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Cedar pine: description, planting and care, cultivation

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This evergreen conifer, which is a species of the genus Pine. Its botanical name is Siberian cedar pine. To grow this evergreen conifer tree, you will need seeds (pine nuts). It is common in Western and Eastern Siberia, and it can also be found in the Urals.

Siberian cedar: description, photo

It has a rather dense and most often multi-crown with massive boughs. Siberian cedar is distinguished by a brown-gray trunk, which is covered with fissured scaly bark (mainly in old trees). The peculiarity of this evergreen conifer tree is a whorled branching. It has a very short growing season (40 - 45 days a year), therefore, Siberian cedar is among the slow-growing and shade-tolerant species.

Siberian cedar shoots and needles

They are brown in color and covered with long reddish hairs. And the needles have They are brown in color and covered with long reddish hairs. And the needles have a dark green color with a bluish bloom. Its length is 6-14 cm. In the section one can see that it is trihedral and slightly serrated. To the touch the needles are quite soft. It grows in bunches, in which five needles each.

Features of the Siberian cedar root system

It is represented by one short taproot (up to 40 - 50 cm), from which smaller lateral ones grow, and root hairs with developing mycorrhizae on the tips leave from them. If the kidney is lightweight and sufficiently well drained, then massive anchor roots will develop at the core root, penetrating to a depth of three meters. Together with the hind legs, they are designed to ensure the stability of the crown and the trunk of the tree.

Micro- and megastrobiles of Siberian cedar

The considered evergreen conifer is a monoecious, heterosexual plant (both female and male cones grow on the same tree). Siberian cedar, the photo of which was demonstrated earlier, is considered anemophilous plant (pollination flows through the wind).

Female cones (megastrobes) appear near the apical bud at the tips of growth shoots at a time when their growth has already stopped, and male (microstrobil) - near the base of the shoot.

The buds are conical. They are 6-10 mm long, not resinous. Their scales are rather long and lanceolate (tapering upwards). Anther strobila on the axis have microsporophylls, which are larger at the base than the apex, and female cones - covering scales, which are located in the sinuses and consist of two ovules.

Pharmacological properties of Siberian cedar oil

First, it normalizes the blood lipid spectrum. Secondly, Siberian cedar oil lowers cholesterol. Third, it helps to get rid of extra pounds. This positive physiological effect is justified by the presence of terpenes (unsaturated hydrocarbons) in the oil.

Siberian cedar: planting and cultivation

It is recommended to plant it at a permanent place at about the age of six, when it already represents a two-meter seedling. If you take a younger specimen, then the tree, most likely, will take root very painfully, and the more mature one may die.

The optimal solution is to take Siberian cedar seedlings from a special nursery in which they were grown in compliance with all the requirements for this. Preference is best given to young trees in containers where the root system is closed.

To buy Siberian cedar seedlings stands with an earthen clod, which must be necessarily moistened and should not have bare roots. In order to prevent them from drying out, it is necessary to transport the trees as quickly as possible to the immediate place of permanent planting.

Planting of the Siberian cedar is carried out taking into account the appropriate distance between the trees (8 m). The size of the holes should always exceed (by 1/3) the volume of the existing root system, and it is recommended to fill their bottom with a substrate (a mixture of ash, peat, basic soil and humus). The substrate should not be made much more fertile than the ground, since the root system of a young tree will not leave its hole for a very long time. This will lead to the fact that earthworms attract moles, which can cause significant damage to the cedar root system.

If the seedlings are purchased in a container, then it is worth remembering that their root system is very twisted. In this regard, it is impossible to plant Siberian cedar with an earthy clod. In this case, it is necessary to straighten and rotate the roots in the hole as freely as possible.

Seedlings must be fixed at the bottom of the planting holes so that the root neck is on a par with the surface of the earth. Next, you need to fill the wells with the substrate prepared in advance. Then the planting of the Siberian cedar ends with the procedure of tamping the soil and carefully watering it (about 4 liters of water for each seedling).

Features of the Siberian cedar

The specificity of its cultivation is expressed by the need to satisfy the need for a substance such as potassium and control over the nitrogen content in the soil, the excess of which can significantly slow down the development of the root system of the tree.

Siberian cedar, the description of which was described in detail earlier, is able to fully realize its biological potential, but only under the condition of normal crown illumination. Only young trees can tolerate shade without harm, as in natural growth conditions on the territory of the taiga mature cedars constantly dwell in the sun, and young ones in their shade. In this regard, all other trees on the same plot should always be lower than mature cedars.

In the first few years after planting, it is recommended to carefully eliminate self-sowing of competing conifers.

Siberian cedar is characterized by an aerobic root system (its development requires constant access to oxygen), therefore, it is necessary to ensure a substantial aeration of its soil through mulching (covering the soil with a protective layer). To do this, leaf litter (leaf humus) is used, which helps to improve the mineral nutrition of the roots and their protection against this type of basidiomycete fungi, like the root sponge.

Abundant watering of Siberian cedars in the dry season is mandatory. Also in the evenings it is necessary to ensure constant spraying of the crowns of young trees to improve the gas exchange process.

What is the use of seeds of Siberian cedar

You can often hear their unscientific name, especially in cooking - pine nut. It is considered a very valuable product in terms of food. Pine nuts are usually consumed both raw and after heat treatment.

Their benefits are valuable. Pine nuts contain a significant amount of phosphatidic phosphorus, which is not found in any other nut or seed of oleaginous crops.

They also act as a very rich source of lecithin (in content they are similar to soy).

What nutrients are included in the pine nuts

The Siberian cedar seeds in an insignificant amount (100 g) contain the daily need of the human body for such deficient trace elements such as zinc, cobalt, manganese and copper, as well as a significant amount of iodine.

The following useful substances are present in pine nuts:

  • starch (5.8%),
  • dextrins (2.26%),
  • glucose (2.83%),
  • fiber (2.21%),
  • sucrose (0.44%),
  • fructose (0.25%),
  • tocopherol (33%).

Protein is saturated with such scarce and essential amino acids that limit its biological value, like tryptophan, methionine and lysine.

And its core includes:

  • fats (55 - 66%),
  • proteins, starch, sugar and vitamins (13.5 - 20%).

What is cedar sap

Its official name is Siberian cedar resin. The phytoncides included in it in a significant amount are widely used in traditional medicine. But official science did not stand aside in the process of studying its actions. So, during the Great Patriotic War, all doctors used cedar sap as a quick healing agent. Even gangrene could stop with its help. Subsequently, the Siberian cedar resin has acquired the status of an effective drug.

It consists of turpentine (30%) and rosin (70%). Siberian cedar resin, the use of which is relevant today, is a highly effective therapeutic agent, since turpentine, cedar oil, camphor, and turpentine balm are obtained from it.

Cedar pine: description

Everything in this tree is unique and organic. The cedar, symbolizing beauty and power, has long occupied a special place in the soul of the Russian people. A powerful ephedra grows up to 35 meters in height, often has a trunk diameter of up to one and a half meters, and individual specimens up to two. Cedar pine is a long-lived tree, the average lifespan of a tree is 400 years, some can live up to 800 years or more.

The branches of the tree form a compact, dense and beautiful crown. Solid and narrow needles up to 10-13 cm long is an effective drug, it is so saturated with unique vitamins and minerals. That is why the air in cedar forests is sterile and healing: the released volatile production creates an invisible barrier, neutralizing harmful viruses and bacteria. The cadets assure that the air in the cedar forest has a strong healing effect: heals the body and soul, improves health and soothes the nerves. A unique set of organic compounds in the needles has long been used by Russian people for the treatment of scurfy manifestations, neurosis and immunity enhancement. Pine resin, turpentine, fully justifying its name, has a healing effect. Yes, and wood has excellent bactericidal properties.

The fruits of the tree, pine nuts, are valued as an excellent delicacy, nutritious product and healing agent. Long since in Russia this tree was called grain, which is absolutely true, because at all times it was saved and supported not only by people, but also by all forest animals.

Spread

In Russia, cedar pine is distributed throughout the territory of Siberia and forms natural plantations. A tree can grow well in almost all temperate latitudes, and gardeners have long been engaged in breeding cedar in many regions: in the Moscow region, the Leningrad region, central Russia, the Urals, Altai and even beyond the Arctic Circle. Cultivated and well-fed cedars planted on fertile soils begin to yield two to three times faster than in natural conditions. Usually, cedar pine fully begins to bear fruit in forests when it reaches the age of 40-50 years with the repetition of the harvest periods every 5-8 years, and in the garden plots - 15-20 years after planting, giving the harvest every 2-3 years.

Cedar pine: cultivation

There are various methods of reproduction - vegetatively, by seeds or by grafting. Cedar pine seed - nutlet. Undoubtedly, it is better that they are of high quality (tested for germination) and varietal. But you can also use seeds from store-bought cones. In this case, it will be necessary to simply increase their number for landing, since not all of them can ascend. The best time for sowing pine trees is April - the beginning of May. It should be remembered that the germination of seeds depends on preplant preparation, and for conifer branches, stratification is obligatory - forced cooling, which stimulates the activity of the embryo. Without such an operation, the seeds will only sprout a year after planting, if they survive, do not rot, or become prey to rodents.

How to stratify?

So, the planting of cedar pine is accompanied by stratification, which is allocated for at least 3 months. 90 days before planting, seeds are pickled, placed for 2 hours in a weak solution of manganese. This will protect them from disease. Then the seeds are soaked: pour hot water (40-50 ° C) and, maintaining a constant temperature, leave for three days. After that, the nuts are mixed with three times the volume of well-moistened clean river sand or fine peat chips. It is important not to re-moisten the filler: it must hold the form when it is pressed in the hand without the appearance of water.

This mixture is covered with a layer of 10–20 cm in a plywood box with ventilation openings, which is placed on wooden blocks to provide air access. The container is placed in a refrigerator, basement or other cool room, where a constant air temperature is maintained within 4-6 ° C. Once every 2 weeks the mixture is thoroughly mixed and moistened, compensating for the loss of moisture to the original state. Lowering the temperature to minus should not be allowed, since it threatens to damage the seed. The main indicator of the correct stratification is the procreation of most of the seeds at the time of planting. Now the gardener is coming to the next stage in the reproduction of a plant like pine cedar. Planting and caring for young trees are simple, but will require attention.

The optimal soil for growing cedar is loose, fairly moist and breathable sandy loam or loam. Seeds are buried by 2-3 cm, and the crops are mulched with sawdust, humus or peat. This will protect the soil from drying out, the formation of a crust after watering or rain, the appearance of weeds. When shoots appear, protection from birds, pecking off the remnants of nuts, which pull the first tender shoots out of the ground, will be required. Usually, crops are covered with shields of intertwined willow twigs, lifting them above the plantations to a height of 6-8 cm. They are removed after about a month when the seedlings get stronger and the birds are no longer afraid of them.

Further care for cedar crops is common: loosening the soil, weeding, watering and top dressing. Cedar pine loves high-quality organics, and the best fertilizer in the spring is a solution of mullein in a ratio of 1:10. In the fall, you can use and complex mineral fertilizers. After 2-3 years, receive full-fledged cedar pine seedlings, which can now be transplanted to a permanent place.

Dig a small cedar must be carefully, trying to save the roots. If possible, the seedling is removed from the garden along with the earthy clod. Unacceptable and drying in the air after the plant dug. Root ball must be moistened with water and landed.

Place for planting should be prepared in advance, the soil is dug over with humus and cleaned of weeds. There are features in the planting pattern: to achieve cross-pollination, seedlings are planted with a group of 3-4 trees with an interval of 5-7 meters between them. Lupine grown between them stimulates good growth of young plants. Plantings must be generously watered around the crown circumference, do not forget to fertilize the trees, making phosphate-potassium fertilizers in the winter, and organic matter in the spring.

Diseases of cedar pine cause some species of fungi that inhabit the soil. Their damage to the roots of young trees often leads to the death of plants. Anamorphic fungi, belonging to the group of soil pathogens, cause tracheomycous wilt, which manifests itself as follows: the roots become brown, and the mycelium of the fungus, penetrating into the vascular system of the tree, clogs it and blocks access to nutrition. As a result, the needles turn red and fall, the plant dries out quickly.

Fungal diseases are difficult to cure, almost impossible. Only prophylactic measures aimed at stopping the reproduction of fungi can be effective. To prevent the spread of such diseases, planting material should be carefully selected, and rooted plants should be treated promptly with fungicide preparations or copper containing compounds. Struck trees and fallen needles must be removed from the site. At the initial stages of a fungal disease, stem injections under the cortex are effective, however, the beginning of the pathological process is very difficult to determine.

Another scourge of such a culture as pine cedar is the rust of cones, which is also caused by soil fungi. The symptoms of this disease are as follows: the tops of the shoot die off, the trunk is curved, and the bumps open and dry. The danger of this disease lies in the fact that it is rapidly spreading among young trees and can negate the work of the nursery. Therefore, preventive measures are necessary: ​​the treatment of young fungicides is required. If necessary, in advanced cases apply cutting of affected trees.

Crown formation

In the cultural plantings of the cedar seedling from an early age form the crown. Наиболее эффективной считается садовая форма: раскидистая и многовершинная, поскольку особенностью растения является закладывание цветковых почек в верхней части побегов. На протяжении первых 10-15 лет нижние ветви кедра обрезают на высоту до 2-2,5 м от земли секатором на уровне ствола. Срезы обрабатывают садовым варом. Все операции по обрезке проводят в период покоя (зимой или ранней весной), до пробуждения.

Кедровая сосна, фото которой представлено в статье – одна из культур, достойных специального разведения. Таковы особенности выращивания интереснейшего полезного и декоративного дерева.

Культивирование

Breeding. European cedar is propagated exclusively by seeds. Seeds reach maturity in the second year after pollination. Reproduction by cuttings is not effective. For reproduction of ornamental varieties sometimes inoculated.

All cedar pines have seeds with thick shells that are in deep vegetative rest. Friendly spring shoots are achieved with stratification. Stratification helps to increase the content of plant sugars and the activation of hormones in the seeds.

Seeds for stratification are sown in containers with sand and placed in containers in rooms where it is possible to maintain a temperature regime of +5 degrees Celsius. After preparation, seeds are sown in a greenhouse and covered with foil or sown in open ground. Sowing in open ground reduces seed germination by 50%. In the greenhouse, seeds are protected from frost, disease and rodents. Propagation by seeds is a time consuming process, so it is better to purchase seedlings prepared for planting in specialized nurseries.

Location and soil. Pines love well-lit, open spaces. The composition of the soil plants undemanding, however, prefer sandy soil. For decorative plantings, it is recommended to mix soil from sand, clay, turf land in proportion (2: 1: 1). Heavy, dense soil requires, when planting a tree, the organization of drainage from sand or gravel with a layer of 20 cm.

Landing. When planting, the recommended distance between the trees is one and a half to four meters. The depth of the pit should be from 80 cm to 1 meter. European cedar has a strong wide and deep root system, which explains its wind resistance.

Seedlings take root well. When planting as a top dressing, humus or universal mineral fertilizers are applied.

Young trees under the age of 5 years easily tolerate the transplant. Mature trees are transplanted only after preliminary preparation of the root system. Planting and transplanting is recommended in the last month of spring.

Care. The first two seasons seedlings need mineral fertilizers. Thick coniferous litter helps to accumulate fertile humus and retains moisture. Therefore, adult plants do not need any watering or feeding. Loosening should be done only with compacted soil. The density of the crown will increase if pruned young shoots grown for the year. Mature trees tolerate the winter season, but young plants may suffer from frostbite. For the protection, spruce or other covering material is used, which wraps the trees when the first frosts appear in November and are kept warm until April.

Application

European cedar is widely used.. Cedar woodlands protect the earth from corrosion and drying. Cedar needles actively saturate the atmosphere with oxygen and phytoncides. Phytoncides disinfect the air surrounding the pine trees, creating excellent conditions for rest, contributing to the improvement of the human body. Pine nuts are highly nutritious, contain useful biologically active substances and oils. Quality, resistant to rotting wood is used for the manufacture of handicrafts, furniture, interior decoration. The resin, which has healing properties, serves as a preventive measure against periodontitis, caries, and infectious diseases of the oral cavity.

European pine cedar in landscape design

European cedar effectively looks like a tapeworm. Looks good when creating park areas, alleys in the ensemble with deciduous trees and other conifers. Birches, mountain ash, laurel trees, oaks, rhododendrons harmoniously combine in landscape compositions with pines. Juniper and larch together with cedar form beautiful plant groups. Dwarf cedar varieties are used to break down alpine slides.

European cedar cultivated for a long time. Valuable conifer has a wide application on an industrial scale due to high-quality wood, healthy nuts, healing properties of gum and cedar oil. Cedar is used for the revival of forests, the creation of forest-park zones, recreation areas, decorating gardens and parks.

Diseases that are treated with the resin of the conifer under consideration

Healers use turpentine to treat:

  • skin damage
  • teeth and the entire mouth,
  • bronchi and lungs,
  • some types of cancer
  • musculoskeletal system,
  • of cardio-vascular system,
  • endocrine system
  • nervous system
  • gastrointestinal tract.

Applications of Siberian Cedar Resin in Traditional Medicine

Turpentine is indispensable in the treatment of:

  1. Various wounds. To do this, they are poured with Siberian cedar resin or they apply resin to the damaged place.
  2. Fractures. In this case, the resin is rubbed on the area of ​​damage, it contributes to the rapid accretion of bones.
  3. Boils, ulcers and burns. At first, the resin is softened, and then it is mixed with neutral oil or petroleum jelly. The resulting mixture is applied to a tampon and applied to the sore spot.
  4. Herpes (early stage). A cotton swab is moistened with a mixture of Siberian cedar gum and any vegetable oil in a 1: 1 ratio and placed on a sore spot for 20-25 minutes. The procedure should be repeated after four hours.
  5. Toothache. In this case, the sap of Siberian cedar helps very quickly. Its use as an anesthetic is very popular now. To do this, you only need to attach the resin to the aching tooth or gum.
  6. Impotence. Cedar gum (1 teaspoon) is mixed with 0.5 liters of vodka. Then the mixture should be infused for five days, always in a dark, cool place. The tincture must be shaken periodically. After the required time has elapsed, three tablespoons of it are used exclusively during meals and preferably twice a day.

So, we can say that sap of Siberian cedar, the use of which is very versatile, is effective in the quality of both anesthetic, and antibacterial, and healing means. Its healing properties are unique and diverse. It has found its application in folk and scientific medicine. The above list is far from complete.

What other parts of Siberian cedar have healing properties?

Not only the sap of this conifer is widely used for medicinal purposes, but also its needles, butter and shells of fresh pine nuts.

So, scissors are treated with needles, and infusion of fresh pine nuts - deafness, nervous disorders, diseases of the kidneys and liver, hemorrhoids, as well as this decoction eliminates excess hairiness.

But pine nut oil is a complete source of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. For this purpose, its daily daily dose should be 20 ml. The oil helps to reduce cholesterol and systolic blood pressure, normalize the blood lipid spectrum and reduce overweight.

If chopped pine nuts, you can use them to inhibit gastric secretion (reduction of gastric juice, reducing its acidity). Their small amount (100 g) can satisfy the daily need of the human body in the necessary vitamin E.

Confirmation of the preventive effect of cedar oil on cardiovascular pathology was also obtained, provided that it was added to the dietary intake of the relevant patients.

Siberian cedar as a unique building material

This tree is unpretentious in processing and has excellent heat and waterproofing. In its construction aspect, Siberian cedar, a photo of which was demonstrated earlier, is similar to pine. It is a natural antiseptic, therefore rotting is not peculiar to it. Houses built of cedar, durable (hundreds of years), and the interior is enriched with phytoncides. Its resin and essential oil have a beneficial effect on the health of the owner of the house.

Mechanical and physical properties of the Siberian cedar

The conifer in question is a sound rock and has resin passages. As mentioned earlier, in terms of strength and physical properties, it is close to the pine. Siberian cedar has easily processed and soft wood. It has a pleasant smell and has resonant properties, which leads to its use as a material for the manufacture of guitars, harps and pianos.

What does cedar look like: photo and description

Cedar belongs to the large family of Sosnovykh, genus - Cedar, or Pine Cedar Siberian. This genus is of particular interest because of the universal value of wood, needles and seeds. Cedar is also in demand in landscaping.

Cedar tree looks like a real giant: it has a powerful trunk, reaching a height of 25 to 45 m, depending on the species.

In contrast to the pine pine needles, cedar is surprisingly soft, long, triangular, gathered in whorls of 5-6 pieces. And at a pine tree - two and very rarely - three needles each.

Shoots of two types - elongated vegetative and shortened generative. The tree is monoecious. Male buds - in the form of spikelets, looking up, red or yellow. Women's - cones 2-4 pieces - are at the top of the shoot and have a purple color.

The description of cedar roots is akin to the tree itself: the root system is as powerful as the above-ground part, which allows the plant to endure all natural disasters and be unpretentious in culture. Adult cedar does not require agrotechnical care.

As seen in the photo, cedar tree is very beautiful with its green outfit at any time of the year:

Its antimicrobial properties are very valuable. The air around these trees is practically sterile. Many cedars are planted by amateurs at the dacha, garden and garden plots in the central zone of Russia. It can not grow on dry sandy places, and prefers sandy or loamy moist fertile soil.

By mail, all types of cedar pines in forest plantations begin to bear fruit in 30-60 years, sometimes later, and in gardens where they are treated and fertilized in a timely manner with fertilizers - in 15-20 years and continue to bear fruit up to 250-300 years. A good harvest of large cedar nuts occurs in those areas where 2-3 cedar grows in a group, as conifers are cross-pollinated trees. The cedar seed development cycle lasts a year and a half.

Four species of cedar grow in Russia - Siberian, European, Korean and Siberian elfin woods.

You can see the varieties of cedars and their photos on this page.

Growing cedar from seeds and tree care

To give the garden a finished mature look, you need to plant an evergreen, durable tree. Cedar with its appearance will give your manor solidity and power, confidence and optimism. In addition, this tree does not require systematic care. When growing and caring for cedar forget about pruning, the formation of the crown, harvesting fallen leaves.

Cedar is not only beautiful, but also useful. It heals the air with the scent of pine needles.

Planting seedlings in the area should immediately on a permanent well-lit place at a distance of 5-6 m from each other. Between young cedars you can grow stunted fruit trees and berry bushes. To form the crown should be on a low shtambe, sprawling, multi-vertex. Pruning or breaking of the lateral buds is carried out in early spring, before the beginning of the growing season. Successfully surviving trees in the first years give a 5-10 cm increment with dark green needles.

The place for this tree should be open and extensive, the soil - loamy, drained.

Germination of nuts persists for 2 years. Immediately after collection, it is quite high, at 85%. Sow better in the fall. Shoots appear in this case in early spring. But you can stratify the nuts in the wet sand, wet for a day and sow in the spring. Shoots appear 2-3 weeks after sowing. They are dark green, with 10-12 cotyledons, up to 30 mm long. In the second year, pair needles appear from them, and only in the 4th-5th year - whorls. Plants that emerged from shoots need pritenok, which persists all the hot months for 2-3 years, that is, for the cedar, which you decided to grow, you need to equip a tennik.

The peculiarities of cedar growth include the ability to grow in sphagnum bogs, with powerful adventitious roots being formed. Growth of roots begins simultaneously with the growth of shoots. Already after 5-6 years, the requirements of cedar to the soil are sharply reduced.

Also undemanding cedar to the air temperature. Delivers continental climate, frost and drought. The only thing possible is the death of buds during late spring frosts, which coincide in time with the flowering period.

However, this threatens trees that have already become fruiting, which will occur only at the age of 30 and older. It takes a long time to wait for the appearance of nuts, but the tree itself can live up to 500 years, giving abundant harvests every 4-5 years.

Further you can familiarize yourself with the photo and description of Siberian, European, Korean and Siberian pine cedar cedar:

Siberian cedar: photo and description of the tree

Siberian cedar on the photo

Siberian cedar - the most common and better studied. The area of ​​its distribution is extensive. Starting from the northeast of the European part to the southern slopes of the Ural, this species is an immutable aborigine, growing both in the lowlands and on the mountains. In Central Altai, it grows at an altitude of 2300-2400 m above sea level.

The crown is conical from youth, and then becomes flat-topped. It can be both ostropyramidal and wide-spread. It all depends on the place of growth. In groups, in the forest, with a small area of ​​food, cedars are elongated upwards, and during a single landing - spreading, they have 2-3 peaks each.

As can be seen in the photo, the Siberian cedar branch is strictly whorled, longline:

Annual shoots yellowish with rusty patina, pubescent. The needles are triangular, up to 13 cm long, serrated on the edge and sitting in 5 pieces in bunches on shortened shoots. Needles are preserved on branches 3-6 years.

Cedar blossoms in the spring, immediately after the pine, and the cones ripen in the autumn, the next year after flowering. They do not crack, fall to the ground.

Pay attention to the cedar cones - in a mature tree they are very picturesque (light brown, oblong-ovate, up to 13 cm in length and 8 cm in width):

In the cone from 100 to 140 nuts - shiny, dark brown and very tasty.

The taste of nuts was appreciated by the inhabitants of the forest, cedar taiga. Nuts are the main food of the nutcracker, which often destroys up to half of the crop. From the same tree you can get up to 1500 cones.

But thanks to nutcracker cedar and multiplies. The bird takes the nuts for long distances, hiding them in the moss, old stumps, forgets and loses. Nuts sprout, and thus the growing area of ​​cedar expands.

In addition to nutcracker, nuts are eaten by capercaillie, hazel grouse, squirrels, chipmunks, sables. Hunter for the tasty nuts in the forest is the bear. He often climbs into the crown of a tree, breaks it, bringing great harm.

To preserve the harvest, the locals knock off unripe buds from the tree, shaking the crown with special punches. But there is also the predatory use of cedar wood when it is simply cut down to pick cones.

When describing Siberian cedar, special attention should be paid to the chemical composition of its nuts - they explain the reason for the high popularity of this tree. Pine nuts contain up to 61% fat, up to 17% protein, more than 12% starch. Pine nuts are rich in vitamin A (growth vitamin), group B vitamins, which improve heart activity and are very necessary for normal functioning of the nervous system. Especially there is a lot of vitamin E in them (tocopherol, which translated from Greek means “bear progeny”). It is not without reason that in the years of good yields of cedar the fecundity of sable and squirrel significantly increases.

It is known that pine nuts contain substances that help to improve the composition of the blood, preventing tuberculosis, anemia.

From a kilogram of nuts, you can get up to 150 grams of oil and 200 grams of cake meal for pets.

Cedar oil - one of the highest quality. It belongs to the fat drying oils. Light yellow color and pleasant taste, the oil is in demand not only in the food industry, but also in the paint industry, in perfumery, medicine, and canning.

Peanuts are made of nut milk and cream, characterized by high calorie content.

Siberian cedar needles have essential oils, resins and vitamin C. It contains a lot of calcium, potassium, phosphorus, manganese, iron, copper and cobalt. When cutting growing cedars get cedar resin, containing up to 19% turpentine.

Turpentine has embalming properties. In folk medicine, it is used to treat purulent wounds, cuts, burns.

In relation to light, Siberian cedar is shade tolerant, especially in youth, when growth is slow. Despite the fact that he is a close relative of the light-loving pine tree, light is not decisive for an adult tree either.

Photo and description of European cedar

European cedar on the photo

European cedar - a close species to the Siberian. It grows wild in the mountains - the Carpathians and the Alps at an altitude of 1300-2500 m above sea level. There, together with larch and spruce, it forms impassable thicket.

Look at the photo - this type of cedar is not as powerful as the Siberian one:

Its height reaches 20-25 m. The crown is always wide, ovate. The needles are thin, graceful, short. Cones from 6-8 cm long, seeds, nuts, too, are not as large as that of the Siberian cedar.

При описании европейского кедра особенно стоить отметить его большую выносливость, он морозостоек и теневынослив, засухо- и ветроустойчив, не требователен к почвам и влажности воздуха. Но достоинств, присущих сибирскому кедру, он не имеет.

Как показано на фото, европейский кедр часто используют в озеленении:

В Европе этот вид популярен как одиночное растение (солитер) в парках.

Описание корейского кедра и его фото

Корейский кедра на фото

Кедр корейский является самым величественным деревом. По красоте описания корейский кедр не уступает ни одному из известных видов. This tree reaches 45 m in height and 2 m in diameter with a broadly cone-shaped and multi-vertex crown.

Young shoots with thick rusty pubescence. The needles are bluish-green, up to 20 cm in length. On the edge it is finely toothed, rough, not like the needles of other species. Keeps on the shoots she is only 2 years old.

The male spikelets of the Korean cedar are yellow, and the female cones are first reddish, then purple. It blooms in June.

Pay attention to the photo - the Korean cedar has ripe cylindric cones, 10-15 cm in length, larger than those of the Siberian species:

Ripen in the second year after flowering. Fall to the ground, without revealing, in November.

Seeds are twice as large as Siberian cedar and contain more fat - up to 65%.

Fruits from 40-50 years of age to a great old age in 1-2 years. But the number of cones on a tree is much less than that of Siberian cedar. Seed germination remains only a year, although it is 85%. Sow them in the fall. Shoots appear next year in early spring. They have 10-14 juicy cotyledons.

In terms of taste qualities of nuts, needles - in terms of vitamin C and wood content - in technical properties it is not inferior to Siberian cedar.

In the family of high, mighty cedars, it is difficult to include low, creeping species, however, they exist.

Cedar elfin wood and other varieties of cedar: photos and description

Cedar elfin in the photo

Cedar elfin wood - low branching shrub with branches creeping on the ground, and sometimes a tree up to 4-5 m in height. The shoots are densely pubic, needles hard, up to 4-8 cm in length, 5 needles each in a bundle. Female bumps violet-purple.

As can be seen in the photo, mature pine cones are up to 4 cm in length, light brown and shiny:

Nuts, which are in a cone of up to 40, are smaller than those of Siberian cedar, but also edible and tasty, although they contain less oil. Fruiting begins from 25-30 years.

Elfin grows slowly, everywhere - on the mountains and coasts, marshes and lowlands. Very winter hardy. An interesting fact, which is worth noting when describing the cedar elfin - this plant has the ability to "go to winter", that is, the branches overwinter on the ground, covered with snow. Starts to grow only in spring.

Propagated by seed, layering, adventitious roots. Valued as a nut and decorative culture for rock gardens.

Himalayan cedar on the photo

Himalayan Cedar recently gained widespread in Europe. It is a decorative form rather than a look. It has falling paws and branches sticking to the top. The tree grows quickly, but there is no height above 25 m.

Atlas cedar on the photo

Atlas cedar, or blue, is also a decorative form. Especially noteworthy are the forms of "Weeping" and "Golden." All these trees are not tall, but very sprawling, requiring a lot of space.

Photo and description of Siberian cedar pine: wood, needles and seeds of Siberian cedar

To get started, read the photo and description of the Siberian cedar, and then learn about its characteristics.

Siberian pine, or Siberian cedar(P. Sibirica) - tree up to 35 m tall. Crohn dense, sharply cone-shaped in youth, later wider. The branching is whorled. Upper branches are chandeliers, raised up. Short branches grow in contiguous verticils. The root system of the rod type with open side roots.

The bark of Siberian cedar wood is smooth, gray, later furrowed, gray-brown. Young shoots 6–7 mm thick, light brown in color, covered with thick red hairs. Located whorled, short, prostrate. The buds are not resinous, 6–10 mm long, egg-shaped, have lanceolate light brown scales. The Siberian cedar needles are dense, protruding, 6–13 cm long, 1–2 mm wide, dark green, flanked by bluish stripes, gathered in bunches of 5. Around scattered beams are scaly golden brown leaves that quickly fly around. Needles on the branches kept up to 3 years. Cones are upright, light brown, 6–13 cm long, 5–8 cm wide, ovate or elongated.

Male spikelets are usually located in the middle part of the crown, female cones - at the ends of the upper shoots of a tree, 2-3 times near the apical bud. Ripen in the second year after flowering, within 14-15 months. Mature cones reach 6–13 cm long and 5–8 cm wide and have tightly pressed scales with thickened scutes. Each cone contains from 30 to 150 nuts (cedar seeds). The seeds of Siberian cedar are large, 10–14 mm long, 6–10 mm wide, without wings, brown in color. When fully formed, the outer shell of the seed darkens, the cones dry out, their resinous content decreases, and in August-September they fall from the tree. In the harvest year, one large cedar can produce up to 1000-1500 cones.

As can be seen in the photo, Siberian cedar pine is among the species that are significantly different from our ordinary pine:

The darker needles of cedar pine are much thicker and longer. In addition, they do not sit on two, like an ordinary pine, but usually five in each bunch (in a shortened shoot). In ordinary pine, the seeds are small, with large wings, in cedar - the seeds are large, and the wing, if there is one, is small, underdeveloped, not holding onto the seed.

In the Far East, an even closer species is found - Manchurian cedar pine, characterized by especially large cones and large growth.

The fourth, sharply distinguished species, found in Siberia on the mountains and on Kamchatka, is a low, creeping shrub that has adapted to the most severe climate.

For the first time the description of the Siberian cedar pine was given by the Tobolsk Metropolitan Cyprian in his work "Synodika", where he told how Novgorod merchants, in the XII century, being in Siberia, saw large trees with cones. Some of them had seen cedar cones before. So they called an unfamiliar tree cedar.

How Siberian cedar bears fruit and tree reproduction

Fruits in Siberian cedar, only the upper part of the crown. Cedar pine cones are much larger and more massive. Unlike almost all other pines, these cones disintegrate when ripe, like those of fir trees.

In nature, Siberian pine cedar is propagated by seeds distributed by kedrovka, chipmunk, squirrel, sable and other animals that feed on pine nuts, in culture - mainly seedlings and saplings. Especially valuable forms are propagated by vaccinations. Seed-bearing Siberian cedar pine starts from 30 years.

Also, reproduction at home is carried out by seeds. Seeds may not appear every year, yields are relatively low.

The origin of the Siberian cedar pine: where does cedar grow and how much does it live

The origin of the Siberian cedar pine is the borders of Russia, only the southern edge of the area of ​​distribution enters Mongolia and Kazakhstan. This forest breed grows on about one third of the entire forest zone of our country. Cedar forests and forests with significant participation of cedar pine occupy 40,600,000 hectares. They are common in the mountains and on the plain of northeastern regions of European Russia (from the headwaters of the Vychegda River), almost throughout the entire Western and Eastern Siberia. These forests are called dark coniferous taiga.

In the European part of Russia in the northeast, beyond the Urals - all of Siberia, Altai. In Central Altai, the upper limit of cedar growth lies at an altitude of 1900–2000 m above sea level, and in southern regions it rises to 2400 m. Siberian cedar also grows in Mongolia, North China and in the Sikhote-Alin Mountains, where it occurs along with Korean cedar (Pinus koraiensis).

To the west from the Urals it spreads to the Timan Ridge. Forms forests with Siberian fir, spruce, larch.

And where does Siberian cedar grow in the European part of Russia? The northern boundary of the distribution area is on the line St. Petersburg - Kirovsk - Vologda. In the south it grows in the Caucasus.

In cedar wood it is very easy to breathe because of the smell of pine needles and aromatic oils, which cedar wood produces. This remarkable feature of cedar forests was noticed by ancient monks. Then the proverb appeared: “To work in the spruce forest, to have fun in the birch forest, to pray in the cedar forest”. The monks brought cedars from Siberia to central Russia. And today they grow in Sergiev Posad, the monasteries of the Yaroslavl and Tver regions. There are they on the territory of the Moscow Kremlin. How long does a Siberian cedar live in the wild? These are long-lived trees. They live up to 800, and even up to 1000 years.

Characteristics of the Siberian cedar, size and growth rate

Siberian cedar pine is a breed of sharply continental climate. The tree is moisture-loving, characterized by increased demands on both soil moisture and relative air humidity, especially in winter. This demand is due to the very large surface of the needles, so in places with a dry climate cedar can not grow. The experience of creating cedar plantations in different forest conditions of Central Siberia convincingly showed that its growth and high preservation can be enhanced only with care for 7–9 years.

One of the characteristics of Siberian cedar is high shade tolerance, but in adulthood the tree grows better and bears fruit under conditions of sufficient lighting. Poorly tolerates air pollution with smoke and transplant in an adult state.

The growth rate of Siberian cedar is slow, it grows throughout life. Trees for the first time start producing seeds from 25–30 years old, if they grow in freedom, and in plantations - no earlier than 50 years.

Soil conditions are important for successful growth and seed production. Among conifers, Siberian cedar pine is the leader in smoke resistance, it can grow in urban environments. It is not demanding to light, it grows well in the shade. Pine of this species may suffer from Hermes lesions.

The best time for planting Siberian cedars is spring before the beginning of the growth of shoots. Seeds are sown before winter or in spring after stratification. Sometimes grafted on an ordinary pine.

To the Siberian pine is very close dwarf pinePinus pumila(Pall.) Regel, which is often called elfin cedar. Until recently, many botanists even considered cedar elfin a type of Siberian pine.

Cedar pine is found in Russia and in Western Europe in several forms. The most common of them - our Siberian "cedars", partly found to the west of the Urals. In old age, these are mighty giants up to 35 meters high and more. Cedar pines, common in the mountains of Western Europe, belong to another species (Pinus cembra) - European cedar pine, they are much smaller and reach only 12 meters in height by 100 years. The sizes of such Siberian cedars above 20 meters are already a rarity.

Use of Siberian cedar wood (with photos and video)

Siberian Cedar Pine, or Siberian cedar (R. sibirica) - is one of the most economically valuable tree species.

This is a very beautiful tree, suitable for single and group plantings. Seeds containing fatty oils are eaten.

Pay attention to the photo - Siberian cedar wood is well processed, since its wood is light and soft, suitable for carpentry and finishing works, various handicrafts:

Shelled nuts are used as mulch.

High winter hardiness and excellent resistance to temperature fluctuations make this pine convenient for breeding in country parks.

Siberian cedar - a real wood-combine, almost all of its parts are used by man. Juice is used in medicine. Furniture, musical instruments and pencils are made of wood. Tannins from bark are used in the manufacture of leather goods. Pine needles are processed to produce vitamin flour for livestock.

In nature, the seeds of the Siberian cedar are distributed by nutcracker, chipmunk, squirrel, sable and other animals that feed on pine nuts. Pine nuts are very nutritious, they contain 65 percent oil, rich in protein and vitamins.

In economic terms, cedar is one of the valuable tree species with a beautiful texture and therefore used for the manufacture of furniture, musical instruments, pencils. Cedar needles contain vitamin C and provitamin A, trace elements and essential oils are found in the kidneys.

Cedar oil, which is obtained from the kernels of nuts, is the only full-fledged substitute for olive oil in Russia.

Coniferous hedges are extremely decorative, contribute to improving the microclimate, attract forest animals and serve as beautiful corners of nature. Siberian cedar needles have high phytoncidity (ability to disinfect the surrounding air) and release into the environment many valuable volatile organic substances. Being in such conditions in itself contributes to the preservation of health and longevity, and if you add to this the joy of contemplating the results of your own work, then the psycho-emotional factor will also contribute to the success of the treatment.

High-quality Siberian cedar nut oil is a thick transparent liquid of a pleasant golden-straw color with a very weak, delicate nut smell. Keep it in a cool place without light, in a dark glass container with a narrow neck (for less contact with air). Natural antioxidants contained in cedar oil protect it from rancidity, but to increase the shelf life, it is desirable to follow the same rules as when storing all other vegetable oils. The precipitate formed during storage of unrefined oil is not harmful to health and consists of phospholipids, macro-and microelements that are beneficial to the body.

Watch the video "Siberian cedar", which shows how these trees are used:

How to grow a Siberian cedar pine from a nut and care for cedar

Here you will learn how to grow Siberian pine pine from walnut and how to care for seedlings. To grow a cedar, you can take a ripened cone, put it in a room on a sheet of paper, the cone cracks under the influence of dry air in the room, and seeds are poured from it. These seeds immediately, in the same autumn, are planted on the site. You can grow pine shoots in shkolka, but not more than two years, then they must be transplanted into place, and you can immediately planted in place.

Before planting seeds of Siberian cedar, they must be subjected to stratification (long stay in a cold and damp environment to stimulate germination). Stratification of Siberian cedar seeds is carried out for 3–5 months at a temperature of —4 to +3 ° C (in a glacier, a deep trench, a cold basement, in boxes under snow or in an ordinary household refrigerator). To do this, they are pre-mixed with a 2-3-fold volume of sterile substrate (sand, sawdust, peat, moss). When stratified in a trench, good drainage and protection from rodents should be provided. To create a stock of viable seeds of cedar pines, methods of long-term (up to 2.5 years) storage in deep trenches (2.5 m) can be used. In the latter, constantly reduced temperature and humidity are provided. Germination of seeds of Siberian cedar lasts up to 4 years. In the case of long-distance transport, it is important not to allow drying (below 8–10 percent moisture) or self-heating, which occurs when seed moisture is more than 20 percent and stored during storage.
high temperature.

To accelerate the emergence of shoots and reduce losses from rodents during spring sowing, it is advisable to use poorly nested seeds. 120–140 seeds at a depth of 3-4 cm are placed on 1 m of land. Protection of seedlings from birds is ensured by covering the soil surface with a layer of sawdust (3-4 cm). Seeds germinate in the year of sowing or the next (less often in the 3rd year), after germination the young seedlings should be shaded and watered. In general, the technology of growing cedar seedlings does not differ from that used for other conifers (shading, watering, lodging protection, loosening, weeding). It is very convenient to grow seedlings of conifers in special baskets, boxes or jars dug into the ground. Such seedlings are ready for transplanting to permanent residence at any time of the year. Krona young plant usually acquires by 5-7 years. At the age of 20–30, the dying off of the lower branches begins, and the crown of cedar becomes ovoid.

How to plant Siberian cedar: cultivation and soil for planting

A simpler solution for planting and caring for Siberian cedar pine is to take cedar sapling from a nursery or transplant it into your garden plot from a forest. In the latter case, it is not recommended to take trees that grow in shaded areas, as they are likely to die from sunburn and dry air. It is better to opt for cedars growing in open sunny glades or at the edge of the forest. To transport the seedlings to the site should be with a lump of wet earth on the roots, after wrapping them with sacking. Under optimal growth conditions and with intensive agrotechnics, Siberian cedar plants reach a height of 3.5–5 m at 15 years of age.

It does not tolerate cold soils (the northern and eastern boundaries of cedar growth coincide with the southwestern boundary of the distribution of permafrost soils). The soil for Siberian cedar is preferred drained, deep, light loamy and loamy.

Cedar is recommended to be planted in 4 m from each other and from other plants. Сажать надо следующим образом: взять мох-сфагнум (это обязательно, и ничем его заменить нельзя, растет он на клюквенных болотах), замотать 3–4 орешка этим мхом-сфагнумом. Высадить в лунку глубиной 7–10, максимум 12 см, и закопать эту ямку. Мох поможет сохранить влагу и защитит от мышей, которые съедят орешки, если не будет мха. Взойти кедр может уже в первый год, а может через год. Появится длинная одиночная иголка.

Через год, то есть когда ему будет где-то два года, его можно пересадить, сделать это надо ранней весной, в конце апреля–начале мая. И опять-таки стержневой корень не нужно завязывать.

Cedar will come into fruition in 25-30 years, or it may not start to bear fruit at all. But do not be upset: cedar, a wonderful ornamental plant. He has five needles at once, and they are very long, somewhere between 15 and 20 cm. He is fluffy. No need to pinch it. Slowly growing, but extremely elegant and beautiful looks.

Description of European Cedar and Photo

European cedar (lat. Pinus cembra), sometimes called cedar European pine, is a coniferous tree belonging to the Sosnovykh family. In nature, these trees grow at an altitude of 1300 to 2500 meters, mostly on the south-eastern and southern slopes, preferring heights from 1500 to 2000 meters. In the northern regions they grow mainly on the southern and southeastern slopes.

European cedar, photos of which are presented in our photo gallery, is considered one of the most cold-resistant among the trees of the Pine family. It is able to withstand temperatures as low as -43? C. Very picky about soil moisture and air.

European cedar pine: photos and description

According to its morphological features, pine cedar European is close to Siberian cedar pine, differing from it by smaller growth and longer, thin needles on a wide, ovate crown. With a height of 10 to 25 m, the trunk diameter reaches 1.5 m.

At a young age, the trunk of European cedar is straight and slender, with old age, the trunk and branches, bending, take strange, bizarre forms.

The needles reach a length of 9 cm and are collected in bundles of 5 pieces.

Cones are 4-8 cm long and 6-7 cm wide.

Seeds are small, up to 8-12 mm. 1 kg contains about 4,000 seeds.

Bark striated, gray-brown color with light brown or red pubescence.

The root system is deep, widely prostrate.

Cedar European pine is more durable than Siberian cedar wood. It has a very unusual, beautiful pattern, which allows it to be widely used for the manufacture of decorative handicrafts and interior plating. European cedar grows slowly, the annual growth does not exceed 15-25 cm in height and 10 cm in width.

In landscape gardening design, these trees are used both in single and in group plantings, perfectly combining with deciduous species, in particular, with birch trees. In complex compositions, European cedar harmonizes perfectly with rhododendrons, oaks, larch trees, mountain ash, junipers, and pseudoshores. It survives well near ponds. Cutting these trees is not recommended. Crown formation is possible by breaking out growth buds in early spring or autumn, as well as shortening growing shoots in summer.

Planting and caring for European cedar

European cedar pine is not demanding to care. Seedlings are best bought in a pot, with prolonged fertilizers. In this case, the root system will not be damaged during transplantation, and the plant will surely take root in the new place. Another advantage of buying European cedar in pots is the possibility of planting throughout the spring-summer-autumn period, starting in mid-March and up to the end of November. And when buying seedlings in pots, planting cedar European pine can be done even on the hottest summer days.

These trees grow well on both moderately dry and wet soils, quite drought-resistant. In the spring, for a wake of the required abundant watering and spraying. We should not forget that the care of European cedar involves the provision of a certain humidity. For normal growth at a young age, trees need spraying of the crown.

When planting European cedar and caring for it, it is important not to forget about fertilizers. To do this, add humus or nitroammofosku to the soil. During the first two seasons after planting cedar European pine, mineral fertilizers should be applied in small quantities: 30-40 g / m2. When a thick litter is formed, humus accumulates, and a thick pad of needles retains moisture, so additional watering of trees in adulthood is not required.

When soil compaction is necessary to resort to loosening. If you cut the annual increments, you can slow down the growth of additional shoots and the formation of a thicker crown. Despite the fact that in adulthood the trees are very frost-resistant, young saplings need additional protection. Caring for European Cedar Pine offers protection against freezing in the cold winter period. To do this, the fragile trees are covered with spruce branches for the winter; the spring branches should be removed.

European Cedar Pine

European Cedar Pine or European pine or European cedar (Pinuscembra L.) - coniferous evergreen tree of the pine family. The maximum lifespan is 1000 years, the height is up to 25 m, the diameter of the trunk is up to 1.5 m. It is listed in the Red Book of Ukraine.

Structure and livelihoods

The tree is 10-25 m tall with a trunk diameter of up to 1.5 m. A powerful trunk in old age often becomes crooked. The crown is wide, ovoid, often - bagatopersna. Annual shoots are covered with thick reddish brown pubescence. The lower branches often touch the ground.

View close to the Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica), it differs from less thick (4-5 mm), rusty-red or brown young shoots, much less (9-18 teeth per 1 cm of the needles edge) serration of the edges of the needles and another form (spherical-ovoid) and the size of ripened cones.

The bark of young trees is gray-green, smooth, in places with resinous bubbles, with age more and more rough, cracked scaly, in adulthood brown with red cracks between the plates.

The needles are dark green with blue tint, straight, dense, long (5-9 cm) and thin, with 5 needles each in bunches. Keeps on the branches for 3-5 years.

Male - yellow or red spikelets, 10 mm long, 5 mm thick. Female cones are ovate-oblong, 1 cm long, first purple-brown, then brown-purple. On short, strong petioles are located under the top of the shoot. Bloom in May and June. When ripe, turn dark brown. Ripen in the second year and not open fall.

Seeds - up to 12 mm, thickness - 6-7, red-brown, known as “pine nuts”, edible. The weight of 1000 seeds is 140-370 grams. Nuts ripen in early September (the second year after pollination), fall together with a cone, and not opening. After hitting the ground it is easy to peel.

Breeding

Like other pine, propagated by seed. It grows more slowly than other cedar pines. The annual growth rate of the shoot at a young age is 2.5 cm, after 30 years it is about 10 cm. At 30 years old, the tree is 3-4 m tall, at 35 years old - 7.5 m, width is 3.5 m, at 70 years old - 14-17 m, trunk diameter - 20-30 cm.

Seed in artificial plantations - from 60 years, in nature - from 25 at the end of May. For full fruiting, you must have at least 2 trees.

Pine European in Ukraine

In Ukraine, cedar European pine is found only in the Carpathians - in the Transcarpathian and Ivano-Frankivsk regions. Its location on the ridges of Gorgan Svidovtsya, Chernogory, which are the eastern boundary of its range, is known. The largest areas of cedar pine are preserved in the Ivano-Frankivsk region, mainly in Gorgany. Starting from the upper reaches of the Candle, a strip of forests with the participation of a pine tree stretches along the mountain ranges in the upper part of the Limnitsa basin, the Bystritsa of Solotvinskaya and the Bystritsa Nadvirnyanskaya. In the mountains, the tree rises to a height of 1,350 m on the northeastern slopes and to 1,280 m in the north. Often spruce grows with it, mountain pine grows, mountain ash, and sometimes birch. Mostly pine reaches the upper boundary of the forest. In Montenegro, it happens only in two hollows of glacial origin - Gadzhina and Kiz Ulogy. In Transcarpathia, it happens much less frequently.

European pine is protected in the Carpathian Reserve, state reserves "Kedrinsky" in Transcarpathian and "Yaykivsky" in Ivano-Frankivsk region (the latter is the largest section of cedar pine of European natural origin), as well as in some other objects. At one time, the species was included in the Red Book of the USSR. Now - in the Red Book of Ukraine.

Practical use

Broth needles are used as anti-scorching and diaphoretic. Infusion of shell of nuts - with deafness, nervous disorders, diseases of the liver and kidneys. Like all cedar pines, European pine has strong bactericidal properties. Her resin smears wounds, cuts and burns. From the nuts get pine cream and milk.

Wood is first light, then darkens heavily, is highly appreciated from ancient times. Due to its uniform structure, it is well suited for carpentry work, especially for building houses.

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