The chemical composition of pumpkin is rich in vitamins and trace elements that are useful for the normal functioning of human organs. This explains the popularity of growing vegetables in the backyard garden plots. Culture enjoyed success among farmers for industrial cultivation. In this review we will talk about the features of planting pumpkins with seeds and seedlings in open ground and further care.
Terms for planting pumpkins in Belarus, Ukraine, Leningrad region and other regions
A crop is planted after the soil is fully heated, and the average daily temperature does not fall below + 10 ° C. If during the sowing work in spring the temperature is below + 13 ° C, then the process of germination slows down, which threatens to rot the seeds. In the middle lane, the best time for planting seeds fall on the second decade of May. According to folk traditions, the day of sowing coincides with the church holiday - St. George’s Day, but you should not rely on a significant date without taking weather conditions into account.
Pumpkin is planted in the open ground at the end of spring
In the southern regions, as well as in Belarus, Ukraine, in the Donbas, where weather conditions allow, you can plant a pumpkin at the end of April. According to the lunar calendar, this period coincides with the growing moon, which is favorable for the development of fruit-tops.
For Moscow region
Cold-resistant culture with a spreading long whip and sweet-tasting large fruits, curtains in a mature form up to 6 kg. Culture unpretentious to the type of soil, its fertility.
Early maturity culture (75-85 days). Vegetable is characterized by a sweet taste with hints of vanilla. Pumpkin in mature form curtains 3-4 kg. Duration of storage of fruits for more than 4 months.
The plant is resistant to garden diseases and frost. The flesh is juicy and sugar, for which it is valued by the chefs. Pumpkin Rossiyanka mass exceeds 2.7 kg. The term of ripening crop is 110-130 days. The color of the ripe fruit is orange.
The best sorts of Siberia
Plant with vegetation days. The flesh is very juicy and sweet, taste like melon. Even after heat treatment retains a crunchy texture. Pumpkin mass does not exceed 3 kg.
Bush variety. Culture easily tolerates temperature extremes and withstands freezing, shows resistance to humid environments. The variety has excellent taste and long shelf life (until the next season). Vegetation duration - 90-110 days, fruit weight - 2.1-3 kg.
Seed preparation: germination and germination test
Seed material must first be checked for germination and sorted, leaving only healthy specimens. 3 days before the beginning of sowing, the seeds must be germinated in wet gauze or sawdust. To speed up seed germination at home, they are placed for 2 days in a solution of sodium or potassium humate. The container must be in the room all the time where the temperature is 20 ° C.
The soil before planting should be prepared. To do this, they dig it up, make fertilizers: potash, phosphorus, compost or manure. It is better to use complex, they enrich the soil with different nutrients. For example, 2 buckets of humus, ½ buckets of sawdust, 1 kg of ash, 1 cup of nitrophoska are introduced per m2.
Where to plant a pumpkin in the country? A place for landing is chosen sunny, well ventilated. Such predecessors as potatoes, sunflower, melons, and watermelon will not work. But after legumes, tomatoes and beets, the plant will feel great. The same area should not be used for disembarkation either, the break should be 4-5 years.
Planting seeds and seedlings in the country
The distance between the holes should be at least 60 cm, because the lash of the plant is actively developing and spreading over a large space. In determining the scheme is better guided by the characteristics of the variety. Most gardeners use this planting option:
- embedment depth sunflower seeds - 8-10 cm (on light soils), 5-6 cm (on loams) with the sharp side down,
- interval between the holes in the row - 60-80 cm
- distance between the rows - 1 m.
For spreading lashes apply the scheme: 1x1.5 m. To protect the landing from the spring frosts, it is recommended to cover the beds with film.
Experienced gardeners use the lunar calendar when planning planting works in the garden. The terms specified in it influence the speed of plant development. Pumpkin is recommended to land on the growing moon:
- in March begin to plant seeds on seedlings (18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 numbers),
- in April seeding is permissible in open ground (17–22, 24–29 numbers),
- in May (16-21, 23-28 numbers).
In the Leningrad region, near Moscow, in the Urals, in Siberia, pumpkins are grown seedlingly. The technology of planting young plants in the ground does not differ from planting seeds.
What to do if the pumpkin seedlings are very long? In cases of excessive seedling growth, when the stem becomes thin and unnecessarily long, the first thing to do is to transplant the plants into more spacious pots, providing the right space.
How many seeds germinate?
The timing of seed germination depends solely on temperature. If the night figure does not fall below 12-14 °, the seeds will begin to emerge within a week. Even if the weather is cool a month later, 2-3 leaves are already developing on the sprout.
To accelerate the germination process will help preplant soaking seeds in growth promoters. In addition to special tools, use aloe juice, wood ash infusion, potato juice, honey solution.
Pumpkin needs watering, but in moderation. Excessive moisture will provoke the stretching of seedlings. It is better to water the soil after loosening and weeding. The culture tolerates drought well, but the reaction to cold water from the central main can be negative. Therefore, experts recommend the use of distilled fluid from the well.
The plant loves feeding. Within a week after the germination of seedlings, the first complementary feed is introduced. The plant receives ideal food from a solution of a mullein. Nitrophoska is considered to be no less effective (15 g. Per bucket of water). She and conduct subsequent feeding with an interval of 10-14 days.
Formation of pumpkins
As soon as 2-3 leaflets appear on the seedlings, it is necessary to thin the bed. When growing a large pumpkin, only one sprout is left; nutmeg and a douche in a garden - 2 seedlings each.
A developing whip should also be formed by removing excess ovaries and lateral shoots. They do it in two ways: in one stem and in two. In the first case, it is recommended to leave only 2-3 ovaries, on which there are 3-4 leaves. With the second method, 2 fruits are left on the main stem, on the side shoot - one. Without such a procedure, the fruits will be small and not very tasty.
Pests and Prevention
Pumpkin is considered an unpretentious plant, however, and this culture is threatened by pests. To reduce the yield, and sometimes destroy the young shoots can:
When detecting signs of pest invasion, special preparations are used (Actellic, Fufanon, Citcor, etc.). Safer are products made from biological components. At times, folk methods are not inferior in efficiency, among which attention deserves attention:
- decoctions and infusions of pharmaceutical chamomile,
- infusions on potato and tomato tops,
- decoctions of wormwood and other fragrant herbs,
- wood ash,
- tobacco dust,
- hydrated lime and others
Working solutions are sprayed plants, and powders are used for dusting. Procedures are repeated 2-3 times at intervals of 7-10 days.
You can determine the maturity of the pumpkin by the following features:
- the stalk becomes stiffer the surface is bogged down, its stiffening occurs simultaneously with the stem feeding the stem,
- the leaves on the whip dry up, change color to yellow,
- whatever the source skin color, after aging, reflects texture pattern more brightly,
- if you hold your fingernail on the peel, no trace is formed,
- when you press your fingers on the fruit, hardness is felt,
- ripe product is covered matte touch,
- when tapping heard ringing knock,
- at harvest the stem is easily removed.
The removed fruits from the garden are placed in a dry room, where they mature for about a month.
The main guarantee of a good harvest are correct seed selection and timely care. A pumpkin grown on his own will diversify the menu for households, enrich the body with nutrients.
Varieties for the Urals and Siberia
For the Urals and Siberia, you need to choose either early maturing varieties or those that survive during storage.
For cultivation in our harsh lands are suitable varieties such as:
The crop ripens in 100–110 days, the fruit weighs 5–7 kg, the pulp has a nutmeg aroma, is stored for a long time, has excellent taste, and the plant tolerates adverse weather conditions, the yield is up to 15 kg / m2.
Fruits ripen in 90 - 105 days, the weight of one fruit is 2.8-3.7 kg. It grows a compact bush, the flesh is juicy, very tasty, the yield is up to 15 kg / sq. M
Kustovaya Gold variety
From germination to harvest 92-104 days. The weight of one pumpkin is 4-7kg, the flesh is sweet, juicy, tasty. Carotene more than carrots, yield 13.4 kg / m2.
Shrub Orange variety
Homeland varieties Kuban. A short time before the removal of the fruit allows you to grow this variety in the Urals, in Western Siberia and in Eastern Siberia. The variety gives a good harvest despite the July cold weather with prolonged rains.
You can find a lot of pumpkin varieties in the article “Pumpkin varieties with photos and descriptions”.
Growing a pumpkin in a warm bed
Traditionally, in a short and not always warm summer, pumpkin is grown on warm beds or compost heaps.
It is not difficult to make a warm bed, but it will require physical effort. In the autumn, they dig a trench at the place designated for the bed. No more than a meter wide, as long as necessary. In depth it should be at least 40 cm. First, branches and brushwood are put into it. Then a layer of leaves, healthy tops, mowed grass. Next, half-dung manure.
The final layer is nutrient soil. It should be 20-30 cm. In the spring, about a month before sowing, the prepared bed is shed with plenty of hot water. The process of "burning" manure will begin, the bed will heat up. After a month, the soil will cool to the desired temperature. You will be able to start sowing.
High bed box
The seeds of all pumpkin begin to prepare for sowing in advance. To the lashes were more female flowers the seeds are heated. 2 months is enough to hold the seeds in a paper bag near the battery.
For sowing selected medium-sized, but heavy seeds. Feeble discarded in a solution of salt 1 tsp. salt to a glass of water. Seeds that have surfaced can be thrown away, the remaining washed and dried. Selected seeds are germinated.
2-3 days before sowing, the chaffs are disinfected - they are kept in water (45-50 ° C) for 2-3 hours. Next, they are germinated. The spine that appears is a signal that the seeds are ready for sowing.
Landing under the film
To increase the cold resistance of seedlings can be hardening. Sprouted seeds are left in the wet material for 3-5 days at the bottom of the refrigerator.
By the time the weather sets in, the soil moisture may not be enough. This postpones the emergence of shoots at a later time and slows their growth. Before sowing the seeds, 1.5-2 l of hot water is poured into each well. Seeds are put in the warm earth and covered with soil. Sown beds covered with film.
When sprouts appear, a film is cut through them, the plants go outside and grow. The temperature of the soil under the film becomes higher by 4 - 5 ° C.
If you use the method of mixed crops, the probability of sprouting will increase. Seeds are sown at different depths, and at the same time as sprouted seeds they sow dry seeds that will come up later. If the sprouted seeds come out and nothing happens to them, then the sprouts that have ascended later pinch. Pulling shoots is not recommended - you can damage the remaining shoots.
With the onset of sustainable heat, you can build a support on which to put whips of pumpkins, as in the photo, for example.
Pumpkin on a pedestal
Growing pumpkins through seedlings
Harvest long-stored varieties or early harvest will turn out if you grow a pumpkin through seedlings.
For this fit a greenhouse or a well-lit, south window sill in the apartment. For seedlings, seeds are also heated, disinfected and germinated. The treated seeds are sown 20 days before planting seedlings in the ground. Growing seedlings is better in peat pots, with a volume of at least 0.4 liters. In order for the soil in such pots to dry more slowly, the pots must be placed in a deep container, and all gaps should be filled with a moisture-intensive substrate — sand or peat.
Ready pumpkin seedlings
The earthy mixture is suitable for this light, from well decomposed peat, humus, sod land and rotted manure in a ratio of 5: 3: 1: 1. Until the seeds have risen, the temperature should be maintained at 18-25 ° C during the day and 15-18 ° C at night. When shoots appear, the temperature is reduced by 5-6 days to 15-18 ° C during the day and to 12-13 ° C at night. This will not allow the seedlings to stretch out. Then the temperature is raised to the previous level.
It is important to ensure that the soil in the planting containers does not dry out. Watering should be moderate, but regular. Excess moisture leads to plant stretching.
When the shoots will be 7 days, spend the first feeding. To do this, prepare a solution of nitrophoska (15 g per 10 l).
Proper seedlings have a short and sturdy stem, small internodes and two or three dark green leaves.
With the establishment of heat, the seedlings are transferred to a permanent place. Prepared wells, pre-watered with warm water. Lowering the seedlings in the garden it is necessary to destroy the walls of peat pots.
Herself in the greenhouse -head outside
Possible and this method of planting seedlings. Pumpkin seedlings are planted in the southern part of the greenhouse. When the stem grows over 50 cm - the lash, lifting the film, is sent to the open area. The roots of the plant remain in the greenhouse, and the stalk with might and main is heated in the sun. Ripens harvest with such a planting earlier by 8-10 days.
Pumpkin in the greenhouse
It is possible to collect a decent harvest of pumpkin only from properly shaped plants. Pumpkin bushes form in one or two shoots.
When a bush is formed into one shoot, all lateral processes and unnecessary ovaries are removed. On the stem should be no more than three ovaries. Leaving 3-4 leaves above the last left ovary, the growth point is removed.
On the formed in two shoots - leave the main stem and one side. On the main stem leave 2 fruits, on the side - one. Left shoots after the ovary, leaving 3-4 leaves, cut.
We remove the extra shoots
It is very important to sprinkle the stems with earth. When they grow more than a meter in length, they are sent in the right direction and sprinkled with earth in several places. On these places grow roots, which provide the plant with additional nutrition.
Watering the pumpkin should be infrequent, but wetting the soil 1 meter deep. It "pulls" a large amount of moisture from the soil, evaporating it through the leaves. Reinforced watering the pumpkin is required before flowering and when pouring fruit.
Irregularity of irrigation leads to the fact that the hard bark of pumpkin cracks.
So that the moisture supply to the roots is more uniform, a plastic bottle with a capacity of at least 3 liters can be dug in next to the pumpkin planted. Drill the holes in the lid, turn the neck down and dug it next to the plant. In the bottom, too, you need to pierce a hole. Water from the bottle will evenly provide the plant with moisture for a long time.
Diseases and pests
Pumpkin - fairly resistant to external factors. But there are also diseases and pests on it. Of diseases, rot and bacteriosis are the most dangerous. Of the pests on the landings of pumpkins are more common for aphids, melons and spider mites.
Rot often occur when watering with cold water, a large difference in day and night temperatures. For prevention, foliar fertilizing is carried out with micronutrient fertilizers, watered only with heated water. For treatment use Bordeaux mixture.
To combat spider mite use an infusion of onion peel (200 grams of husk is poured with boiling water, and after 3-4 hours diluted to 10 liters and used). To better adhere to the solution, you can add soap.
From aphids get rid of the infusion of 50g of soap, 200g of wood ash in 10 liters of water.
Mistakes in growing pumpkins,
which reduce the quantity and quality of the crop.
Error number 1. Use of large seeds for sowing.
When sowing any pumpkin culture should never use the largest seeds. The plants grown from them will give a powerful topper, and a weak crop. It is necessary to choose the most difficult.
Error number 2. Insufficient food area.
For pumpkin you need a large area. The point is in the root system, which is very developed in it. Planting bushes should be no closer than 3 meters from each other.
Error number 3. How deep to sow the seeds.
In the northern regions, where there is little heat and a lot of moisture, seeds are sown shallowly. In the south they sow deeper.
Error number 4. Grow a pumpkin in the garden.
Planting pumpkin fruit trees is not the best solution. Pumpkin trees do not interfere - it is enough lighting. But frequent watering, so necessary pumpkin, harmful to trees.
Error number 5. Pumpkin on a compost heap.
A common practice is to grow a pumpkin on a dung or compost heap. With a lack of heat in our Urals, this is a very common method. It is only necessary to take into account that with such planting the grown fruits will not be sweet, the flesh will turn out loose and they will not be stored for a long time.
The main methods of growing pumpkins
A pumpkin is a vegetable that lives for one year, one year. The main part of the varieties grows with a whip up to ten meters long, but selection varieties have been developed that grow with a bush or have a whip of 2 meters. The vegetable has very large leaves. Large flowers of bright yellow color. Flowers on plants of both sexes are both male and female.
Pumpkin loves warmth, light and fertile soil. A good high yield vegetable will give, if the plant is planted on a sunny place and warm ground. Draft protection will contribute to good yields. This vegetable grows in virtually any climate zone.
The plot of land that is planned to be planted with culture is pre-enriched with nutrients. Up to 2 buckets of humus, half of a bucket of sawdust, a glass nitrofoski and a liter can of ash are brought into the bed of 1 m2. Earth need to dig no deeper than half a meter. The width of the beds lay at least 70 cm. Planting pumpkins in open ground is carried out strictly according to the scheme. Thickened beds will give a small crop.
Hole spacing, in which seeds are planted, should not be less than 90 cm. Sowing of seeds on average is carried out at the beginning of the second decade of May. The depth of the hole for sowing seeds is up to 10 cm. In cold climates, the garden bed is covered with foil, before the onset of stable daytime temperatures of + 20 ° C. In each well, you can plant 2 or 3 seeds. Stronger appeared seedlings are left, the rest are removed. In the hole will grow no more than 2 plants.
Pumpkin grows well and gives a high yield when applying organic fertilizer: rotted manure or good compost. Fertilize can be ash and rotted chicken droppings. In the first half of the vegetative period, the vegetable likes watering, although the plant tolerates a dry climate due to its root system and large deciduous mass. In the rainy summer season, the plant does not need additional watering. In case of stable rainy weather, the plant must be sprayed with a solution of urea: 10 grams are dissolved in 10 liters of water.
Successful cultivation of pumpkin depends on the correctly selected seeds, methods of cultivation and further care of the plant. You can grow a pumpkin in two ways:
- Immediately plant vegetable seeds immediately in open ground,
- Grow pumpkin seedlings and then transplant the plant to the garden bed with open ground.
Pumpkin seeds can be planted dry in the ground, you can plant germinated seeds. Planting vegetables in the ground with dry seeds is done in mid-May, by the end of the second decade of the month. Additionally, germinated seeds are planted in the wells not earlier than the end of May and beginning of June. When planting a pumpkin in open ground will tell the air temperature. Air heating in the daytime should not be below + 15 + 18 °. At lower temperatures, the plant cannot develop properly.
To eliminate the thickening of the beds, when sowing seeds, it is necessary to maintain a distance between the holes of at least 1 meter. Scour the vegetable in opposite directions from each other.
Wells with seeds must be shed with warm water, you can add growth stimulant or complex fertilizer for pumpkin into the water. Planting and plant care consists in watering, weeding, feeding and in the formation of the stem.
The plant is always watered abundantly and a lot. If the weather is hot and dry, then watering should be done several times a week. Water the vegetable under the root. The plant does not like sprinkling method. Leaves should always be dry. This will protect the vegetable from fungal diseases.
During the period of growth, the plant must be fed 2 or 3 times with mineral or organic fertilizers.. Soil after fertilization loosened. Weeding the pumpkin is required until she closes the ranks among themselves.
Scourge pumpkin can and should be formed. The main shoot pinch when it grows to 1.5 m. Side shoots also pinch when they reach 70 cm in length. The internodes of the plant can be sprinkled with moist soil to increase the root system and the plant to receive additional nutrition.
In this way, planting seeds in open ground can grow early and middle-early vegetable varieties.
This method of growing vegetables is more suitable for late-ripening varieties. Pumpkin is a fast-growing vegetable, and it requires a large soil space. Therefore, in order not to stifle the growth of the plant and not to harm the root system, seed should be planted a month before the intended planting of seedlings in open ground. Therefore, if the region has a stable warm temperature on June 20, it is necessary to sow seedlings no earlier than May 20.
Plant pumpkin seeds should be planted only in individual pots with a diameter of at least 10 cm. The pot is filled with half of the soil so that the stem of the sprouted seeds can then be completely laid on the ground and sprinkled with earth. The stem of the plant is placed in a pot in a spiral and sprinkled with moist soil to the cotyledon leaves. The seedling has a large deciduous mass, so periodically you need to change the pots in some places.
Before planting seedlings in open ground it should be hardened. For a week, watering seedlings reduce, increase lighting and further airing. Planted seedlings without hardening on the first day will get sunburn. Burns are so strong that they can destroy the plant. If, however, a burn occurs the plant should be additionally covered to create a shadow.
When the constant warm air temperature is established and the return frost bypasses pumpkin seedlings can be planted in the beds. It is more convenient to place the beds for growing pumpkins along the fence or the sunny side of the house.
When transplanting seedlings into the ground, one should carefully, without damaging the root system, pass the sprout into the hole and cover it with the ground. Void around the plant should not be. Well shed well with warm water. To prevent a crust from forming on the ground, use mulch. This may be peat sawdust or ordinary dry land.
To get a high harvest for the pumpkin should be properly care. Care is the formation of the stem. To get large fruit and to accelerate their growth the plant can be formed into one, two or three stems.
- A pumpkin with one stem is formed into a plant no more than two meters. All side shoots are completely removed. Several stalks are left on the stem, but no more than three, the rest are removed. The stem of the plant on the top is pinched leaving five leaves from the last fruit.
- A pumpkin with two stems is formed from the main stem and lateral shoot. On the main stem leave two large fruit. On the side of the shoot is one fruit. All other shoots and ovaries are removed. At the last fruit on the stem or the shoot after the growth of five leaves the stem is pinched.
- A pumpkin with three stems is formed from the main stem and two side shoots. With this formation, the plants on each trunk leave one fruit. All ovaries are removed. After the ovary of the fetus remains five leaves. Top of the stem pinch.
In order to accelerate the ripening of the fruit, the scourge can be pinned to the ground and covered with soil for rooting. Plywood, glass or other suitable material should be placed under the fruit.
Care of a plant in an open ground
Caring for the plant is in time made dressings. Fertilizer can be done every two weeks. The first fertilization is carried out when the plant has grown six real leaves. For fertilizing apply liquid or granular fertilizer for pumpkin crops. The composition is prepared according to the instructions for use. Additionally, you can dissolve a teaspoon of nitrophoska in a liquid. Watering is carried out at the root of the plant. Average water consumption during watering is about four liters per 1 m2.
After ten days you can hold a second dressing with the same composition of fertilizer. The volume of liquid for irrigation increases to eight liters per 1 m2.
At the beginning of flowering, pumpkins make a third dressing: dissolve a tablespoon of potassium sulphate in ten liters of water, add a liter of mullein diluted with water or any other organic fertilizer. This fertilizer must be used until the fruit has grown more than 6 cm.
During the growth of the fruit pumpkin well and abundantly watered about once a week. About 30 liters of water are poured into the well. Watering pruningwhen the fruit reaches varietal sizes.
Plant care is also in the prevention and control of pests or diseases. Many vegetable diseases are easier to prevent by treating it with phytosporin, avoiding thick vegetation. Non-compliance with agricultural technology will lead to the development of fungal diseases:
- Black mold: dark brown spots appear on the leaves. The fungus develops and covers the leaf with a dark patina. The leaves become leaky, and the young fruit dries out and dies.
- Mealy dew: a thick white deposit appears on the leaves and then on the trunks of the plant. Leaves dry, fruits grow clumsy and do not develop. This is due to sudden changes in air humidity or temperature.
- White rot: completely affects the whole plant. Fruits turn yellow, turn brown, become covered with flakes of a mold. The stems are covered with mucus. Gray and wet rot also lead to the death of the plant. The damage comes from damage by slugs during thickened landings.
Pest control should be carried out with the help of specialized insecticides. It is good to irrigate the soil around the plant with wood ash after watering. She does not like podury and aphid. From slugs and wireworms will help traps.
Pumpkin: garden crop description
The smooth, uneven or warty fruits of pumpkin, obtained as a result of natural farming, are very diverse in shape, color and weight. The latter ranges from tens of grams to centners. Growing pumpkins in open ground is facilitated by the peculiarities of its root system - the depth (up to 3 m) of the main root and the widely spread (up to 10 sq. M) active part, located in arable land 20-25 cm from the surface.
This gives solid drought tolerance. Although varieties in the form of bushes have already become known in garden practice, the classic pumpkin stem creeps (crawls) along the ground, stretching to four or more meters. A huge leaf surface is made up of large pumpkin leaves with elongated petioles that do not have stipules. Each plant is a common home for male and female flowers.
The same-sex flowers of the same red-orange color differ:
- flowering sequence (first appear male),
- place on the stalk (female - above)
- pedicels (in males - longer),
- the presence of sometimes inflorescences (only for men).
In addition, female flowers that are not pollinated last longer. Pollination is carried out by insects (due to the natural gravity of the pollen, which is not able to transfer the wind) or manually by humans. The most favorable for natural pollination are the morning hours of the first days after watering or rain.
The absence of bees due to cold, heat or prolonged precipitation leads to the fall of unpolished flowers. The ellipses of pumpkin seeds rounded and pointed from different ends are well known to numerous lovers to feast on them. Germination lasts up to four years.
In connection with the latter circumstance, it is possible to give an answer to the question of whether it is possible to sow pumpkin with fresh seeds: there must be more than the usual amount (after all, germination is slightly worse), and if we are talking only about a few seeds, it is recommended to incise them with acute hand, as a strong fresh shell prevents the penetration of the germ.
Ideally, a pumpkin needs lighting, as gardeners say, with full sun, that is, it should have at least six hours of direct sunlight per day. The result of this impact will be increased yields and improved fruit quality.
But she will transfer the penumbra adequately. This is used to maximize the use of available land, compacting the seedlings of long-stalked varieties of corn by pumpkin plantings. The shade of the pumpkin itself makes it very difficult to develop weeds. In this sense, it can be used as a means to clean the soil.
What should be the soil for planting
A pumpkin that grows well on any soil prefers a soil saturated with humus, moist but not too raw, with good drainage. To get this, before planting (sowing) the soil is mixed with a large amount of compost.
The soil for pumpkin can be either slightly acidic or slightly alkaline, but the acidity (pH) of 6.5 is considered optimal. It is not necessary to plant a pumpkin in the area where its relatives were growing (cucumbers, zucchini, squash).
After other crops, the soil for pumpkin is suitable, and planting after potatoes, cabbage, tomatoes, onions, carrots, winter grains (corn and wheat), various legumes and herbaceous perennials is very favorable.
Planting pumpkins in the garden (planting dates, sowing technology, pickling seedlings, preparing seeds, etc.)
How best to proceed, determining whether to plant pumpkin seeds or seedlings, the owner should tell the climate of the area in which it is located. That is, before sowing a pumpkin directly into the open ground or on seedlings, you need to devote some time to the study and assessment of natural factors. It depends on the geographical latitude in which month of the year gardeners will plant pumpkins. In particular, for the middle band is the end of April.
Sowing seeds in open ground
Directly in the open ground pumpkin seeds are planted in gardens where July air temperature is not below 18 degrees. Before that, you need to make sure, having studied the forecast of meteorologists, in the absence of the threat of quiet trouble, as sometimes called return frosts. After this danger has passed, produce seeding. If the weather deteriorates, it is better to cover the crops with non-woven textiles.
Growing pumpkins in rassadny way
Once you have opted for the seedling method, you need to take care to properly germinate the pumpkin seeds in the seedlings. To the roots were intact when they are moved to open ground, planting pumpkin seeds for seedlings is done immediately in peat pots or just in paper cups.
When using sowing boxes at their bottom, under a substrate of a mixture of peat and soil, a layer of sawdust is poured into several centimeters. Sowing is carried out for three weeks before moving to open ground. In order for pumpkin seeds to grow well, the germination temperature in the first three days can be increased to 25 degrees, reducing it at night to a maximum of +15.
Planting pumpkin seedlings involves a number of mandatory conditions. When the prepared soil is not yet warmed up, pumpkin seedlings should not be planted. It is possible to determine the optimum (12 degrees) soil temperature by simply inserting an ordinary household thermometer into it for 10 minutes. If it is lower, then make a cover for the soil from a polyethylene (preferably black) film. If time does not tolerate, or there is no other case for planting, then three (or more) liters of hot water can be pre-filled in the landing wells.
Seedlings grown in peat pots are planted with them, burying 3 cm deeper than in the greenhouse soil. Seedlings of the boxes are placed in the wells, filled with water, so that, settling in the soil, the roots avoid unnecessary bends.
How to care for a pumpkin
Care for pumpkin begins with its watering immediately after planting. Approximately a week after this, it is advisable to mulch the soil surface with compost containing effective microorganisms by placing crushed nettle on top of its layer. Peat, humus, pine needles and even dry soil are also suitable as mulch.
The essential moment of care is the maintenance loosening of the soil, which must be done at least every two weeks. This procedure is almost always combined with weeding. Immediately after the landing, the loosening depth can be up to 12 cm, and by the end of the first month it should be reduced to 5-8 cm to avoid damage to the root system. In the absence of natural (insect) pollination, it is necessary to use the manual method - otherwise the unbound fruits rot.
The operation, which should be carried out before noon, is quite simple: with anthers of each plucked male flower with removed petals, you must carefully touch the pistils of one or two female flowers. When the weather improves, in order to attract insects as pollinators, you can spray a blooming pumpkin with honey water weekly (one teaspoon of sweetness per 10 liters of water).
How to form a plant
Pumpkin seedlings quickly become sprawling plants with long stems and large leaves. Чтобы мощное растение не нарушило границ территории своего произрастания, требуется производить формирование тыквы, что несложно делать в открытом грунте. Для этого применяется технология прищипывания тыквы, причём делать его надо, пока растение молодо. Прищипка происходит путём удаления верхушечной почки (можно с частью побега).
Её цель – ускоренное развитие боковых побегов, несущих большее число женских цветков. In addition, extra young axillary shoots that have reached 5-7 cm are removed - this procedure is called staving. It is carried out on open ground simultaneously with the removal of excess leaves and the direction of all processed pumpkin whips in one direction. Leaving at the same time on each lash in one ovary, at the harvest stage they get excellent sizes of fruits.
Watering and fertilizing pumpkins
Irrigation period for pumpkin is the time of its flowering, the emergence and development of ovaries. At the beginning of the fruit set, the plant is watered moderately so that they do not grow too small. Then the volume of moisture, and warm (at least +20 degrees), increase.
Warm significant watering contributes to the formation of female flowers. Cold watering well or artesian water is able to destroy the landing. When real foliage appears in a growing pumpkin, it is started to be fed with dry nitrophoska (10 g per plant) and 15 grams of nitrophosphate diluted with water are given to each vegetable when lashes are formed.
For two meals (per month) feeding is also recommended to use:
- - ash at the rate of 1 cup / 1 plant,
- - a solution (1: 8) of mullein in the calculation of 10 liters for six plants, when the growing season began, and for three - during fruiting,
- - humus, rotted chicken droppings or dung, humus - can be by eye.
Features of growing pumpkins: how to choose a plot for planting
It is not difficult to cultivate a pumpkin in the open field, but to get a bountiful harvest it is necessary to follow some rules. Special requirements are imposed on alternation or crop rotation; it is impossible to plant any melon crops (watermelons, zucchini, melons, cucumbers) after pumpkin. The best forerunners for pumpkin will be cruciferous or legumes (cabbage, beets, tomatoes, onions). Re-in the same place they can be planted no earlier than after 5-6 years.
Optimum temperature for seedlings or seeds
Planting pumpkin seedlings and sowing seeds into the soil on the site is carried out only after the soil at a depth of 10-12 cm warms up to +10 ° C. At the same time, the daily temperature should keep above the mark of + 8 ... + 10 ° С, with the seed method of planting this indicator should be more than + 13 ... + 15 ° С. At night, the air should not cool below + 3 ° C. In other cases, be sure to cover the seedlings at night.
Landing time is determined by the climatic features of the region. Sowing dates in the Moscow region most often fall on the first decade of May; when pumpkins are grown in the Urals and in Siberia, they shift closer to the middle of the month.
Planting pumpkins in the garden (planting dates, sowing technology, pickling seedlings, preparing seeds)
Agrotechnika pumpkin in the garden or garden is highly dependent on local climatic conditions. Before deciding whether to grow a crop in a seedling manner or if you can sow seeds directly into the ground, you should first examine the peculiarities of the local regional climate and evaluate natural factors. In the middle lane and northern latitudes, pumpkin cultivation is possible only with the help of seedlings, otherwise the thermophilic plant does not have time to fully produce fruit.
How to protect the pumpkin from pests and diseases?
Growing pumpkins in the open field is associated with the risk of developing fungal diseases caused by excessive dampness, among them:
- Mealy dew. Leaf plates are covered with white bloom, which goes to the stalks and stems. Sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate (2 g per bucket of water), potassium permanganate (3 g per bucket) or Bordeaux mixture (1%).
- Bacteriosis Brown spots and ulcers appear on the leaves and fruits. Helps spraying Bordeaux fluid (1%) and zinc sulfate solution (0.02%).
- White rot. Fat white bloom covers all ground parts of the plant, the bush gradually rots. Landings sprinkled with crushed charcoal or fluff.
- Root rot. Leaves and lashes turn yellow, then crumble. For prevention, bushes are treated with Previcur every 2-3 weeks.
Of insect pests on the pumpkin most often attack: spider mites and aphids. To combat them, apply the infusion of potato tops and onion peel, a solution of salt or soap, wormwood decoction. In case of severe damage, spray insecticides (Karbofos, Aktellik, Tsitkor and others). When buying seeds, it is recommended to take into account the characteristics of the variety, depending on the local climate. In regions with high humidity planted varieties of pumpkins that are resistant to diseases.
Pumpkin: when and how to harvest
Ripened fruits are cut with a sharp knife, leaving 5-6 cm of the stem. Ripeness is determined by the following features:
- the stem has become woody,
- the foliage turned yellow and dried,
- the crust became firm and bright.
Harvest should be in a dry sunny day, before the onset of frost. Not quite ripe specimens are immediately eaten or processed. Ripened fruit is placed in storage, the pumpkin in the winter at home can be kept in an apartment at room temperature (under the bed, in the closet).