Gladiolus is a real decoration of any garden, which is why they occupy a worthy place in almost any flower garden or flower bed. Translated from Latin, the name of the flower - a representative of the family of Corusata - means "sword", not for nothing that the second name of the flower is the sword.
Let's talk about how when planted gladioli in open ground and how to organize the care of plants, so that they please your eye lush and prolonged flowering.
Description and main classification of gladioli
Gladiolus - one of the most beautiful perennial bulbous representatives. You can learn the plant by the following features:
- Straight single stems.
- Height not less than 50 cm, rarely reaches more than one and a half meters.
- Pointed leaves.
- Leaves long from half a meter to 80 cm.
- Fitted stem inflorescence.
- The length of the inflorescence is 70-80 cm.
- Flowers are sessile, consist of 6 unequal shares.
- Perianth funnel-shaped.
- Flowers may be quite small (miniature), small, medium, large or gigantic (more than 20 cm).
- The shape of the petals is diverse: smooth, fringed, folded, corrugated.
- The color is surprisingly diverse: you can meet bright red flowers, pale pink, purple, yellow, purple, white.
In ancient times, gladiolus bulbs were eaten, and used in the Middle Ages as a medicine.
Now you can find many varieties of this beautiful plant, some of which are wild and not found in the suburban areas. Plants are divided into two large groups:
- Housekeeping. In order to consider gladiolus to belong to this group, it is important that it has a long flowering period, the flowers were well tolerated in transportation, were insensitive to the vagaries of the weather.
- Decorative. Of particular importance are the flowers themselves: they must be beautiful and original, with amazing color and unusual pattern of shirring.
Depending on when the flowering period begins, gladioli are also heterogeneous. There are such varieties:
That is why gladioli can please their owner throughout their summer period, from spring to late autumn, with their lush flowering. The main thing - to arrange for them proper care when growing. We will understand the question of when to start growing flowers.
Consider how to plant in spring. This is not an easy task, because first you need to properly prepare the bulbs, which often do not tolerate wintering and in the spring, many dry up or rot. We describe the process of preparing for planting gladiolus in the spring in the ground and growing.
- Preparation can be started in March, for this, the bulbs are taken out, neatly cleaned of leftover debris and scales.
- Do not feel sorry for the sick specimens: fungi and bacteria from them can "move" to healthy bulbs, completely nullifying all the work. So ruthlessly throw away the infected planting material.
- The end of April is a time to spur growth. You will need the following simple solution: in 1 liter of water add a little potassium permanganate (literally at the tip of the knife), as well as a pinch of zinc and magnesium sulfate, boric acid, copper sulphate and ammonium molybdide. Planting material should be placed in this preparation for at least 10 hours (optimally - 12). This will speed up the flowering process, and make the flowers themselves larger and more beautiful.
- If there is no desire to prepare the mixture yourself, you can soak the bulbs in a ready-made growth and root formation stimulator.
- Next, the bulbs should be dried for 24 hours.
- An excellent means of preventing diseases will be the treatment of planting material with drugs like Fundazim, Fitosporin or Maxim. Processing time is 120 minutes.
Important! If you live in cold latitudes, then before planting in open ground should sprout the bulbs. Do it in the second half of April, placing the bulbs in a very warm and humid room, face down. To understand that they are ready for "resettlement" in the ground will help the length of the shoot: it must be at least 5 cm.
Next, the bulbs are planted in open ground.
How to plant gladiolus
On numerous videos you can see how when gladioli are planted in the open ground are real professionals in their field. We will describe this process step by step..
- The best time to land is the end of April, when the soil is already warm enough.
- It is necessary to choose a place suitable for flowers: it should be a well-lit area, protected from winds with drained soil. The most suitable soil is black soil, sandy or light loamy.
- Land for planting is necessary to dig, this is done twice - in the fall and spring. In the spring in addition the earth is leveled with a rake.
- Next you should make the holes in which the flowers will be placed. The bottom of each hole is sprinkled with sand, then the bulbs are placed, they should be gently pressed into the soil, then sprinkled with sand (you can also use peat or humus), ash, pour with potassium permanganate. Next, the tubers are covered with a layer of soil.
- The principle of planting flowers - from south to north, the distance between the rows - 30 cm, between plants - 20 cm. The depth of planting tuber - 10-12 cm.
Planting children gladiolus spring in the ground
Planting babes - an annual procedure, the only way you can always have in stock young corms, which will help replace the old ones. Growing bulbs from babies will rejuvenate planting material and preserve the variety. Children gather in the fall and stored until spring. It should be remembered that the period of formation of the bulbs from the kids is quite long, which is why it is recommended to plant them in the second half of April. If this is not possible, special seating boxes will help, from which the children are transplanted into the open ground as soon as the soil warms up sufficiently. Before planting, babies should be soaked for 24 hours, periodically changing the water - every 10 hours.
After planting, seedlings should be buried and mulched. Depth of planting - 3-4 cm, between the bulbs should withstand a distance of 3-4 cm, and between rows - at least 15 cm.
Baby care simple and includes several important procedures:
- Loosening the soil.
- Weed removal.
- Top dressing (in summer).
- Soil mulching.
In the fall of the children make excellent bulbs that are well preserved in the winter and will be ready for planting next spring.
Diseases and pests
Define major diseases of gladioli. First of all, we note that they are divided into
- Infectious (caused by bacteria, fungus and viruses).
- Non-infectious (cause - an excess or lack of mineral fertilizers).
To avoid most infectious diseases, it is enough to observe the principles of crop rotation: planting gladioli on those areas where marigolds previously grew, calendula, carefully inspect each bulb. Loosening the soil and destroying weeds will help reduce the risk of disease. Having treated the soil with a solution of copper sulfate and tiazon, you disinfect it.
The main diseases of gladioli are as follows:
- Fusarium - dry rot, affects the tuber buds with corms. The treatment is not amenable, the infected plant should be burned. It is possible to learn about infection when looking at the bulb: the roots have a brown color. Excessive moisture or fertilizer may cause illness.
- Sclerotinia. The time of manifestation of the disease - the second half of summer, if the weather is rainy. The leaves become yellowish, gradually turn brown, dry. Fungus on the stem penetrates the bulb and the plant dies. When a disease is detected, the flower will have to be destroyed to prevent spread.
- Botrytiosis - brown rot. Infection occurs in cool, wet weather. The leaves are covered with spots of red-brown color, and the petals - with watery spots, then the stem and leaves begin to rot. The disease spreads very quickly, so efforts should be made to prevent it: spray the flowers with copper sulfate soap solution at least once a week.
Of particular importance in pest control are preventive actions: spraying gladiolus with a solution of shag, garlic, soap. It is better to spend them a couple of times a month. The most dangerous for flowers are the following insects.
- Cabbage scoops. This is a green caterpillar, actively eating plants. They need to be timely collected and destroyed.
- Thrips - small black insects with wings. To get rid of them is problematic, which is why preventive measures should be taken: dig up the bulbs before the cold, treat them with insecticides. You can also soak the bulbs in the garlic solution.
- Medvedka. This is a large insect, body length up to 3 cm, to get rid of them, you should carefully dig up the area, and the found moves are processed with dichlorvos.
- Bulb mite. To destroy it, the bulbs are soaked in karbofos solution.
- Wireworms. These are the larvae of the beetle beetle, they not only eat the succulent stems, causing the death of the plant, but also bring bacteria. Get rid of them will help dry powder metaphos.
- Slugs Gathering by hand, for the prevention should be in time to destroy the weeds and sprinkle the plants with tobacco dust or wood ash.
In order for your gladioli to bloom magnificently and for a long time, it should be remembered that it is very important to get rid of pests and diseases in a timely and correct manner.
- In order for the plant not to fall under the load of heavy inflorescences when grown, it is necessary to tie the stems to the stakes.
- The best time to cut inflorescences is morning or late evening. It is very important to use a sharp knife to help avoid leaf damage.
- It is very important to constantly check the condition of the flower garden and destroy diseased plants in time.
- Children and large bulbs should not be planted next to, otherwise large bulbs will not allow children to develop normally.
Knowing the main features of planting and caring for gladioli, you can create genuine color splendor in your garden, because these unique plants look very elegant and aristocratic, helping to emphasize the delicate taste of its owner.
For those who have never planted bulbous plants, it may seem that there is nothing difficult in planting them. To do this, simply insert the bulb into the ground, and soon a flower will grow out of it. In fact, this is not so: the planting of gladioli takes place in several stages and has its own nuances.
Site selection and soil
For gladioli choose wind-protected light areas with well-drained soil. The flower bed should be placed in a well-lit place, because even a small shading delays flowering and plant growth.
Soil for planting gladioli should have an acidity of about pH 6.5. In more alkaline soil the leaves will turn yellow, and the plant itself will slow down growth. In the soil with high acidity buds are badly opened, the tips of the leaves wither. If the soil is acidic, then when digging the beds per square meter, 150 g of eggshell or dolomite flour are applied.
Gladiolus grows best on light loams. Therefore, if the area is clay, then sand is added to the soil, and the sandy soil is mixed with clay and humus.
A bed for spring planting of gladioli is recommended to be prepared in the autumn. In spring, the flower bed can be dug up only in those areas where the soil warms up quickly. When the soil is dug up, fertilizer is added to it. For one square meter of beds you will need:
- potassium chloride - 30−40 g
- superphosphate - 100 g
In spring, the soil is additionally fertilized with calimagnese or potassium sulfate..
It is best to plant gladiolus on the beds where perennial grasses, legumes or vegetables have been growing. It is also not recommended to plant them after asters and root crops.
Planting the plant in the ground
In an open ground bulbs are planted in the period from late April to mid-May. It all depends on the weather, as for landing the site should warm up well.
Using the scapula, it is necessary to make furrows with a distance between them from twenty to twenty five centimeters. Furrows are recommended to shed phytosporin solution, which will protect plants from many diseases. The bottom is covered with river sand a layer of two centimeters. After that, you can lay out in the groove of the bulb.
The distance between the corms depends on their size:
- small planted from each other at a distance of about eight centimeters,
- the distance between large ones should be fifteen centimeters.
To gladioli not fell, the bulbs must be planted at a certain depth, which also depends on the size of the planting material:
- small onions are embedded into the soil at 8−10 centimeters,
- large corms - 10−15 centimeters.
Experienced gardeners recommend planting tall plants with a strong peduncle to a depth of 20 centimeters. In this case, the seedlings will appear a little later, but the plant will keep well and will not fall.
Put the corms in the furrow in the ground should be pressed gently, so as not to damage the bottom and roots. After that, they are half covered with earth and watered. This will remove air voids and compact the soil.
When water is absorbed, the landings are finally covered with earth and mulch. Humus, mature compost or peat can be used as mulch.
Specialized stores sell special tools for planting bulbs. They can be used to make holes and plant gladiolus in them on the same principleas in the furrows.
Flower care rules
Caring for gladiolus includes watering and feeding plants, loosening and weeding the soil.
Water the plants should be plentiful once a week. For every square meter of bed you will need ten liters of water. Watering should be done in the morning or in the evening after sunset. Water should not fall on the leaves, so it is necessary to pour it into the furrows between the rows, the depth of which should be about three centimeters. In hot weather without rains, watering is done every 3-4 days.
The lack of moisture in the soil can cause the last flowers to not bloom, and the peduncle will become sluggish.
After watering once every ten days it is recommended to loosen the soil. In this case, it will not form a crust. Also gladioli require hilling, because during watering the bulbs may become bare.
As necessary, the soil in the flower bed must be weeded. Especially carefully weeds should be removed while the plants are still small. Weeds not only clog the plant, but can also cause slugs on the bed and the development of various diseases.
Tall varieties during flowering can be tied to pegs so that they do not fall. If the flowers are planted in a row, then high poles are placed along the edges of the furrows, between which the ropes are stretched at different heights. Gladioli are tied to them as they grow. But if the bulbs were planted correctly, then the plants will most likely not need support.
During the entire vegetative season (until August 15), plants need additional feeding. Mineral and liquid organic fertilizers are used for this:
- At the beginning of growth, gladioli are poured over with a solution of chicken dung (three buckets of dung per five liters of water).
- When three leaves appear on plants, they are fertilized with nitrogen. For each square meter of landings, 25 grams of urea or ammonium sulfate will be needed. With a lack of nitrogen leaves will be pale. However, its excess reduces the resistance of plants to diseases and delays flowering. Therefore, nitrogen fertilizers must be applied in recommended doses.
- After the sixth leaf appears on the stem, supplements are added containing potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. One square meter of bed is fertilized with 20 grams of potassium sulfate, 10–20 grams of ammonium sulfate and 20 grams of superphosphate.
- After the appearance of the peduncle, before budding, the plants are fed with potassium chloride (15–20 grams per 1 sq. M) and superphosphate (30–40 grams per 1 sq. M).
Approximately thirty-five days after flowering, the bulbs begin to dig. Usually they do it in the middle of September. Matured corms should have a covering root scales and children easily separated from them. Dig gladioli in dry weather. First, dig early varieties.and then later. Small onions dug last.
Before digging, the stems of plants should be cut with a pruner or knife. The dug onions are cleared of soil, washed under running water, soaked for 20 minutes in a 1% solution of Fundazole and again washed under running water. After this, the planting material is treated with a 3% solution of potassium permanganate and dried for two or three days.
Сухие клубнелуковицы необходимо сложить в коробки и поместить на 15 дней в помещение с температурой воздуха при 25…30 градусов. После этого от 30 до 40 дней посадочный материал хранится при температуре около 20 градусов. Всё это время луковицы регулярно следует переворачивать. At the end of the term corms must be sorted and cleaned of the upper scales.
Babies are sorted by size and grade. Keep them at a temperature not higher than 5 degrees.otherwise they may not climb next year. If there is no basement or underground, then a refrigerator can be used. Do not place planting material in plastic bags. It is best if it is stored in paper bags.
Adult corms are placed in a box and stored in a room with a humidity of about 60%. The air temperature should be from 5 to 10 degrees. During storage, planting material should be regularly inspected and remove spoiled onions. In corms apartments can be stored in a closed loggia or in the vegetable drawer of the refrigerator.
After completing all the recommendations for planting and care, you will receive in the late summer and early autumn a beautiful flowerbed of majestic gladioli, which will delight you with their beautiful multicolored flowers for a long time.
Choosing a place for planting gladioli
Gladioli grow poorly and bloom in shady places. Therefore, choosing a place for landing, give preference to sunny areas. This not only provides good flowering, but also prevents the development of diseases. The causative agents of most of the diseases most actively develop in wetlands.
Of course, not at every site you can find a constantly lit place. In this regard, it should be remembered that shading of gladioli from the east side delays flowering for 15–20 days, while shading from the south — they, in general, may not bloom.
At a constant high standing of groundwater, “strangulation” of plants can occur, since air does not penetrate to the roots. In areas with such conditions for gladioli choose higher places or make a high ridge. In the zone of hot climate ridges can not be done.
To ensure that the irrigation water is completely consumed only by plants of gladioli, it is necessary to plant them at a distance of no less than 3-5 meters from trees and other plantations. Shrubs well protect the flower garden from the prevailing northern and western winds.
In an unsuccessfully selected area, gladiolus not only blooms poorly, but does not form a full-fled corm. As a result, the next year it will not be possible to get good colors due to poor quality planting material.
Preparation of soil for gladiolus
The soil under the gladioli prepared in the fall. The best soil for them is black earth, light loamy and sandy. Heavy clay soils, peaty and purely sandy, often found on garden plots, require improvement. Sand is added to peat, peat is added to sandy soil, sand and peat are added to clayey soil.
For gladioli preferred soil with a weakly acidic reaction environment - pH 5.5-6.5. Therefore, before planting corm, do soil analysis. To this end, at four or five points of the site, a glass of soil is taken and handed over to the agrochemical laboratory for analysis. It is better to perform an analysis in the spring. According to his results, the florist can establish not only the acidity of the soil, but also the amount of trace elements in it. At high acidity, quicklime or chalk is added to the soil at the rate of 100–200 g per 1 m².
Under the gladiolus they dig up the soil to the depth of the root system - 45-50 cm. At the same time, all weeds are selected. If possible, leguminous plants are planted in the area designated for these flowers in the previous year. This will improve the structure of the soil and scare away the worst enemy gladioli - wireworm.
Gnawing on the leaves, the pest destroys the plants, especially the baby, spreads bacteria that cause scab and fungal spores. Remaining uncooked organic residues promote scab spread. Bacteria and parasitic fungi settle in them, as well as in manure deposited in the soil.
Since autumn phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are introduced into the soil. Their number is calculated based on the results of the soil analysis and the selected plant nutrition system (see the relevant section). Since it is difficult for beginning growers to analyze the soil, it is possible to add a nitrophoska to it at the rate of 30 g per 1 sq. M without damage to the plants. m. Chernozem soil with autumn fertilizer can not fill.
To simplify the maintenance work, ridges of 1–1.2 m wide of arbitrary length are prepared. So that when irrigating water from the ridges does not flow down, they can be edged around the perimeter with boards, slate, plastic, stone tiles. In the spring, they dig up the soil again on one spade bayonet and select the remaining weeds. Nitrogen fertilizers, for example, urea - 15g per 1 m are added for digging.
Corm gladiolus. © Sally Clifford
Preparation of planting material
Two to three weeks before planting corms clear of scales. Do it carefully, as under them can be young seedlings that are easy to break off. If they clean the shell of the children, then gently press on it with two fingers, and then remove the scales with a fingernail. It is necessary to clean it, as parasitic microorganisms and thrips nest in scales. In addition, it is easier to detect signs of diseases on cleaned corms and in time to disinfect the planting material.
Babe is cleaned on the eve of landing, so that it does not dry out. If the baby under the shell is sick, dried, with black dots, it is thrown away. So that the diseases do not spread, all waste of planting material is burned.
Peeled corms spread sprouts up on vernalization, like potatoes. This event contributes to better flowering and less susceptibility of plants to disease at the beginning of growth.
The planting material purchased in a store or on the market is treated for diseases and pests. On the garden plot it is better not to use chemicals for this. Well stand corms and babe in the infusion of garlic (250-300g per 10 liters of water) for 2 hours.
Garlic acts both on pathogens and plant pests. It is passed through a meat grinder, poured 10 liters of water. In the resulting infusion planting material is immersed not only before planting, but also after digging. In the spring, a solution of a lower concentration (300g per 10 l) is prepared, in the fall - a higher concentration (500g per 10l). For digging, the concentration can be further increased by taking up to 1 kg of garlic per 10 liters of water.
If there is no garlic, planting material is treated with a solution of potassium permanganate - from pathogens, karbofos - from pests. In the spring, in a solution of potassium permanganate (1 g of potassium permanganate per 10 l of water), then in a solution of karbofos (30 g per 10 l of water) of tubers and the baby is kept for 30 minutes. In the fall, they take a stronger solution of potassium permanganate (5-10 g of potassium permanganate per 10 liters of water) and incubate for 30-60 minutes.
The solution of karbofos is the same concentration as in spring, and the material is kept there for the same time. After disinfection, before planting, the material can be treated with growth stimulants and microelements for faster root development. Usually use one of the following drugs, based on 10 liters of water:
- Heteroauxin - one tablet
- sodium gummat - 1g,
- succinic acid - 2g.
Planting material is kept in a growth stimulator solution for 10–12 hours.
Solutions of trace elements for the treatment of planting material can be of different composition. For soaking corms before planting, it is better to use the recommendations of A. N. Gromov (Table 1). The processing time of the material in the recommended composition of 12-14 hours.
Table 1 Doses of micronutrients for the treatment of corms
Tab. 2 Doses of micronutrients for the treatment of tuber buds
Table 2 shows the doses of micronutrients recommended by T. G. Tamberg for preparing a solution for soaking tubers before planting. Processing time - 4 hours.
The author prefers to soak tubers and babe in a combined solution of ammonium molybdate (2g) and copper sulfate (5g) in 10 liters of water for 2 hours before planting, and then immediately plant.
When and how to plant gladioli?
Planting begins when the soil at a depth of 10 cm warms up to 8-10ºС. In the middle lane, this usually happens at the end of April. It is necessary to clearly capture this moment, since the delay in planting leads to the loss of soil moisture, which adversely affect the development of corms and delay the flowering time.
It is more expedient to plant tubers and babes of especially valuable varieties first of all, which should be multiplied quickly. Planting is performed in the sand, which at the first stage of plant development will protect the corms, the baby and their delicate young roots from contact with the soil. To do this, sprinkle sand with a layer of 1-2 cm into a dug groove or hole, plant corms or babe and sprinkle sand on top and then with soil.
To facilitate plant care, tubers and babes are planted in rows along or across the ridge. The location of individual specimens of planting material in a row and the distance between rows can vary depending on the size of the corms, the power of the variety and the tasks set by the florist in growing.
When placing plants, it is also necessary to take into account that the greater the distance between the plants, the better the nutritional conditions and the less chance of infection by diseases from the neighboring plant. The smallest distances between large tubers in a row are 15 cm, between rows - 20, for babies - 5 and 15 cm respectively.
The depth of planting depends on the composition of the soil and the size of corms. Planting material with a diameter of 4-5 cm (the one that gives the best quality flower stalks) is planted to a depth of 10-12 cm. On sandy and chernozem soils, the planting depth can be increased to 15 cm, on clayey and marshy marshy - reduced to 7-9 cm. this must be remembered that finely planted tubers are sick more often. Therefore, it should not be planted smaller than 7 cm.
The flower grower would not be mistaken if he planted a corm to a depth equal to its three diameters: it is obvious that the smaller one will have to be planted smaller, the larger one deeper. Small corms with deep planting may not germinate due to the lack of air access. Babe is planted to a depth of 3-5 cm.
Landing can be along the ridge and across. In any case, previously dug up the soil level rake. Then, marking the direction of the row, a groove of the required depth or hole is made across or along the ridge at a distance calculated for the planting of corms or children.
Before planting, it is good to add nitrophore 3-4 cm below the bottom of the corm at the rate of 1-2g per each or other fertilizer. During planting, the grooves and holes are watered with water so that the soil is wet and does not take moisture from the planting material.
Planting corms of gladioli in two rows. © Lucinda
Is it possible to plant gladioli before winter?
For the formation of the root system, gladioli require low positive temperatures (10–15 ° C), and active shoot growth occurs at 20–25 ° C. However, in order for corms to develop well, they must be pre-stored at temperatures of about 3-9 ° C. During this period, the root system is not yet formed, so low temperatures can not delay plant development.
Corms can withstand not only low positive temperatures, but also short-term negative temperatures, but at the same time their development is delayed. Large corms die at minus 2 ° C. Therefore, landing for the winter is possible only in the southern areas with a shelter to create a wintering mode, similar to the storage mode.
The baby, having a hard, dense shell, tolerates low temperatures more easily, which can be observed in warm winters in the Nonchernozem zone. In such cases, it can withstand a decrease in temperature to minus 4 ° C.
Those flower growers who provide conditions at the site that protect the soil from freezing, plant gladioli and before winter.
Gladiolus, ‘Little Fawn’ grade. © Stand My Ground
Is it possible to grow gladioli by the New Year and by March 8?
This is possible, but for normal growth of plants in winter, additional lighting is necessary, maintaining a certain temperature of air and soil, humidity and good air exchange - airing. All this is difficult to provide in a residential area.
In specially equipped greenhouses, blooming gladioli are obtained by any time. However, the process of preparing the planting material and the culture conditions are very complex. For example, to obtain a cut by March 8, they dig up corms early; for cutting by the New Year, they retain, under certain conditions, the tubers of the previous year's crop.
The staff of the Main Botanical Garden in Moscow has developed the light culture of gladioli. Articles describing their methods at different times published in the journal "Flower".
How to ensure that gladioli bloom not all at once?
There are several ways:
- plant at the same time corms of varieties with different flowering periods,
- plant at the same time corms of one variety,
- plant at the same time differently sized corms of one variety, as plants from small planting material bloom later than from large ones.
For the winter corms are very dry. What to do with them before boarding?
A healthy corm will never dry. If she grimaced, became hard, she was undoubtedly afflicted with a disease. If the corm was stored at an elevated temperature, it may dry out a bit, but it will remain healthy. Such corms are soaked in warm soda solution for a few hours before planting (one teaspoon per 1 liter of water). However, it is better to soak the planting material in a solution of trace elements (see Table 2).
I bought an interesting variety. How to multiply it faster?
If a baby is bought, then it is necessary to increase the growing season for it, that is, plant it early in the greenhouse, under the film or in boxes at home. If there is one or more corms, then before planting, they are cut into several parts so that each part has one kidney and part of the bottom.
Depth of planting gladioli
Known rule for all bulbous: if there are no recommendations for planting, plant a bulb in depthequal to its three heights. The depth depends on the composition of the soil: in heavy (for example, clayey) - by 3 onion heights, and in light (for example, sandy) - by 4th.
The size is also taken into account: the larger the onion, the deeper it should be planted - from 10-12 cm for large ones up to 2-3 cm for small ones. Usually, children are planted from 3 to 5 cm. If the soil is sandy or black soil, the depth can be increased to 14-16 cm, if heavy (marshy or clay) - reduced to 6-9 cm, but not less than 7 cm.
There is another way: rather deep trenches are made instead of holes. Sand is poured on the bottom or sphagnum moss is laid out, it is well spilled. Then corms are placed here, they are sprinkled with soil to a height of 3 to 5 cm. As soon as the sprouts appear, the ground needs to be poured more, thus poured until the planted furrow becomes equal to the rest of the soil. The corms can not be pressed into the soil, so as not to damage the young roots.
Important distance between the bulbs. You can plant plants at a distance of 10-15 cm, if the bulbs are large and you want a more lush flowering, the optimal distance is 15-20 cm, and 25 for strong-growing varieties with very large flowers.
If trenches are made, then the distance between them is 30 cm, and in the furrow between the bulbs is 10-12 cm. It is best to land the children according to the scheme from 3x3 to 5x5 (as for a bow-sev), depth is about 3 cm. Plant in a trench Better in the square-nesting way - so the plants will be better ventilated, illuminated by the sun, do not get wet much in the rain.
The best predecessors: dahlias, marigolds, tomatoes, legumes and strawberries. It is undesirable to plant gladioluses where potatoes, cabbage, carrots used to grow, and most importantly, those vegetables for which manure was applied.
We hope the article helped you decide how deep to plant gladiolus. Share and you experience planting gladioli at the dacha, we will be happy 😉
How to grow gladiolus
- small winged insect of dark brown color up to 1.5 mm long, yellow-brown larvae. Flowers damaged by thrips discolor. With a strong defeat, the buds do not open, they are glued together, and dry up. When digging along with planting material, thrips enter the storage, and if the temperature in it rises slightly, the insects begin to actively feed. At the same time corms acquire a “sweet” surface. To combat thrips, they use both chemical treatment and infusions of garlic and tobacco. Spraying the leaves is carried out several times during the growing season, starting in mid-June. Chemicals should be alternated to avoid pest habituation. At temperatures below 9-10 ° C, thrips go to the soil, at this time the processing does not make sense. If by the fall it was not possible to get rid of the pest, after digging up the corms it should be soaked in the same solutions that are used in the summer.
It is three diameters of corms, the babe can be planted to a depth of 3-5 cm. The distances between adult plants in a row of not less than 15 cm, between rows 20 cm, for babies - 5 and 15 cm respectively. Garden beds with tubercles covered with nonwoven material (lutrasil, spunbond, etc.) to ensure the best conditions for germination.
The best soil for gladiolus
Gladiolus - landing and care
Гладиолусы неприхотливы в уходе и не требуют к себе слишком много внимания, что делает их идеальными для крупных территорий и небольших участков.
Высаживание гладиолусов на открытом грунте производится на грядки шириной от 0,9 до 1,2 м. Это облегчает не только их выращивание, но и уход за растениями. Садоводы советуют располагать гряды с запада на восток или вдоль склона, а сами ряды – поперек этих гряд. This method will provide a more uniform heating of the soil and the lighting of each plant.
Superphosphate - 70 gr. or double superphosphate - 40 gr.,
If we are talking about sandy or light soils, then cultivation will be problematic without the additional introduction of pond silt and clay. Clay-like heavy soils will need organic fertilizers and coarse-grained (preferably river) sand. All recommendations presented are necessary in order to provide the required care from the very beginning.
It is possible to plant gladioli into the soil when the soil at a depth of 8-12 cm warms to 8-10ºС. In Kuban, this is roughly the end of March and the beginning of April, and in the middle lane - the last decade of April and the beginning of May. I usually focus on the time of planting potatoes, once planted it, you can start planting gladioli.
How to grow gladiolus - such majestic, proud flowers? Every year they bloom in mid-summer, in time for my birthday. Maybe that's why I love them very much. Everyone who breeds these flowers has its own secrets. Someone assures that the selection of the bulbs is most important, someone - that it's about feeding. All are right. I had negative and positive moments, so let me give some advice to flower growers for the care of these beautiful flowers.
When dealing with wireworms, it’s worth remembering that he loves weedy areas. Therefore, timely weeding, as well as chalking of the plot, helps to reduce the number of pests. Chemicals from the wireworm are introduced into the furrows before planting. If there is such a pest on the site as the common bear, gladioli also become its victim. All available means are good against him.
Gladiolus - planting depth
And various rot and scab. All these diseases are easier to prevent than to cure. This is achieved by frequent and thorough inspection of plantings and the removal of all suspicious plants (yellowing of leaves, stains on them, etc.), followed by burning and disinfecting the growth site. It is also advisable to observe crop rotation and not place the culture annually in the same place. The newly acquired planting material is better planted and stored separately from the main collection for the passage of quarantine.
As soon as shoots appear, the systematic care of plants begins: weeding, loosening the soil, watering, fertilizing, pest and disease control.
Planting depth can vary from 4 to 15 cm. This will depend on the mechanical composition of the soil and the size of the planted tubers. In relation to heavy soils, the planting depth is always 3 or 4 cm less than on light soils.
Potassium salt from 30 to 35 gr. on 1m2,
Relevant soil should:
Good light (the place should not be shaded by buildings or trees),
A very important point in answering the question of how to grow gladioli, as I have already seen, is the choice of a place for gladioli. The size and number of flowers, as well as the time and duration of flowering will depend on it. Of course, the landing site will also greatly affect the quality of planting material for the next season.
- If you have a problem area, in terms of light, you can make high beds for planting gladioli. Or make a bulk bed, and plant gladiolus on its top.
- Cut flowers
- Which are manifested in the variegation of flowers. Sick plants should be removed immediately and the instrument disinfected.
Abundant watering gladiolus
- Treated for diseases
- From organic matter suitable humus, peat compost, manure or bird droppings. Of mineral fertilizers, complex fertilizers of the nitrophosphate type are most suitable. Organic fertilizers need to be applied only in the fall for plowing at the rate of 300-500 kg per hundred. It is impossible to introduce fresh organic matter in the spring: this will lead to the defeat of plants by fungal diseases. In general, organic matter should be made under the predecessor. If the soil is poor and the organic matter was not previously applied, it is necessary to apply mineral fertilizers. In this case, it is not necessary to increase the dose - it is economically unprofitable, and an excess of fertilizers will not give any benefit. The optimal dose per one hundred parts: 1 kg of nitrogen, 0.5 kg of phosphorus, 1 kg of potassium. This corresponds to 4.5 kg of ammonium sulfate, 2.2 kg of superphosphate and 4.5 kg of potassium sulfate.
- However, small-flowered varieties are planted more often, and large-flowered ones less often. In the first case, it will be 15 cm (possible and more), and in the second - the range from 25 to 30 cm.
- Many gardeners additionally add phosphate fertilizers at the rate of 1m2 from 50 to 100 grams during this period. Facilitates cultivation, however, as well as care, oven ash in the amount of 40-100 grams. on 1m2.
Have excellent air and water permeability.
Located in the lowlands
Before you start planting gladioli, you need to decide on the choice of planting material. This will get the expected "harvest." Immediately it is necessary to discard the myth that a beautiful plant will grow out of a large bulb. So how to make the right choice?
If the location of the area allocated for gladiolus was on the north or west side, then try to be protected from cold winds, at least by bushes or just tall plants.
- Should not be wet. The inflorescences are cut off in the state of the first two half-distended flowers. When cutting a plant, it is necessary to keep as many leaves as possible in order to form a full-fledded corm.
- Of the
- . But frequent watering strongly compacted soil. Therefore, follow the rule - less often, but more. After the plants ottsvetut, watering can stop.
Phosphate fertilizers can be applied in autumn, nitrogen and potash fertilizers - in the spring in the form of top dressing. It is done this way. The dose of fertilizer is divided into two parts. The first part is brought in a month after disembarkation, and the second - in two months. Wood ash is a good fertilizer, it is added both in autumn and spring with the calculation of 4 kg per hundred.
Based on the above, the distance between the flowers themselves will also change. In the same row they can be within 8-10 cm. (Small-color varieties), and in relation to large-color varieties - up to 16-20 cm. During the planting, the corm must adhere tightly to the soil.
During this period, phosphorus, nitrogen, and potash fertilizers are applied (if they were not introduced in the fall).
Despite all this, the soil cannot be too loose.
With high groundwater levels
It is well known that the cultivation of gladioli comes from the bulbs, which are replaced each year with new ones. So-called "kids" are formed around them. The old bulb constantly gains weight and becomes flatter, due to which it loses its reproductive qualities.
Gladiolus is best grown on loamy or light sandy soils. On our Kuban heavy chernozem they can grow low. But there is a solution! Put in the wells before planting sand, compost, that is, make the soil easier. If you have the same soil as mine (heavy black soil), then pour sand over the bulb, and only then the ground.
When digging gladiolus bulbs
Pests for gladioli
Terms of dressing gladioli
- Before planting the corms of gladioli, it is necessary to clear the covering scales, this will speed up the seedlings by 4-5 days. In addition, when removing the covering, the scales are easier to identify corms with the initial stages of the disease, they can be rejected.
- To provide the required care, as well as the necessary aeration, flowers can be planted in clean sand, which is introduced directly into the furrow. He will not allow the soil to envelop the bulb, which is especially useful in rainy weather.
- In particular, it is necessary (based on 1m2):
- Land for landing is prepared in the fall. A deep digging to a depth of 40 to 50 cm will be required with the simultaneous introduction of the necessary organic fertilizers. Also at this time ridges are created, and in the spring - only additional loosening to a depth of 15 or 20 cm.
Deprived of regular air exchange,
What fertilizers do gladioli need?
Determined by the number of leaves on the plant. There are specially designed schemes - what kind of fertilizer, how much and when to give. As for personal experience, when there were few plants in the garden, I tried to follow the recommendations. But then the collection and the garden grew. And by itself the question arose about some standardization of fertilizing for different cultures. I consider the optimal use of Kemira-Kombi. This fertilizer is perfectly soluble in water and very convenient to use, suitable for both root and foliar dressings. For foliar application, the concentration is 10–30 g per 10 l, it depends on the size of plants and soil. For root feeding, this concentration can be increased, but the working solution should be avoided on the leaves. Top dressing spend every 7-10 days, combining them with watering. When four leaves are formed on the plant, I add potassium nitrate to the top dressings, since potassium is a “fundamental” element for the culture of gladiolus. The last dressing spend at the end of flowering.
Preparing gladi bulbs for planting
(Aktara, decis, etc.). Chemical preparations can be replaced with infusion of garlic (300 g per 10 liters of water for two hours), its solution acts on pathogens and pests. Before planting corms soak in
If the variety is very valuable, then the tubers can not be rejected, and sore spots removed with a sharp knife and sanitized cuts or a strong solution of potassium permanganate, or brilliant green.
After the flowers are planted, they must be mulched with humus or peat, adhering to a height of 2 to 3 cm.
Ammonium nitrate - 40 gr.,
The time of fertilizer application, as well as their quantity, will depend on certain factors:
Gladiolus: planting and care - Herald grower
Gladiolus: landing and care
Marshy (use is possible after they are drained),Experienced gardeners recommend using replacement bulbs for no longer than three or four years. In order to preserve the variety they like, “kids” are selected as planting material. In the first year of cultivation, the first-born bud is removed to redirect nutrients from the flower to the bulb.Remember that last year you grew up in a place chosen for gladiolus. If the bean - very good! Consider that you will not have a malicious enemy, the wireworm.Term of digging up plants
Organic fertilizer is good to use as a mulching material. It should be borne in mind thatGrowth stimulantsPlanting of gladiolus begin when the soil dries out a little and warms to a temperature of 10-12 degrees at a depth of planting. Babes are planted starting from the last decade of April until the end of the second decade of May. Corms are planted from late April to late May. At the same time, small corms are planted earlier than large ones. Landings are most conveniently carried out on beds 120 cm wide.For flowers to please the eye, they need appropriate care:Urea 20-30 gr.,The nature of the soilWith long stagnant water.
The material selected for planting is treated with a 0.5% solution of manganic acid potassium, then dried and left for storage.We now turn directly to planting gladioli. Corm need to be separated from dry scales for 2-3 weeks before the intended landing. And remove the scales from the babies just before planting.And then dry them thoroughly. Quality of the received landing material in many respects depends on this operation.And
Gladiolus care, fertilizing gladioli
The use of fresh organic is undesirable
(Heteroauxin, epin, zircon).Ridge is desirable to have from east to west. Rows of landings do across the ridge. In one row is placed 10 corms. For planting it is worth making a special peg, so that its diameter is like that of the largest corms. Planting depth of 10-12 cm, on sandy soils up to 15 cm. Shallower planting is undesirable because the plants will turn out in winds and rains. If the corms are small, you can reduce the depth of planting to 5-6 cm. The flowering will come 7-9 days earlier, the multiplication factor will increase. But at the same time the plants will need to tie up to the pegs. The distance between the rows of gladioli 18-20 cm.During the growing season will require watering at least 10 days.Nitrophoska - 50 gr.
Content of certain nutrients in itIt must be remembered that the landing site should change every three or four years.
Before the biomaterial is planted on the open ground, the onions must be cleared of the scales covering them. Next, the tuber must be placed in a 0.5% solution of manganese for 10-12 hours. Such a step is necessary to disinfect and stimulate the growth of gladioli. Only after such a procedure is allowed planting of tubers in the selected area.Planting material can and should be disinfected, as well as treated with growth stimulants. You can disinfect the materials at hand, such as garlic extract (100 g of garlic mince, pour 3 liters of water), in which to stand the gladioli corns and babies for 2 hours. For the same purpose, you can use a well pink solution of potassium permanganate - soak for half an hour. You can withstand gladioli corms in a solution of drugs Maxim, Khoma (see the dosage on the package).For maturation of corms and babies from the day of flowering should take about 35-45 days, and if the inflorescence is not cut, then this period is even longer. Cold wet weather contributes to the development of diseases. With this in mind, determine the start date of the harvesting campaign. For me, given the early landing and a large amount of collection, this is approximately September 10. I start digging with adult tubers of early varieties, then turn to middle and late, and finish with tuber buds. At the dug-out plants I separate the “baby”, pruning the stem and roots, tearing off the old corm. In the process of digging it is necessary to choose the whole baby from the soil. After that, the material is washed in running water. Next, the crop can be pickled in the infusion of garlic. It is undesirable to use chemical preparations at this moment, since with a small amount of planting material it is stored in a home refrigerator with foodstuffs.
Protection of gladioli against pests and diseases
Wireworm.Planting gladioli startIf the desired variety of gladiolus reproduces poorly, we can recommend planting "on its side" and "upwards in the bottom". In this case, the multiplication factor is doubled, but the bloom is delayed up to two weeks. Sometimes advise corms cut into pieces. Gladioli respond well to high agricultural techniques. Do not be lazy to loosen the soil after the rains, weed the weeds, mulch the plantings if the soil is swimming. Gladioli like moisture, but excessive moisture is undesirable. Gladiolus is most in need of watering during the formation of the peduncle and during flowering. Watering is needed abundant, which means that it is necessary to water rarely, but plentifully (10-15 liters per square meter). After watering, loosen the soil. Gladiolus should not be planted annually in one place.
Watering is better in the morning and in the evening.Successful cultivation, as well as care, do not tolerate the use of chlorine-containing fertilizers, since this element adversely affects the development of flowers.Plant needs for a specific type of fertilizer (depending on the phase of development).
As a rule, areas for planting gladioli are prepared independently. In order to grow a plant in its appropriate conditions, it is necessary to carry out certain agrotechnical measures and introduce organic fertilizers.That long-awaited time has come when you can begin to respond directly to the question of how to grow gladioli? This will require a maximum of desire and a minimum of effort.From growth promoters, you can use heteroauxin (Kornevin), Appin, others - they will help to form a strong root system.Corms and baby lay out in boxes, trays to dry. This process lasts two months at a temperature not lower than 25 ° C. In the initial period of drying, it is desirable to bring the temperature to 40 ° C using heating devices. Do not forget to air the room well. After two months of corms and the baby I cleaned for storage at a temperature of 4-7 ° C, at a humidity of not more than 60%. If this ratio is not observed, the root hillocks awaken prematurely, sprouts appear, and gladiolus thrips develop actively. You can store a small amount of gladiolus bulbs in a regular refrigerator in the vegetable compartment. During winter storage, planting material is scanned several times, discarding diseased specimens. This operation allows to preserve the health of the collection.(Larva of the click beetle).Гладиолусы подвержены множеству различных заболеваний, как грибных, так и бактериальных, как только позволит почва. Год на год не приходится, но чаще всего это вторая декада апреля. С посадкой не следует затягивать, так как это может привести к потере почвенной влаги, что неблагоприятно сказывается на развитии растений. Before planting, fertilizer should be applied throughout the whole area (for example, Kemira-Universal), then the beds should be formed. First, baby is planted, then adult corms.Choosing a place for planting gladioliTo preserve moisture, timely loosening is necessary.
Gladiolus planting can be carried out exclusively in well-treated and heated to a temperature of +10 degrees and to a depth of 10 to 12 cm soil. Landing dates will depend on the specific climatic features of the region. However, it is not forbidden to plant tubers in the ground with a temperature of 4 to 6 degrees.
Cutting gladiolus flowers
In the autumn, during the digging it is necessary to add to the soil:In the latter case, the cultivation of such flowers is impossible without weathered peat, "green" fertilizer, peat compost, rotted manure and humus.The success of growing these flowers depends entirely on the correctness of the site selection. The plant needs:And here's another detail in the cultivation of gladioli: to reduce the likelihood of disease and increase flowering a month before planting, sprouting (tuber) must be carried out, like in potatoes. Spread them sprouts up in the light, but not in the sun. The central sprout should slightly grow. Permissible sprout length before planting from 1 to 10 cm.
Digging and storage of gladiolus bulbs
Author: Bednova ElenaThrips. This andDepth of Glandular Bulb Planting
And the technology of cultivation is due to the special love of gladiolus to heat and light.
You also need to tie the flowers to the stakes just before flowering and remove all faded.
In conditions of non-chernozem soil, planting is permissible from the beginning of April until the end of May. Maximum - until July 15. In cases of delay, deterioration of rooting and underdevelopment of the plant are possible.
Humus or peat compost in the amount of 7-12 kg,
What is needed soil for gladioli
Gladioli are planted in well-loosened soil, in a sunny place of the site and well ventilated. A month before planting, the onion of flowers should be placed in boxes on the windowsill for germination. With the onset of May, when the air temperature is about 10 C, the tubers of the gladiolus bulb can be moved to the open ground.
This flower loves soil with a level of ph 6.5, black soil and light loamy. Sandy and peaty soil for gladioli should be improved and prepared a year before planting. Humus or compost (14–15 kg / m2) is added to the sandy soil. A heavy clayey is dug up to a depth of 35-40 cm, introducing peat into it (8-10 kg / m2), and the acidic soil is diluted with lime.