Pumpkin seeds for planting can be bought at the store or collect pumpkin seeds, which were planted in their garden in previous years and matured completely. How to collect the seeds - everyone knows: you just need to remove and wash them after cutting a ripe fruit, and then dry and put in storage in a bag of natural fabric all the collected material for future sowing. They are considered suitable for use as long as 4 years, but fresh seeds are not planted, it is better to save them for a couple of years, then germination will increase significantly. A large, full-weighted grain will give a healthy plant, so the planting material is calibrated in size, cultivating the unusable. To do this, it is enough to soak pumpkin seeds before planting in salted water - the worst of the seeds will remain on the surface.
Vegetable growers often talk about how to properly prepare the seed. It is necessary not only to select it, but also to decontaminate, stimulate germination. To protect their future plants from diseases, seeds are treated with different substances. Most often for several hours they are placed in a bright pink solution of potassium permanganate, but potassium humate, krezacin, an infusion of wood ash can be used.
All these activities are designed to protect plants after planting pumpkins in open ground. Is it possible to do without it? Of course. Whether it is necessary to soak pumpkin seeds before planting, each owner decides for himself. But, as a rule, all the preparatory efforts take a little time and attention, while increasing the germination and quality of plants.
We germinate and harden the seeds
Before planting a pumpkin in the open ground with seeds, soaked sunflower seeds germinate or wait only for sprouting sprouting, and then still harden. This will help to get the seedlings sooner, which means to reduce the overall growth time, that is, to have time to grow the crop, even if the summer ends early, especially as the pumpkin grows better with a daylight less than 12 hours, being a plant of a short daylight hours. And hardening will increase the immunity of plants, make them stronger in the face of changing weather.
In order to make it easier for the germ to overcome the skin of the seed, the seeds are heated for 8–9 hours at a temperature of + 50–60 degrees. You can use the oven for these purposes, or simply hold them in the sun, occasionally turning them over for uniform heating. After that, they are placed in an ash solution for 12 hours (2 tablespoons of wood ash and 1 liter of boiling water insist until the temperature is acceptable - about +50 degrees) or simply wrap with a solution soaked in gauze, previously rolled several times.
Before planting, sprouted or sticking seeds are placed on the last day in the fridge, leaving on the bottom shelf. Sometimes they are just alternately kept for 10 hours in the room, 2 - in the refrigerator, and only then they are planted out.
Top dressing and other soil preparation
The place for pumpkin beds is sunny, although many varieties grown in partial shade do not lose when it is time to harvest. The soil must be non-acidic, fertile, loose enough that the water does not stagnate, and the air gets to the roots. The best option would be fertile sandy loam or loam. At the same place, pumpkin crops are planted not earlier than in 5 years. Cereals, legumes, cabbage, siderats and perennial grasses are considered to be good predecessors.
Before planting pumpkin seeds in the garden, it is worth doing some preparatory work. The site is better to cook in the fall. It needs to be freed from weeds, dig up to the depth of the spade bayonet, make humus and compost, you can even an unrepaired mullein, with a total complexity of up to 10 kg per 1 square meter.
You need to add superphosphate and potash fertilizers (up to 20 g each), 1-liter jar of wood ash. If the ground is too heavy, add sawdust to it (preferably semi-overflow), sand, and sand should be added to sandy. If the soil is acidic, in the fall dolomite flour or even lime is added to it. Those who did not have time to enrich the soil in the fall usually apply fertilizer before planting directly to the bottom of the hole.
The planting time of pumpkin is determined by the climatic conditions of the region. Pumpkins are sown in the ground in the south, usually at the beginning of May, a little to the north - by the end of May, in summer (if the weather does not allow earlier) it is better to grow this vegetable not directly from the seeds, but through seedlings. Before planting a pumpkin in open ground, it is necessary to make sure that the earth has warmed to a depth of at least 10 cm to +12 degrees. At lower temperatures, they will germinate very slowly, and may even rot.
The planting time is calculated as follows: the harvest should be removed before the arrival of frost, from the appearance of sprouts to fruit ripening usually takes 3.5–4 months, prepared seeds germinate for less than a week, unprepared - from 10 to 14 days.
Knowing when the cold comes in the fall, when the earth warms up to the desired temperature in the spring, you can navigate with the sowing time.
Planting seeds in the ground
Now it's time to talk, actually, about how to plant pumpkin seeds. On the selected and prepared plot of the garden, weeds that appear in the spring are removed, dig up (or simply loosen) the bed, and at a distance of 80–100 cm from each other, shallow holes with a diameter of 30 cm are dug out. Between the rows, a distance of one and a half to two meters is left. It is best to place the holes in a checkerboard pattern. If fertilizers were not applied in the fall, then at least 5 kg of organic and 1 tablespoon of complex mineral fertilizers and wood ash are placed at the bottom of each hole (which are dug deeper). All this is slightly mixed with the ground. In each well poured 1-1.5 liters of hot (about +50 degrees) water, and after it is absorbed, you can plant the seeds.
3-5 pieces are placed in each well to a depth of 5 to 8 cm, they are planted not side by side, but at the maximum possible distance from each other. Then sprinkled with earth, sawdust or humus. After all the plants have sprung up, they will have a pair of true leaves. Leave only two plants. What kind of pumpkin to choose, show their condition, the rest pinch off near the ground.
The timing of sowing pumpkin seeds in the ground
The time of planting pumpkin seeds in open ground depends on weather conditions:
- The pumpkin plant is thermophilic, so it should be planted when the earth warms to a minimum of +10 - + 12 ° С and no night frosts are foreseen.
- In terms of timing, this is most often on May 10-15 under conditions of the middle lane; sometimes it is already possible to plant 5-6 numbers.
If frost is threatened, shoots will need to be covered with cut-off plastic bottles, cans, or film covers. Some gardeners use the old-fashioned way: make fires for the night to take the frost from the site.
- You can plant a pumpkin in a cold greenhouse (under film cover) much earlier: from the end of March to the end of April. This method is very popular with the most impatient vegetable growers who want to get a harvest a month and a half earlier.
Preliminary site preparation
Do the preparation of the site should be in advance (since autumn). Fertilizers should be applied under a deep digging (to a depth of at least the depth of a spade bayonet).
- For 1 m² you will need 2 buckets of humus, 1 liter jar of wood ash, 200 g of superphosphate and 100 g of potassium chloride, the last two ingredients can be replaced with 1 cup of nitrophoska.
- In the spring, immediately before planting, the site is razed with a rake, after having scattered ammonium nitrate in the amount recommended by the manufacturer.
- Spill the ridges with hot water (80 ° C) to sanitize from possible diseases.
What to put in the hole when planting a pumpkin
It happens that since the autumn they did not have time to prepare the plot, then you can get out of the situation in another way: when planting, 1 kg of humus is put in each well, you can add wood ash to the zhmene. If there are no organics, put 30 grams of complex mineral fertilizers (for example, ammophos, nitrophoska, nitroammophoska, potassium nitrate) in each well. A good mix is 10 grams. potassium sulfate + 20 gr. superphosphate per well.
Processing pumpkin seeds before planting
Soak pumpkin seeds before planting for and against
How to soak pumpkin seeds before planting? Whether it is necessary to germinate pumpkin seeds before planting, everyone decides for himself. Even without soaking the pumpkin seeds germinate well, if the soil is wet enough. To do this, after sowing you need to water the wells.
Consider that the pre-treated seeds will have to be watered: if the seeds wake up and receive a lot of moisture at the start, and the ground will be dry and hot, the seedlings will die.
Seed testing and decontamination
A common mistake: some gardeners sometimes sow old seeds, naturally they do not receive seedlings. If you are not sure of the planting material, the seeds must first be checked for germination. Immerse in normal saline. Those that have sunk to the bottom are of high quality. Then for 10 minutes, hold in a weakly pink solution of potassium permanganate to disinfect from disease, and be sure to rinse.
How to sprout a pumpkin for planting
Seeds are soaked to accelerate germination. To do this, the seeds are placed in a damp rag constantly monitored, how much they swelled - proceed to sowing, when they swell and nest, but do not germinate. If you overdo the seeds and they take up thick roots, you can break them when sowing and there will be no sprouting.
Soaked and germinated seeds are planted in the mud or watered immediately after planting.
Proper pumpkin planting in open ground
The scheme of planting pumpkin in the open ground
- The bed under the pumpkin is important to dig very deep (about 40 cm).
- Make a ridge about 70 cm wide. The holes should go down the center.
- Between individual holes, keep a distance of about 0.8 m.
- The width of the passage between the ridges is 70 cm.
Ground selection and preparation
Pumpkin’s homeland is Mexico, which is why she loves heat so much and tolerates exposure to the sun’s rays. The leaves have a huge number of special hairs that protect the plant from burns. For planting, it is perfect for a seasonally warmed, non-shaded primer. Poor lighting will lead to slow growth, thin shoots brighten, a smaller number of flowers, and therefore fruits. Most of all, the pumpkin is afraid of frosts, in which the seeds simply rot, so it’s better to start land work in the second half of May, when the average daily temperature stays at 20 ° C.
Attention! In colder weather, germination is also possible, but to achieve proper development will not succeed.
It is useful for an experienced grower to deal with the important properties of the soil, the pumpkin grows best:
- in a nutrient substrate containing a large amount of organic compounds, minerals,
- with a neutral or weak acidity pH of about 6.5-7,
- in loose, well-ventilated soil without the threat of water retention, root decay.
If the land of the existing plot does not meet the requirements outlined, you can try to bring its characteristics as close as possible to those recommended. With increased acidity, chalk or lime is used, heavy clay soils suggest fertilizer with humus or compost. It is best to do this in the fall, but if time is lost, and sowing is not far off, in the spring you can make deciduous humus. For each square meter you need about 6-8 kg of humus, 3 kg of sawdust, 200-300 g of nitrophoroska containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
After feeding the bed should be dug up to a depth of about 50 cm, pour with hot water. Thanks to such preparatory work, soil aeration is significantly increased. Good precursors of pumpkin on the site are: pepper, garlic, onions, lettuce, cabbage, beets, radishes, beans. It is undesirable to plant after tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants, corn, sunflower, any members of the Pumpkin family.
Seed preparation and planting
The emergence of sprouts can be accelerated, if in about a day, the seeds are soaked in liquid organic fertilizer “Potassium humate” or “sodium humate”, covered with a moist cloth and left in a room with a temperature of at least 20-25 ° C. In order not to lose time and avoid planting substandard seeds, which can give too few sprouts or develop poorly, they germinate for a month in a month: they are moistened with water, laid out on a wet cloth, until they hatch.
Fungal damage can be prevented by etching 1 g of manganese per half glass of water in a solution for 30 minutes.
The optimal time for planting is the second week of May, depending on the established warm weather according to the 1 × 1.5 m scheme. The formed wells are saturated with warm water, 3-4 seeds are placed, it can be at different depths, then in case of significant cooling and death of the upper ones, the remaining will sprout.
Under favorable conditions, germination occurs within 6-7 days. After the appearance of these 2-3 leaves, thinning is performed, weak small plants are removed. In the hole with a large pumpkin, they leave one, and with nutmeg and a solid-ground tree no more than two shoots. When the last species appear on 5 leaves, re-thinning is performed, the excess shoots are carefully cut off in order not to damage the main root system.
If you do not know how to plant a pumpkin seed, listen to the advice of experienced farmers who recommend using the film to protect against frost and retain moisture in the ground. A small incision is made above each plant that appears, and after excluding the likelihood of cooling, it is increased to 15 cm. The shoots are positioned so that they spread along the top of the film. This reduces the evaporation of water, slightly increases the temperature of the soil.
The secrets of proper cultivation
Pumpkin is a moisture-loving plant, so watering should be carried out in a timely manner, especially in drought, to be sufficiently abundant. An advanced root system that feeds shoots and fruits requires a lot of water. You should not delay watering in the period of active growth, flowering, the formation of pumpkin. In the period of intense heat, it is recommended to use water with a temperature of at least 20 ° C, preferably from clean wells, otherwise the plant may die. The growth of weeds should not be allowed, the soil must be periodically loosened, and then watered.
The grown vegetable should be not only beautiful and large, but also useful. To do this, the pumpkin is fed with various organic fertilizers that are applied before sowing, as well as during growth. Most suitable:
To supply the soil with mineral components, complex fertilizers with nitrogen, potassium, and phosphate are used; in the absence of those, ash will be used as a substitute. In the spring, before planting on the site of future beds, green manure plants are planted that can improve the soil structure, enrich it with nitrogen, and suppress the growth of wild crops. During the period of active growing season will not be superfluous to be watered with organic raw materials. Begin feeding after the formation of the first 3-5 leaves. In wet rainy weather dry fertilizers are more suitable. A good option to prepare a mixture, which is subsequently diluted in a ratio of 1:10 with water:
- 1 l mullein,
- 2-3 art. spoons nitrofoski,
- a bucket of water.
It is very important for the correct formation of the plant to remove excess shoots and ovaries. The main stem is clamped at a length of up to 1.5 m; several lateral shoots of about 70 cm are left with the fruit tied on each of them. As a result, three pumpkins will be obtained from each well, which will be accelerated by pouring, pressing the shoots to the ground, covering with a layer of earth 7-8 cm to form roots. When germination occurs, these places will also need to be watered.
What can be encountered
Like many other cultures, pumpkin is prone to certain diseases. Most common:
- Mealy dew - whitish specks on the upper and lower side of the leaves, the plant gradually turns yellow and disappears, the fruits spoil when idle.
- Olive spot affects the whole plant, oily traces on the leaves turn into brownish sores, the affected pumpkins are deformed, lose their useful qualities. The emergence of the disease contribute to strong differences in day and night temperatures.
- Brown spotting - with a sharp change in the weather, cold snaps, brown spots with a lighter center are noticeable on the affected areas, a loose black deposit is present, and a fungus develops.
- White rot can affect leaves, stems, root neck. There is a softening of tissues. High humidity, thick crops provoke the occurrence of light gray bloom with subsequent dark dense formations.
- Root rot can overtake the plant due to excessive watering, poor aeration of the soil, due to plant residues of the diseased culture.
Of the pests most slugs plague, spoiling the almost ripe fruits. Снизить вероятность их возникновения получится, если землю около побегов обсыпать зубным порошком, древесной золой, суперфосфатом. Некоторые огородники раскладывают вокруг стеблей мокрые тряпки и ежедневно их собирают. В борьбе с болезнями и вредными насекомыми часто используются специальные препараты, имеющиеся в продаже. Соблюдение инструкции по применению делает их использование достаточно эффективным.
Сбор долгожданного урожая проводится в первой половине сентября. A shrinking stalk is a sign of pumpkin ripening. When cutting the fruit, about 7-10 cm of the hardened tail are left to extend the shelf life of the vegetable and prevent premature rotting. The optimum temperature at which the pumpkin does not lose its properties is 7-10 ° C, it can lie until the very spring. If you follow the recommendations for preparing the soil, observe the planting dates, ensure proper care, in the fall you will find a rich harvest with high nutritional value.
Choosing a place on the site
Proper selection of a site for pumpkin is an important condition for obtaining a rich harvest. It is desirable to arrange a bed on the warming up area heated by sunshine. Shading a pumpkin also carries well. For plants, the most preferred sandy or sandy soil, which is good because it warms up quickly.
Good precursors for the pumpkin in the garden - perennial grasses, corn or winter wheat. You can plant it after carrots, cabbage, beets, tomatoes, onions, peas, beans, peanuts, lentils, sideratov. After cucumbers, zucchini, squash, watermelons and melons, it is desirable to plant a pumpkin only after 5 years.
Fertile soil rich in nutrients is the key to getting a good pumpkin crop.
Preparation of soil for planting need to do more in the fall:
- Remove weeds and plant residues from the plot.
- Hoe the ground shallowly.
- After 2-3 weeks to dig up the soil, collecting the roots of weeds.
In the spring, one day before planting or on the same day, the earth should be dug up again. After this, the plot is raked.
Starting to develop actively, the pumpkin builds up the above-ground part, so the plant needs a lot of nutrients. Digging up the earth, it is necessary to introduce fertilizer into it. The best option is rotted compost, humus or manure. They are made at the rate of 5-10 kilograms per 1 square meter to a depth of 15-20 centimeters in light soils and 10-15 centimeters in heavy ones.
The ability to make such a quantity of manure is not always. Then it can be put in the wells at the rate of 1-2 kilograms per plant. In addition to manure, it is worth adding 20 grams of superphosphate to each well and 10 grams of potassium sulfate.
Some gardeners make a handful of humus, a glass of ash and 50 grams of superphosphate in each well. You can use mineral-organic fertilizers (for one plant - 1 tablespoon). All introduced components must be thoroughly mixed with the ground before laying the seeds.
Some gardeners grow pumpkin on compost heaps. This method allows not only to get a high yield, but also to improve the compost pile.
It is beneficial to plant a pumpkin on the compost for several reasons:
- The green mass of pumpkin does not allow the weeds to grow on the compost.
- Pumpkin planted in compost accelerates the process of decomposition of coarse plant residues (sunflower stalks, cabbage stalks).
- Covered with green residues improve the appearance of the compost heap.
- Pumpkin protects compost from drying out.
There are more than three dozen pumpkin varieties. Almond, Mozoleevskaya 49, Goloshemennaya, Freckles are hard-growing large-fruited varieties that ripen early and are stored for a long time. For winter storage, large-fruited varieties Smile, Winter Sweet, Crumb, Winter Dining Room are good. Early-ripening portion pumpkins are distinguished by their sweet taste: Butter dumplings, Amazon, Winter sweet, orange bush.
In the garden you can grow a lot of pumpkin varieties from seeds. For cultivation by the seed method, it is not recommended to choose only nutmeg varieties, since the seeds may simply not come up. Pumpkin seeds can be stored for 1 to 4 years.
When choosing a planting material, it is necessary to pay attention to its freshness, checking for germination in advance. Make it easy: just take a few seeds and germinate them on wet gauze. Looking at the number of seeds sprouted from all, one can determine the approximate percentage of their germination. This will help later to find out how many seeds to put in the wells.
For a good pumpkin harvest, you need to choose only full-bodied seeds. To select the best, you need to prepare a 3-5% solution of salt and dip the seeds into it. Float for landing unsuitable, and the rest can be planted. These seeds must be harvested, rinsed and dried.
Seed preparation for planting
To grow pumpkins in the open field it is important not only to choose the right seeds, but also to prepare them for further sowing. It takes a little time, but has a positive effect on the crop.
For friendly shoots, before planting pumpkin seeds, it is recommended to warm up for 2 hours at a temperature of about 60 ° C. To prevent fungal diseases after that, they are kept for 12 hours in a one percent solution of potassium permanganate.
To ensure the germ is easy to punch through a hard skin of the seed, use a solution, for the preparation of which 2 tablespoons of wood ash is diluted in 1 liter of boiling water. The gauze folded in several layers is plentifully moistened with ash solution and the seeds are wrapped in it for 12 hours.
Treated seeds can be sown immediately in the ground, and you can first germinate at home, and then plant. For those who choose the second method, it is better to prepare in advance for this procedure a box with sawdust.
You can do it this way: place sawdust at the bottom of any convenient deep container, then pour boiling water over it several times and cover with 2-3 gauze in 2 layers. Laying out the same seeds, cover them with several layers of gauze and a layer of sawdust, and tighten the box with a film. In a domestic greenhouse arranged in this way, the seeds will germinate in 2-3 days and will be ready for planting.
You can do without these procedures, but the maturation of the pumpkin in this case is significantly increased. Pumpkin, the seeds of which have not undergone pre-sowing treatment, in areas with a cool short summer, may not have time to ripen before frost.
The technology of planting pumpkin seeds in open ground
Of all the pumpkin crops, the pumpkin is the most resistant to cold, but it also loves warmth. It is better to plant it in late spring, when there is no frost. Seeds too early in cold soil may simply rot. To feed one plant, an area of 1-4 square meters is required. It may be a little less for early ripening varieties and more for late ripening.
For planting pumpkin seeds in large areas using a melon seeder. In the usual garden seeds often have to be planted by hand. Before planting, pumpkins on the plot line out rows and make holes in them with a diameter of 30 centimeters.
If, after a snowless winter, the land on the site is dry, about 2 liters of water with a temperature of 50 ° C should be poured into each well. Seeds can be planted only when water is absorbed.
Observe the distance between plants when planting is very important. For long varieties between holes leave 1.5-2 meters, between the rows - 1.4-2 meters. Pumpkin varieties of pumpkins can be planted in a nesting way according to the scheme of 80x80 centimeters or 1.2x1.2 meters.
In light soils, seeds are sown to a depth of 5-8 centimeters, in heavy ones - by 4-5 centimeters. It is recommended to put 2-5 seeds in one well: for large-fruited varieties it is possible less, for nutmeg ones it is more. Have seeds beak down at a distance of 3-4 centimeters from each other.
Sprinkling the seeds with fertile soil, the site is mulched with humus or peat crumb. To accelerate growth, experienced gardeners install a home-made greenhouse made of a slotted film over the planted seeds.
Plant care planting field
Pumpkin sprouts should roll a week after planting in the ground. Further care for plants includes loosening the land, regular watering, fertilizing, fighting diseases and pests.
Large leaves of pumpkin contribute to the rapid evaporation of moisture, so the plant requires regular watering, and only warm water. As pumpkin grows, the amount of water for irrigation needs to be increased.
It is recommended to slightly reduce the number of waterings during the flowering period: the fruit will be tied better. Resume moistening pumpkin beds, when the fruits begin to gain mass. Before harvesting, it is necessary to use about 10 liters of water to irrigate one plant. When pumpkins reach their full size, watering plants can be stopped.
Loosening and thinning
The soil around the plants must be loosened and cleaned of weed grass after rain or watering. With the emergence of shoots spend the first loosening to a depth of 6-8 centimeters. It is better to loosen the aisles before watering to a depth of 12-18 centimeters in order to ensure rapid water penetration to the roots of plants. During loosening it is recommended to slightly curl the plants, increasing their resistance.
After the seedlings have two true leaves, it is necessary to thin them, leaving two shoots of nutmeg or solid pumpkin in one well and one large-fruited one.
During the formation of 3-4 leaves in seedlings, second thinning is carried out. In order not to damage the root system of the remaining seedlings, you do not need to pull out extra seedlings. It is enough just to cut an unnecessary seedling at ground level.
Pumpkin forms a large amount of vegetative mass (leaves, stems) and fruits, so it needs frequent dressing, preferably liquid fertilizers.
3 weeks after sowing seeds into the soil, it is recommended to carry out the first top-dressing with manure or chicken manure diluted with water in the ratio 1: 4. Such organic supplements should be repeated 3-4 times a month. Well feed the pumpkin, dissolving a glass of wood ash in 10 liters of water.
When making the first feeding at a distance of 10-12 centimeters around the plants, it is necessary to make grooves 6-8 centimeters deep and pour the solution into them. For further dressings, grooves with a depth of 10-12 centimeters are located 40 centimeters from the plants.
After fertilization, the grooves are covered with earth. If the weather is cloudy for a long time, it is recommended to spray the pumpkin with a solution of 10 grams of urea in 10 liters of water.
If the land during the pollination of plants is not enough to pollinate insects, you will have to do it yourself. For this you need to learn to distinguish between female and male flowers. In men there is an elongated leg, and women are located on the stem, they have an ovary under the petals.
At about 9 o'clock in the morning it is necessary to pick a male flower, tear off the petals and touch the pistils on the female flowers with a boot. If male flowers have not yet blossomed, male flowers of a closely related plant, such as zucchini, can be used to pollinate a pumpkin. Pumpkin harvest will be good, but it will not be possible to use seeds for planting.
Preparing pumpkin seeds for planting
Inexperienced gardeners mistakenly believe that no effort is required to grow pumpkins, threw the seed into the ground and expect a big harvest. The homeland of the pumpkin are warm edges, so the opinion about the simplicity of this plant is erroneous, but its value for the human body is undeniably great.
Improper planting of pumpkins with seeds in open ground, improper care, improper feeding made will lead to small unsweetened fruits that can not be stored for a long time, and to avoid this, so that the harvest will please the gardener, it is necessary to determine the planting time of the pumpkin, prepare seeds and beds, ensure proper care.
For planting pumpkins it is necessary to select full-fledged, large, high-quality seeds, then lower them into a 5% saline solution and stir gently, - those that do not settle on the bottom will be unsuitable. Seeds that drown, rinse in running water and dry, and in order for the plants not to hurt, the seeds must be disinfected - you need to take a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, put the seeds in it and hold for about a third of an hour. Rinse seeds rinse with running water.
preparation of pumpkin seeds for planting - in the photo
Wood ash contains large amounts of macro- and microelements, soaking seeds in a solution in the amount of 20 g of ash, effectively soaking it in seeds for 20 hours.
Before planting pumpkins with seeds on the garden bed, we should not forget about another important stage - hardening. The best effect is a change in temperature, - put the seeds for the night in the fridge, for the day - in the room. So to do, until the seeds are nested, - germinated they will ascend a couple of weeks earlier.
Preparing beds and planting seeds in open ground pumpkin
Planting pumpkin seeds in open ground occurs from May 15 to May 25. - If planted earlier than the mentioned period, then they are likely to die from frost, if later - the fruits do not have enough time to form and ripen. So the gardener has to puzzle over the sowing period. For this reason, the pumpkin seeds are planted in open ground according to the lunar calendar.
Pumpkin plants are not indifferent to organic fertilizers, - in a garden where it was decided to grow this plant, in the fall it is necessary to scatter manure, ash, mullein, compost. Thawed nutrients will be carried away into the depths of the beds, and which remain, will deepen during the spring digging. Fans of mineral fertilizers can use Nitrophoska in the calculation of 60 g of substance per 1 m².
Planting pumpkin seeds - in the photo
Planting pumpkin seeds in open ground is as follows, - a shallow hole is dug, and 3 or 4 seeds are put into it. The distance between the pits should be about 0.5 meters. The pits of the first row are covered with earth dug from the holes of the adjacent row, thus increasing the landing speed. It is good to take fertile land to close the planting material, and cover the site with mulch from peat crumb or humus, and if all the recommendations mentioned were followed, then in 7 days you can admire the first shoots.
If the planting is done with non-germinated seeds, the seedlings can appear only after a month, - to speed up the appearance of sprouts, the bed is covered with a film, which is removed when the seedlings appear. After development on plants of two true leaves, thinning is performed, - 1-2 seedlings are left in the hole, the rest are cut to the ground. If the threat of frost has not yet passed, a film or covering material is thrown onto the frames. It is not enough to learn how to plant pumpkin seeds in the garden, you need to learn how to properly care for plantings.
Further care of planting pumpkins
The pumpkin grows quickly and is covered with side shoots that are to be removed - the main lash and two side shoots are left on the plant. 3-4 ovaries should develop on each of them. The branches should be pinched and sprinkled with moist earth, which increases their stability and allows for the formation of additional roots - the plant gets more nutrition and becomes stronger.
pumpkin care - on photo
The pumpkin is affected by diseases and pests, and if you let it go, then in the fall nothing will be left of the harvest. You can, of course, fight them with chemicals, there are many of them in stores, but then there is the likelihood of these substances getting into the fruit, and you can make protection from close plantings of onions, dill and marigolds. Loosening, cleaning weeds will deprive the habitat of pests. No one has canceled the mechanical method of protection either.
A pumpkin is planted in fertilized soil, but when it grows, it also requires a liquid organic-mineral dressing - it will accept well-drained bird droppings or mullein. If the gardener failed to fertilize the soil in the fall, he would have to feed her every week for the whole season.
Planting seeds in open ground pumpkin involves a lot of work, but the result is not long in coming. A gardener in the fall will pleasantly surprise and delight a large healthy and tasty harvest. On his table in the long winter will be pumpkin porridge, pumpkin pancakes, jam, juice and other tasty dishes.
How to pinch and shape the scourge
Proper care of the pumpkin in the open field, above all, is in the formation of the plant. When the main stem reaches a depth of 1.3-1.5 m, it should be pinched, leave 2 side shoots 60-70 cm long. On each shoot, form one fruit. That is, one plant will “feed” three fruits: one on the main shoot and one for two on the side.
Remove excess shoots and flowers. To improve the pouring of fruit, shoots left are recommended to be pressed to the ground with a wire or a wooden slider and sprinkled with a small layer of soil (6-7 cm), so the rods will root in this place. Put a piece of plywood under each fruit, or better, a piece of glass (you will get additional heating and a dry surface).
How to feed
Adding feedings will have a favorable effect on the size of fruits:
- Feed for the first time, when 3-5 leaves appear, repeat the procedure with an interval of 15 days.
- You can use organic matter (for 10 liters of water 1 liter of infusion of mullein, consumption - for 2 plants)
- or mineral fertilizers (2 tablespoons of nitrophoska for the same volume, consumption is similar).
Harvesting and storage
How to harvest and store pumpkin photo
In order to keep pumpkins well and for a long time, ripe fruits should be cut along with the stem (5-6 cm long). Store in a dry place, it is possible at room temperature, but at a temperature range of 5-8 ° C, the fruit persists until spring.
Diseases and pests
Pumpkin has many diseases and pests, therefore, possible problems and methods of combating them should be studied.
- Бактериоз – проявляется при повышенной влажности и резких перепадах температур. На листьях и плодах появляются коричневые пятна и язвочки. Пораженные листья удалите. Проведите обработку раствором сернокислого кадия или бордосской жидкостью.
- Белая гниль – грибковая болезнь, поражающая все растение (листья, побеги плоды). It can be recognized by whitish bloom, if not to take measures, the plant will rot. Sprinkle the affected areas and the beds themselves with copper sulfate powder, lime lime, or crushed charcoal.
- Root rot - the development of the disease provokes watering with cold water or sudden changes in temperature. In the fight against the disease, proceed as follows: cut off the rotten roots, process it with a fungicide, sprinkle it on top with soil, so that the plant will take root.
- Mealy dew - a white bloom appears on the leaves, they gradually dry up, the fruits develop poorly. Remove affected leaves, treat with isophene or colloidal sulfur.
- Spider mite - a thin spider web appears on the reverse side of the leaf plate, the plant withers (the pest sucks the juice). Rinse with plain water, spray with a solution of infusion of onion peel or garlic.
- Gourd aphid - small insects of greenish color provoke the twisting and drying of the leaf plates. Treat with 10% karbofos solution.
Prevention of diseases and pests is proper care.
Varieties of pumpkin
To date, 800 hybrids and varieties are registered. For cultivation on the site for human consumption, about 30 are suitable (they are sweet).
Consider the best of them, classifying by maturity.
- Early ripening (sugar content is 5.5-9%):
- Muscat (ripening period is 90 days),
- Butternut (it takes 100 days to mature)
- Curative (matures for 100-115 days).
Mid-season (maximum yield, sugar content is 7-13%):
Late-ripening varieties (sugar content is about 12%, technical ripening time is 140-160 days):
- Dawn of the East
- Winter sweet
- Gribovskaya winter
Selection and preparation of the site, soil
Pumpkin grows in the form of a large bush, and most varieties form long lashes, which extend in all directions by 2–3 meters or more. Therefore, it is problematic to allocate a good plot to her on a small dacha, and the owners have to cheat, setting off the dwellings of pumpkins in old barrels, large bags or on compost heaps. If they plant it on ordinary beds, they often provide for a “second floor” for arranging lashes and fruits in the form of sheds or floorings over the beds, so that one can make room for planting other vegetables nearby.
Since the pumpkin, like cucumbers, likes to climb any vertical obstacles, it is often planted near the fence. If she herself refuses to let him whip, she needs only a little help, and then the growing fruits will hang on the fence, like toys on a Christmas tree. However, so that they do not fall, the fruits will also have to be firmly tied to a support. And since for the year-round consumption of an average family, it is enough to plant only 3-4 plants, the problem of the place for pumpkins with such approaches becomes not very significant. Pumpkins love to grow on various supports: both natural and specially constructed for them.
When choosing the location of the bed, it is important to ensure that it is well lit by sunlight: in the penumbra, the plants feel worse. But the composition of the soil is of great importance: pumpkins take out a large amount of nutrients from the ground, and without high-quality fertilizers, the harvest will be poor. However, for one plant only about 1 m 2 of well-fertilized area is required, therefore this question is completely solved.
The soils with the best composition are light sandy loams of dark color with acidity close to neutral (pH of the soil extract is 6.5–7.0). Pumpkin should not be planted after any related crops (zucchini, squash, cucumber). If a pumpkin is planted on a flat horizontal surface or a low bed, it is possible not to conduct a continuous digging of the plot, but only to dig and well fertilize the wells in the places designated for sowing. True, these holes will be more like landing pits: each plant should be provided with an almost full bucket of humus and a half-liter jar of wood ash. Mineral fertilizers are best applied during fertilizing.
Often the pumpkin is planted right on the compost heaps, not even fully matured, or specially prepared for it large pits or trenches (up to half a meter), which are filled with various debris and waste (small branches, grass, tops, manure), mixing them with the ground . In the spring, these pits are watered with warm water with a small addition of saltpeter (up to 20 g / m 2), and by the time of sowing the seeds they are well heated due to the decay of the organic mass.
Pumpkin is unpretentious and grows remarkably on difficult grounds. However, in order to feast on large and sweet fruits, let it ripen on fertile soil. This gourd culture, it requires a maximum of the sun. Therefore, give preference to a well warmed southern area for planting seeds and seedlings.
It is not necessary to grow pumpkin after melon crops on the same plot for four to five years. Since the plant may appear fungal diseases. Excellent crop is possible on the beds, where was the green manure grown last year:
It is better not to plant a pumpkin in the beds from under:
Land under the pumpkin is prepared in the fall. First, they clean the soil, remove the weeds, the remains of plants, dig up and burn through. In this case, the inevitable pull up the roots of weeds. Then organic matter is introduced into depleted soil: 3-5 kilograms of manure or compost per square meter. If the soil is heavy, sour, you will need to add another 200-300 grams of ash or lime. Fertilizer fertilizer is also applied per square meter of 25 grams of phosphate and twenty grams of potash.
In the spring, as the snow melts, and the soil warms slightly, so that the ground does not dry out, it is harrowed. Then a little loosen, pull the remaining weeds. Immediately before sowing seeds or planting seedlings, they dig up the soil to a depth of eighteen centimeters.
Next, using a rake, properly align the plot. The beds should be made high. Heavy soil should be compensated for the height of the beds not less than twenty-five centimeters. Keep the distance between the beds of fifty centimeters. Width - more than a meter.
If for some reason it was not possible to prepare the plot properly, then an aqueous solution of nitrogen fertilizers is required to be applied at the time of planting in each well dug for the seedling.
Late varieties of pumpkin ripen in 140 days. Good harvest should be expected only when used seedlings. Planting seeds on seedlings produced in late April - early May. It is important to calculate the planting time of the seedlings so that after twenty-five days it can be transferred to open ground.
For planting good use of disposable paper pots or peat. This is required in order not to damage the roots of seedlings during planting, then they are guaranteed to take root. They are planted in the soil with a pot. Little by little the capacity of peat decomposes, and the root system grows into the soil.
Good results are obtained by growing pumpkin seedlings in plastic pots or cups. Seasoned gardeners often use such suitable containers for seedlings. In this case, the transplanted seedlings develop faster. Because the roots do not have to break through the walls of the peat pot. Initially, the young roots will not be able to do.
Get peat pots with a diameter of fifteen centimeters. Fill them with peat soil.
You can prepare the land for seedlings and yourself. To do this, take one part of the sod and mix with four parts of the humus. Add fertilizer to the mix. One bucket will require four grams of potassium salt, ammonium nitrate and five grams of superphosphate. The mixture is thoroughly mixed and well moistened. Seeds properly planted to a depth of three centimeters and carefully covered with foil.
After 5 days, the first shoots will seem. Now the film must be removed to reduce the temperature to twenty degrees. Maintain the optimum temperature in the room, often air. Otherwise, the seedlings will grow rapidly and stretch, which is undesirable. It is often impossible to water sprouts, and then the plant will not acquire immunity. Worry about feeding. After 10 days as the sprouts went, you should add fertilizer to the soil.
Pumpkin sprouts on sawdust are sprouting wonderfully. Sawdust is placed on the bottom of the box, watered with hot water a couple of times. Seeds are laid out on top of several layers of moistened gauze and covered with several more gauze layers, and then sprinkled with sawdust. The box is wrapped with film - it turns out a small greenhouse. After a couple of days, the seeds will germinate, they must immediately be planted in the ground.
Planting pumpkin seeds in open ground
Pumpkin - cold-resistant melon culture. Nevertheless, like watermelons and melons, she also likes warmth. Planting pumpkins in the ground occurs with the arrival of stable warm weather. In cold soil, the seeds will rot if they are planted too early. When at a depth of ten centimeters the temperature of the soil warms up to thirteen degrees, proceed to plant a pumpkin. The best temperature for plant growth is twenty-five degrees. Plant growth ceases when the temperature drops to fourteen degrees.
Pumpkin seeds with hard bark and large fruits are planted in open ground on light soils up to eight centimeters deep, and on heavy soils up to five centimeters.
The food area of one plant is up to four square meters. Earlier varieties require less space for a good harvest. Those varieties that ripen later will fit a larger plot. Therefore, it is important to observe the distance between the plants.
Seeds of long varieties are sown in a row. The distance between the holes and the rows is about two meters. In a square-nesting way, pumpkin bush varieties are planted. The scheme is as follows: eighty by eighty centimeters or twenty meters by twenty meters.
Lay in one hole to five seeds. A culture with large fruits is sufficient for two seeds. Small pumpkins are planted using a larger number of seeds.
Between the seeds of pumpkin in the hole should be maintained a distance of three to four centimeters. After that, the bed should be poured with a nutrient mixture and covered with soil with humus.
Pumpkin sprout care
Pumpkin has a large sheet mass, evaporating a maximum of water. Therefore, growing it in open ground requires frequent and abundant watering. At the same time it is difficult to consider a pumpkin as a moisture-loving plant. Too much watering can lead to the fact that the vegetative parts of the plant will rot and suffer fungal infections.
The sultry time pumpkin overcomes without problems. A sufficient reserve of water is stored in fleshy stems and cuttings. However, an intense drought, even a short one, can adversely affect the outcome. In the hot summer, pumpkin is advised to be watered with warm water in the evening. This is important at the time of growth and formation of fruits.
During the flowering period, the number of waterings should be slightly reduced, it is necessary for the formation of a good ovary. Feed plants preferably systematically, every week starting from the tenth day after sowing seeds or planting seedlings.
At the time of ripening, watering is reduced to reduce pumpkin wateriness. This will increase the shelf life of the crop and increase the concentration of nutrients in the fruit, and therefore will have a positive effect on taste.
When watering pumpkin follow the general rule: less watering is better than overflowing. With a moisture deficit, the pumpkin will only grow more slowly. Pumpkin can get sick, stem and root rot will develop in the case when watering turns out to be excessive. Then the diseased plant will certainly disappear.
Pumpkin - a plant of cross-pollination. The process of pollination begins in late July - early August. You can make manual pollination to get a guarantee for a good harvest. To do this, take a soft brush and gently hold on the stamens inside one flower and transfer the pollen to the stigma of the second. There is another way: carefully bring two flowers closer, combining their anthers and stigmas.
On the same plant may be several flowers. Unnecessary ovaries need to be cleaned to grow large pumpkin fruits. Bush varieties need to maintain three ovaries, and climbing - two.
In cold summer for a good ripening of pumpkins in the open field it is better to artificially speed up the formation and development of fruits. To do this, reduce the number of shoots, leave no more than three. When five ovaries are formed about fifteen centimeters in diameter and grow on the seventh leaf below the last fruit, it will be necessary to pinch the main stem.
Pumpkins have powerful, juicy and tenacious leaves, branches. They often grow extremely quickly, up to one and a half meters wide. Over grown fruits should remove shading leaves to open them to sunlight.
You can grow a pumpkin in the open field on the trellis or fence. In this case, heavy fruit is better to lay in the net or bag and tie it to the supports. In order for a pumpkin on the ground not to rot, you need to slip wooden boards under it.
When the stalk has dried completely, the pumpkin is considered well ripened. There is another way to determine maturity - press a fingernail on the bark of the fetus. If the bark does not give in, you can harvest. Usually taken for cleaning pumpkins after the first frost. It should be noted that the most delicious pumpkins are usually of medium size, they are easier to store for storage.
Selection and preparation of seeds
The stores have a wide selection of pumpkin seeds of various varieties, but gardeners planting pumpkins annually usually use seeds from their crops, only occasionally buying interesting bags of unknown varieties for interest. This makes sense: unlike many other crops, it is very simple to collect pumpkin seeds, they are beautifully stored, and the quality of the fruits of old, well-deserved varieties is quite high, and spending money to buy seeds is not always worth it. But if the seeds are bought in the store, most likely they should be trusted so much that they do not have to spend time preparing them for sowing, moreover, often the seeds from well-known companies are already fully prepared, they should be “buried in a timely manner”.
How to collect pumpkin seeds
Pumpkin does not always have time to fully ripen in the garden, and some late-ripening varieties "reach" during storage. Unfortunately, this applies only to the pulp: if the seeds do not have time to ripen in natural conditions, they will be unsuitable for sowing. For seeds, you can only use pumpkins that have fully ripened in the garden. It should be healthy specimens, uniform in color, regular shape and size, characteristic of a particular variety.
If the cultivation of pumpkin seeds is carried out purposefully, then under the appropriate bushes do not need to make extra fertilizer, it somewhat reduces the growing season. Since pumpkin plants are easily pollinated, it is undesirable to have nearby plantings of other pumpkin, zucchini and even cucumber varieties.
Seed pumpkins, even to extract seeds from them, must even be properly stored. You should not cut them right away; let them lie down at room temperature for about a month. Longer — not worth it: seeds can begin to germinate already inside the fruit. If you miss this moment, you will have to say goodbye to the seeds.
Unlike watermelon, pumpkin seeds are not distributed throughout the fruit, and are in the seed chamber, which in different varieties is located either in the center or on one side, but in any case it is large. Therefore, cutting the pumpkin, you can not be afraid to damage a lot of seeds, but still you should do it carefully, after washing the pumpkin and rubbing it dry. You need to use a sharp, durable knife and not stick it deep.
Typically, seeds are easily separated from the pulp, but some of them, especially not fully ripe, can be strongly surrounded by it. If possible, they are separated from the pulp by hand, folding into any container, and then washed well with running water at room temperature. Sometimes a sieve must be used to separate the seeds from the fibers. Bad seeds can be separated immediately, flooding everything extracted with water: what has surfaced is thrown away. Pumpkin seeds are well known to everyone: they are large and easy to work with.
After sorting the seeds, they are well dried at room temperature and sent to storage. It is best to keep them in a paper or linen bag, but most importantly - at a constant room temperature and low humidity.
Seed shelf life and germination test
Proper storage of pumpkin seeds ensures their germination for 7–8 years. Moreover, one should not try to plant last year’s seeds: they give the best results in germination and yield when they reach the age of 3-4 years. They always collect a lot of their own seeds, so before preparing them for planting, you just need to manually calibrate, choosing the largest and densest, “pot-bellied” ones.
Если есть сомнения в правильности хранения, можно проверить семена на всхожесть. Для этого берут столько семян, сколько могут позволить, но хотя бы десяток. Проращивание проводится обычным образом: на тарелке расстилают салфетку или кусок ткани, раскладывают семена и наливают воды столько, чтобы они были лишь покрыты ею. Ставят тарелку в тёплое место и следят, чтобы салфетка была всё время мокрой, понемногу подливают воду.
Seeds first swell, then burst a little at the tip, and from there the tail is shown. True, it can happen after three days, and after eight. Therefore, the experiment ends ten days later. If out of a dozen seeds only one thing has not sprouted, then it’s excellent. If 2-3, it is normal. Otherwise, it is better to purchase new seeds, although, if every second germinated, you can sow them, but with a margin.
Soaking and germination of seeds
Pumpkin seeds are often planted dry, straight from the package. Sometimes the packaging even says that they are ready for sowing. But their seeds are often soaked before sowing, or even germinated. It is hard to argue whether there is much sense in this, but for a few days the preparation of the crop brings such preparation closer. In addition, germinated seeds are not so tasty and attractive for pests, which means that the percentage of germination increases. But if we prepare seeds for sowing, the first operation should be their disinfection - a half-hour bathing in a dark solution of potassium permanganate.
Then the seeds are kept for two hours in hot water. It is advisable to find a way at home to keep the temperature at (50 ± 2) ° C all this time. If after such a warm-up the seeds are placed in a damp cloth, they should slip no later than in 3-4 days. Do not wait until the tails are long, they can be broken off when sowing
As soon as small tails appeared in individual seeds, all the soaked seeds in the same rag are sent for hardening in a refrigerator, where they are held for 3-4 days. A more effective method of hardening is the effect of variable temperatures: the location (in and outside the refrigerator) is changed at intervals of 12 hours. Some gardeners powder seeds with ash before hardening. Especially diligent, instead of germination, seeds are germinated on fabric on important sawdust.
How to speed up seed germination
The germination of pumpkin seeds is not the only stage in the preparation of planting material for planting. There are some more equally effective and not very complicated techniques, for example:
- warming is the easiest way in which the seeds are laid out on a well-lit window-sill in clear weather and are warmed by the sun all day long, carrying out such processing for at least a week. Instead, you can warm them for 3-4 hours at 60 ° C,
- treatment with fertilizer solutions: it can be just an infusion of 2 tablespoons of ash in a liter of water or a more complex mixture, composed by adding to this infusion 0.5 g of boric acid, the same amount of zinc sulfate and copper vitriol. Seeds are kept in the solution for 5-7 hours,
- biostimulant treatment: in this capacity the easiest to use is a solution containing 0.5 g of salicylic or succinic acid in 1 liter of water. An excellent natural stimulant is agar juice, which is diluted with water at a ratio of 1:10. In such solutions, seeds are also kept for 5-7 hours. It is believed that this not only improves and accelerates germination, but also increases the quantity and quality of the future crop.
Possible reasons why seeds do not germinate
Problems with the germination of pumpkin seeds are extremely rare. If you have checked the seeds for expiration in advance, they simply must ascend. Maybe not in 4 days, but in 10–12 days, but they will ascend! Especially if they were sown dry. Paradox? Not. The reason that the suitable dry seeds did not come up is, perhaps, only one. The pests ate them. Or underground spider bugs, or birds unearthed.
But with soaked or germinated seeds more difficult. If after sowing it has become sharply cold, and the temperature of the soil has dropped below 8 o C, it means that your seeds, which only started to live, simply died from the cold. Well, if there was no cold, it is possible that they simply dried out: if germinated seeds are sown, it is necessary to create conditions of sufficient heat and high humidity in the well.
There are many examples of when one gardener was shaking the seeds, spent a lot of time, waiting, but there are no shoots. A neighbor arrived at the weekend, buried dry seeds, and they sprouted beautifully. Unless, of course, the earth was warm and moderately wet. Therefore, we must admit that for pumpkin preliminary preparation of seeds is not very necessary, and sometimes it only hinders.
Rules, terms and schemes of planting pumpkin seeds in open ground
Pumpkin seeds are guaranteed to germinate only in the soil, heated to at least 12–14 ° C, but before sowing one must be sure that the severe cold will not return: shoots die at 1–2 degrees of frost. The best temperature for the development of pumpkin plants, the birth and growth of fruits is 20–25 o C. Therefore, the time for sowing seeds should be determined, focusing not only on long-term observations of the climate, but also on current weather.
Roughly in the middle lane, the sowing date begins when May is over the middle, but in this case each well with crops should be covered with glass or film: the threat of frost persists in early June. If you wait for the summer, then you can not get ripe fruit: after all, the growing season even for the most ripening pumpkins exceeds three months. In the northern regions, pumpkin in open ground is grown only through seedlings. In the south of the seedling way, it makes sense to grow only the latest varieties of nutmeg pumpkins, the rest are sown with seeds in early May, and sometimes even a little earlier.
The scourge of most varieties of pumpkins spread over the site very far, and if they are not supposed to be lifted onto supports, very large gaps have to be left between the plants so that the plants are spacious and they do not intertwine with each other. And even with vertical cultivation, the wells are located no closer than one meter from each other: the minimum possible nutritional area for one plant is exactly 1 m 2. But for comfortable growth, experts recommend a more free placement of pumpkins, according to the scheme 2 x 1 m, having one plant in a hole, or 3 x 2 m, in this case you can plant two plants in a nest.
Sowing seeds is not difficult even for an inexperienced gardener.
- Deep holes are dug in selected locations, fertilizers are applied to them: no less than a bucket of compost or rotted manure and a half-liter jar of ash, mix fertilizers with the soil and water well, consuming at least 5 liters of water. Fertilizers with soil should be mixed very carefully.
- Having dug a hole 6–8 cm deep with a scoop, 2-3 pumpkin seeds are laid in it. Seeds need to be laid out so that when removing excess seedlings do not disturb the neighboring
- They cover the seeds with earth, compact them with a hand, make small sides of the hole along the edges of the hole from the ground or planks, and cover them with glass or plastic before germination. With a modern option to cover the holes with seeds, plastic bottles are perfect
At normal temperatures and soil moisture, shoots appear after 5–8 days. When it becomes clear that the frosts will not return, the film can be removed. But in not very warm regions, many gardeners cut holes for sprouts in it, and the film is temporarily left in the garden so that the soil does not cool. After 3-5 days, the excess, the weakest shoots are pruned: it is better not to pull them out so as not to harm the roots of the plants remaining in the hole.