It is difficult to imagine at least one garden plot on which a currant bush did not grow. This berry in its popularity can be compared only with raspberries, black currants and strawberries. The unique ability of this plant to survive at temperatures up to minus 45 degrees allowed the culture to spread widely not only in Europe and Russia, but also in colder areas. Red currants are planted much less frequently than black currants..
But it is her berries that help to remove heavy metals from the body and prevent heart diseases. Shrub fruits are great for compotes, jellies and jams. Even if you can not constantly use fresh berries, they are perfectly preserve all the nutrients in the frozen.
Most often, the height of the shrub is one and a half meters. Higher or lower plants are extremely rare. Currant shoots have a light shade. The bark is colored brown with a light core.
Currant leaves have a glossy dark green color. The lower part of the sheet is colored lighter in comparison with the top. Veins are slightly pubescent. Flowers plants are small, greenish-white or brown. Most often, flowers are collected in a small brush. Flowering plant in May. Currant fruits are represented by tassels with bright and juicy berries.
Planting rules of red currant
Planted currants in the fall and spring. But due to the fact that during the growing season it occurs very early, the best time to plant is autumn.
It is recommended to plant a shrub on an elevated place that warms up well by the sun's rays. This plant prefers soft, loamy and sandy soils. The amount of nutrients for the plant does not matter much, but if they are deficient, it can lose some of the fruit ahead of the ripening period. Planting shrubs usually carried out in September.
Preliminary should be prepared. Approximately three weeks before planting, one should dig a hole measuring 40 cm by 60 cm, while its depth should not exceed 40 cm. Two buckets of humus are poured at the bottom of the hole and watered with complex fertilizer over it. After that, the pit is covered with soil and poured over with water. It is recommended to perform this procedure in order to moisten the soil.
After three weeks after preparation, it is recommended that the roots of the plant be cut a little, and the root collar is placed in the ground and buried a couple of centimeters. Sprinkle with soil. This is done in order to have additional basal buds, which will form a lush bush.
Landing is most often conducted in two ways:
When planting it is extremely important to plant a bush in the top uncomfortable layer of soil. Otherwise, the bush will begin to increase the green mass, and the process of fruiting will be postponed indefinitely.
Planting method seedlings
Most often in the conditions of the Moscow region currants are planted in the soil with seedlings. If the planting material is purchased with a closed root system, the plant can be planted in open ground at any time from spring to autumn. But it should be remembered that in warm regions an autumn planting is recommended, and in cold regions, cuttings planted in springtime are better taken root. In the middle band, it is allowed to plant a shrub at any time.
When choosing a sapling, special attention should be paid to the root system, which should be well developed and not have rotted and dried veins. It is especially important to avoid buying a shrub with frost-bitten roots. If there are slight detachments on the cortex, then this is generally not critical.
If after the purchase a long storage of planting material is planned, then it is worthwhile to place the cuttings in a dark and cool place. A plant with open roots is less prone to long-term storage, so you must first cover the root system with a film or a large amount of paper. It is also allowed to temporarily drift the cutting into the ground. When transporting plants to the landing site should be especially careful not to damage the branches and roots.
One of the methods of currant propagation is the use and addition of cuttings from the mother bush. It is advisable to resort to this breeding method in early spring. To do this, you should first carry out a thorough loosening of the soil near the selected bush for reproduction. After that, you need to determine the most powerful and healthy shoots. Under them you need to make small grooves to a depth of three centimeters. The length of the groove should strictly correspond to the length of the bent down shoot.
After that, the shoots bend down to the soil and are located exactly along the groove. In order to escape did not rise, it is recommended to fix it with special fixings. The top of the shoot should remain on the surface of the soil. After the height of the shoot reaches 15 cm, it must be rounded up to the upper buds. Sprinkle the soil to the shrub should be several times during the season, so that it develops correctly and gives fruit.
The soil above the layering should not be compacted or dry. In the last few days of September, a rooted escape from the mother bush should be cut off and excavated. The division of the layering will be made strictly according to the number of rooted parts. Powerful and well-developed processes can be planted in a new place.
Plant care after planting
If you plant the seedling correctly, it will grow and bear fruit for a long time. Currant belongs to the shrubs least whimsical in the care. Therefore, it is grown almost everywhere. But for a good harvest, it needs competent care and periodic feeding. Begin care should be in early spring.
The range of care activities is as follows:
- pruning, which is carried out before the first buds,
- careful loosening of the soil around the bush, which must be done very carefully so as not to damage the root system,
- removal of plant garbage and weeds from the tree;
- installation or repair of supports for the formation and direction of growth of branches,
- the introduction of nitrogenous fertilizers based on the amount of 40 grams per adult bush,
- mulching of a tree trunk with a composition based on peat or humus.
Rules for trimming the bush
In the spring, the bush should be cut. Bushes do not need total pruning. It is rather important to keep a little neglect here. Therefore, young shoots are not completely cut off. Remains on the bush maximum shoots to form the correct crown.
When deciding to grow currants in a shtambe, all zero shoots are cut off completely. A grown shoots are recommended to pinch a little. This is done to stimulate branching and the formation of new fruit branches. Pruning is carried out only in order to remove dried and damaged branches.
If time is not carried out pruning, then this leads to a significant reduction in the fruiting of currants. But if the currant is planted in the spring, then the first few years it should not be cut.
Each currant bush should be regularly inspected for the presence of diseases and pests. In order to protect the plant from disease, it should be treated twice a year with Bordeaux mixture. The first time processing is carried out after flowering, and the second - after collecting the fruit. For pest control, it is recommended to use milk of lime with the addition of copper sulphate. This mixture should be treated shrub until bud break.
If you follow simple tips on caring for the bushes of a plant, they will delight you with their fruits for a long time. And the leaves of the plant perfectly saturate tea with vitamins and nutrients. Red currant pleases its owners with bright and tasty berries rich in vitamin C. It fills the body with nutritious and valuable minerals that help preserve youth and health.
Proper care of your favorite many red currants can be carried out, knowing only some of the nuances. In the spring she really needs pruning. In April, the bushes should be fed with urea. Next, they carry out loosening to a depth of no more than 8 cm. To protect the culture from the harmful effects of the late May frosts, it is possible by performing a smoking procedure. During this period there is a risk of infection of bushes with a double-skinned coat. The soil should always be sufficiently wet.
In summer, namely in June, organic fertilizing is required. It is necessary to spray the cultures with a solution of micronutrients. It is necessary to monitor whether nest flames have appeared on the bushes. After the harvest of berries will be harvested, irrigation and loosening is carried out.
In the fall, it is customary to propagate the plant vegetatively. In late September, mineral and organic supplements are added to the soil. Do not forget about pruning bushes and podzimny watering (if the fall will be dry weather). In order to awaken the culture from hibernation in early March, the bushes are watered with warm water. It is recommended to use the drug "Nitrafen" or a solution of copper sulfate.
In order to prevent the appearance of pests, shrubs should be treated with products that have shown themselves well in practice. These are the drugs "Karbofos", "Aktellik", "Rovikurt". This should be done only during the formation of buds. Once again, the procedure should be carried out after the harvest. Pouring water during the irrigation should be in specially formed circular grooves. They are made at a distance of 40 cm from the bush.
To meet the needs of moisture bushes growing on the site, you will need from 20 liters of fluid per square meter of landing area. Further we will talk in more detail about the most important procedures for ensuring normal growth and full development of your favorite culture. Experienced and novice gardeners will be able to learn how to properly plant, as well as about different types of pruning and breeding red currants.
If we talk about the technology of growing currants, then you need to start with its planting. Best done in September. It is also permissible to plant bushes in the middle or end of April. For landing, choose a normally lit slope on the south side. Currant grows well on black soil, forest soils, in which there is a large amount of humus useful for culture. Still in loamy soil. But he must have neutral or weak acid acidity.
Experienced gardeners say that it is better to take seedlings if they have already turned 1 - 2 years old. A prerequisite is the presence of a root system, the size of which is 20 cm. The leaves are removed, and the roots must be dipped for a few hours in clean water. It is required to dig a hole having a diameter of up to 60 cm, the depth of which is about 40 cm.
Ideally, the soil mixture consists of soil with the addition of 10 kg of peat or humus, 200 grams of superphosphate, 40 grams of potassium sulphate, or wood ash per each bush. The distance between the holes should be up to 2 meters. The root neck of the seedling is buried by 5-6 cm. After compacting the soil in the hole, a circular furrow should be formed at a distance of 20 cm from it and watering a couple of times.
The plot is mulched. Peat or humus is well suited for this. Shoots must be shortened to a height of up to 15 cm. Watering should be carried out 2 times a week. Spring landing is carried out in a similar way. Only the wells and soil mixture prepared in the fall. Organic fertilizing is added to the ground. Shortly before planting, potassium and phosphorus feeding is very useful.
For the normal growth and development of currants requires not only proper planting, the cultivation of the land according to all the rules, watering, and the introduction of dressings, but also timely pruning. It is customary to carry out the so-called formative. As well as anti-aging removal of branches and sanitary pruning. Each procedure is carried out at a certain time of the year, has its own characteristics and specific goals. Pruning recommended to plan for early spring. You can do all the manipulations in late autumn.
Red currant has a longer fruiting period than black. Therefore, pruning for the purpose of rejuvenation is required not so often. In spring, each young one-year-old seedling should shorten the available shoots. Correctly cut them in half the entire length. A grower must form a good and viable currant bush within 5 to 6 years. Usually on each culture it is customary to leave intact no more than 15 to 20 branches.
Beginning at the age of 7, gardeners will definitely do anti-aging pruning. Also, the procedure of sanitary pruning is advised to carry out in the autumn period, namely after leaf fall and fruiting.
How to grow red currants? What is it combined on the site? How to care for the crop properly to harvest a good crop? All these questions worry novice gardeners.
It is possible to carry out cultivation, having bought saplings in the market. But many experienced gardeners prefer to multiply the culture on their own. This can be done by cuttings, cuttings and dividing the bush.
It is possible to get the cuts from a viable bush, whose age ranges from 3 to 5 years. You should wait for the spring and loosen the soil under it, as well as make the recommended fertilizer. 1-2-year-old shoots should be placed in grooves, the depth of which normally is about 10 cm. Reliable fasteners are usually carried out with metal hooks, and the middle part is covered with earth. When the shoots will have a length of up to 12 cm, they should spud, making a break of a few weeks.
In the summer months, sufficient watering and the creation of mulch from organic matter is required. In autumn, the cuttings must be divided so that each has well-developed roots. After that, you can carry out planting future currant bushes to a new place.
Material for grafting harvest in the fall. Need shoots age 1 year. The cutting length is normally up to 20 cm, and the thickness is about 8 mm. Place them in a prepared box where wet sand is poured. There they are no more than 3 months at a temperature of 2 - 3 degrees of heat. Planting on the site after placing the cuttings for storage until the spring planting under snow or a box of vegetables is held under plastic bottles or glass jars.
Be sure to observe a distance of 20 cm. It is necessary to compact and pour the earth, create a mulch of fine peat or humus. In September, cuttings are planted at the site selected by the site owner.
If you choose the division of the bush, be sure to cut off the sick, old, broken branches. The bush needs to be dug, divided into parts, the cuts are processed using crushed coal. Each division is placed in the hole. Next, shorten to 20 cm, spend abundant watering until engraftment.
Growing red currant is carried out for the purpose of subsequent use in the fresh form and for further processing. Among the varieties with large fruits called Viksne, Fertodi, Ural beauty, Darnitsa, Rond, Ilyinka, Ob sunset, Hazor and others. For example, Viksne is a variety of Latvian selection, it has early ripening. Allows you to get a harvest of dark cherry berries with a pleasant sweet-sour taste. It has a high degree of drought and winter resistance, good immunity. Productivity makes up to 7 kg from a bush.
The varieties, on the bushes of which sweet berries ripen, are represented by Sugar Loaf, Early Sweet Currant, Red Cross, Svetlana, Houghton Castle. For example, Sugar - is a sweet and aromatic berry. A variety for normal fruiting pollinators are required. A good grade is Natalie.
Among the average varieties of currant are Versailles Red, Buzhanskaya, Rosa, Gazelle, Red Andreichenko, Hero, Purple, Castle Reby, Honduin, Star of the North, Glade, Natalie, Vic, Niva, Samburskaya, Beloved. Versailles red is a self-fertile and large-fruited variety. Red berries are covered with dense skin. It has a universal meaning.
Late varieties are Valentinovka, Osipovskaya, Jam, Lapland, Dutch Red, Ogonyok, Oryol Star, Dana, Orlovchanka, Gift of Summer, Rosita, Ural Dawns. For example, Valentinovka is a self-fertile and high-yielding variety that has immunity to powdery mildew. Berries are endowed with medium size, spicy acidity and gelling qualities.
Diseases and pests
Красная смородина иногда оказывается подвержена таким известным и характерным для ягодных кустарников болезням, как белая пятнистость, антракноз, махровость, европейская мучнистая роса, полосатая мозаика, ржавчина бокальчатого либо столбчатого вида, серая гниль, усыхание побегов. В борьбе с данными недугами хорошо зарекомендовали себя такие препараты, как «Фталан», «Топсин М», «Каптан», «Хомицин», «Фундазол», «Купрозан», а также бордосская жидкость и коллоидная сера. При наличии мозаики и махровости лечение не проводится. And from the branches and inflorescences, unfortunately, http: //gryadki.com/wp-admin/post.php? Post = 11098 & action = editrit is to get rid of.
Among the pests of culture can be called moth, moth, gooseberry moth, leaf gall and gooseberry aphid, sawflies of various species, currant gall midges, bud mites, spider mites, glass cases. Today, Rovikurt, Karbofos and Aktellik are effective pest control products. You can also use "Phosphamide", "Vofatoksom", "Zolon", "Antio", "Etaphos Ambush", "Metafos", "Aktar". In order not to have problems with the appearance of diseases and pests, prevention should be carried out. This is compliance with the rules of agricultural engineering and timely care for currants.
Planting red currants
When to plant. The best time for planting is the end of September, for the middle zone and the first half of October for the southern regions. With a later planting young bushes can winter badly. For a successful wintering plants must be rooted well, and this takes time.
If it was not possible to plant the seedlings in the fall, it can be done in the spring - at the end of April. But I must say that the shrubs planted in the fall, with a safe winter, are always ahead in the development of the plants that were planted in the spring.
Where to plant. Currant bushes are recommended to be planted in open areas that are well lit by the sun. With insufficient light, crop yield is reduced. For planting red currants, friable, light loamy, sandy-loamy soils with a neutral or slightly acid reaction are well suited.
It is desirable that the landing site is well ventilated, it will significantly reduce the risk of plant diseases with all sorts of fungal diseases.
In general, it is an unpretentious culture, it adapts well to the harsh climatic conditions. However, it does not take root in cold, heavily shaded, damp and wetlands.
At what distance to plant seedlings. The greatest yield is obtained at
Shrubs are better to plant at a distance of two meters from each other.
planting bushes at a distance of about two meters from each other. Then the plants develop freely, without shading, and powerful healthy bushes grow. Growing on the trellis also has a positive effect on yield. If you chose a trellis growing method, then you can plant seedlings much more often - in one meter. But between the rows still leave at least 1.5 m.
For planting currants often choose a place along the fence or tracks. From the fence and from the tracks, you should retreat not less than 1 m. While the seedlings are small, such distances may seem too wasteful, but when the bushes grow, they will take almost all the free space. However, they will not interfere with each other, and it will be convenient for you to look after them.
Landing pits. For planting, dig a planting hole 40 cm deep and 50 cm wide. Fold the upper, fertile ground, which you will fill up with the roots, fold separately. It is necessary to add a bucket of compost, a glass of superphosphate and a glass of ash. If there is no ash, then add 40 - 50 g of potassium chloride instead, and mix all this well.
Landing. Before planting, put the bush in a bucket of water for 2 - 3 hours. After that, place the seedling in the planting pit and fill it with the prepared nutrient mixture. Take care that when planting the root neck is 5-6 cm below the soil level. With such a deep planting, the shoots of renewal from the buds located in the root neck zone will grow better.
When landing, pay attention to the fact that air bubbles would not remain under the roots. To do this, periodically shake and pull the seedling. After the landing pit is filled up, make a curb around the bush, pour it abundantly and grind with peat or humus. After that, cut the branches to a length of 15-20 cm, leaving 3-4 buds on each. The first time after planting it is necessary to water the currants every 3 -4 days until it starts.
Caring for a circle
Loosen the soil around the bush regularly and free it from weeds. Peripheral periphery circle periodically. Do this very carefully, the currant roots are not deeply located and it is easy to damage them. Mulch the soil under bushes with mowed grass, leaves, or compost.
Red currant is a moderately moisture-loving plant. The most needed regular watering in the summer, in the heat. A lot of moisture will be needed by the plant after flowering, when the berries start to pour. To keep the ground in the wheel circle wet for a long time, do not forget about mulching. This simple and not tricky reception, significantly reduces the time for the care of currants. A well-molded tree around the circle does not need weeding and loosening.
An important element in the care of red currants is fertilizing. During the growing season, currants consume nutrients in the soil. In order to get good yields each year, these nutrients must be regularly renewed. To do this several times a year, it is necessary to give the plants mineral and organic supplements.
- In the spring of 1 m2 of land, add a mixture of 5 kg of compost, 20 g of superphosphate and 25 g of potassium sulfate. In early spring, add 40-50 g of nitrogen fertilizers.
- In spring, you can fertilize the soil with urea (15 g per 1 m2) or ammonium nitrate (25 g per 1 m2). After the flowering of red currant, add 10 liters of liquid mullein or a solution of bird droppings.
- In the fall, fertilize each bush with 100–120 g of superphosphate and 30–40 g of potassium chloride, and then mulch the tree trunk with a mixture of peat and rotted manure.
Red currant pruning
Good care for currants is not only feeding and watering, but also correct, timely pruning.
Pruning red currant is somewhat different from trimming its black relative. U red
Red currant formed on a shtambe.
fruit buds are formed at the base of the annual shoots and kolchatka. Kolchki are small shoots on old branches of currant, only 2–4 cm long. Consequently, the crop is formed not only on the young, but also on the old branches. That is why rejuvenating pruning of red currants has to be done much less often than pruning of black currants.
Formed, an adult bush should consist of 15 - 20 uneven-aged branches. To do this, after planting a sapling, leave 2 - 3 young, strong shoots growing in different directions each year, and cut off all the rest. The shoots of red currant fruit for 6 - 8 years, then they need to be replaced.
In adult bushes cut off broken, dying, old and low-yielding branches. Older branches are always darker, almost black and not difficult to identify. For clarification and thinning cut out the branches that grow from the base of the bush. Annual shoots can not be cut off, since there are fruit buds on their tops.
Pruning should be done when plants are in a dormant period, late in the fall or early in the spring. In the summer, it is advisable to pinch the tops of the green shoots to activate the bookmark of shoots of replacement.
Watch an interesting video about pruning and shaping currant bushes:
Formation of bushes on the trellis
Red currants can be easily formed as a trellis culture. It is easy and convenient to look after such bushes, they are well illuminated by the sun and are ill less. Forming such a bush, it is necessary to leave the shoots growing only in one plane, and cut off the rest. Then fix them on 2 - 3 rows of wire, as they do with vines.
Shrubs with such molding can be conveniently placed along walls, fences.
Shrubs with such molding can be conveniently placed along walls, fences or along paths. Just do not forget to cut or break shoots that are not growing in a given plane. In all other respects, care is the same as for ordinary bushes.
Standard currant formation
Some gardeners form red currants in standard form. Then it becomes like a dwarf tree. It turns out the original plant with large berries, for which it is pleasant and interesting to care for.
The formation of standard red currants.
To form such a tree near the bush, they choose the most powerful, vertically growing shoot, and all the rest are cut off near the ground. At this shoot, a stem is formed, cutting off all the branches growing below 30 - 50 cm, and the rest is slightly shortened in order to provoke their branching.
Further pruning resembles caring for a tree, branches growing inside the crown, down and shoots over seven years old are pruned. Of course, we must immediately remove the shoots growing from the base of the bush.
In winter, care is not difficult. Red currant is a winter-hardy crop, however, in severe winters with strong winds and sharp fluctuations in temperature near the plant, perennial branches can freeze.
If you cover the currants with snow, it will withstand a temperature drop to -40 - 45 ° C. The danger for the plant is spring frosts, during which flowers and ovary may die.
Care and pest control of fruit shrubs without chemicals:
Red currant care
By providing the shrub with proper and competent care, you can achieve good harvests that will delight their owners for 25 years.
Planting red currants, further care for it consists of weeding, mulching, watering and loosening the soil.
Red currant is drought-resistant, so regular abundant watering it is not required. To preserve moisture in the soil, it is rather rare, but it is abundant to water the bush and mulch the tree trunk.
Fertilizers made when planting a bush will provide the plant with a two-year feed, but over time, when the soil is depleted, it will be necessary to add nutrients. Fertilizers are applied in the fall, in the form of manure or chicken manure, diluted in water at a ratio of 1:10 and 1:20, which, with rain and melt water, will penetrate deep into the soil. Mineral fertilizers are applied in the spring - 80 g of ammonium nitrate per bush.
Why do you need pruning red currants?
Of great importance for red currants is pruning, which is aimed at the proper formation of the bush, increasing disease resistance and ensuring regular high yields, not allowing the fruits to become shallow.
In the bushes of red currant is not clearly pronounced germination capacity, and the fructification of its bouquet branches lasts up to 10 years. Based on this, the bushes do not need a radical pruning. For currant formation, it is more important to maintain sufficient thickening, and zero-order shoots are regularly removed, leaving just a few twigs to rejuvenate the bush.
If it was decided to grow red currants in the shtambe, then all zero shoots are removed, and the growing shoots nip to stimulate branching and the formation of a larger number of annuli (fruit branches). Regular pruning is carried out only in case of need to remove damaged, thickening and growing into the ground branches.
It should be firmly remembered that the neglect of the pruning procedure can cause a significant decrease in yield and the appearance of diseases and pests on the currant that are rapidly spreading in the thickened stems.
Shrubs should be constantly inspected and cut the diseased and pest branches. For the prevention of diseases it is recommended to treat the shrub with 1% Bordeaux mixture a couple of weeks after flowering and after removing the fruit. It is also good to use lime milk with a solution of copper sulphate of 4% for pest control. This mixture of bushes are processed in the spring until the bud break.
By following simple tips on planting and caring for red currants, you can grow a decent crop of fruits rich in vitamins and please yourself and your loved ones with them.