depend on varieties and types of culture. Asparagus beans should not be overdone on the beds, in dried form, the product loses its value.
If it is planned to preserve the harvest of legumes, then you can use any immature fruit. But for winter harvesting it is better to wait for the pods to dry out. The main thing is not to be late, so as not to collect beans from the ground.
Do not pick all the pods at the same time in one day, if among them there are completely dry and greenish. In the shade of their own tops, some ovaries might have developed less; they should be left to ripen.
To quickly extract the beans from their "houses" does not necessarily have to sort each by hand. With the work handle stick, which can knock out the harvest.
To do this, only dried pods are laid out on the bedspread, which you need to walk with a simple tool with moderate effort. It only remains to remove the dry part of the beans. Selected beans are still drying and only after sorting is sent to storage.
The agrotechnology of the beans is simple, even a novice gardener can sow and grow it in the Moscow region, Ukraine, the Urals or Belarus. Performing all the procedures in a timely manner, preparations for the winter are provided with an incredibly useful and nutritious product, which also diversifies the menu.
First of all, biologists subdivide beans into Asian and American. Asiatic peculiar more elongated elongated pods with small beans. In our country and Europe, the American type of beans is popular, which is characterized by dense short pods with rather large fruits.
The division into species according to the shape of a bush plant:
- curly beans. Its main stem can reach a length of 2 m. Like the bush, it is divided into shelling (grain) and asparagus (string). The grain beans inside the pod have a parchment layer that fills the void between the beans. Therefore, shelling bean pods are not eaten. In the asparagus bean there is practically no parchment layer, which makes the pods suitable for use in cooking. You do not need to wait for the beans to do this. The pods are harvested from the stem in immature condition,
- wicker bean varieties. The main stem of a plant usually grows up to 5 m. Most varieties are decorative. In Russia, such beans grows as an annual. But in countries with a warm temperate climate, it pleases those around with perennial flowering,
- bush beans are miniature and compact. Its height does not exceed 60 cm. This species is divided into low-pure and strong-pure.
Spray beans do not take up much space on the garden plot
This type of bean is popular with summer residents and is in good demand among hostesses. It is rich in protein and contains many antioxidants. By their number, red beans can compete with currants. However, in the red bean there are toxic substances, the destruction of which occurs only after heat treatment. You need to cook it for at least 10 minutes. The most famous varieties are:
- Adzuki Climbing plant, annual. It has three-lobed leaves. The flowers are bright yellow, bisexual, self-pollinated. If conditions are favorable for plant growth, then it is able to bloom up to 3 times per season, bringing additional yield. Adzuki pods in length range from 5 to 12 cm. This variety is unique in that the seeds can germinate at a temperature of 6 o C. A minimum of 24 o C is necessary for the growth and fruiting of an annual plant,
- Swallow. This variety belongs to the string bean. Sowing time in open ground - in the second half of May. When landing it is important to take into account the air temperature. The swallow will not be able to grow at temperatures below 15 o C. Biologists have a high yield of the variety. Drought resistant
- Ripe. This is an early ripe variety. You can harvest in 54 days after sowing in open ground. Ripe beans have a maroon color. Abundant fructification.
Red Beans Are Rich In Proteins And Antioxidants
This species has found a special love of vegetable growers. White beans contain very little protein: 7 g per 100 g of beans. It is rich in iron and fiber, which helps to improve the work of the cardiovascular system. Great demand varieties:
- Black eye. It is a sort of white beans with a black peep in the middle of a bean. It has a thin skin. Contains a large amount of vegetable protein. The plant is abundant fruits. It is a late-ripening type of bean,
- Little Red Riding Hood. The name of the variety is chosen for a reason. The red spot at the eye of the bean reminds of a cap. The variety is mid-season. Planting time in open ground - April-May. Beans must be protected from frost, for this, the beds are tightened with any covering material, for example, spandbond. The flowers are white. Beans are resistant to bacteriosis and anthracnose,
- Lotus. Annual Sprouts asparagus beans. Is an early ripe grade. Pods dense, fleshy. Abundant fructification. Beans snow white. Sowing in open ground at a temperature not lower than 18 o C.
Lotus - White Bush Asparagus Beans
Black beans do not enjoy great success in our country. But it is more useful than white and red. It contains a large amount of protein - 9 g. In addition, the use of black beans contributes to the normalization of the gastrointestinal tract. Often used varieties of this species are not so many:
- Preto Late-ripening variety. Type of beans, possessing not only an amazing black color, but also an odor unusual for this culture. Прето имеет насыщенный аромат ягод и сладковатый вкус с пикантной горчинкой,
- Кидни. Сорт этой фасоли также является позднеспелым. Окрас Кидни нельзя назвать абсолютно чёрным — бобы отливают на свету красным. При варке они розовеют.
Чёрная фасоль по своему химическому составу способна заменить мясо
Отдельного внимания заслуживает фасоль Лима. Лимская фасоль бывает двух видов: кустовая и вьющаяся. Annual The plant reaches a height of 15 m. Loves a tropical and subtropical climate. Well caught on in the Krasnodar Territory, Ukraine, the Caucasus.
The flowers of the Lima bean are white with a greenish tint, but there is also a purple color. It is rather difficult to relate Lima to red, black or white beans, as the beans, when ripe, can be brown, brown or pale green. This plant is self-pollinating, independent of the efforts of insects or humans. The length of the pod is from 6 to 20 cm. The weight of the beans varies depending on the variety: 1000 seeds can weigh from 200 g to 1.5 kg. There are several varieties of lima beans:
- Bush fine-grain,
Pods and beans of Lima beans resemble a new month
Beans of any kind are thermophilic and do not like windy places. She prefers light, fertile soil, but can grow on almost any part of the land, since this crop has one peculiarity: it itself enriches the soil with necessary substances. However, experts recommend planting beans in the garden only for the second or third year after fertilizing the soil. There are no strong differences in planting and caring for plants of different species.
Beans can be planted with seedlings, as they prefer to do in central Russia, or immediately by seeds in open ground.
Before planting beans, it should be prepared. To do this, soak the seeds for 12 hours in a solution of hot water and 1-2 drops of potassium permanganate. Immediately before planting, lower the beans for 1-2 seconds into the boric acid solution to protect the beans from pests.
- Plant beans on seedlings is not difficult. Prepare pots with nutrient primer. You can use peat, they are sold in any gardening shop. We lower the germinated beans into a hole 3–6 cm deep. It is impossible to plant deeper, since it will be difficult for shoots to reach the surface.
- Close the pots with food film. You can put under the glass. Before the first shoots, we maintain the temperature from 20 to 25 o C. After the sprouts have appeared, the temperature can be reduced to 16 o C.
- Pots of beans must be placed on the sunny side.
- It is possible to plant seedlings in open ground in 14-17 days. It is important to ensure that the air temperature outside is not lower than 15 o C.
Bean seedling should stand on the sunny side
Seed in the open ground
Sowing beans in open ground in most parts of Russia can be done in mid-May. The earth should warm up to about 12 o C. The beans are planted in holes 4–6 cm deep with a distance of 7–8 cm between plants. The width between rows for bush beans is 40–45 cm, for curling beans - about 60 cm.
With early sowing beans in the ground is to take care of covering materials. This may be spunbond, garden film.
In open ground, they plant 2–3 pieces in one well, then thin out
Compatible with other plants
As you know, plants do not always get along well together. Is no exception and beans. It is not necessary to determine the neighbors onions, Bulgarian and hot peppers, garlic, sunflowers. Beans are not very fond of other legumes, such as peas. But this crop is completely loyal to potatoes, cabbage, radish, zucchini, carrots, eggplants, tomatoes, broccoli, cauliflower and cucumbers. Beans can be planted in areas where they used to grow potatoes, onions, garlic, squash or cucumbers.
Crops in the garden should be periodically replanted to avoid soil depletion. As for beans, they, like potatoes, can grow at the same place for several years in a row.
Features of growing beans in the open field
Beans do not like drafts, so gardeners are trying to plant this crop along fences. Thus, 2 tasks are solved right away: protection for plants from the wind is created, it is not necessary to establish a support for climbing species. If the beans grow in the middle of the plot, then you should take care of the trellis. The easiest way to create a trellis system is to dig in 2 posts along the edges of the bed. A string or wire is pulled between them.
If the beans were planted according to the “nest” principle (several beans in one hole), then it is worth trying another method that is equally easy to use. Next to the hole you need to dig a rail or column. You can use both wood and plastic materials.
For varieties whose length reaches 5 m, gardeners use a pergola, creating a unique landscape design on the site.
For curling beans, you can use pergola instead of a trellis
How to grow beans in a greenhouse
Growing legumes in a greenhouse offers several advantages. For example, it is possible to harvest two crops, not just one. In such conditions, the plants are protected from frost and other adverse weather surprises - hail, strong wind.
A few nuances of growing beans in a greenhouse:
- It is important to ensure that in the heat the ground does not dry out and does not go cracks.
- The air temperature in the greenhouse should not exceed 23 o C. For this, periodic ventilation is necessary.
- The air in the greenhouse should not be too dry, as this contributes to the appearance of aphids and spider mites.
- To the plants in the greenhouse did not get sunburn, it is worth watering the beans in the early morning or late evening.
When growing beans in a greenhouse you need to monitor the humidity of the air
What you need to know about watering and loosening
Beans require a lot of moisture. The earth should be constantly wet. Of course, rainwater is the best for irrigation, but if there is nothing rain in front of the window, you can water it with settled warm water. To the moisture is not so quickly evaporated from the soil, the soil can be covered with mulch: hay, sawdust or straw. Mulch, in addition to preserving moisture, prevents the appearance of weeds around the plant.
So that the soil does not crack, was easier, after each watering you need to slightly loosen the soil. Deep loosening is best avoided so as not to damage the roots of the plant.
Top dressing for beans
It is necessary to wait for the time when the plant will take root thoroughly. It is then possible to carry out the first feeding. This should be a nitrogenous fertilizer. It is made according to the instructions on the package. In the future, fertilizing with nitrogen is better to exclude, since foliage grows abundantly in the soil from its oversupply.
The second feeding is carried out in a month. The fertilizer should include magnesium, phosphorus and potassium. This process is necessary for the formation of ovaries on plants.
Instead of chemical fertilizers, many gardeners use fermented bird droppings, an infusion of weed grass.
Protect beans from pests and diseases
In order for the beans not to hurt and not be invaded by pests, you need to follow a few basic rules:
- When planting plants should strictly follow the sowing scheme. If the foliage is too thick, then the sun's rays will not be able to freely penetrate into the planting, and this can lead to the appearance of fungus.
- Sowing beans on a heavily blown area of land can lead to the development of rot on the plants.
- Plants damaged by pests should be removed from the site.
Beans are rarely attacked by insects. Its main enemies are the weevil and the spider mite. The latter affects the foliage of the beans, the ovaries cease to appear on the plant, the stems become bare.
The weevil, on the contrary, chooses the pods as its habitat. She prefers to eat beans, not leaves.
It is possible to cope with spider mites and grains only with the help of pesticides - Fitoverma, Akarina. Apply them according to the instructions.
Spider mite poses a real threat to beans
Beans are most often exposed to the following diseases:
- white rot. This is a fungus. Pods and stalks are subject to it. To get rid of the disease, the plant is sprayed with a solution of copper oxychloride (40 g per 10 liters of water),
- rust. Yellow-white spots on some leaves may be a sign of bean disease. Rust does not lead to the death of the crop, but significantly reduces the level of yield. To combat it, apply Bordeaux liquid (5 liters per 1 hundred square meters),
- anthracnose. The appearance of pale brown spots on the foliage speaks of the primary signs. Early treatment of anthracnosis is still possible. Plants are sprayed with a solution of 100 g of lime, 100 g of copper sulphate and 10 liters of water. At later stages, it is impossible to get rid of the fungus, therefore the plants affected by anthracnose destroy,
- bacteriosis. Brown spots oblong, surrounded by a yellow or dark green border, are a signal of the disease. Then the leaves begin to curl into tubes and turn yellow. Subsequently, the plant remains without foliage. Cure beans from bacteriosis is impossible. Should get rid of infected plants.
Features of growing beans in different regions
The processes of growing beans in the territory of our country, in the CIS countries or in Europe practically do not differ from each other. Of course, climatic conditions influence the approach to planting and caring for plants. For high yields of this vegetable in different regions, gardeners need to determine the variety of beans.