Beetroot belongs to the Amaranth family. Beet ordinary has three varieties: table, fodder, sugar. Vegetable grows everywhere except Antarctica. In ancient Babylon, only beet leaves were eaten, and the root vegetable was used for medicinal purposes. The ancient Greeks beet sacrificed Apollo as one of the most valuable plants. Cultural forms of the vegetable appeared only at the beginning of our era.
It is known that in the X-XI centuries. Beet was cultivated in Kievan Rus. Fodder beet was bred in Germany by the 16th century, and the selection of sugar beet began in 1747, when they realized that it could be an alternative to sugarcane.
Vegetable root is fleshy, juicy and thick. With growth in the soil, in most varieties it does not fully sink into the ground, but only slightly protrudes above the ground. In the first year of growth, just like carrots, only the rosette of large, ovate, bare, basal leaves on long petioles and a root crop develops in beets. Sometimes by the end of the first year, but, as a rule, for the second year, an erect, faceted, strongly branchy stem comes out of the middle of the socket, the length of which can be both 0.5m and 1m. The leaves are small alternate, almost sessile, in their sinuses appear bunches of dull, small, and also sessile flowers in complex ears. The fruit of the beet is a compressed single seedling.
Beetroot is useful because the root vegetable contains organic acids.iron and fiber. In this regard, the vegetable is often used in the treatment of:
- kidney disease
- other diseases.
Beet is used as the main component of many diets, fresh juice has a great healing power.
Planting beet seeds
Growing beets in open soil involves sowing seeds seedling and seedless.
- Since the beet is a cold-resistant culture, it should be sown in open ground no earlier than the air temperature will be 6-8ºC when sowing the beet.
- The full development of the vegetable begins when the air temperature reaches 16ºC.
- If the early seedlings sprout frost, then shoot themselves, and will not increase the root. It is necessary to choose the right time when to plant beets.
- For better germination, seeds are soaked for a day in cold water or 30 minutes in warm water.
- In the soil they are buried by 2-3 cm.
- The distance between the rows depends on the variety, and varies from 7cm to 30-35cm.
The interval between vegetables in the row in the first case will be 5-6 cm, in the second - up to 10 cm.
In many varieties of vegetables, seeds are harvested in a pair of two, three, 2-3, sprouts appear in a heap and need to be thinned at an early stage of development when the first pair of leaves is being formed. As a result, the distance between shoots should be 3-4cm. Remote shoots are transplanted: at this stage, they take root easily. Together with the first thinning plot it is weeded, after which it is mulched with small organic matter - for example, sawdust. The next thinning is performed when the seedlings have two pairs of leaves, and the diameter of the root crop reaches a size of 1.5 cm - the distance between the seedlings after the second thinning should be 6-10 cm. Thinning and at the same time weeding is carried out after it rains or after watering.
The seedling method is used to grow early beet varieties that are rich in the following substances:
- vitamin C,
- calcium salts,
- other biological active substances.
Young beets are as valuable early vegetables as lettuce, radishes or green onions. For seedlings, the color-resistant varieties are selected - Polar Flat, K-249, Cold-Resistant 19.
Seedlings are planted in three weeks before planting beets in open soil with pre-sowing seed treatment. For the purpose of disinfection, the material for sowing is soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, then the seeds are kept for 2-3 days in a humid environment so that they can be slanted, after all, they are laid out in a box on wet, etched with phytosporin soil, which is necessary to prevent disease. . Lightly sprinkled with the same substrate and placed in a greenhouse. Caring for seedlings is the same as caring for any other seedlings - some wet soil is required, everyday airing and constant temperature.
How to plant beets in open ground
Planting in the ground is from mid-May, when seedlings will develop 4-5 leaves. The soil must be heated to a depth of 8-10cm to 8-10ºC, and it is possible only in the case when the place where the beets grow is well lit naturally.
Before planting a vegetable, a suitable site is selected for it, in which the soil is prepared. Beetroot prefers fertile loose soil - peat bog, medium loam chernozem, slightly alkaline or neutral - the pH value should be within 5-8. In excessively alkaline or acidic soil, the beetroot becomes ill.
No need to plant a vegetable in the soil, fertilized with fresh manure or compost: so that you can grow a vegetable in such areas beets, should pass at least three years. It is possible to plant beets on a plot where such crops have previously grown:
- any beets,
- any cabbage.
In early spring, before digging into the soil, on 1 m ², it is brought in:
- 30-40 g of superphosphate,
- 20-30 g of ammonium sulfate,
- 10-15 g of potassium chloride,
- 15-20 g of ammonium nitrate.
If the soil is not very fertile, per unit area is added 2-3 kg of humus. In order to neutralize the acidic soil per 1 m², 0.5 kg of fluff lime is applied. Beetroot is planted here.
How to plant beets in open soil
From the density of planting beets in the spring depends on the size of the root: the interval between seedlings is larger, the larger the root will be.
However, too large root crops are inconvenient to use; in addition, they accumulate more nitrates and are not as tasty as root crops of medium size.
To get juicy, sweet root crops, on an overcast day, seedlings should be planted in rows with a distance of 4-5 cm from each other, the aisle should be approximately 25 cm in size. Central root of seedling during transplantation shortened by 1/3. After transplantation into the open ground for early rooting, seedlings are watered with a solution of humate and protected from ultraviolet non-woven material on the frame.
When a young vegetable gets stronger, and its root crop becomes 1.5 cm in diameter, seedlings can be thinned to an interval of between 8-10 cm. By July, when the sheets of foliage close up practically, the shelter is removed, and the area is mulched to protect against weeds and to save moisture in the soil.
Planting winter beets is not necessary in the spring, and in the fall - in the end of October - the beginning of November. At the site that was dug and pre-fertilized at a distance of 15-20 cm, grooves are made into which seeds are sown at the rate of 2-3 g per 1 m², or as described in the section on sowing seeds into open soil. Sow seeds at a depth of 3-4cm. If you plant beets in the fall be sure to mulch the area for the winter with peat or humus.
Caring for a growing vegetable requires:
- removal of weeds from the plot,
- loosening between the rows,
- regular watering.
After mulching beds weed, loosen and water will have much less. Loosening between rows is made to a depth of 4-6 cm, which is required for the destruction of soil crust, which complicates the aeration of root crops. The greatest damage to the crust does plantswhen the first two pairs of leaflets are being developed, it is during this period that the root molts, which inhibit the growth of the vegetable.
Planting and maintenance in open soil
Weed grass can stifle young plants, whose growth until the appearance of 4-5 leaves is slow. So, their timely removal is very important condition of leaving. Before the emergence of the struggle with weeds sprayed the plot with tractor kerosene - 35-50g / 1 m². With the formation of 2-3 pairs of leaflets on seedlings, the plot is treated from weeds with the help of sodium nitrate solution. When the fruit gains strength, the weeds will not be able to harm him.
A brief drought to a vegetable is not terrible, but when you need to get a rich harvest, the beds should be watered regularly, and this is especially important if the weather is hot and dry. Watering is done as soon as the topsoil dries. Watering is better in the evening, and the best method of irrigation is sprinkling, as the leaves are refreshed and washed with it.
If the plot is not mulched, the next day after watering to a depth of 4cm, the rows are loosened. To improve the sugar content of root crops, a tablespoon of cooking salt is dissolved in a bucket before watering.
Too often and abundantly watered, it is just as harmful for beets as lack of moisture and leads to fungal diseases. On average, watering is done 3-4 times per season, 2-3 buckets per 1 m². 2-3 weeks before harvesting, watering stops altogether, thanks to which the sugar level in the roots also increases, and their keeping quality increases.
Vegetable prefers organic fertilizer, from the mineral in the root can appear cracking and voids. At the beginning of growth, after the first thinning, the beets need nitrogen fertilizers, which can be considered as a solution of bird droppings (1:12), mullein (1: 8) - 12 liters of liquid fertilizer per 10 m². More convenient at a distance of 5cm from shoots make grooves and pour them with a solution. After closing the tops, it is time to apply potash fertilizers, for example, scatter wood ash - 1 cup per 1.5 m², and then pour the area.
Pests and diseases
The main diseases are:
Of insects, miners and beet flies, moths, fleas and shield beetles, beet aphids more often annoy. The surest way to protect against pests - regular weeding between rows and rows, deep digging of the site in autumn.
Varieties of beets for growing in open ground
The choice of variety depends on the purpose of the root. Everyone chooses the kind he needs. For culinary use, the table variety is excellent. You can also plant a sugar group for eating. If the root crop is planted for further feeding of livestock, then fodder beet is suitable for this purpose.
The following mid-season varieties of table root have the best culinary properties:
- "Bordeaux 237",
- "Bordeaux odnosemyannaya",
- "Incomparable A-46",
- "Podzimnaya A-474",
When planting beets in open ground with seeds, tell the soil temperature. Too premature sowing of seeds in the cold land is fraught with the formation of peduncles on a vegetable, which causes significant damage to the roots. The required soil temperature for growing this crop is - it is 8–12 ° С. Sweet root seeds sprout at 4–5 ° С. It is customary to start sowing works in the middle of May.
Choosing a place in the garden
When choosing a sowing site, push off from two important conditions: the absence of shade and protection from drafts. The presence of these negative factors leads to decay of the roots.
The most important condition for growing the sweet root is to ensure maximum illumination. Place under the root should be well illuminated by the sun. Otherwise, the root vegetable ceases to develop. In addition, light contributes to more intense staining of the sweet root.
The best place to plant is an open area protected from the wind. Exclude places under trees, in pits or on hills.
What kind of soil loves beets
Beets require fertile soil enriched with mineral or organic nutrients. Soil for the sugar beet usually consists of medium loamy chernozem and peatlands.
Soil acidity should be neutral or slightly alkaline (pH 5–8). If the level of acidity does not match the above indicators, the roots will be vulnerable to various diseases. To help a young root system take root, the ground should be light, loose and deep.
The soil for the root is prepared in the spring (early May). Before sowing, the soil is moistened, enriched with mineral and organic fertilizers (humus, compost). Then the soil is loosened at a depth of 5 cm. On the day of sowing on the beds, they make craters 3-4 cm deep. The distance between the craters should be about 20 cm, and between the rows - 40 cm.
Beet seeds are sown both dry and after the soaking procedure. Thanks to moisture sprouts appear much faster. For soaking applied solutions of growth stimulants.
The procedure should not last more than a day. Then the seeds are rinsed with warm water, transferred to a cloth and gently dried. It is also permissible to use ordinary ash.
Monitor the temperature in the room where the seeds are. Temperature should not be too lowotherwise your seeds will not germinate.
The scheme of planting root resembles a lattice. Seeds are sown in rows, followed by thinning sprouts. Preformed funnels are filled with water. Wait a little while until water is absorbed. Sowing of beet seeds is done individually. To facilitate the future process of thinning, it is recommended to plant seeds less frequently. After sowing, the grooves are sprinkled with earth. Then we need to weed the soil and loosen it.
Beet - unpretentious frost-resistant culture. Care is a moderate dressing, regular watering, timely loosening and competent thinning.
The soil begins to feed when the first shoots appear. It is important not to overdo it with the amount of fertilizer.
This vegetable culture prefers organics, and from minerals in the flesh of vegetables, cracks and voids can form.
Beetroot - moisture-loving culture. On average per season, the irrigation rate per m² is 15–20 l (2–3 buckets). Watering time comes at a time when the top layer of soil dries out. The need for moisture is especially high in a young plant, as well as in the period of thickening of root crops. The best irrigation method is sprinkling. This method helps to wash and refresh the leaves of the plant. Work is desirable to carry out in the evening.
Excessive and frequent irrigation of the soil leads to fungal diseases, and a month before harvesting worsens the taste of vegetables. 2-3 weeks before harvesting, irrigation should be completely stopped.
In the process of growth of beets are formed compounds of flowers. Sprouts always germinate nests, which have to thin out. The beds need to be cut in two phases:
- In the period of formation of two leaves with a root diameter of 2–3 cm (the distance between shoots should be 3–4 cm).
- At the stage of formation of 4–5 leaves with a beet diameter of 3-5 cm (the distance between plants is 7–8 cm).
Mass harvesting is carried out before the arrival of severe frosts. The root crop is cleared of dirt and released from the leaves.
Try not to overdo the vegetables in the ground, as after falling under the frost beets will be poorly stored. In order not to injure the skin, use forks. Gently pry the vegetables with a fork and pull the tops. The bottom root is not trimmed. It is desirable to break off the tops, twisting hands. Then the wound should be dried in the air (directly on the beds).
Sick or ill vegetables sorted on the spot. A good harvest is immediately folded tightly into dry, clean containers.
Beets have the property of being stored for a long time without changing their taste characteristics and without sacrificing useful qualities. This makes possible year-round enjoyment of fresh and healthy vegetables.
We hope that our notes will help you to grow a good harvest of these juicy and sweet root crops on your plot.
Consider, as recommended to plant beets - this will help determine the appropriate technology.
- Line method. In the garden, rows are cut at a distance of 20–25 cm and 3–5 cm deep. Furrows are plentifully shed with water from a watering can without a sieve. This should be done so that the soil is wet and well compacted, then the seeds will be at the same depth and the seedlings will appear at the same time. Seeds are laid out one by one with an interval of 3-5 cm (with a margin for the germination percentage). Marking beds and sowing beet seeds
- Tape method. Several rows with a line spacing of 15 cm are combined into wide ribbons. Between them leave free intervals of 30-40 cm - for convenience during weeding.
- Seeds on planting tape. This tape can be purchased with fixed seeds or make yourself. Drops of starch paste are spotted on the strips of toilet paper, and beets are planted on them. This method saves time - it is enough to shed a furrow, stretch a ribbon along it and sprinkle with earth.
- Planting beet seedlings. Seeds for seedlings are sown approximately in the middle of April, better in individual containers, for example, peat pots. Transplanted into the open ground at the stage of 3-4 true leaves, with an interval of 15 cm, lightly shading. A few days before planting, seedlings are put out into the street (in the shade) for hardening.Beetroot is well accustomed, does not go into the arrow, forms full heads. The advantages of this method are: saving of seeds, it is not necessary to thin out the crops, uniform filling of the beds.
It is interesting! Saving space on the site gives a combination of different vegetables on the same bed. Beetroot perfectly adjoins to cabbage, onions, beans, radish, beans. Spinach, lettuce, sown as a beacon culture.
Beet seeds are small and wrinkled, they need some time to swell and roll
Seed preparation is the key to a successful harvest. To increase the chances of friendly shoots, seeds soak for a day in a special solution. This solution is prepared as follows: a liter of water is heated to 30 degrees, then a spoonful of baking soda and wood ash is poured into water, there also sends a teaspoon of superphosphate and a fourth of a spoon of boric acid. In the end we mix this mixture with half a teaspoon of nitrophosphate or nitroammofoski.
Now it's time to immerse our precious seeds in this nuclear mixture and leave them for a day. For accuracy, you can set the alarm so as not to make a mistake in time. After the tedious wait is complete with the day, we will remove the seeds and rinse them in clean water. Now they need to be wrapped in a damp cloth. A container with seeds wrapped in cloth should be placed in a warm place protected from external influences and not touched for the next three days. Only after this, beet seeds already well protected and soaked can be planted in open ground.
Soil preparation (video)
Beet seeds are sown in late April - early May, when the earth warms to 9 degrees. Since the beet is a heat-loving plant, the temperature regime during cultivation must be observed. If you need to grow beets for winter storage, sowing produced in early June. Sometimes the seeds are sown until frost - in our lane is September-October. True, in the spring it is somehow more convenient and more reliable in terms of results.
Beet seeds can be sown in three horizontal rows or perpendicular to the direction of the beds, keeping a distance of 13 cm between plants
Masters of the dacha business sow the beets in rows under the level. To achieve a completely flat line, apply a tensioned rope. In the spring between plants maintain a distance of 13 cm, but it is fashionable to sow more often. When the plants grow, they will have to thin out. The optimal depth of planting seeds in the open ground - 2-3cm.
If the soil is too loose, and need to be compacted, it is crushed on top of a flat board.
The warmer the street, the faster the shoots will seem. Usually it is not long to wait. At the seedling stage, remove weak sprouts so that they do not pick up moisture and valuable elements from the ground.
During the period of growth and development of root crops it is necessary to make mineral fertilizers several times. The first feeding is done before the formation, the rest already when the beets will actively develop. Do not overdo it with watering. From excessive moisture, the beets can crack (not from an overabundance of feelings or joy), which is not the best effect on the quality of root crops. In addition, excess water will worsen the taste of the root.
Remember that beets, and other plants (for example, melons and melons and melons), which accumulate sugar, it is better to underfeed with water during ripening - so the taste will become sweeter and more pleasant.
Another extreme case, when you were absent from the site for a long time, and the beets did not receive the necessary supply of moisture. In this case, it is recommended to shed the soil to a depth of 20cm. In general, weed beds more often from weeds and loosen the ground. Regularly and regularly receiving oxygen beets will thank you juicy large roots.
With good care, the beets get enough light to produce sugar and get a juicy taste.
Beet leaves often become a delicacy for aphids. It is necessary to protect plants from it using infusion, which includes dandelion leaves and onion peel. If desired, the husk can be replaced with potato tops. The recipe for this infusion is very simple - dandelion leaves and onion husks come together in a bucket, filling it in half. This fraternity is poured to the brim with hot water, covered and infused until it cools completely. It remains only to strain the solution and process them beets. Not bad fruits of your labors will protect wood ash and tobacco dust. They cope with another pest - cruciferous flea.
To determine the ripening of beets will be easy - the tops will begin to turn yellow and wither. As soon as the yellowness touches the leaves, stop watering and feeding. The best place to store harvested roots is the cellar.
Planting beet seeds in open ground is preceded by several days of seed preparation, but in itself is quite simple, as is further cultivation. This process does not require a large investment of time and effort, and the result will delight you with excellent taste and good size. For this beet is loved by many gardeners and gardeners.
Choosing a grade
Beet - a common agricultural crop, which has many varieties. It is divided into three main types: dining, sugar and fodder.
In home gardens, as a rule, cultivation of table beet is practiced. In turn, it is divided into root and leaf.
Varieties of this vegetable culture differ from each other in terms of ripening, the shape of the roots and the color of the pulp.
Early ripe beets are grown for consumption in the summer months. It ripens 60-90 days after direct sowing of seeds in the ground. These varieties include:
The roots of plants are used for cooking, barely their diameter exceeds 1.5 cm.
At this moment, the seedlings are just beginning to thin out, at the same time choosing the largest specimens and leaves for culinary processing.
The latter are particularly juicy, so they are usually added to first courses, okroshka and salads.
The disadvantage of early varieties is the impossibility of storing them - such roots cannot lie for long.
Therefore, for winter stocks, it is desirable to plant mid-early and late varieties. Consider them further.
Middle-early beets ripen within 90-130 days. Unlike early varieties, it has more endurance, withstands drought and temperature variations better, less frequently attacked by pests and diseases. To representatives of sredneranny cultures belong:
Fully matured roots of these varieties can be stored for a long time.
Late-ripening beets ripen 130-150 days, that is, it requires about 5 warm months for growth and development.
Far from all regions have such conditions, so planting such varieties in the north simply does not make sense.
Among them, there are "Cylinder" and "Renova", which enjoy positive feedback among gardeners. As well as mid-season grades, late are subject to long storage.
Site selection and preparation
Planting and caring for beets in the open field include one important aspect - the selection and preparation of future crop beds.
The primary task of agrotechnology should not be the quantity of vegetable produced, but its quality.
Therefore, the cultivation of beets in the country is recommended to be carried out on sunny areas with light soil with good drainage conditions. Arranging the beds in such a place, you can get a bountiful harvest of sweet root crops.
It is not recommended to plant crops in heavy clay soil - in this case it is better to refuse to grow this crop at all. Root vegetables are hard and tasteless, unfit for human consumption.
What recommendations for crop rotation exist for beets?
Ideal for its predecessors are cucumbers, onions and potatoes. In this case, the crop will be rich and high-quality, since the composition of the soil will meet the needs of the crop, and diseases and pests will threaten it less.
After that, it is not recommended to plant beets, so these are tomatoes, cabbage and cucumbers. Each year, the dislocation of the beds for culture change - in the same place the plant can be sown every 3 years.
Best of all, the root vegetable feels mixed. Neighboring potatoes, onions and beans have a positive effect on its growth and development. It is undesirable to plant corn and chard next to it.
Even a novice gardener will be able to get a harvest of beets on his plot if he adheres to the advice of experienced gardeners and agronomists.
The very first rule is to choose a grade correctly.
Before planting, it is important to decide for what purpose beets are needed. Depending on this, choose a sugar, fodder or table variety. Feed beets are intended for feeding livestock. As a rule, this variety is distinguished by its large root size and low palatability.
Sugar variety requires a special approach: a certain soil structure, constant fertilizing throughout the growing season. Careful care is a laborious process, so in the private sector it is practically not planted.
The table beet is derived for the preparation of various dishes and canning, therefore it is characterized by bright color, regular shape and excellent taste.
The first two species, as a rule, are intended for large farmland, and the last - for private farming.
Color and taste depends on a variety, growth and ripening speed, vegetable shelf life.
The most frequently used criterion when choosing a beet variety is the term of its ripening.
- Early or early varieties have a growing season of 80 to 110 days. Among them are Carilon, Red Ball, Gribovskaya Ploskaya, Nastya.
- Mid-seasonvarieties grow from 110 to 130 days. The most popular are Bordeaux-237, Detroit, Sonata, Cold-Resistant 19.
- Late-ripening species it is characteristic to ripen within 130-145 days. Here you can select the "Matron" and "Cylinder".
Several popular varieties of beet:
- "Detroit". Root crop is characterized by bright burgundy color, no rings are observed on the cut. Dimensions closer to the average, weight - about 0.2 kg. The variety is early and allows you to get a big harvest.
- "Darkie". Beets of medium ripeness with a high degree of yield. By weight, the root crop is slightly larger than Detroit: about 350 grams. The variety is characterized by good preservation during the winter period. Mistresses like that beets do not lose their color when cooking.
- "Cylinder". It differs from other varieties in the form corresponding to the name. The length of the root reaches 16 cm, it has a red color. Among the positive qualities - good keeping quality and resistance to various diseases.
It should be noted that agronomists divide the varieties depending on the climate, so some were bred for the Ural expanses, others for the southern territories. For example, in the Leningrad region such varieties are popular:
In the suburbs and western regions of the country grow different varieties: early and late. Early ripe beets are poorly stored, but it is rich in vitamins, very juicy and tasty. Late varieties do not differ juiciness, but the duration of storage allows the root to use a new crop. Among Moscow region gardeners such varieties are especially popular:
- "Red Ball". Fruits completely correspond to the name: possess saturated red color and spherical shape. This beetroot is precocious and drought resistant. The term technical ripeness ranges from 70 to 90 days.
- Sredneranny grade "Mona ripens in 105 days. The shape of the root is cylindrical, the flesh is bright red, juicy and sweetish. Agronomists recommend it for canning and storage.
- Mid-season "Mulatto" ripens in 130 days. The variety is valued for good taste and excellent keeping quality in the winter.
Beetroot is a thermophilic vegetable, so it is recommended to plant it in spring, when the soil is already warm and the air temperature will not fall below 10 degrees.
In each climate zone, this period is different. So, in the Urals and in Siberia, as a rule, it is better to sow beets in May, and in the Krasnodar Territory favorable days come in the second half of March.
Getting a good harvest is in direct proportion to the air temperature during planting, as this determines the time of emergence of shoots. If the temperature is set at +5 degrees, the first shoots will appear after 3 weeks. Warm up to +10 degrees will give the opportunity to sprout already on day 10. At +15 degrees, beet dates sprout on day 6. If it is possible to provide a temperature regime of +20 degrees, then the seeds will pop in at 3 days. Competent selection of planting time will positively affect the quantity and quality of the crop.
At the time of planting beets significantly affects its grade. Even June is suitable for late-ripening, and early ones can be planted starting from the end of March.
Seed beets can be planted in the fall in the third decade of October or in November, the exact time depends on the region. It is better to sow when the temperature regime is set at -4 degrees, and the ground is covered with a frost crust. This is necessary so that the seeds "do not wake up" ahead of time, if suddenly it gets warmer. Otherwise they will die. As a rule, this method of planting is popular in areas where summer is short and rainy, for example, in Siberia and the Urals.
Autumn planting has its own characteristics:
- soil preparation is similar to spring planting,
- the bed should be high so that it is not washed out in the spring,
- the grooves for planting are made deeper (up to 4 cm),
- seeds do not soak before planting,
- the beds and the wells themselves do not need to be watered
- from above the planting is mulched and covered with straw or spruce leaves, you can use dry fallen leaves,
- in spring, when the sun warms up the earth, the covering layer is removed, crops are fertilized with a nitrogen solution, and the bed is closed with a film.
Autumn sowing has its pros and cons. On the one hand, the seeds are hardened in winter, so they get sick less. Shoots appear in the spring earlier and, accordingly, ripening occurs faster. On the other hand, such a crop is poorly stored, so it is better to eat it first.
It should be noted that there are special varieties for winter beets. If you use the usual, they will go into the "arrows", there will be no harvest.
When violations of agricultural crops are attacked by pests - beet fly, aphids, flea. They damage the tops, which leads to oppression, delayed development, and sometimes the death of the plant. Struggling with this misfortune spraying infusion of ash, tobacco dust, onion peel. Of the biochemical drugs used Spark Bio, Bi-58, Actofit, Calypso, Konfidor.
Selective harvesting of root crops begins in July, when individual heads grow up to 5 cm in diameter. Young, vitamin vegetables are processed and consumed with green tops.
Mass cleaning is carried out in the second half of September, before the onset of frost. It is impossible for beets to stand in the ground. From this it coarsens, pronounced rings appear in the pulp, the taste deteriorates.
After harvesting, it's time to think about what to plant after the beets the next year. To replenish stocks of organic matter in the soil, it is desirable to plan crops that are not afraid of manure (for autumn digging). These are zucchini, cucumbers, pumpkin, corn. In a year, this place will have a good harvest of early potatoes, onions, tomatoes, and legumes. Beets are returned to this place no earlier than in 3-4 years.
Sowing beets before winter:
What is seed treatment?
Initially, they should be soaked in a special solution, saturated with nutrients for 20 minutes. The so-called growth stimulator can be prepared according to the following recipes:
- 2 g of boric acid and 4 g of nitroammofoski per 1 liter of water.
- 1 tsp soda and 5 g of superphosphate in 1 liter of water.
To disinfect seeds, you can additionally add 1 tbsp to these solutions. l ash or tobacco dust.
Preparation of beet seeds for sowing can be carried out with the help of Epin or Zircon preparations.
In this case, they act according to the instructions: the planting material is placed in a stimulator, it is maintained for the recommended amount of time, then washed and put into a bag of gauze or cotton fabric for several days, keeping it moist.
After the above manipulations, they are ready for sowing.
How to plant beets?
At an appropriate time, when the soil warms to 7-8 ° C above zero, proceed to the direct planting of beets in open ground.
It is important to observe the recommendations of agrotechnology and not to rush with the sowing. If the land does not warm up or frost occurs, the roots may not start, and instead of the crop, the gardener will face a shooterless plant.
The plantation of beet planting does not have any special secrets. The distance between the seeds should be 8-10 cm, and rows - 30 cm.
Planting material is planted in a pre-moistened furrow to a depth of 1.5-2 cm, covering the top with a small layer of soil.
Additionally, you can mulch the bed with peat or sawdust to make the earth warmer better - in this case, shoots are expected earlier.
If we plant beets before winter, in November, then it is advisable to choose pine spruce leaves for shelter.
Beet seedlings and picking seedlings
Посаженные семена достаточно быстро начинают прорастать, радуя своими первыми всходами. Через сколько примерно времени всходит свекла после посадки?
Обычно этот процесс занимает от 7 до 20 дней в зависимости от погодных условий. Нередко посевы оказываются загущенными и требуют прореживания. Проводить его следует в фазе двух настоящих листочков. Between seedlings leave a distance of 5 cm.
Growing beet seedlings at home is also found in practice. In this case, the plants need a transplant.
After the seedlings sprout in the boxes and they have 2-3 leaves, the soil is moistened and young seedlings are transplanted into the prepared holes along with a clod of earth.
In addition, some gardeners deliberately increase the amount of planting with the help of seedlings thrown out in order to thin the crop.
The beet seedlings obtained in this way are planted again in open ground, but with one condition - the plants need to pinch the root. Due to this, the seedlings will take root well and soon the rest of the seedlings will catch up.
Regardless of whether the seeds were sown in open ground or beets were planted with seedlings, a second thinning is recommended in the phase of 5-6 sheets. The distance between the future roots leave at least 10 cm.
Top dressing and watering
After thinning, the first feeding of beets in the open field is necessary. For this purpose, it is recommended to use nitrogen-containing fertilizers, for example, urea or an infusion of nettle.
It is important to feed young seedlings after pre-moistening the soil, at the root.
Watering is especially appreciated during the summer months. They should be carried out in the morning or in the evening by sprinkling.
If you moisten the soil unevenly and irregularly, you can lose the harvest. Root crops risk being ugly and underdeveloped, without a characteristic sweet taste.
Growing and subsequent maintenance of beets are based on mandatory weeding and loosening the soil in between rows.
Feeding in the summer months is recommended every 10-14 days. How to fertilize a plant?
The most valuable element for him is boron. With it, foliar dressings are practiced in June - 2 g of boric acid per 10 liters of water.
If the soil lacks this trace element, there will be fruit frost, which will adversely affect the subsequent storage of the crop.
As soon as the root crops reach the size of a walnut, that is, they become noticeable on the soil surface, it is necessary to feed phosphorus-potassium components, for example, double superphosphate or azophobia. These beet fertilizers are applied in the summer every 14 days.
Closer to fall, watering and fertilizing reduce and completely discard them 2 weeks before the intended harvest.
The organization of agrotechnics will, by all rules, minimize the risk of the incidence of a crop caused by soil problems.
If planting beets in the spring was carried out on areas of soil with high acidity, you may encounter the following crop defects:
- scab - cracks and growths in the roots,
- emptiness and dark spots on the pulp,
- "Black leg" of young seedlings,
- fomoz - spotting on the leaves.
These diseases can also be the result of violations of the preparation of beet seeds for planting and unbalanced fertilization, for example, excess nitrogen.
Also, this culture has a susceptibility to the following fungal infections:
Their main external feature is wilting and gradual drying out of beet tops. Cope with fungal diseases can drugs Fundazol and HOM, and copper oxychloride.
You can grow for decades and not get a normal crop, if wheat grass grows near the beets, and the soil remains acidified.
These conditions are an excellent medium for the wireworm, which is capable of turning any root vegetable into a holed sieve.
To cope with the wireworm, you need to use the following recommendations:
- while digging, manually destroy the yellow worms,
- dropping on the beds the so-called "traps" in the form of potato tubers,
- uproot all wheat grass, add lime to the soil,
- apply from time to time special preparations, for example, Provotoks.
Beet aphid is also dangerous for beets. It destroys the root system and leaves of the plant. The pyrethrum will help to cope with it.
Beet flea attack the pulp of foliage. To combat them, tobacco dust and ash are used, Hexachloran can be used.
If white leaves appear on winding passages, the plant is affected by the mining moth larvae.
If the foci of their vital activity are small, it is enough to tear off and burn the leaves. Mass infection of culture requires treatment with Fufaphone.
Harvesting and storage
The size of the roots indicates the readiness of the beets to harvest. The most successful of them are medium in size - they are sweeter and more juicy, and they are also better preserved.
If all recommendations on agricultural technology have been implemented correctly, you can collect beets on any September day, before the onset of October frosts.
Root crops clean in dry weather, laying out for drying in the fresh air.
As a rule, the cultivation of beets in the garden is not a troublesome thing.
Subject to a competent crop rotation, that is, taking into account that planting before and after a particular crop, preparing seeds and places for beds, the probability of crop destruction by pests and diseases is minimized.
Most gardeners prefer to plant both early and late beet varieties, providing themselves with root vegetables already in the summer months and throughout the winter.
Land preparation for planting beets
To prepare the ground for planting seeds or seedlings must be in advance - in the autumn. What is soil preparation? First of all, you need to remove from the garden all the remnants of plants. Next, organic fertilizers are applied to the ground. The next step is to dig up the ground properly. If you see that the soil is depleted, then you should feed it with mineral fertilizers. In case the earth is acidic, it is necessary to process it with lime. It is advisable to plant beets on a plot where potatoes, cucumber or beans were previously grown.
The place should be lit. In the shade the vegetable will become faded and dim. The characteristic burgundy color appears in the culture only in bright sun. In the spring, the land should also be prepared for planting a root crop. To do this, dig up the soil and add dolomite flour. Wait until the ground warms up to five degrees. Only after that you can safely sow beets. Otherwise, the vegetable seeds will go to the arrow, which will not give the opportunity to form a root.
Features of growing beets
The principle of cultivation is somewhat similar to that of carrots. As is known, planting beets is carried out in two ways: with the help of seeds and seedlings. Next, we will tell you more about how to plant beets with seeds. Soak the seeds in the ash solution and leave for a day. This will help get the shoots faster. Then the planting material is washed in a warm liquid and wrapped in a dry cloth.
Before planting seeds in the ground should be moistened the ground. Make a four centimeter deep line. At the same time, the distance between the rows should not be less than twenty centimeters. Furrows watered with fluid. Only after the water is completely absorbed can the planting material be placed in the ground. About when to plant beets, you will learn further.
Because beet seeds are quite large, sow them one by one. Several seeds are usually formed from one seed. Therefore, subsequently the plants need to be thinned. That is why experienced gardeners rarely plant a vegetable. They leave room for the growth and development of the root. A common planting scheme is a grid. At the intersection of the lines will be placed seeds.
Landing is recommended when the ground is still saturated with moisture from the snow. Most often this is the beginning of May. If the winter is long, the landing time is shifted by another seven days. All beetroot care comes down to two simple steps: weeding and loosening the soil. During the growing season is recommended to feed the soil several times. For starters, use organic fertilizer. Then as fertilizer suitable mineral fertilizers and ash.
We plant beets with seedlings
If you want to avoid thinning sprouts, the use of seedlings is an ideal way. Growing beet seedlings is also carried out with the help of seeds. Only planting seeds for seedlings is carried out in the greenhouse. The distance between the rows should be five centimeters. The planting material itself is placed at a distance of three centimeters from each other.
To plant seeds for seedlings need a month before planting it in open ground. How to find out if the seedlings are ready for planting? As soon as four leaves appear, sprouts are ready for transplanting to the site. However, for starters, temper the seedlings. Ventilate the greenhouse periodically. Before planting sprouts watered.
Determine the time of planting beets
Root crops, like carrots, can be grown twice a year: in the spring and winter periods. Planting beetroots in the spring correctly to carry out only after the earth warms up to ten centimeters. Most often, the term of planting beets falls on the beginning of May. Sub-winter landing starts from the end of October to November. The latter type of planting is convenient in that the beet harvest can be obtained at the end of July.
Podzimny sowing beets
For podzimny sowing, which, by the way, can be done with carrots, you will need special varieties that are less susceptible to the formation of arrows. These are such types as: "Red Ball", "Podzimnyaya-474", "Detroit", "Cold-resistant-19".
Each seed consists of two or three small seeds placed under a hard shell. One such inflorescence can give up to three shoots. Therefore, sprouts will need to thin out.
It is necessary to plant seeds at a temperature of zero degrees, while the temperature of the soil should be minus four degrees. This is usually the first half of November. Planting time for carrots for under-winter cultivation is the same. However, it is better to focus on temperature. Planting beets for the winter requires a larger number of seeds for planting than in the spring.
You also need to remove all perennial weeds from the site. When choosing a place for planting, be guided by the fact that the root crop does not like such predecessors as chard and spinach. Crop rotation should also be observed.
Rows are preliminarily prepared, with a distance of forty centimeters from each other, with a depth of four centimeters. The seeds themselves are located at a distance of five centimeters from each other. For fodder beets it is better to leave more space.
It is worth paying attention to the fact that the seeds do not need to be soaked before sowing. They must be completely dry, like the soil.
If the snow has already fallen, you need to remove it from the site. Rows should be filled with soil and unfrozen peat.