As soon as they do not call passiflora in different countries and on different continents. Australians refer to it as “Marquis”. Brazilians call it a sweet bowl. And domestic flower growers were nicknamed "the Knight's Star" for their similarity with the star of the royal reward - the Order of St. Andrew. This plant is created not only for beauty, its fruits are actively used in cosmetology, medicine and cooking. In height, the passion flower can stretch out to 10 m. For "climbing" along the walls on the stem, there are strong tightly twisted whiskers with which it clings to the trunks of tropical trees.
Passionflower got its name thanks to the first Christian missionaries who came to the American continent. They were convinced that this flowering vine symbolized Christ’s suffering. Therefore, he was called by his name, which in translation from Greek means literally the following - “the flower of suffering”.
How does it look
Passionflower has more than 400 species. Passionflower edible - the most common of them. Passionflower is an ampelous plant (climbing plant), so the hanging pot will be the most comfortable home for it. Stalks of violently passionate flowers fall out of the pots, as if yeast dough had risen in the pan. Their juicy green color fits perfectly into the interior of the house. And flowers that have a completely cosmic appearance and strong aroma become the real pride of an amateur grower. To judge the beauty of the plant can be on the characteristics of the table.
Table - Appearance and features of passionflower
The healing properties of the fruit
The plant since ancient times is considered medical. Fruits of passionflower (passion fruit), which give some species of plants, are a storehouse of nutrients. They contain:
- vitamin A,
- vitamin C,
- All vitamins of group B.
The peel of the fruit is rich in ascorbic acid and is a constant ingredient of vitamin complexes and dietary supplements. Leaves of room lianas can be used as a painkiller. They are thoroughly kneaded, and then applied to the sore spot or wound. In the old days, medicines prepared on the basis of passiflora treated menstrual pain, insomnia and even dysentery.
Care for passiflora at home
Growing passiflora at home is a simple and rewarding affair. Liana grows very quickly and almost never capricious. It will captivate a long and fragrant flowering, besides the opportunity to grow a tropical fruit on the windowsill is very tempting. The path to the heart of flowering and fruiting passiflora is high humidity and a comfortable warm air temperature all year round. If you are sure that you will be able to provide such conditions to the vine, feel free to replenish your floristic collection with this ampelous plant.
Care for passiflora after purchase begins with the selection of the optimal location for the flower. If you have a terrace or balcony on the sunny side, settle a liana there. She adores the direct rays of the sun and thanks for them the generous flowering. In winter, daylight will not be enough. Light day of passionflower should last about 12 hours, regardless of the season. Therefore, in the cold period, the grower will have to use artificial light sources. Sometimes it is necessary to do the same thing in the summer if the pot with lianas is in the shade or in a dark place.
Temperature and humidity
Cold, intense heat and low humidity are the main enemies of passiflora. The optimum temperature for a liana-like shrub is from 20 to 26 ° C. The temperature above 32 ° C is considered critical.
Passionflower needs constant spraying and humidity above 70%. Due to lack of moisture, the plant begins to hurt. It instantly affects the quality of its foliage. The heating season is considered the most dangerous period for room vine. From October to April, the indoor flower should be watered more often than usual, because of the low humidity, the top layer of the soil dries quickly. Desirable is the use of household humidifier. Otherwise, to achieve a sufficient level of humidity is impossible.
Passionflower likes balance. Watering should be done as the top layer of the earth dries out. Under no circumstances should a plant be poured. This can lead to moisture stagnation, which will cause the death of the flower. In the winter, completely abandon irrigation is also not worth it. Florists with experience recommend at least once every two weeks to moisten the soil in the pot. For irrigation, you can use only separated or pre-filtered water.
The period of active growth and flowering, referred to as vegetative, lasts from passionflower from early spring until the end of the last autumn month. At this time, the plant needs a mandatory monthly feeding. To do this, you can purchase any complex fertilizer for vines. In winter, when the indoor plant is resting, there is no need for top dressing.
Among the recommendations on how to care for passiflora in a pot, we can single out such a moment: only plants that have reached the age of three years need to be transplanted. Previously, change the pot passionflower is not recommended. The frequency of transplant passiflora - every three to five years.
Features In order to propagate passiflora cuttings, you need to take planting material from the parent plant. To trim the passionflower is recommended in the period from mid-March to mid-April. Pruning is done in such a way that each cutting has several internodes. The pruning site is disinfected with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. This helps protect planting material from rotting.
- Sprinkle with freshly cut cuttings with ashes or immerse them in water (in both cases it is necessary to provide greenhouse conditions for planting material).
- After two months, rooting each cutting in a separate container.
- For planting cuttings use a neutral or slightly acidic soil.
Features If you decide to grow passionflower from seeds, it is best to purchase a seed package from a reputable manufacturer. Self-collected seeds will give only 30% of seedlings. And if you plant passiflora seeds collected more than a year ago, you should not count on sprouts at all. Germination of such material does not exceed 2%.
- We carry out the scarification of each seed (we pierce a hard shell).
- Soak the seeds in water at room temperature for two days.
- Seeds that have surfaced are harvested and discarded. In sprouts, they will never turn.
- The remaining seeds are laid out on the ground and slightly pressed into the soil with your fingers.
- We cover with glass, we provide a 12-hour light day and an air temperature of 25ºC.
- After the appearance of several pairs of leaves, we transplant the shoots into different pots and continue the traditional care.
Description of passiflora edible
In nature, this plant represents climbing evergreen shrub or perennial and annual herbaceous plants with woody stems. Edible passionflower has dark green, simple, whole or lobed leaves. Outlandish, brightly colored, star-shaped, large, axillary flowers grow on very long pedicels and reach 10 cm in diameter. They have 5 petals, which symbolize the number of wounds of Christ, large bracts, five sepals, and in the very center of the flower is an ovary with three stigmas, around which there are five stamens with rather large anthers.
In most species, flowers have a pleasant aroma, but, unfortunately, they are not famous for their durability. Blossom from July to October. In many species, fragrant and large fruits, growing in length up to 6 cm, are edible. Non-capricious and fast-growing home-grown passionflower is grown just like an ampelous plant.
What should be the proper care for passiflora at home?
- To begin with, the plant is very demanding for good lighting, so the best place for it is the sill, which is located by the window on the south side of the building.
- If it is possible to arrange a flower outside during the summer period, be sure to take advantage of this, because the plant does not tolerate stagnant stifling air. However, this does not mean that the flower will be useful drafts or he likes sudden temperature drops.
- Among other things, the plant does not tolerate extreme heat: the temperature in the room where the indoor flower is located should not be above 30 ° C during the summer period, and a good rest for the plant in the winter period is possible at a temperature that does not exceed 10-14 ° C
- Home care for passiflora also includes high-quality watering. It should be carried out regularly. You should not wait for the soil to dry out, however, the excess water that accumulates in the pan must be poured out.
- It should increase the humidity of the air by spraying the plants from the spray. This procedure is best carried out in the evenings of every day, and once a week it is useful to have a warm shower, especially in hot weather. When bathing plants, it is worth being extremely attentive in order not to damage the very fragile stems of passiflora.
Caring for most plants also involves timely trimming (once a year), which stimulates intensive growth and quality branching. Due to the fact that flowers form only on young shoots, last year’s secondary shoots need to be cut by a third in spring, and in summer it is recommended to cut out the growth that forms at the very base of the flower. After a period of flowering, very long and balding minor shoots need to be removed, and the rest cut off about 3/4 of their original length. The first pruning is done when the plant reaches the age of three.
Fertilizing with organic and mineral fertilizers is another part of care for passiflora. Fertilizers are applied alternately in the pre-moistened soil in the period from February to September about once every 2 weeks. The approximate ratio of useful elements is as follows:
Once in 6 weeks it is advisable to do from April to September foliar top dressing plants. Do not apply fertilizer during illness or rest of the flower or in cases where passionflower is contained in conditions unusual for her.
In order for the flower to have enough strength for flowering, it needs full rest in a cool and bright room - in a warmed loggia or on the veranda, during which the plant does not light up, do not spray, and also does not feed. The frequency and intensity of irrigation should be reduced to a minimum. Do not worry if the indoor flower during this time will lose a few leaves - this is quite common.
If you do not have the opportunity to arrange a cool wintering for passiflora, then place the pot in the usual place for it and continue the exact same care as before, but be prepared that the leaves of the plant will soon begin to turn yellow first and then fall off.
Care should be taken to passiflora stems had a strong support. You also need to timely send shoots of plants in the direction you need. The stems grow quite quickly and become lumpy over time, and a large number of flowers, buds and leaves make them very sluggish and incredibly heavy.
The transplant of young passiflora is performed annually, and an adult - every two to three years, usually in early spring, making a preliminary pruning of all last year's shoots. A pot for transplanting should be taken small so that the plant can bloom as much as possible and more abundantly, and not addicted to growing greens instead. Passionflower prefers soil of approximately the same composition: peat, turf, leaf soil and sand - all in equal proportions. Passiflora should be planted using a transshipment method, that is, without disturbing the earth bed.
Diseases and pests
Passionflower most often suffers from the following pests:
- spider mite
Most of these insects can be destroyed by aktar, fitoverm or aktellik, and only mealybugs may require a unique approach: they will help to fight them. cypermethrin preparations: "Inta-vir", "Emperor" or "Arrivo".
Regarding infectious diseases, there are cases when passionflower is affected by bacterial, brown and ring spots, blight, root rot, yellow mosaic virus, fusarium, and scab. Unfortunately, it is more often than not to cure the passiflora in these cases, so the best solution that can be offered is to remove the flower with the pot in order to eliminate the risk of infection of neighboring houseplants.
Humanity since time immemorial aware of the healing properties of passiflora - The Incas used tea from the plant, because its main feature is a sedative (calming) effect. Drugs from passiflora can improve the duration and quality of sleep, saving the patient from unpleasant sensations during waking up.
In addition to the sedative effect on the human body, passionflower can boast of analgesic, anticonvulsant, antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory properties. The plant improves memory, increases potency, increases efficiency, reduces nervousness and irritability. Since passionflower successfully compensates for the effects of amphetamine, it is used with great success in the treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction. And most importantly, in the presence of all these incredible qualities, passiflora preparations have absolutely no side effects and are not addictive. Therefore, this plant can be used in the treatment of both adults and children.
Reproduction of passiflora by seeds
If you are collecting seeds from your own plant, then you should know that withWonderful planting material has a germination rate of about 30%, and last year’s one is only 1-2%; therefore, seeds should be purchased only from a reliable supplier and sowed them in early spring or late winter.
Before sowing, the seeds of passiflora must be scarified — damage the hard shell with a fine sandpaper. After that, the planting material is soaked for two days in warm water (24-26 ° C). After this period, it is necessary to throw away the seeds that float on the surface, since they are not viable.
Swollen seeds should be spread out on the surface of the soil and slightly push them into the ground. To create one hundred percent moisture, which is necessary for seed germination, it is necessary to cover the container with an air-tight transparent film or glass sowing, placing the structure under diffused bright light. Containers with seedlings should be kept at a temperature of 21-26 ° C.
When the first sprouts appear, the glass or film is removed and the shoots are provided with a twelve-day light day with the help of additional illumination. When the seedlings enter the pore of the first pair of true leaves, they are very carefully diving, while trying to keep an earthen ball on the roots and not deeply embedding seedlings in the ground. Growing passiflora is a rather long process: you can expect the first shoots from one month to a year, and a young plant grown from seeds will blossom only after eight long years.
Passionflower propagated by cuttingssliced from spring new shoots. Planting material must have a point of growth and not less than 2 pairs of leaves. When grafting, the lower pair of leaves is removed, and the lower section is carefully processed by root formers. We place in the pot with a drainage layer the soil of black soil and turf soil in equal proportions. In the ground with a pencil it is necessary to make several deep holes so that they reach the very bottom and insert the cuttings into these holes so that the remaining pair of leaves on the planting material are flush with the surface.
Then the substrate is moistened, and a greenhouse is constructed from the transparent plastic bag and arched wire above the cuttings. The package must be removed every day for about 5 minutes to ensure that all cuttings are well ventilated. The soil should never dry out, and the temperature of maintenance for successful rooting of passionflower should be around 21 ° C. Approximately in three weeks the greenhouse is removed from the cuttings. and when the young seedlings grow up and get stronger, it should be transplanted into a special soil for passiflora.
Cuttings can also be rooted in water: In a three-liter jar of water is placed a piece of charcoal and planting material. Then it remains only to wait until the cuttings grow young roots - it can take from one and a half to two months. Water during this process can not be changed in any case.
Types of Passiflora
Here are the most common types of plants that are grown at home:
- Edible Passionflower (Passiflora edulis). The most commonly cultivated species of this plant. Естественными местами произрастания являются: Аргентина, Бразилия, Парагвай и Уругвай. Имеет цветки кремово-белого оттенка, круглые или яйцевидные душистые плоды длиной до 6 см, из которых часто готовят напитки и сладости. Нам данный вид более известен под названием маракуя.
- Blue Passion Flower (Passiflora caerulea). A fairly common species, which is an evergreen lignified liana with single fragrant flowers. It has a blue fruit with an orange berry.
- Lacypaca (Passiflora laurifolia). Brazil is considered the birthplace of the plant. It has leaves that resemble laurel, but much larger in size.
Passionflower types and names with photo
View of Passiflora Alat in the wild, it grows rapidly, reaching 5 meters. At home, the plant measures more modestly. Flower growers grow it in a greenhouse or on a sunny window. The flowers have dark red or orange shades with a pleasant smell. Leaves oblong 10-15 cm long.
For growth you need to establish a support for which the plant will cling to long mustaches. It is also necessary to often prune the vine so that more flowers appear. This species is appreciated by fragrant fruits that have dark yellow flesh color. Fruits resemble a pear, but of large size –15 cm in length and up to 10 cm in diameter.
Passionflower Foetis (changeable) the stems of this plant are covered with small hairs. The flowers are white or cream-colored with a diameter of 6 cm. The orange fruits of small size have a juicy flesh. Foetida moisture-and light-loving plant, which must often be sprayed and kept where there is a lot of light. Every two weeks you need to feed fertilizer with a high fluorine content.
Passion Flower Royal Star This plant has flowers with a white or blue tint. In diameter, they reach 10 cm. Fruits are orange, resembling chicken eggs. During active growth, the flower should be abundantly watered and fed every week. Differs in frost resistance and unpretentiousness in cultivation.
Passionflower Lavender Lady fast-growing liana with large (10-12 cm) flowers, resembling a star in its shape. Flowering period - from April to mid-autumn. Characteristic features of the plant are rapid growth and vitality. When grown at home, it is necessary to maintain moderate soil moisture and good illumination.
Passionflower Blue Cassiopeia
The plant has dark blue flowers, reaching 12 cm in diameter. After flowering gives yellow and inedible fruits. Growing a flower at home, it is necessary to establish a high support so that the shoots of the vines cling to long tendrils. Plant blooms from early spring to mid-autumn.
Giant Passionflower (tetrahedral) in the wild grows in the tropics of America. The stem of this evergreen vine has a tetrahedral shape. Large flowers, reaching 10 cm in diameter, resemble bells. Outside, they are dark red in color and white or lilac inside. Yellow-green fruit oblong up to 30 cm in length and 10 cm in width. The plant is able to adapt to almost any conditions.
Passionflower Sweet Granadilla
This species has long and smooth lianas, on which broad leaves of dark green color grow. Flowers are large with purple and white petals. Edible fruits are bright yellow, orange or reddish in color.
In order for the plant to bloom and bear fruit, it must be placed where there is a lot of light. In the summer, it is necessary to spray the leaves every day, since the humidity of the air is insufficient. Do not allow the drying of the earth and stagnant water. Spring and summer need to be fertilized every two weeks.
Passionflower Reed This plant is common in the mountains of South and Central America. Lianas grow to 4 meters, have wide and smooth leaves with a length of 8-10 cm. The flowers are large with white and pink petals. After flowering, small fruits appear yellow or orange. For active growth requires high humidity with a temperature of 18-25 degrees Celsius.
Passion Flower Incarnath (meat red) growth area - North America. Other name "Passionflower apricot vine". In height reaches 10 meters. Stems and leaves are smooth, with long petioles. The flowers are small, have a variety of colors, but mostly there is a purple hue. The plant gives yellow fruit with a pleasant taste.
Passionflower Edulis (edible). Liana of this species reaches a length of ten meters. This species gives an exotic fruit called "passion fruit". Juices, ice cream are made from fruits, used in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. The flowers are white and purple to 3 cm in diameter.
Passiflora Karulea (blue). The fast-growing plant comes from the Brazilian tropics, rooted in the Mediterranean and in England. In Russia, it is often called "Cavaliers star»Presumably for the resemblance of a flower with vintage premium signs. This species has flowers with blue and white shades with a diameter of 12 cm and fruits no longer than 6 cm.
Passionflower Molissima (banana)
This plant is originally from Andean highlands. Differs tasty and large (up to 12 cm) fruits. Creepers reach 7 meters in length. They sprout pink flowers with a fragrant smell. At home "Molissima"Has more modest dimensions. This plant needs special care in compliance with the correct air temperature, soil moisture and light. The first fruits bear two years after planting.
Passionflower Violacea grows rapidly especially after circumcision. It has long shoots with thick foliage. Ideal for creating vertical landscaping in the garden. The plant blooms every year throughout the summer. Gives fragrant flowers of various shades - from white to light pink with a diameter of about 5-7 cm. The buds appear on the day, but constantly replace each other. The plant is resistant to cold, tolerates frost 15 degrees Celsius.
Passionflower care at home
Passionflower attracts with the beauty of flowers and exotic fruits. Fills the room with its pleasant aroma. It creates the atmosphere of distant tropics in the house. It is for such qualities that flower growers appreciate Passiflora and diligently breed it.
This is an unpretentious plant, but in order to bloom and please, you need to be able to care for it, following simple rules.
In the summer, the plant is always in direct sunlight, and the earth dries quickly. Therefore, water it in a timely manner. Try to do it every day. The ground should be moderately wet.
Also spray green leaves with a spray bottle regularly. Use soft and defended water. Spray the plant in the evening so that droplets of moisture do not cause leaf burn. Try not to fall on the flowers.
Tip! To maintain a suitable humidity environment, place the pot on a tray with wet pebbles.
Holmskyoldia is a member of the family Luminous and is also grown as a room vine. Flowers, though not comparable with passiflora, but also have a very decorative appearance. The plant is easily grown for care at home, subject to all rules of keeping. All the necessary recommendations for the cultivation and care of this plant can be found in this article.
Soil for passiflora
Land for growing Passiflora must be soft, fertile and well ventilated. The stores sell ready-made versions of the soil, for example, for lemon or begonia.
If you make the soil yourself, you need to mix in equal proportions of deciduous or sod land with peat and sand.
Tip! Make a drainage layer (2-3 cm) of rubble, small pebbles or expanded clay at the bottom of the pot. This drainage will drain excess moisture from the soil, protecting the plant from moisture.
The root system and shoots Passiflora rapidly increasing. Therefore, at the initial stage, it must be replanted every year. This is done in late March or early April. Adult plants need to be transplanted every three years.
Before you “move” a flower to a new place, prepare it. To do this, cut the vines to 1/3, remove dried shoots and process the cut areas with potassium permanganate.
Pot size for Passiflora
At the very beginning of growth, the flower needs a regular plastic container with a diameter of not more than 10 cm. As the Passiflora develops, it is necessary for it to select larger pots.
Try to choose a capacity that left the reserve in terms of soil volume. For transplantation fit both plastic and ceramic pots.
Fertilizers for Passiflora
Feed the flower with organic fertilizers or mineral complexes. Dilute top dressing with water and water.
This should be done in spring and summer three times a month. Every month and a half from April to September, do foliar application, consisting of trace elements.
Tip! For the plant will be useful alternation of organic and mineral fertilizers.
Passiflora pruning in spring
Timely circumcision has a positive effect on the condition of the flower. This procedure helps to achieve lush branching of vines, foliage density and abundant flowering. Circumcise in early spring and late fall when the plant fades.
Completely get rid of sluggish and dry shoots, and the old shorten five centimeters above the bud. After cutting, place the flower in a dark place for two weeks, and then return it to the light.
Tip! The first circumcision can be done one year after planting, when the plant is formed and mature.
If the plant receives enough light, it blooms from spring to late autumn. When a branch matures (this happens in a month), many flowers appear on it.
In order for Passion Flower to bloom profusely until late autumn, do not twist it into a ring, but straighten it by setting a high support.
Passionflower in winter
Most species of this plant are afraid of frost. In winter, temperatures below +12 degrees Celsius are detrimental to the flower. So try to keep the plant in a warm room and then it will not perish.
Also, avoid drying out the soil and maintain a good level of illumination.
Tip! Keep Passiflora from places where there are sudden changes in temperature and drafts. She can lose all foliage and buds.
Seed Passion Flower
The main method that is used for growing Passiflora. The suitable time for this is February and March. Creating a comfortable environment for planting seedlings, you will get the result in two weeks.
But sometimes the plant does not grow within the specified period. The reason is a long adaptation of the seeds to the environment. In this case, seedlings may appear after one or two months.
Tip! Pre-grouting of seeds (with sandpaper) and soaking in orange or lemon juice will help reduce the time of germination. Also maintain a moderate soil moisture and monitor the air temperature, which should not exceed 25 degrees Celsius.
Reproduction passiflora cuttings
This method is unusual in that the decadence of cuttings occurs in water. In this case, you need to put the plant in water with charcoal. Do not change the water until the roots appear. The process takes up to two months.
Tip! After the roots appear, plant the plant in the ground and be sure to cover it with a greenhouse - it should get used to the new environment.
Take one tablespoon of crushed and dried leaves. Pour a glass of boiling water and place for twenty minutes in a water bath. Drain the solution and boil it until the volume is halved.
Drink before bedtime five drops of broth, mixed with a tablespoon of water. This tool helps to eliminate problems with the nervous system.
Place two sheets in a glass and fill it with hot water. Cover with a lid and leave for fifteen minutes. Then remove the leaves.
Use one teaspoon tincture five times a day. This remedy helps reduce cravings for alcohol.
Flower growers love to grow this exotic plant. It attracts eyes and pleases with its lush flowering. Passionflower has not only attractiveness, but also many healing properties.
To fully enjoy the full benefits of the plant, you need to properly care for him. Use advice, and you, too, will be able to grow Passiflora at home.
Home passionflower or passionflower - description, photo
Passion flower has smooth stems, the length of which can be more than ten meters. It has whole or lobed dark green simple leaves and long pedicels on which unusual star-shaped flowers are formed with a diameter of up to 10 cm. The flowers have five sepals, five petals and large bracts. In the center of each bud there are three stigmas, which are surrounded by five stamens with rather large anthers.
When does a passionflower bloom (passionflower)? Flowering begins in July and continues throughout the summer. In some species, large edible fruits are formed after flowering. Both flowers and fruits have a pleasant aroma.
According to the signs, passionflower is a flower of loyalty and deference. Popular rumor says that if a fan gives a woman a passion flower, then he offers her a long relationship that will be sensual and trusting.
Passionflower does not bloom
The flower needs a period of rest, during which it is gaining strength for flowering. When grown in the winter in warm home conditions, flowering may be scarce or absent altogether. Also, if the passionflower does not bloom, you should pay attention to the following points:
- good lighting
- Does the plant have enough moisture and nutrition?
- an excess of nitrogen in fertilizers leads to an increase in foliage, and buds may not form.
Passiflora leaves turn yellow
The yellow leaves of the plant should first be examined for the presence of pests on them. Dry air in the apartment and other adverse conditions can cause spider mites, whiteflies, mealybugs and thrips to appear on the vine. They all feed on the sap of the plant, as a result of which the leaves first turn yellow, then dry and fly around. To destroy pests by processing special insecticidal drugs.
Other causes of yellowing leaves include:
- insufficient lighting,
- micronutrient deficiencies,
- excess moisture, in which yellow spots appear on the leaves first.
Do not worry if the old lower leaves turn yellow and fall off in an adult bush. This is a natural process.
The tips of passiflora leaves dry and dark
This means that the room has low air humidity, which is why the plant suffers. In such conditions, it requires regular spraying.
However, the leaves may darken due to overdrying or over-sedimentation of the soil. If the darkened leaves begin to fall off intensively, care should be reviewed.
Planting and care for passiflora (in short)
- Bloom: from July to October.
- Lighting: bright sunlight (south window sill).
- Temperature: during the growing season - no higher than 30 ˚C, in the period of rest - 12-14 ˚C.
- Watering: regular, without waiting for the soil to dry.
- Air humidity: increased. In the hot season, nightly spraying and weekly shower treatments are recommended.
- Top dressing: from February to September, once every two weeks alternating with organic and mineral fertilizers. From April to September, foliar dressings give a good effect. During the rest period, the plant does not need fertilizers.
- Rest period: from October to the end of January.
- Trimming: after the plant reaches the age of three, last year’s minor shoots are shortened by a third in the spring, the basal shoots are cut out in the summer, and after flowering bald, too long and weak shoots are removed, and the normal ones are shortened by three quarters.
- Garter: the plant needs a reliable support, to which the shoots are tied up, before they begin to harden.
- Transfer: in early spring after pruning: young plants are transplanted annually, adults - once every 2-3 years.
- Reproduction: green cuttings and seeds.
- Pests: aphid, spider mites, thrips, whiteflies and mealybugs.
- Diseases: root rot, late blight, fusarium, scab, bacterial, brown and ring spots, yellow mosaic virus.
- Properties: is not addictive and does not give side effects of a medicinal plant with a sedative, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, analgesic and anticonvulsant action.
Home Passiflora - description
A passiflora plant in nature is an evergreen climbing shrub or herbaceous plants, annual and perennial, with woody stems. Passiflora leaves are simple, dark green, lobed or whole. Large, axillary, star-shaped, brightly colored unusual flowers up to 10 cm in diameter grow on long pedicels. They have five petals - according to the number of wounds of Christ, five sepals, large bracts, in the center of the flower - ovary with three stigmas, and around them - five stamens with large anthers. The flowers of many species emit a pleasant aroma, but, unfortunately, they are short-lived. Passiflora blooms usually from July to October. Large, up to 6 cm in length, fragrant passiflora fruits are edible in many species. The fast-growing and non-capricious home passionflower is grown as an ampelous plant.
How to grow passionflower.
Passionflower at home requires good lighting, so the best place for it is the window sill facing south. If you have the opportunity to arrange a plant in summer in nature, do not miss it, because the passionflower flower does not tolerate stagnant stifling air. Но это не значит, что ей полезны сквозняки или она не страдает от перепада температур.In addition, the plant does not tolerate strong heat: in summer the temperature in the room where passionflower is located should not rise above 30 ºC, and in winter the plant can have a good rest at a temperature not higher than 10-14 ºC. Watering passiflora should be done regularly, without waiting for the soil to dry out, but the excess water from the pan must be drained. Humidity should be increased by nightly spraying and weekly shower procedures in hot weather, which should be carried out with caution, taking care not to damage the fragile stems of the plant.
Care for passiflora involves annual pruning, stimulating branching and intensive plant growth. Since the flowers are formed only on young shoots, last year's secondary shoots are cut in the spring by one third, in the summer you need to cut out the growth that forms at the base of passionflower. After flowering, incongruently long, balding minor shoots are removed, the rest are cut to three-quarters of length. The first pruning is done on plants that have reached the age of three.
Top dressing with mineral and organic fertilizers is carried out alternately on a pre-moistened soil from February to September every two weeks. The approximate ratio of elements is as follows: N-P-K = 10-5-20. It is advisable once every six weeks from April to September to produce foliar feeding passiflora. Do not apply fertilizer when the plant is sick, resting or temporarily contained in unusual conditions for it.
In order for passiflora to have sufficient strength for flowering, she needs complete peace in a bright cool room - on the veranda or in a warmed loggia, during which time the passion flower is not sprayed, not illuminated or fed, and the intensity and frequency of irrigation is reduced to a minimum. Do not worry if the plant loses a certain amount of leaves - this is quite common. If you do not have the opportunity to arrange a cold wintering of the passiflora, leave it in its usual place and continue to care for it, as usual, but be prepared for the fact that the leaves of the plant will begin to turn yellow and fall off.
Make sure that the stems of passiflora have a strong support, and timely send shoots to the side you need - the stems grow quickly and lumber, and a large number of leaves, buds and flowers make them heavy and sluggish.
A young passionflower is transplanted annually, and an adult - every 2-3 years at the beginning of spring, after cutting off last year's shoots. The pot should be taken small so that the plant is not fond of building greens, and faster and more abundantly bloomed. Soil for passiflora is preferable for approximately this composition: sand, sod, leaf and peat land in equal parts. Landing passiflora is carried out without disturbing the earthy coma, that is, by way of transshipment
Pests and diseases of passiflora.
Passionflower sometimes suffers from spider mites, aphids, thrips, mealybugs and whiteflies. Practically all these insects are destroyed by an aktellik, a flyover or an aktar, only mealybugs require a special approach: they need cypermetry preparations, for example, Arrivo, Imperator or Inta-vir. As for infectious diseases, there are cases of passiflora bacterial, ring and brown spots, root rot, blight, fusarium, scab, and the yellow mosaic virus. Unfortunately, in such cases it is most often impossible to cure passiflora, therefore it is necessary to destroy both the flower and the pot in which it grows, in order to eliminate the risk of infection of other indoor plants.
Humankind has known about the healing properties of the plant since time immemorial - the Incas drank tea from passionflower, since the main property of the plant is a sedative (sedative) effect. Drugs from passiflora improve the quality and duration of sleep, leaving no discomfort on waking. But besides the sedative effect, passionflower has anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, anticonvulsant and analgesic properties, increases efficiency and potency, improves memory, relieves irritability and nervousness. Since passionflower compensates for the action of amphetamine, it is successfully used in the treatment of drug addiction and alcoholism. And the most important thing is that with all these wonderful qualities, preparations from passiflora have no side effects and do not cause addiction, therefore they are used to treat not only adults, but also children.
Growing passiflora from seeds.
If you have collected seeds from your own passiflora, keep in mind that freshly harvested seeds have a germination rate of about 30%, and last year’s seeds are only 1-2%, so it’s best to buy seeds from a reliable supplier and sow them in late winter or early spring. Before sowing the seeds of passiflora, they are scarified — fine sandpaper damage the hard shell. After this, the seeds should be soaked for two days in warm water (25 ºC), and after this period, throw away the seeds that remained to float on the surface - they are not viable. The swollen seeds are laid out on the surface of the soil and slightly pressed into it. To create the one hundred percent moisture necessary for seed germination, the sowing container is covered with glass or a transparent air-tight film, placed under bright ambient light and kept at a temperature of 20-25 ºC. When sprouts appear, remove the glass or film and provide shoots with a twelve hour light day with additional lighting. When the seedlings will have the first pair of true leaves, they are carefully diving, trying to keep an earthen ball on the roots and not overly dredging the seedlings into the ground. Growing passiflora is a long process: seedlings will have to wait from a month to a year, and passiflora from seeds will only bloom in eight years.
Passionflower edible (Passiflora edulis).
Most often it is cultivated edible edifice, or granadilla, as it is called in natural habitats - in Uruguay, Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina. It has creamy white flowers and ovoid or round fragrant fruits up to 6 cm long, from which sweets and drinks are made. This species is known to us as the passion fruit.
Passiflora blue (Passiflora caerulea).
It is also often found in the culture of blue passionflower - evergreen liana with woody stems and with single, fragrant, light purple or greenish-blue flowers, whose diameter reaches ten centimeters. There are varieties with pink and red flowers. The fruit of passiflora blue is an orange berry up to seven centimeters long. The homeland of this species is the Andes in southern Argentina, as well as Brazil, Paraguay and Peru. In culture, this view from the sixteenth century.
Passion flower gentle (Passiflora mollissima),
or banana passionflower, growing in nature in Bolivia, Colombia and Venezuela, has pinkish flowers with a diameter of up to 12 cm and fragrant fleshy fruits containing organic acids in high concentrations. This species is distinguished by abundant fruiting in the first year of life. Banana passionflower is cold-resistant and can withstand temperatures up to -2 ºC.
Passion Flower Incarnata (Passiflora incarnata),
or passionflower meaty red, or apricot vine, reaching a length of 6 to 10 meters. The flowers are of different colors, but most often the petals have a purple hue, the fruits of lemon-yellow color have a pleasant taste with a slight sourness. This species is the most valuable from the medical point of view - from the dried stems and leaves of incarnates make tea, which helps in the treatment of neurosis, insomnia, epilepsy and other diseases.
Passiflora graciform (Passiflora gracilis)
from Brazil, an annual with cylindrical stems, broadly triangular-ovoid smooth, shallowly dissected into three lobes leaves and single white flowers with a protrusion. A fruit - a multi-seed berry red with a coral shade.
Passiflora trifasciata (Passiflora trifasciata)
from Peru is so named because of the three purple stripes on the upper side of three-lobed leaves, the lower side of which is purple-red. Stems are ribbed in this species, flowers are greenish or yellowish-white, up to 4-5 cm in diameter. The fruit is a rounded blueberry up to two and a half centimeters in length. Another distinctive feature of this species is a scent that resembles the smell of lilac.
Passion leaf tetrahedral (Passiflora quadrangularis)
- the largest of passionflower with powerful shoots up to 15 meters in length. It has bright green oval leaves, huge flowers up to 15 cm in diameter and very large oval fruits up to 30 cm in length with thick skin and juicy sweet pulp. But in the conditions of an apartment, the fruits are rarely tied. The best place to grow passionflower tetrahedral in our climate - greenhouse.
In addition to the above-mentioned species, passiflora is sometimes grown in the culture: winged, scarlet-colored, variable, crayon and Imperatrice Eugenic hybrid with large pinkish-blue flowers.
Illumination and occupancy
This plant just needs good illumination. Therefore, it is recommended to place it on a windowsill with a south orientation window. In the warm season it (if possible) must be moved to fresh air. The fact is that passionflower grows poorly and develops in a room with stuffy stagnant air. However, it should not be forgotten that the plant reacts negatively to drafts or a sudden change in temperature.
How to water
Water the plant should be systematically, while waiting for the drying of the soil should not be. However, the extra liquid that the glass pan should necessarily be drained.
Requires increased humidity. To do this, the foliage should be moistened daily from the sprayer in the evening, as well as once a week to arrange a warm shower for the plant (only during the hot summer months), and this procedure is carried out very carefully so as not to damage the fragile shoots.
It is necessary to annually trim. This stimulates the growth of both the bush and the new branches. In the springtime, last year’s secondary stems should be cut to 1/3, as the flowers appear only on young shoots. Also in the summer, it is necessary to remove the shoots that grow at the base of the plant. When passionflower ottsvetet, you will need to trim the long, balding minor stems that spoil the appearance of the bush. The remaining stems should be cut to of their length. It is necessary to begin to cut bushes after the plant reaches 3 years of age.
In the period from February to September, it is necessary to regularly feed the plant 2 times a month. To do this, use organic and mineral fertilizers while feeding them alternately. Fertilizers are applied only after pre-moistening of the substrate. Fertilizer should be chosen with the following ratio of elements N-P-K = 10-5-20. Recommended 1 time in 1.5 months from April to September to feed the flower foliar way. It is impossible to fertilize a flower if it is ill, during a period of rest or after its transfer to a place with unusual conditions.
For abundant and prolonged flowering, the plant simply needs a rest period. To do this, the pot should be moved to a well-lit, cool place, for example, to a warmed loggia or to a veranda. During this period it is not necessary to light up, fertilize or moisten the flower. Watering should be sparse and infrequent. You should not worry in case of falling off several leaves, as this is quite normal. If it is impossible to provide the plant with a cool wintering, it cannot be tolerated anywhere and care for it, as in the warm season. However, in this case, most likely the foliage will turn yellow and start to die out, and this is a completely natural process.
Features of growing
For the shoots of this plant it is necessary to provide sufficiently strong support. In this case, you need to regularly send the stems in the direction in which you need. This should be done in a timely manner, because fast-growing shoots lignify at a relatively high speed, and a lot of leaves, buds and flowers make them heavier and slow.
Young individuals need an annual transplant, and adults need to be transplanted 1 time in 2 or 3 years. Carry out this procedure at the beginning of the spring period and before that, they cut all last year's stems. Capacity for planting is not very large, which will provide long and abundant flowering. Otherwise, only green mass will grow. A suitable groundwater mixture consists of equal shares of leaf, turf and peat land, as well as sand. It is necessary to replant the method of transshipment, while trying not to destroy the earthen coma.
Diseases and pests
Aphids, mealybugs, spider mites, thrips, or whitefly can live on this plant. All insects except mealybugs can be destroyed by such means as Fitoverm, Aktellik or Aktar. Meals with cypermetry, for example, Emperor, Arrivo, or Inta-vir, will help to get rid of mealybugs.
Passionflower is susceptible to various diseases, so it can become infected: ring, bacterial or brown spot, blight, scab, root rot, fusarium or yellow mosaic virus. To cure plants from such diseases is almost impossible. In this regard, experts recommend to destroy it, along with the capacity in which it grew, in order to prevent infection of other flowers.
Humanity has long been aware of the healing properties of this plant. So, the Incas made tea with passiflora, which had a strong sedative effect. Means prepared from such a flower gently acting on the body, make sleep better and longer, while after awakening a person does not feel discomfort.
However, the plant has not only a sedative effect, it also relieves spasms and cramps, eliminates inflammation, is an excellent pain reliever, improves potency, memory and performance. Recommended technique for nervousness and irritability. This flower is able to compensate for the effects on the body of amphetamine, so it is often used in the treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction.
This plant is appreciated also by the fact that the preparations prepared from it do not have undesirable side effects, and also they do not cause addiction. They are used to treat people of any age.
Passionflower can be propagated by cuttings or seeds.
When sowing seeds, one should take into account that freshly harvested ones have a 30% germination rate, while last year’s seeds have only 1 or 2 percent. Seeding is done at the end of the winter beginning of the spring period. Scarification is required, for this the seed coat is damaged by fine sandpaper. Then for 2 days they are poured with tepid water (approximately 25 degrees). The remaining swim seeds should be removed, as they are not related.
Sow the seeds on the surface of the soil and slightly pressed into it. For germination need moisture 100%. To do this, the container is closed with glass or film, put in a well-lit place (diffused light) and maintain the temperature at a level from 20 to 25 degrees. After seed germination, the shelter must be removed, and the seedlings will need light exposure to create a light day lasting 12 hours. After the appearance of these leaves it is necessary to conduct a pick. Try to leave the earth com whole and not bury the seedlings. Seedlings may appear 1–12 months after sowing, and such passionflower will begin to bloom no sooner than after 8 years.
Cuttings are made from young spring stems. They must have a growing point and at least 2 pairs of leaflets. A couple of leaves below are cut off. It is necessary to treat the cut in a tool that stimulates the formation of roots. A drainage layer is made in the tank and black soil and turf soil are poured into it (1: 1). A pencil should be made to deepen to the bottom of the tank. Place the cuttings in them, so that the leaves remain above the ground (lay on the surface). Moisten the substrate and make a mini teplichka (arched design, wrap a film or put on a plastic bag). We need daily five-minute airing, keeping the ground moist, and a temperature of 21 degrees. After 3 weeks the shelter is removed. Strengthened cuttings are transplanted into permanent pots. Rooting is also produced in a jar of water (a piece of charcoal must be put into it). Place the stalk and wait for the roots to appear, about 1.5–2 months. Water does not change.
- Blue passionflower - an evergreen lianoid plant, on lignified shoots of which are formed single purple, red, pink or greenish-blue shades of flowers with an elegant aroma. After flowering fruits are formed orange color.
- Banana or most tender passionflower - a decorative vine that can withstand a drop in a mercury column to the -2 ° C mark. It has a beautiful flowering, in which large pink flowers bloom, and abundant fruiting in the first year of life.
- Пассифлора инкарната – ценный с точки зрения медицины вид, высушенные побеги которого используются для создания чая, обладающего успокоительными свойствами. Цветки окрашены в различные оттенки фиолетового, а ярко-жёлтые плоды имеют кисло-сладкий вкус.
- Пассифлора трёхполосная – вид с очень декоративными листьями, которые с верхней стороны украшены тремя пурпурными полосками. Зеленоватые или белые с оттенком жёлтого цветы источают дивным аромат, рождающий в воображении образ сирени.
- Passionflower edible is a common species in culture with creamy-white flowers, in the place of which large, fragrant fruits are formed, known to the majority by the name “Passion fruit”.
When growing an exotic beauty in the house, you need to take into account several of its features:
- Rates of growth. In the natural environment, the lianoid plant develops very quickly, but in the home environment the pace decreases slightly.
- Fruiting. With proper care in the residential environment it is also possible to get the fruits that in most species are edible and very tasty.
- Bloom. From mid-summer to mid-autumn, beautiful, fragrant flowers bloom, whose lifespan is only a day.
The primary task of the grower, who decided to cultivate an exotic plant in his home, is to provide the necessary conditions for the full development of creepers:
- Lighting. Passionflower is demanding of light and will bloom only in bright light, which can be achieved by placing a flower near the southern windows. In the summer, it is worth moving the flower to fresh air, to a place protected from drafts.
- Temperature. A heat-loving plant does not tolerate extreme heat. The optimum temperature indicator is in the range of 22-25 ° C. And the maximum permissible value is 30 ° C. With the arrival of winter tropical liana it is necessary to organize a stay in a cool room, where the temperature range will be 10-14 ° C.
- Humidity. Like most of the inhabitants of the tropics, passionflower needs daily evening spraying, as well as shower procedures for extreme heat.
- Support. The plant quickly develops shoots and lignes, and the buds, leaves and inflorescences weigh them even more, so the flower needs a fairly strong support.
Attention! It is necessary to bathe a plant in a shower very carefully not to damage fragile escapes.
Water supplies should be regular, maintaining the soil in a slightly moist state. In this case, the residual liquid from the pan after watering must be drained.
In the process:
- Strong shoots do not touch.
- Young shoots are pinched.
- Apical and shoots growing at the base are cut.
- Dry, diseased and injured branches are removed.
- Places cut with powdered charcoal.
Only young plants should be transplanted annually. As passionflower grows older, the interval between transplants increases to 3-4 years.