In the past few years, many have been making gabions with their own hands, using step-by-step instructions from specialists, since these structures are becoming increasingly popular as elements of landscape design. Meanwhile, gabions, which are three-dimensional structures of metal mesh, the inner part of which is filled with stone, rubble or pebbles, began to be used for a long time. Initially, with their help, they strengthened the beds of rivers, the slopes of hills and ravines, and created military installations. Along with high strength and stability, such structures consisting of stones placed in a metal grid are distinguished by exceptional decorativeness. Landscaping designers paid attention to this and began to create various elements from gabions for decorating garden plots.
What are gabions and what are they made of?
As mentioned above, gabions are three-dimensional structures made of a mesh made of metal wire, the inside of which is filled with various materials. As such materials can be used:
- artificial and natural stone of different fraction,
- wood trimming.
Gabion construction process
The supporting structure of the gabion is made in the form of a grid, for the manufacture of which steel wire with a diameter of 2 to 8 mm is used. Since such structures are operated in the open air, in quite unfavorable conditions, for their manufacture, double torsion wire is used, the surface of which is covered with a protective layer of zinc or PVC.
For gabions, meshes are most often used, the cells of which have a hexagonal shape, but products with rectangular and square cells are also found. To make such structures more rigid, a frame is used, which is made of metal reinforcement. The walls of gabions of large sizes, so that they are not deformed under the influence of the filler material, are reinforced with additional sectional compartments of thicker wire or reinforcement.
Scan box gabion products
If the manufacture of gabions is carried out using natural stone, then this material can be:
Examples of gabion filling
When choosing the color and configuration of such stones, you can only focus on your taste preferences, but their size should meet certain requirements. So, if fences and other structures from gabions are operated under normal conditions, and not under water, then the size of the stones should be 25–40% larger than the size of the grid cells. If gabions in the course of operation will be constantly exposed to moving masses of water, you should use stones that are twice the size of the grid cells.
Since gabions have an impressive weight, they are distinguished by exceptionally high stability; they are not afraid of even serious ground movements. Fences from gabions or similar structures of any other purpose over time are deposited, compacted, filled with soil particles and overgrown with grass, which not only adds to their reliability, durability and stability, but also makes them even more attractive in decorative terms (this can be assessed even by photo ).
The most common uses for gabions
If earlier gabions served as fortifications and barriers, now they are not only made fences, but also used for a variety of purposes. So, the most common applications of gabions today are:
- production of bearing elements of furniture installed on the plot (tables, benches, chairs, chairs, etc.),
- making decorative fencing for framing lawns and flower beds,
- creation of retaining walls for strengthening hangars and other building structures,
- the creation of such decorative elements of landscape design as stone gardens,
- construction of arches, partitions and strong beds, including those with vertical placement,
- the creation of reinforcing structures for the coastline of rivers, lakes and ponds, located in close proximity to building structures,
- decorating the backyard territory,
- erection of staircase structures.
Garden shop from gabions
Recently, gabions are actively used to divide the local area into zones that perform various functions. So, ordering the manufacture of such structures from specialized companies or making gabions with your own hands, with their help, you can separate the recreation area from the common territory of the plot, frame the flowerbed or lawn nicely, zone the area where the stove, brazier or summer shower will be installed.
Advantages of using gabion structures
Often, those who are going to order or make gabions with their own hands are wondering what advantages such constructions have. The most significant of these benefits usually include the following.
- For the construction of gabions do not need special construction equipment, which allows you to save the surrounding landscape in its original form.
- Due to the peculiarities of its internal structure, gabions perfectly pass air and water flows through themselves, without adversely affecting the green spaces that grow inside such a fence.
- On gabions, in which soil accumulates over time, grass grows, which makes the appearance of such structures even more attractive.
- Since the stones used for internal filling of gabions do not bond to each other and remain mobile, such structures do not create significant hydrostatic pressure.
- Even with significant soil displacements associated with seasonality, gabions do not lose their integrity, and can only deform slightly.
- The strength and reliability of gabions over the years only increases: between the stones in the grid, weaving them with their roots, various plants gradually grow.
Retaining wall of gabions
Types of gabions and features of their design
Before deciding how to make gabions on your own, you should deal with their design features, which depend on the type of structure. According to the generally accepted classification, gabion structures are divided into the following types:
- box-type gabions
- flat gabions,
- cylindrical type structures.
The main types of gabions
Box-type gabion is often also called the Jumbo. Such a construction, except for the box-shaped form, is distinguished by the fact that the cells of its grid are six- or quadrilateral. Box-shaped gabions are the most dimensional of similar structures, they can have a two-meter width, six-meter length and a meter height. Box-shaped gabions, as a rule, are equipped with additional partitions, which serve to reinforce their walls, and the framework of such structures can be made not only of twisted, but also of welded mesh.
The main fields of application of box-type gabions are:
- manufacture of structures that protect the soil from erosion,
- production of retaining walls,
- strengthening of slopes, construction of gabions, fences, etc.
Structural scheme of box gabion
Cylindrical gabions are often called sacks. Such structures, characterized by increased flexibility, are mainly used to strengthen the foundations located under water.
The main areas of application of flat gabions (Reno mattresses), whose height can be in the range of 17-30 cm, are:
- creation of the basis for the construction of retaining walls,
- landscape design,
- ensuring fixation of bridge cones,
- Strengthening of the river bed and coastal zone,
- construction of protective structures for pipelines.
How to make a gabion by yourself
On the modern market there are many companies for which the production of gabion structures is one of the main areas of activity. It is possible to order from such companies a fence from turnkey gabions or a design from a grid and stones of any other appointment. To save on such services, you can make gabions yourself, just following the recommendations of experts.
So, in order to independently make your gabion, you need to develop a project for a future construction, based on, for example, a photo from the Internet. To develop a project, you must perform the following steps:
- make measurements of the site where the future construction is planned,
- mark the gabion installation site,
- make a drawing of a future construction with an indication of all its dimensions,
- choose gabion filling material,
- calculate the amount of materials from which the construction will be made.
Diagram of the retaining wall of the box-type gabins
It should be borne in mind that in order for you to have exactly enough materials, their quantity, which will be obtained as a result of the calculations made, must be multiplied by 10–15% (and purchased with such a margin). When choosing a mesh for the future gabion, pay attention to the products with double torsion. Such a grid is more flexible, while it is more durable and reliable.
What is required
In order to make your own gabions, you will need the following consumables:
- brackets, by means of which two adjacent walls of the structure will be connected (instead of such brackets, if they could not be purchased, you can use a spiral twist wire),
- steel pins, which are necessary in order to fix the created structure at the place of its installation,
- steel braces used as fasteners for two opposite walls of the gabion.
Tools for work
In addition, to make a gabion yourself, you must prepare certain tools:
Since you will have to work with steel wire in the manufacture of gabions, it is better to do all the work with thick gloves.
The stability, reliability and strength characteristics that distinguish such metal mesh structures filled with stones allow them to form hills and hollows in their backyards, create artificial ponds and other structures for decorative and practical purposes.
What are gabions
Immediately it should be said that gabions were originally intended to protect the reservoir and rivers, and also to strengthen the supporting walls or steep slopes. However, this design has found its wide application in landscape design, so that this element of the decor managed to catch the fancy of many site owners.
Gabions are volumetric mesh structures for the manufacture of which solid, thick wire is used, which is a retaining element — a framework in which heavy natural materials are placed, for example, stones, crushed stone, pebbles, etc. Visually gabion looks like a huge cell. However, due to the ease of manufacture of this design, it can be given almost any shape and size.
The skeleton of the structure is always made of high-quality twisted wire, and the gabion sections themselves can have different sizes depending on which design decision was made by the site owner. Often, to give the structure a more rigid and durable look, reinforcement is used to make it.
As for the filler, which can be filled with wireframes, they can have completely different shape and composition. And there are no special requirements for this type of material. The only thing to remember is that the material placed in the grid should always be 25 percent larger than the dimensions of the cells in the frame, otherwise its content may fall out of the grid.
Boxes made of durable wire must have a cover that is made of the same material as the frame itself. If it is planned to build dimensional gabions, then additional sections with separate partitions are made for them, which harmoniously separate the monolithic structure. Through this approach, you can create a strong and durable structure, which will be permanently protected from deformation and subsidence.
In addition, large-sized gabions are always equipped with additional partitions, which are designed to fasten separate sections between each other. Moreover, the material from which these partitions are made should be as durable and of high quality as the material from which the frames are made. If you ignore this requirement, the gabions will lose their quality characteristics and their service life will be significantly reduced.
Advantages of gabion structures
In order to make sure that gabions really deserve attention and can be used to decorate a plot, one should understand the main advantages that are characteristic of this type of structure.
- Gabions are very easy to make. At the same time there is no need to use complex construction equipment, additional people or tools. Although this issue largely depends on the dimensions of the structure.
- Gabions do not need any special care or maintenance throughout all term of their operation.
- Construction has a high degree of reliability and durabilitythat is achieved through the use of high-quality materials in the manufacture of gabions.
- The use of similar facilities, compared with many other landscape designs allow significant savings on material and manpower.
- If you follow the rules for the manufacture of gabion structures, as well as use quality material, they will have extremely long service life - up to one hundred years inclusive. Moreover, they never lose their attractiveness and neat aesthetic appearance.
- The absence of any clear standards regarding the shape and size of the structure, which allows you to create constructions of perfect various forms, dimensions and spheres of application.
- Despite the fact that most often they are used as barriers, gabions perfectly pass air and water. Due to this, the maximum effect of environmental friendliness of the erected structures is achieved. That is, the buildings in no way have a negative impact on the vegetation growing on the site, and due to the excellent air permeability, the normal growth of greenery is ensured.
- The internal part of the structure is not fixed at all and remains in a free state, therefore the likelihood of increasing hydrostatic pressure is minimized.
- Differs in simplicity of assembly. Therefore, to create gabions and build a landscape structure, maybe even one person.
- The material that is used for laying in the construction section, no way do not respond to subsidence. If this happens, the stones only slightly change their position, and the design - the shape, while the integrity of the structure remains the same.
- Through the design sprouts good grass and other vegetationthat gives it uniqueness and durability, without deteriorating the quality characteristics.
- As a filler for metal boxes You can use completely different materials of unusual colors and shades., and if necessary, they can be replaced. This allows you to create just such a composition that will harmoniously fit into the overall design of any section.
Gabion structures play the role of a drainage system and support at the same time, which allows you to permanently protect the soil from wear and mechanical damage.
Gabion can vary not only in its shape, size and size, but also in its functional purpose. There are four main types of designs.
- Most often used for manufacturing non-standard structures. It can be any abstract compositions, specific forms of certain objects, animals, compositions of geometric forms and much more. This type of structure is excellent for decorating the site, since it does not carry any special functional load. In many ways, the shape of the product depends only on the imagination of the owner of the site.
- Gabion flat shape, or as it is also called mattress, is always a low flat product with a large width. This form of structure, as a rule, are rarely used in landscape design. Its functional purpose is to support other large structures, to strengthen the banks of a domestic pond or to support steep slopes located on the site.
- Box-shaped gabions используются не только для облагораживания участков, но и в качестве укрепительного сооружения для береговых скосов и заградительных конструкций. Differs in volume dimensions, therefore, for the redistribution of the load in the manufacture of box gabions always use special partitions.
- The last view is cylindrical design. It is used, as a rule, as props for country furniture or as a decorative element for decorating a site.
The size of decorative structures can be completely different, regardless of the type of gabion, because everything depends only on the imagination of the owner of the site and the purpose of the structure.
Installation methods gabion frame
As for the ways of mounting gabions, there are two types:
- the grid method of installation consists in twisting the wire and fixing it to the base, as a result of which a system with cells in the form of hexagons is obtained,
- The welding method of installation is performed by welding individual sections in the zones of their direct intersection, due to which the framework sheets are obtained with rectangular cells. The cells are connected by welding spiral wire.
Installation can be done independently, as this process does not require any specific skills.
Where gabions can be used
The use of designs is completely different. Besides the fact that gabions are effectively used as supporting or fortifications in the process of erecting various constructive objects, they also found their use in landscape design.
- Box-like designs look gorgeous as props for country furniture - tables, chairs, benches, benches and much more.
- Can be used as a foundation for arranging lawns in areas located on strong slopes. By placing the system on a plane in a selected place, you can get a lawn that will never be washed away by heavy rain or landslides.
- Such a decorative element fits perfectly into the design of arches, flower beds and facades.
- Gabions look great as a separation structure for zoning sites.
- Cylindrical systems can look good for decorating flower beds or fountains.
- This material looks impressive in the role of decorative elements to decorate individual, for example, paths, stairs, arches.
- From this design you can make any landscape gardening sculpture.
- Gabions are widely used to create stone gardens and lawn fences.
- Such a structural element as a gabion is often used to build supports and fortifications for fixing the soil near the coastal zones on the site.
- These structures can strengthen the hangar, since in this case gabions will act as a reliable retaining wall.
- These systems can be used not only for registration of sites, but also used as a fence that will reliably protect the site from extraneous noise, dust and wind.
The scope of application of gabion structures is really extensive. Here it is important to decide on the quality of the system that is planned to be used. Based on this, it will be possible to choose the size and shape of the structure correctly.
What materials and tools will be needed to create
So, before you start creating a structure, you should prepare the necessary tools and material.
- You need a quality mesh of stainless steel with a thickness of about 2-8 millimeters. Thickness must be selected based on the purpose of use.
- For high-quality fixation of boxes in the soil also need to purchase steel pins.
- To make the gabion cage stiffness and strength, reinforcement may be required.
- It is imperative to purchase metal brackets or wire spirals that will be required to tightly connect all parts of the structure.
- To reduce the volume of bulk material used during installation, as well as to create the effect of reverse filtration, you will need geofabric.
- Braces will be needed to perform screed walls of the structure.
- And, of course, in order to make a structure, it is impossible to do without a filler, in the role of which various materials can act: stone, building waste, crushed stone, sandstone, pebbles, etc.
- Be sure to need a hammer.
- To protect the surface of the hands - tight gloves.
Sometimes a welding machine may be required for welding individual parts of a structure. However, it is extremely rarely used, since it leads to metal corrosion, if a regular mesh is used as a framework.
If, however, the construction process is carried out with the use of reinforcement, then the welding machine will be needed in any case, since the fastening of parts of the structure with spiral wire or staples is not capable of providing the structure with adequate rigidity and strength. When the use of welding can not be excluded, you should worry in advance that the seams after the completion of work are covered with paint, and better - with an anti-corrosion compound. This approach will help protect the design.
Before you make your own gabions, you need to take note of certain stages in the design of the structure.
- First, measurements are made of the site where it is planned to mount gabions.
- After that, a plan for the location of the structure. This is best done on paper.
- Then all the markup, made on paper, is transferred to the site.
- It is recommended for each individual object to make individual drawings, especially if you plan to make large-sized structures.
- After that, a material suitable for filling the boxes is selected.
- You should also make a preliminary calculation of how much mesh and filler will be needed, since in the end it may turn out that there is not enough material for the construction.
Making gabions can be a fascinating and uncomplicated process, but only if you approach it competently.
In order to make gabions, you will need to follow a clear sequence of actions.
- The first thing to do is to clear the surface on which the structure will be installed. Therefore, it is first necessary to remove all stones, roots and other unnecessary details from the surface. After this, the ground surface should be well leveled and tamped. Depending on the size of the structure and its final weight, it may be necessary to create a sand pillow. If you plan to put a fence out of gabions, then you can make a small strip foundation.
- In order for the construction not to grow over time with grass and roots, from which it will be extremely difficult to completely get rid of later, it is necessary to make a small groove along the entire perimeter of the structure - no more than 15 centimeters. Then this groove should be covered with a dense film, and preferably with a geotextile material, one edge of which is necessarily underlaying the future construction.
- After surface preparation, it is necessary to proceed to the selection of the dimensions of the future structure. It is necessary to determine the length and width so that the grid can be cut into the desired pieces.
- After the grid is cut, all its parts should be fastened together. For this, the lowest part of the structure is laid out first, then all sides are joined to it in turn with fastening elements - brackets or spiral-shaped wire. It is possible to sew all the parts of the frame with the use of pliers - this will help to strengthen all parts of the mechanism as firmly as possible.
- If it is planned to mount dimensional gabions, you will need to use durable reinforcement. In addition, to create large gabions, you will need to think in advance about diaphragm strength.
- Then the fabricated design is filled to the brim with filler. This should be done in such a way that the filler is tamped as tightly as possible in the resulting container. Next, the frame is closed on top of the fixing lid and sewn with wire.
- In the event that it is planned to make a high structure, for example, a fence, it is necessary to cover all parts of the boxes over each other in stages. Thus, the mesh that closes the bottom layer becomes the support for the next bulk layer.
- As soon as the frame is filled and tamped down, it will be necessary to make its final fixation. For this you will need to use an anchor. If not, then in extreme cases, you can use iron stakes. The main thing is that their diameter should not be less than ten millimeters.
That's all, the gabion, made by own strength, is ready. Of course, this is hard work, requiring perseverance and patience. However, you should always remember about the excellent result.
How to lay stones in the structure
In order to avoid the subsequent mixing of stones, it is necessary to follow certain rules of laying.
- You should never fill the entire box at once; it should be done gradually, laying out layer by layer, 15-20 centimeters by layer, for better tamping of the material. After laying out each layer, it is recommended to tamp it by hand.
- After the frame is completely filled, it is necessary to make a coupler of the opposite walls of the structure. For high-quality fixation of the walls of the frame it is necessary to use braces. They are always made of wire of larger diameter. As for the installation area of braces, it directly depends on the dimensions of the stones and the peculiarities of the installed gabion.
- For very tall structures of more than one meter - it is necessary to put struts. First, the material is poured into the box - approximately one third of the capacity. Then the walls of the box are strengthened with a special wire. After that, they perform the same actions on a new one.
- If gabions of small height are up to fifty centimeters, it is sufficient to make a strut once.
- Next, the box is completely filled to the brim with stones.
- Then the frame is closed with a lid, and all sides firmly tightened with strong wire or metal cables.
It should be remembered that the box can be filled only after it is fixed in its permanent place.
Fillers for gabions
It all depends on the financial capabilities of the site owners and their imagination. There are no strict restrictions in this regard. Therefore, not only stones can be used as a filler, but also many other materials:
- shredded tiles
- broken brick
- metal cans,
- glass bottles,
- pieces of pipes
- broken glass
- pieces of machine tires, cut into small pieces, etc.
Thus, you can create a unique structure on your own site without the help of professionals. And if you do everything right, then the erected gabion can serve for more than a dozen years.
What is gabion
Many hear this word for the first time - gabion. The word itself is taken from French and means "big cell". It turns out that gabion is a type of landscape design using lattice structures. These metal cells are filled with various materials:
- Stumbling The most popular material. Use stones of different colors, weights and sizes.
- By gravel Also used very often.
- Wood Not so often used, but also applied. Most often round logs of different sizes or logs are used.
- Other materials. There is no limit to the imagination of a person, so many people use what is on hand or to be disposed of. These can be beer cans, plastic bottles, etc.
The shape and design of gabions are divided into three main groups:
- Box-shaped. Used for the design of walls, street buildings.
- Flat. Mainly used for the formation of the surface of the plot, the banks of reservoirs, the creation of decorative flowerbeds.
- Oval. They are also called cylindrical, and this is the most common form in this discharge. Although, if desired, incredibly intricate shapes can be attached to metal grids.
An increasing number of homeowners are resorting to the use of gabions in landscape design. With their own hands, they strive to make the environment more beautiful and reliable. One of the advantages of using gabions is their fundamental nature, strength and durability.
Preparation for the construction
Before you start creating a gabion structure with your own hands, any master makes a sketch of the future creation and thinks over the upcoming costs and their capabilities well. In order not to have to redo something later, it is important to thoroughly prepare for work. What you need:
- Project. Calculate the size and assessment of the appearance of the places to be refined. Draw a sketch or using computer programs make a natural project of future changes. Prepare design drawings with exact dimensions.
- Calculations. Calculate the cubic capacity of the filled grids, calculate the required amount of the necessary materials. Add to them about fifteen percent of unforeseen expenses.
- Materials Purchase them in advance in the required quantity. Choose those who will serve for a long time. To do this, take into account the environment in which the structure will be located.
- Instruments. Prepare all the necessary tools for earthworks. To work with a metal grid, you will need pliers, a hammer, pliers, mount, plumb line and tape measure. When working with thick wire or rods, they are often sealed with a weld, so a welding machine may also be needed.
Having thoroughly done the preparatory work, the experienced masters once again check everything necessary for the successful completion of the project.
Those who are allowed financial opportunities prefer to order the design of their hacienda to specialists. But many people want to try to make gabions with their own hands. You can get a master class from the real experts of this business or try to use your own skills in the design art of related professions.
Metal mesh selection
How to make a gabion so that it lasts a long time and pleased with its decorative characteristics? It should first of all choose the right grid. Pre-fabricated mesh structures are required for the manufacture of flat-type gabions. Gabions of this type are used for framing flowerbeds, lawns, construction of fountains and artificial reservoirs. Considering the fact that such structures will be used in open air conditions and in fairly unfavorable conditions, the grid for their manufacture should be chosen only with a protective coating, which can be zinc or a layer of PVC. It should be borne in mind that for gabions do not use wire whose diameter is less than 2.7 mm.
The higher the calculated load, the larger diameter will be needed wire for gabion
Creating gabions from welded mesh
Gabions, the structural elements of which are joined by welding, are made of thicker wire, the thickness of which, however, should not exceed 0.8 cm. by welding. Using similar technology, it is possible to make a fence of gabions with your own hands, filling the inside of a welded mesh design with stones of a large fraction.
When constructing columnar gabions, it is recommended to use welded structures, especially if they will carry additional load (wickets, gates or spans)
The grid, made of large-diameter wire segments interconnected by welding, is used to create:
- base construction
- retaining elements
- supporting structural elements.
The choice of material for filling gabion structures
One of the most difficult issues that has to be solved when making gabions with your own hands is the choice of material with which such a structure will be filled. Criteria in this case are:
- taste preferences
- financial opportunities,
- conditions in which the created object will be operated.
When choosing a filler for gabion, first of all, you should look at the materials available in your area.
In addition to natural stones, which have already been mentioned above, you can use as materials for filling gabions:
- whole or broken brick
- battered tiles
- plastic pipe lengths
- wood cuts,
- car tires, cut into pieces,
- aluminum cans
- large bumps
- pieces of bark, etc.
Brief instructions for the manufacture of gabion fence
In order to make a fence of gabions, which you are going to make yourself, pleased you with its reliability and decorative characteristics, you can use the following step-by-step instruction.
- Участок, на котором будет устанавливаться габион, очищается от растений, камней и выравнивается.
- Под размещение опорных столбов создаваемой конструкции роются ямы глубиной 0,4–0,5 м.
- Опорные столбы конструкции устанавливаются и заливаются бетоном.
- After the concrete hardens (after three or four days), the framework of the structure is mounted around the supporting pillars. The latter connects to the support pillars using bolted joints or clamps.
- The cut end parts of the wire are treated with a protective compound.
- The inside of the mesh frame is filled with the material selected for this purpose.
- A cover is installed and fixed on the upper part of the structure.
The process of creating a gabion is divided into three parts: the installation of supports, the installation of the mesh frame and its filling
Filling the inside of the frame with stones, you should not forget to install the screeds of the opposite walls of the structure, which will keep them parallel to each other. If the gabion frame is a reinforced bar structure, the distance between them can be increased using chain-link fencing.
There are many options for how to make such a structure, like a gabion, with your own hands. Such diversity allows you to decorate your garden with unique decorative elements with minimal financial costs.
Scope of construction
Gabions were widely used as fortifications on the fields of military operations. In literal translation, the name of such a structure means "stone in the grid." Today, the technology of building gabions in landscape design has been successfully applied.
Gabion can be used to strengthen and / or decorate the walls of a house.
Designs are set as:
- the basis for the creation of furnishings on the site and the courtyard (the formation of street chairs and benches, tables and chairs),
- frames for vegetation,
- retaining walls to strengthen the hangars,
- building material for making lawns and stone gardens,
- bases for the formation of partitions, arches, strong beds with vertical type of placement,
- strengthening structures for fixing the soil of the coastal zone of lakes and rivers in the vicinity of the site or house,
- decorative elements to decorate the area (installed at the entrance to the courtyard, in the area where the stairs are located),
- material for the construction of stairs intended for the descent to the water.
Garden furniture from stone gabions
Helpful advice! The installation technology of gabions can be effectively used for zoning space. These structures are used not only as external fences (fences separating the local area from the street and neighbors), but also to divide the total area into areas, for example, a rest area, a place to install a stove, a barbecue, a grill, an area to accommodate a summer shower. etc.
Advantages of installing gabions on the territory of a country site
Most often, information on how to make a gabion with their own hands, is interested in the purpose of creating fortifications on the site, because they have a number of advantages.
For the construction of the waterfall used gabion design
The advantages of reinforcing structures:
- there is no need to use specialized construction equipment, so the process of building gabions does not harm the surrounding landscape forms,
- products have a high capacity, which is why air and water flows freely through them. Due to this, a high level of ecological construction is achieved. Continuous access of air contributes to the normal growth of plants, and the structures themselves do not adversely affect the greening of the site,
- grid cells for gabions do not create obstacles to grass germination. As a result, a beautiful fusion effect is obtained without such negative consequences as deformation of the building or violation of its functions,
- the stones inside the frame are not fixed, so that the filling of the partition remains mobile, which reduces the level of hydrostatic pressure,
Gabion Jumbo can be constructed to strengthen the foundation of the building
- Seasonal displacement of the soil can not harm the products. Even with significant changes, the construction will not lose its integral forms, only slight deformation is possible,
- due to the plants, which every year more and more germinate between the stones, the strength of the structure increases.
General classification of gabion structures
In the framework of the general classification, the following types of products are distinguished:
- box type
- cylindrical type.
The box gabion designs are called Jumbo. The grid in them forms cells of hexagonal or rectangular shapes. This option of construction is the most dimensional, since the products can have a width of about 2 meters. Their length is 6 meters, and the height reaches one meter.
Boxed gabions are called “Jumbo”
Note! Given the fact that the Jumbo facilities are so variable in size, their frameworks are necessarily complemented by partitions. During construction, not only the net method of forming the frame can be used, but also the welded one.
Scope of Jumbo:
- soil protection against erosion,
- production of retaining walls from gabions,
- soil condition monitoring.
Jumbo gabion construction scheme to strengthen the slope
Products of cylindrical shape are called gabions-bags. With the help of them the foundations located under the water are equipped. This type of construction has increased flexibility.
Flat products have a height of 17 to 30 cm. They are called Renault mattresses and are laid out over uneven surfaces, as they have the ability to adapt to them.
The height of the gabion "Renault mattress" can vary from 17 to 30 cm
Scope of Reno mattresses:
- base for retaining walls
- landscape construction,
- fixing bridge cones,
- control of the river bed,
- strengthening of the coastal zone,
- pipeline protection.
The use of gabions Renault mattress to strengthen the walls of the reservoir
Self-made gabions: step-by-step construction instructions and its features
To simplify your job - you can purchase ready-made designs. Modern stores offer a wide range of products for the formation of gabions. But the finished parts of the frames do not always correspond to the required size. In some cases it is easier to create a gabion yourself. The first stage of construction involves the design of the future composition and the calculation of the required amount of materials. If you want to make a design with your own hands, you can use gabion photos for inspiration and creating designs for your own unique project.
Geotextiles: what it is and how it is used in construction
Applications, types of geotextiles and their distinctive features. How does the density of geotextiles in its application.
Design is carried out according to the following scheme:
- Removal of measurements from the territory.
- Transfer of markings to paper (layout of structures).
- Drawing up drawings for each object.
- The choice of fillers and materials.
- Calculation of the required amount of materials.
Step-by-step scheme for assembling a gabion and filling it with stones
Helpful advice! Materials should be purchased with a margin. The result of the calculations should be increased by about 10-15%.
To achieve high strength, it is recommended to purchase a double twist mesh. It has a flexible structure, is easily stored and transported, durable and resistant to the negative effects of external factors.
Required materials for construction
Before you make a gabion yourself, you should take care of the availability of the necessary tools, basic and consumables.
To fill the gabion, you can use the remnants of building materials
- brackets designed to connect adjacent walls, or spiral-shaped wire,
- pins made of steel (used to fix products in the soil),
- braces of steel (designed to perform a wall tie with the opposite type of placement in relation to each other).
To protect your actions and reduce the time of work, you need to use additional tools.
The construction scheme of the gabion with a concrete foundation
The list of related tools includes:
- Mittens for protecting hands from high-density material.
Designers often give interesting and unique relief forms to the natural landscape of the territory. This type of structure is so strong that it can be used to form hills and valleys.
Above the landscape, you can create flower beds from gabions with your own hands, as well as waterfalls, artificial ponds, fountains, and so on.
Beds of gabions fit perfectly into the landscape design
Gabions: what is it and what are they for?
For the manufacture of gabions, a metal grid is used, as a rule, of double torsion, with anti-corrosion protection of zinc, galfan or polyvinyl chloride spray.
Additionally, to impart greater rigidity to the structure is the frame for which the reinforcement is used. As a filler, you can use a variety of natural stones:
- quartzite and others.
There are no special requirements for the material in appearance, color or shape, except for one thing: they must be 25-40% larger than the size of the mesh cells. When using gabions to strengthen riverbeds or banks, that is, if they are constantly exposed to moving water, the size of the stones should be twice as large as the grid cell.
Due to its impressive weight, the gabion structures are stable and not subject to deformation even in the presence of significant ground movements. Over time, they settle, compacted by soil particles, overgrown with vegetation, which makes them more reliable and durable.
Operational advantages of gabions
For upgrading or protection of the site can be purchased as ready-made structures, which, however, are transported in a collapsible state, but you can make it yourself. Even self-production of gabions is not particularly difficult. It is enough to purchase the necessary material and tools. But the use of gabions provides undeniable advantages:
The use of various materials to fill the gabion expands the possibilities for design solutions, allowing you to maximally show the natural beauty of the color and shape of the stones.
Main applications of gabions
Despite the fact that originally gabions were used for land strengthening works, over time the scope of their application expanded significantly and from the design, which had a purely utilitarian value, they gradually began to turn into elements for decorative design of the surrounding space.
So, gabions, in addition to being able to be used as retaining walls in the construction of various structural objects and structures, to strengthen road foundations or to protect the soil from erosion, are also used as elements of landscape design, such as:
- stone foundation for lawns,
- separation structures in the zoning area,
- decoration of flower beds, arches, garden,
- as garden paths, steps, stairs or transitions from one zone of the site to another,
- as the basis for the manufacture of garden furniture (tables, benches, benches),
- for decorative decoration of the shores of natural reservoirs bordering the site or in the construction of artificial ponds,
- for the manufacture of landscape sculptures.
You can even arrange do-it-yourself gabion fence, which besides its main function will contribute to the protection of the territory of the site from the penetration of street noise, sounds and wind.
How to make gabions with your own hands?
Before proceeding to the manufacture of gabions need to prepare the necessary material:
- metal mesh with a thickness of 2 to 8 mm, depending on the size of the product itself and taking into account operational features,
- reinforcement to strengthen the frame and stiffen it
- wire clips and metal spirals - to connect structural elements,
- geofabric as a material for creating inverse filtration, as well as for reducing the cost of sand or other bulk material during installation work.
And, of course, you need to stock the required amount of filler - stones. In that case, if aesthetic requirements come out on top or are important, then you should give preference to materials that differ in color diversity or unusual shapes, appearance.
This will require only a creative approach and the manifestation of artistic taste.
For work on manufacturing and installation of gabions You will need a simple set of tools, most of which are available in the host’s arsenal:
- pliers or pliers,
- metal frame mounting stapler
But if the production takes place with the use of reinforcing bars, then the application of welding is even necessary, since the knitting of elements with an ordinary wire is rather laborious and does not provide the necessary rigidity of the frame.
How to make a gabion: step by step instructions
Given that the weight of even a small structure is quite impressive, the manufacture and assembly of the gabion should be carried out directly on site.
- First you need to prepare the base, if necessary, strengthen and strengthen it, for example, by tamping the soil carefully or removing the top layer of soil, make a pillow of sand 10-20 cm thick, depending on the weight and size of the gabion. In some cases, even a shallow strip footing is justified, for example, when erecting fences from gabions, especially when combined with sections from traditional materials.
- So that the grid for gabions does not overgrow with grass and other unwanted weeds, which will later be rather problematic to get rid of, a narrow groove should be made around the perimeter of the structure, 10-15 cm deep. After that, it should be covered with a geotextile canvas or black film and fasten, bending one edge under the future structure.
- Next, you should cut the grid according to pre-calculated sizes and you can proceed to its connection or “stitching”.
- First, the lower part is installed, and the sides of the structure are laid down to it and connected to each other with a metal wire. The remaining end of the wire is tightly and firmly twisted and secured with pliers.
- If you plan to make a large gabion or with a disproportionately long one of the sides, you should take care of the stiffening diaphragm. Be sure that one of the parties must be left open to be able to fill the gabion with stones. The final stitching is performed after the completion of the installation work and the complete filling of the entire volume.
- After the framework of the structure is completely ready, its final installation and fixing is carried out. In order to ensure the strength and stability of the structure not only at the expense of its own weight, it should be fixed with the help of anchors or independently made stakes. In extreme cases, fittings with a diameter of 10 mm or more are suitable.
- For the device of multi-tier structures, it is possible to allow some material savings, for example, during the construction of fences. In this case, the gabion mesh of the lower tier may become the base (bottom) of the upper. In this case, additional rigidity is provided, but taking into account the increasing load, the thickness of the wire from which the fabric is made must be able to withstand it, so it should be chosen taking into account the safety margin.
The prepared structures are fastened rigidly with each other, and then the device of gabions can be continued by the process of laying stones, observing certain rules:
- should begin to fill after the gabion has taken its permanent place,
- if stones of different sizes are chosen for filling, then the large ones are stacked at the edges, and the middle is filled with smaller ones,
- if small, but approximately equal in size and shape stones are used, the laying is done in bulk, but always in several stages with the obligatory compaction of each part,
- in the event that the height of the gabion is more than half a meter, the stones should also be laid in several layers, approximately 15-25 cm thick. In addition, in this case, after filling the structure by about a third, it is necessary to make special stretch braces that fasten the opposite sides (most often - front and back) to prevent deformation. If the height of the structure is more than a meter, then this procedure should be repeated after a certain distance, for example, after filling 2/3 and 3/4 of the volume,
- in the event that a multi-tiered laying of gabions is provided, the bottom row should be filled with stones, taking into account their shrinkage, both under its own weight and due to external load, therefore they should be filled on average 5-7 cm above the upper edge of the structure,
- иногда допускается использование каменей меньшей фракции , чем размер ячейки, но в этом случае, располагать их следует в середине конструкции или в нижней части, предварительно обернув их геотканью, которая не будет препятствовать воде просачиваться сквозь габион, но не позволит вымыть из него наполнитель,
- After the installation and filling of the gabion containers has been completed, you can complete the final touch - close and secure the lid using a metal wire helix.
In order to avoid the displacement of the stones and the destruction of the image, the work should be carried out in stages, laying out layers of 10-20 cm by hand with compulsory sealing of each of them.
The use of gabions in the landscape
For the production of gabions, an iron network is used, as a rule, of dual twisting with anticorrosive protection from zinc, polyvinyl chloride spraying.
The thickness of the wire used, from which the network is made, ranges from 2 to 8 millimeters. A more popular type of cell is considered a polygon, but there are products with rectangular or square configurations. In addition, the frame is used to provide greater rigidity.
As a filler, you can use different types of natural stones:
- ruined stone
There are no special requirements for the material used in form and color, besides one: they must be 25–40% more than the mesh cells. When using gabions for a good strengthening of the river’s beds or banks, that is, if they are regularly affected by moving water, then the size of the pebbles should be 2 times larger than the grid cells.
The advantages of built structures
Due to its weight, gabions are stable and do not undergo deformations, including in the presence of significant soil movements. Over time, they sit down, thicken with particles of soil, overgrow with vegetation, which makes them more reliable and long-lasting.
Some advantages of gabions:
- Gabions are much more economical than monolithic fixed plates.
- It is easier to work with gabions than with a plate.
- Gabions make it possible to show a more creative imagination. So, the fixed panel has any prepared configuration, and the network can be created of any size and type and adapted to the shape.
- Due to the fact that the iron grids are bent very well, the gabion takes the configuration of the plane in which it is located. As a result, even during a shower, the building will be stable without supports.
- By itself, the unit is very durable: from humidity and temperature fluctuations, pebbles and metal almost do not deteriorate.
- There is no need for a special drainage system to drain water.
- Care of such systems is also not needed - it is quite simple to control external cleanliness.
- Gabion structures used as a fence absorb noise well and perfectly keep dust from the road, which sits on the crossed relief plane of pebbles.
- Gabions can well fix the base in place if the structure is placed along its perimeter - the stones are more reliable than textile fibers, sand, etc. The drainage is protected from corrosion.
- A fence or construction from a gabion actually implies a safe product from an environmental point of view: stone and metal do not pose a threat to health and do not pollute the environment.
Gabions are iron nets that are filled with stones and other improvised materials. You can collect gabions yourself, step by step instructions are quite simple.
Spheres of application
Gabions were widely used as fortified structures on the fields of military operations. Today, the method of gabion construction in landscape design is successfully used.
Designs are used as:
- the basis for furniture on the court and in the yard (the formation of chairs and benches, tables),
- framing different vegetation,
- retaining walls for maintaining hangars,
- building material for making lawns and gardens
- the basis for the development of fences, arches, strong beds with a vertical view of accommodation,
- strengthening of buildings and to strengthen the soil of the coastal zone of lakes and rivers located near the site or building,
- decorative components for decoration of the area (installed at the entrance to the courtyard, in the area of the stairs),
- material for the construction of stairs, specialized for lowering into the water.
The installation technology of the gabion can be effectively applied to the zoning of the site. These buildings are used not only as external fencing (separating the adjacent area from the road and neighbors), but also for the distribution of the total area into sections.
Gabions have several positive sides:
- Mesh structures are very plastic and for this reason are indispensable in areas with unstable soil. Where the cement is cracked or completely collapsed, the gabions will remain undamaged, in extreme cases, only slightly deformed.
- Over time, the composition does not lose its own strength. Stones are only getting stronger.
- Water easily flows through the pebbles, which means that the system will not require auxiliary equipped drainage.
- The process of installing gabions with their own hands is not so time consuming and less expensive than the construction of concrete masonry.
Form creation technologies
Before you make a block with your own hands, it will not be superfluous to watch the installation video or read the instructions.
The method of forming a general structure includes 2 types of design:
- Frame. Gabions are made of a grid with constant cells in the form of regular hexahedra. The network is fixed in a frame that is made of alloy.
- Welded connections. Wire or metal rods are intertwined and welded together in a box or cylinder (depending on the system).
Welded systems are more durable, as welding makes it possible to connect rods and keep them in this state, despite the very significant tension of plastic stones. In addition, welded gabions look the most attractive, and unlike frames, they can be wrapped into original shapes or flower beds. For this reason, in landscape design they are used most often.
Tools required for work:
- Galvanized wire net. For small systems, a wire thickness of 2–3 mm is sufficient. The larger the composition, the thicker the mesh is up to 5-6 millimeters. As a rule, a special grid with hexagonal cells or an ordinary with rectangular cells is used. You can try to make a gabion from the grid, but this system will be short-lived, since the plate is not designed for heavy loads.
- Clips for mounting the frame. They must be galvanized, otherwise the attachment points will rust over time, and the box will fall apart.
- Sand, geotextile or thick film for the substrate.
- Filler - stones, pebbles, damaged brick. The larger the element in the grid, the greater the filler.
- Reinforcement for hardening of large systems, for small configurations, it does not apply.
- Roulette, pliers, shovel.
In the production of gabions, in addition to the grid itself, the so-called connecting wire is needed, which is used to fix the grid in the frame, as well as to unite its walls with each other. For this reason, in addition to the right column, another parameter is presented that is not entered into the specified GOST. This is the proposed wire diameter, which will be associated with the structure of the gabion.
Step-by-step instructions for installing gabion:
- In the box gabion comes in a disassembled version - you need to get it and put it in a flat surface.
- All components are curved along the line and fixed with the support of the stapler and connecting wire.
- All side planes rise, forming a box. The upper portion of each corner is connected to the wire, which is attached to the frame. It should not move away from the edges, otherwise it will prevent the installation of the system.
- After collecting the gabion box, they should be combined in pairs, as shown in the figure.
- After that, the pairwise combined gabions are placed in the desired position according to the project and filled.
The main requirement is that the stones are very close. The deflection of the iron grid is unacceptable - this is the most popular mistake, due to which the system loses its own strength. Then the cover of the box is covered and fastened with a stapler and a connecting wire.
Selection and laying of stone
An important factor in the construction of gabion systems is considered to be the correct selection and laying of stone.
The size of the stone is chosen taking into account the parameters of the cells selected for the grid system, so that the filling components do not go beyond the boundaries of the baskets. The best stone size is the volume that is at least 2 or maximum 5 times larger than the cell size, since they give measured cravings and loads to the bottom of the basket. It is not necessary to fill the basket with a very large stone, since between them there are large windy places.
In accordance with the rules of gabion formation, the following conditions for a stone are defined:
- To build structures on the street, the weight of the stone must be at least 17.5-18 kN / m 3, and to maintain the banks or other hydraulic structures - 23-25 kN / m 3.
- The strength of the material used must be at least 400 KGS / cm 2.
- Frost resistance of stone - F 350 and more.
- The stone must be resistant to decay under the influence of external conditions (wind erosion under the influence of humidity, temperature fluctuations and sunlight). For the full period of work, the loss of the total mass should not be higher than 5–10%.
- The material should have a slight moisture absorption rate - not more than 0.6%.
Recently, colored stones have become common for gabions, used as components of the landscape. They look very impressive in design, especially on a sunny day. In addition, they are simply washed with water from a hose and retain their own appearance during the period of operation.
The choice of material for the walls of conventional and welded gabions
Metal mesh is used in cases where the basis of the project to create gabions is the use of Reno mattresses. Most often, the need to use such products arises when you intend to build an object with a complex configuration on the site. In this case, Renault mattresses are arranged along bending lines. They can be installed in an arc or be placed in separate parts of the structure where rotation or bending of the frame is necessary. This type of material gets flower beds or fountains.
Helpful advice! Taking into account the fact that the construction will be placed not indoors, but outside, it is recommended to buy a grid for gabions with a special protective coating. Under outdoor conditions, normal material will be corrosive and very quickly become unusable. The grid with a galvanized coating can last for almost 100 years.
For the construction of gabions, it is necessary to choose a grid with a thickness of at least 2.7 mm
For the manufacture of gabions is not recommended to use a material whose thickness is less than 2.7 mm. The table shows the prices for products made of galvanized steel, with a thickness of 3 mm.
The average price of a grid for gabions:
Types of structures
The differences of gabions are based, first of all, on their dimensions and purpose. Construction of the foundation when installing them is not required.
Frame construction of gabions can be of several types:
- Box-shaped frame - made of mesh or welded from thick reinforced rods. The choice of material depends on how high the existing structure will be. Most often used to decorate a place of rest, as well as decorating the territory of the site. The gabion box frame is mainly used for decorating the site
- A flat frame (also called a mattress) usually has the appearance of a flat and wide construction. It is used in the construction of large-scale structures, as well as for securing the banks of a reservoir or slopes on the ground. Flat carcass is most often used in construction or to strengthen slopes.
- Cylindrical frames are used as supports for garden furniture or decorating flowerbeds. Cylindrical gabions originally look like flower beds
- The frame of arbitrary shape has only a decorative purpose. It can be made in any form: geometric shapes, animals, plants, etc. These frames become a real exclusive decoration of the garden. The arbitrary shape of the frame will allow you to show imagination and turn the site into a fabulous garden
Companies engaged in the manufacture of gabions and their installation, most often used to create a frame galvanized wire. Its density should be 250–280 g / m². It is much stronger than the netting chain used commonly for fencing.
Such wire may have not galvanized, but PVC coating. In this case, its thickness will be from 2 to 6 mm.
It is very important to choose a mesh from a suitable wire.
Wire capacitances for gabions will have to withstand heavy loads due to heavy filler, so their strength must be very high. To ensure this quality, they are performed in the technique of double wire torsion. In addition, it is recommended to make cells in the form of regular polygons: so gabion will be more stable and more durable.
Step-by-step process description
Like any work, the manufacture of gabions needs to start with something small and simple. For example, you can build a flower bed:
- The first step is to determine the width of the structure you are making. If your flower garden has a small size, a width of 30 cm is enough. To simplify installation, you need to measure the height of the same size. It will be framed 30 X 30 cm. Carefully measure the grid length before trimming, so as not to be mistaken in size
- Fence a flower bed mark a strip along the edges. The width of the strip should be 40 cm. Level and properly tamp the ground in this place.
- Place geotextiles or tapes in place of the base. Coverage area should be slightly wider than the design. This is necessary to ensure that weeds and plant roots from the flower beds do not break into the gaps between the cells.
- Cut the grid. The width of the strips should be 30 cm, and the length will depend on the length of the fence of the flower garden. Each side will require 2 strips and 2 more squares to close the end. This design will close one side of the flower bed. Consequently, for the whole flower garden 4 boxes are required. You will need to cut a few items to get four boxes
- After the blanks are cut, you can proceed to assembly. Lay one strip on the ground, in the perpendicular position to it, install the walls one by one, fasten them with wire or galvanized clamps. Fastening must be done from the inside of the structure so that the frame looks neat. Remove excess hose clamp with pliers. Secure the mesh on the inside so that the mount looks neat.
- Similarly, attach the ends of the structure. In this case, the top must remain open.
- When all 4 boxes are made, start filling them. Cover the stones and shake the structure thoroughly: this will help them to lie down closer to each other. After all the boxes are tightly filled, screw the top. Fill the boxes with stones and screw the upper part of the grid.
- Geotextiles that remain outside the walls of the gabion can be covered with small pebbles or decorated in another way. Geotextiles that extend beyond the gabion can be covered with pebbles or decorated in another way.
To make gabion installation even easier, use a few simple rules:
- If you need to build a large gabion, in advance, provide several sectional compartments. They will not allow the content to bulge from the walls of the grid, while you load it into the frame.
- Holding individual boxes in a monolith, use wire. Be sure to pay attention to the fact that it was made of the same material as the frame. A cheaper version of the product can lead to the deformation of the gabion and its subsequent destruction.
- When constructing a surface gabion, it is better to fill the structure with stones that are one third larger than the width of the cells. For underwater structures, the stones must be 50% larger than the cell.
How to choose a location
If you yourself are engaged in arranging and decorating your garden and want to use gabions for this, it is very important for you to decide in advance where they will be located and what function they will perform.
Consider that such facilities are very bulky and can look rough. Dilute the composition and make it more tender flowers and green spaces. A flower bed-gabion of strict geometric shape will simultaneously decorate the site and update its old design.
The strict geometric shape of the gabion and the original filler diversify the old flower bed.
You can place gabions as a fence or partition. If your site is located near the slope, the construction will help to secure it and prevent possible collapses.
Young children will surely like gabions in the form of animals, funny figures or cartoon characters. They can be arranged throughout the garden, especially in its secluded corners.
Gabions look very appropriate near artificially created water bodies or pools.
Маленький бассейн или искусственный пруд будет хорошо смотреться в обрамлении габиона
Попробуйте соорудить уголок для отдыха, используя габионы. Например, большие каркасы, которые будут исполнять роль стола, заполните крупными камнями, а вокруг соорудите каркасы поменьше, для стульев.
You can make an original garden table with benches out of gabions.
Gabions are often used to protect gazebos from water flooding. Between the stones used as a filler, in any case, there is space. Through it, the water seeps down and does not accumulate on the floor of the gazebo.
Photo Gallery: original gabions in the garden
In the manufacture of gabions there is nothing difficult, and you will learn how to make even arbitrary forms of frames, you just have to practice. And by combining with each other different colors, types, textures and sizes of materials, you can turn the plot into an unusually beautiful composition. Gabions belong to inexpensive ways of arranging the territory, so the matter remains only on your desire and imagination. Good luck!