Is it possible to grow a kiwi tree indoors? Experienced gardeners say yes! Moreover, even a beginner can get a home plant on the windowsill that will bear fruit. Its cultivation is rather painstaking, but many people call the process fascinating for it. Description and photo instruction will help you to understand the algorithm.
Homemade Kiwi Cultivation: What You Need to Know Before Planting
In the wild, Chinese gooseberry kiwi, like apples or pears, is a small 30-gram fruit. The habitual large fleshy fruits from 100 g and heavier breeders New Zealand received. Today, fruits with a refreshing delicate flavor are popular all over the world. In addition, they are very useful and are used in cosmetology, as well as for the prevention of a large number of diseases.
Kiwi grows on beautiful tree-like vines, resembling a vine. At home, the fruit tree is grown from seed. Key points to consider before planting:
- Kiwi belongs to dioecious cultures. To grow fruits at home, you will need at least two plants. Determine which instance belongs to the female, and which to the male, you can only during flowering. Therefore, it is better to plant several vines at once.
- Under optimal conditions of maintenance and care, you will receive the first flowering and fruits no earlier than in 4-6 seasons.
- For cultivation in room conditions suitable any varieties.
- The plant needs about the same conditions as the grapes. For example, in abundance of sunlight.
If your house has no windows facing south or adjacent sides, a normally developed plant may not.
Attention! There are special cold-resistant varieties that are suitable for growing in the open field of the middle band. Conditions and care in this case are similar to room. Only for the winter the plant should be wrapped. Wait for the fruit with such vines, may have up to 10 years.
Kiwi planting: technology and features
Gardeners recommend starting all the kiwi planting procedures in early spring. This time is considered optimal in order to obtain maximum germination. Kiwi seed is not difficult to find. Buy a fully ripe fruit - soft and loose. Without cleaning, cut it in half.
Next, proceed as follows:
- remove about 20 seeds, gently remove the pulp from them,
- wrap the material in gauze and rinse it several times with tap water,
- spread the seeds on a saucer and leave to dry for a couple of hours under normal room conditions.
The next step is to germinate seeds to speed up seedling:
- Put cotton wool, moderately soaked in hot water, on a saucer. Place the seed on it.
- Place a small plate on a well-lit window sill and cover with foil. At night, a mini greenhouse should be opened. But make sure that at this time there was no drafts. In the morning, soak the cotton again with hot water and stretch the film.
In such conditions, the seeds should form seedlings in 7-10 days. Maintain the regime until you see the delicate white roots. Now germinated seeds should be transplanted into the soil:
- Mix in equal parts humus, peat, turf and sand.
- Fill small pots with primer. In each, directly on the surface, put a few seeds. Sprinkle them on top of a thin layer of soil. You can not ram the earth.
- Spray the planting daily to maintain the moisture of the topsoil. Use only the spray gun, simple watering can not be carried out.
Council The moistening of the earth coma during this and the subsequent stages of cultivation is extremely important for the plants. Therefore, other methods will be suitable for these purposes. For example, mounting a mini-greenhouse from half plastic bottles above each pot. However, an excessive amount of water for the plant's root system will be disastrous.
Growing kiwi: care for young plants
To make fruit tree care effective, bring the growing conditions as close as possible to its native, natural ones. Kiwi grows in the climate of a long warm and humid summer. In addition to low humidity or excess water, the plant does not like:
- cool climate, temperatures below +20 ° C,
- a sharp decrease in temperature even in warm weather
- lack of sunlight.
Other nuances of kiwi care:
- The pledge of health and beauty of the tree - fertilizing with organic fertilizers: biohumus or compost. Mixes make the spring, no more than 2-3 times. You can add the entire composition of fertilizers and one-time, in dry form, in a trench dug around the stem. In the process of watering substances will gradually go to the roots.
- In the summer, gardeners recommend fertilizing kiwi with mineral complexes. Frequency - 3-4 times a month.
- Pinching from time to time its top will help to strengthen and make the vine more branched.
- A month after rooting in the soil the plant will need a new transplant.
- Each plant needs a separate pot. It is important that the wide leaves do not block each other access of light.
- Room conditions will not limit the growth of vines. An adult plant can reach 7 m in length. For creepers, backwater is needed (for example, a trellis), on which kiwi will climb to the ceiling.
How to get a harvest of kiwi at home
The optimal ratio of male and female plants for a good harvest - 1 to 5-6. It is very likely that by bloom you will find that it is not. Often there will be more male copies than you need. In this case, the vaccination of female branches of eyes on their stalks is effective.
Pollinate the gardener will have on their own. Transfer pollen from male flowers to female ones with clean and decontaminated forceps.
So that the plant does not degenerate, remove the old branches in the autumn, especially if the shoot has already produced fruits. So you make room for young vines and keep fruiting at the same level.
Attention! Kiwi is not very resistant to pests and diseases of indoor plants. Keep it away from other plants. In cases of infection, use the standard methods of control and prevention of a particular ailment.
Kiwi is surprisingly quite simple to grow in the house. Attentive owners will be able to enjoy the taste of exotic with their own windowsill.
You can not just pick out the seeds and stuff them into the ground. All this will safely rot and get thin compost instead of a beautiful vine. First, the seeds must be freed from the pulp. Making it with bare hands is not easy. There is an exit. Who ever collected his tomatoes for planting, he knows a very simple method of fermentation.
To do this, the mashed pulp is poured with a small amount of clean water and put in heat. After a day, a maximum of two mixtures will begin to ferment. In this case, all the flesh will remain at the bottom, and the seeds will emerge. Here they also should be collected. Spoon, strainer, piece of paper. Any convenient way.
Then they should be dried for about 2 hours. Everything, seeds are ready for the subsequent actions.
To be sure for the shoots, the seeds of kiwi must be germinated. This can be done in two ways: on a rag or in a "snail". Both options are equally good. The difference is only in the convenience of the subsequent transplant.
- On a rag. Put a cotton rag on a plate, pour a little hot water. Spread the seeds, then cover with a transparent bag or plastic container. Placed in a warm place, air once a day. Days after 5 will appear tiny sprouts. If the seeds lie tightly, it will be inconvenient to divide them for transplanting. And if it is wide, then you will need a large area.
- In the "snail". A 10 cm wide strip of polyethylene is placed on the table. A strip of toilet paper is placed on top and slightly moistened with water. At a distance of 0.5 cm from the top spread kiwi seeds along the length of the entire workpiece. It is convenient to do with a wet toothpick. Then, starting from the edge, gently twist the resulting structure into a loose roll. This is called the "snail".
Such wrapping is placed in a glass so that the seeds of kiwi are on top. At the bottom of the glass is poured 1.5-2 cm of pure water, then the reconciliation is closed with a transparent bag. The whole structure is placed in a warm place. When sprouts appear, it will be very convenient to plant them, simply unfolding the "snail".
After our kiwi seeds gave tiny sprouts, they should be planted. No, not outside. And not even in the pot. For this, the shoots are still too weak. We will plant them for the present in wide low capacity.
Ordinary land for planting is not suitable. It is too thick and oily. We need a loose, light and at the same time a little nutritious mixture. To do this, we take the soil, fine peat and clean sand. We mix everything in equal proportions. Next, we disinfect the obtained substrate, because the black leg does not sleep. It doesn’t matter to you whether you planted ordinary tomatoes or exotic kiwis. She will ruin everything. Therefore, a good solution is spilled with a solution of potassium permanganate of medium strength and calcined in the oven at 110 ° C.
Now we take the prepared container 10 cm high (washed with potassium permanganate and dried), make drainage holes. Kiwi sprouts love to drink, but will not grow in the swamp. We fill a layer of the prepared earth about 3 cm. Under the scheme 1.5 by 1.5 cm we make small holes. Depth is not more than 5 mm. And carefully lay out the peeled kiwi seeds. Top poured no more than 2 mm of the soil mixture. You can say - priprashivay lightly.
Gently and without fanaticism sprinkle with clean warm water from a spray bottle, cover with glass. We put in a dark warm place. At night, we remove the glass so that cold condensate does not form, which can lead to diseases. In the morning again we cover the container. Instead of glass, you can use a plastic bag or a piece of transparent plastic.
After the seeds of kiwi come out, they need to be transplanted into more suitable containers. But not immediately, but only after the formation of a pair of true leaves. To delay with this is not worth it, because the kiwi very quickly develops a powerful root system. Slightly slow and then you have to tear tangled roots. And this will not benefit the plants. In addition, the leaves of kiwi themselves are wide and lush. They will have little space and light, so the shoots will be strong.
To avoid this, we plant a plant in a tank with a diameter of at least 10-12 cm. For two pieces, not more. We put on the lightest windowsill. This southern liana loves light very much. If you can not provide good coverage from 7 am to 9 pm, then throw the idea - you are not a gardener at all! Plant swede, it does not require special care. And give a kiwi a fluorescent lamp or additional daylight illumination. This gardener has such lamps always.
All this time, strictly monitor the moisture content of the earth mixture. It is strictly forbidden to allow the soil to dry out! Otherwise, why all these dances with sprouting and measuring the distance between plants, if you are going to kill them with drought? Better every day, a little bit spray the planting spray with clean lukewarm water. Moreover, Kiwi love to drink leaves. Of course, the shelter is removed. It is no longer needed.
Landing on a permanent place
After the kiwi grow 3 pairs of true leaves, they need to be planted in a permanent place. On the street or in the pot. At the same time, the soil should consist of fertile land and peat, 1 to 1. It is advisable to transplant the kiwi by transshipment method so as not to affect the root system. That is, we take out a sprout from a container together with the earth, put it in a hole or a pot. Then we pour the soil from all sides so that the plant is firmly fixed and does not sway.
It is necessary to place kiwi in a well-lit place without drafts.
How to care for kiwi
Despite the exotic, care for kiwi is quite simple. Weeding from weeds, regular loosening. Be sure to monitor the soil moisture. In strong heat, kiwi well sprayed with clean water.
Feeding. From October to March, kiwis are fed with any available complex mineral fertilizer. About once every 12-14 days. Still, it is a vine, and for good growth it needs a lot of nutrients. Fertilizer solution is applied directly under the root of the wet ground.
Organics are fed from April to September, once a month. Carefully dig a groove around the perimeter, there lay a good compost or rotted manure. Only not fresh! Otherwise, burn the roots. After a few watering the plant will reach all the nutrients.
As for pests or diseases, they have not yet been found in the middle zone for kiwis, except ... cats. Yes, young plants of kiwi love to chew representatives of the cat family. Therefore, in the first three years it is better to put a fence. In the future, cats lose all interest in kiwi.
- Kiwi - dioecious plant. Therefore, one on the site or windowsill will not bear fruit. To learn whether it is male or female, it is possible only after flowering. By the way, it comes in the open ground for 3-4 years of growth, on the windowsill - only for 6 years. Male flowers are large, yellowish, they are usually very much. Female - snow-white, large with a big sticking out pestle. There are fewer plants.
- To get a consistently high yield of kiwi, planting plan for 4-5 women for one male plant. You can not wait for favors from bees or bumblebees and self-pollinate flowers.
- Pinch the crown of the shoots. So kiwi will grow in breadth, not length.
- For the winter, the kiwis are removed from the trellis (the vine) and covered. Moreover, it is better not to put vines on the ground. Put the boards or lapnik. Arcs are placed on top, then covered with three layers of greenhouse film. Between them, you can lay a single layer of dense non-woven material. In winter, it is desirable to cover the shelter with snow.
- With the onset of March, the film is periodically opened for a while. This is done to ensure that the vine is slightly cooled and does not go to growth ahead of time. After all, the March pranks are very treacherous: in the daytime the sun is warm, and at night frosts happen. Therefore, a little suspend the biological cycle of kiwi short-term ventilation.
- By the way, it happens that return frosts, even short ones, can completely destroy the entire above-ground part of an adult plant. Do not rush to uproot the roots. During the summer season, a completely independent plant will grow from them.
How to grow kiwi at home? It turns out very simple. Follow the recommendations above and every year you will enjoy your own grown berries. Now, when the guests will gasp when they see your plant, you can disregard it with words - yes this is kiwi, they found something to be surprised, it grows on my own.
Features of growing kiwi at home
In order to get a well-developed and abundantly fruiting plant at home, you need to know how to grow kiwi fruit and provide it with comfortable living conditions. Landing is recommended in the spring.
The soil for planting kiwi seeds should have a neutral or slightly acid reaction. From ready-made substrates suitable soil mixture for citrus crops.
If the primer is made independently, it is recommended to use the following options:
- turfy ground - 2 parts, leaf ground - 1 part, humus - 1 part, coarse sand - 1 part,
- turfy ground - 3 parts, leaf ground - 2 parts, peat - 1 part, perlite - 1 part.
Conditions for flowering
In order to come flowering plants, you must carefully follow the rules of planting and further care.
To obtain fruits, cross-pollination is necessary.
In this case, in the third - fourth year of growth on the kiwi flowers appear white, which gradually grow yellow as they grow. Female and male specimens are formed on plants, so cross-pollination will be required to produce fruits in room conditions.
Kiwi belongs to the light-loving plants. Therefore, for its growth you need to choose a well-lit place, preferably in the southern part of the room. At the same time, the plant should be protected from direct sunlight, so as to avoid burns. To do this, it is necessary to create artificial shading in a particularly hot time.
Important! Choosing a place for growing kiwi you need to know that with proper care it will grow greatly, forming a powerful liana. Therefore, you need to prepare for him a fairly spacious room.
Selection of planting material
For the cultivation of kiwi seeds, you need to choose a large, well ripened fruit. It should not be a trace of rot or any mechanical damage. It must be thoroughly washed, dried, cut into two halves and extract the required number of seeds.
Kiwi seeds are very small
Planting germinated seeds
For planting seeds need to use shallow pots. At the bottom it is necessary to pour a good layer of drainage, and on it in advance prepared, sterilized soil. Make holes in it with a depth of no more than 5 millimeters, plant seed, sprinkle it with a thin layer of soil and slightly moisten.
After emergence, the weakest need to be removed.
Capacity to tighten plastic wrap and send in a warm and bright room. Daily shelter should be removed in order to air landing and water if necessary. After sprouts appear, you need to remove the weakest ones.
Planting dry seeds
Таким же образом, как и пророщенные семена, можно высадить сухие. Но в этом случае всходов нужно будет ждать несколько дольше. In the future, for the emerged sprouts is a similar care.
In about a month, several true sheets should form on the plants. At this time, you need to carry out a picking, planting seedlings in separate small pots. Since kiwi has a very delicate, shallow root system, it is necessary to extract the seedlings from the total capacity very carefully. Damage to the roots can lead to plant death.
Young Kiwis should grow in separate containers.
When transplanting kiwi in individual containers in a prepared soil is recommended to make a small amount of compost. In the future, from the beginning of spring to the end of summer, it is necessary to feed plants with complex mineral fertilizers every 2 weeks.
Kiwi is a moisture-loving plant, so during the vegetative period, watering should be regular and frequent. The soil should remain wet constantly, but it should not be allowed to overflow, which can lead to decay of the root system.The pot should have drainage holes, and excess water from the pallets should be regularly drained. In a particularly hot time, in addition to watering the plants require daily spraying.
Important! Starting in the fall, it is necessary to moisten the soil only as needed after the full drying of its upper layer.
Why a plant may die - possible causes
Kiwi needs careful care
Kiwi can die if you do not follow the rules of care. The reasons may be:
- insufficient or excessive watering,
- poor lighting
- lack of nutrients in the soil as a result of the lack of timely fertilizing,
- infection with fungal diseases and pest infestation (spider mite, scythe, aphid and others).
In order to prevent the death of plants, you need to follow the rules of their content and regularly conduct a routine inspection.
If you find fungal diseases that lead to decay of both the root system and the ground part, you should:
- remove the affected leaves and parts of the stem,
- if possible, remove the plants from the pot, rinse the roots and cut off the rotten,
- transplant kiwi in clean ground,
- spray and shed the soil with the fungicide solution.
If pests appear on the kiwi, then you need:
- prune wilted and dried leaves
- wash all parts of the plant with a solution of household or green soap,
- sprinkle kiwi infusion of garlic, onion, tobacco or wormwood, if it does not help, then spray with insecticide.
Important! Eat kiwi leaves, and even the roots of the plant are very fond of cats. Therefore, in the presence of pets in the apartment, it is recommended to wrap the pots with a net to avoid its destruction.
Reproduction seedlings and cuttings
Kiwi can be propagated by seeds and cuttings
Kiwi can be grown not only from the stone, but also using cuttings and seedlings. For reproduction by cutting, they use semi-lignified or woody cuttings on which there must be at least 3 buds. The lower edge is cut obliquely under the lower kidney, and 1 centimeter is left above the top.
Then the planting material is placed in a container with water, to which is added the growth stimulator Kornevin for at least 12 hours. After that, prepare boxes for seedlings, on the bottom of which pour a drainage layer, and on it a mixture of equal parts of peat and sand. The cuttings are planted in a container, moistened, covered with glass jars and sent to a warm well-lit room.
Every day the shelter is removed and sprayed seedlings, and also watered as necessary. About a month later, a sufficiently developed root system is formed in the cuttings. At this time, they can be seated in individual pots with a good drainage layer and soil mixture.
Reproduction of seedlings is carried out with the help of root scions. They are simply neatly separated from the parent plant so that they have roots. The resulting planting material is seated in small pots with nutritious soil and watered. As a rule, seedlings root quickly.
How to get a good harvest of kiwi at home
In order to get a good harvest of kiwi, the plant should be provided with comfortable conditions, close to those in which it grows in the wild. As mentioned above, he needs good lighting, regular watering and proper feeding.
Kiwi with proper care fruits well at home
In addition, you need to make supports, on which the growing vines will rise up. In order for plants to branch better, regular pinching should be carried out. And, of course, in order to have fruits at home, it is required to conduct cross-pollination of male and female flowers.
Kiwi is an exotic tropical plant. Nevertheless, it grows well in conditions of ordinary city apartments, and with proper care it even brings not only tasty, but also useful fruits.
We offer you to get acquainted with the nuances of growing kiwi at home. Enjoy watching!
Main cultivation requirements
Despite the simplicity of the process of growing kiwi at home, it is still necessary to follow certain rules, which include patience, care and accuracy. The bulk of growers use the following cultivation of kiwi:
- adventitious buds of rhizome,
Each of these methods has its own subtleties, pros and cons, which will be discussed below. However, there are basic requirements regarding the cultivation of kiwi. Not everyone knows that this plant is a distant relative of grapes. For this reason, an identical cultivation method is used here.
The considered plant belongs to light and heat-loving cultures. In other words, a pot of kiwi should be installed in a place with excellent lighting, where drafts are completely absent. At the same time, one should not forget that kiwi leaves are capable of getting serious burns from strong sunlight. This means that the light must reach the plant at an angle.
The most optimal is artificial lighting, which is located vertically. At different stages of kiwi development, the pot with the plant will need to be rotated clockwise. Perform such a procedure should be 1 time in 2 weeks. Thanks to this, the culture will become straight, with a uniform and dense crown.
As noted at the very beginning, kiwi belongs to dioecious plants. In other words, to get the fruit you need to have a pair of female and one male plant. When a crop is grown by means of seeds, about 80% of the plants are male. For this reason, the seeds should be as large as possible.
The process of growing kiwi at home
So how to grow kiwi at home by yourself? Optimally, the process of growing kiwi should begin with the onset of the first spring days. This moment, perhaps, the most crucial, for this reason should not be delayed with the sowing. One should not forget the fact that the described culture grows in areas with warm, long summer. Therefore, it is necessary to create the most favorable growth conditions for kiwi.
Most often experienced growers begin the process of growing kiwi fruit with the preliminary preparation of the required components. Below will be described in detail the main phases of the cultivation of the described plants at home.
Preparation of the necessary components
In order to start the process of growing kiwi correctly, you need to stock up in advance:
- one ripe kiwi,
- neutral or slightly acidic soil, specially used for citrus plants,
- sifted river sand
- mini-greenhouse (replaced with PET film),
- fine expanded clay as a drainage.
Bought soil can be replaced by self-prepared soil mixture. It should consist of chernozem soil, sand and peat (in the same quantity). When picking up shoots in a pot will be done, the resulting soil mixture is also useful, however, the volume of peat in it should be reduced.
Seed Transplant to Ground
The composition of the soil should be exactly the same as described in one of the above paragraphs of the article. The finished mixture is poured into a pot or other container. In this case, the bottom should be pre-covered with fine expanded clay, which acts as a drainage. On the ground it is necessary to make small holes, a depth of not more than 1 centimeter. Germinated seeds are placed in prepared wells, and then they are poured with soil, without tamping.
Used containers need to cover with a film or glass and put in the warmest place. You can put pots in a mini-greenhouse. Now you need to water the soil every day. Do not allow the soil to dry out, otherwise the shoots will die. For irrigation, you can use a conventional spray gun, or you can simply put containers on pallets with water poured into them.
It should be remembered that after the appearance of the first sprouts, they need to be gradually accustomed to fresh, open air. For this purpose, film or glass should be removed every day, gradually increasing the ventilation intervals.
After the 1st week after the seedlings are planted, when the seedlings have already acquired several true leaves, it is necessary to pick them. This procedure consists of transplanting crops into individual containers. During this phase, the composition of the soil should be represented by a smaller volume of peat, while the chernozem should be larger.
During the execution of the described action it is necessary to work as carefully as possible, since the root system of the plant is very fragile. In addition, the roots are located on the surface itself, which can lead to damage. Continuing to consider the topic of how to grow kiwi at home, we will answer the natural question - why do we need to replant the plant?
This is due to the fact that the described culture has rather wide leaflets, which can subsequently obscure each other. All this may adversely affect the further growth and fruiting of the crop.
In order to create conditions that are more similar to natural ones, several rules should be observed. These include:
- should be ensured uniform watering of kiwi, because the ground should not dry out
- the upper part of the kiwi should periodically pinch to stimulate the formation of lateral processes,
- providing a long daylight by placing a pot with a plant on the south side of the room or by artificial lighting,
- need to annually feed the culture. For this purpose you can use biohumus or compost.
In addition to all the above, in the summer period mineral fertilizers of a complex type should be applied. To carry out such a procedure should be every 7-10 days.
Specificity of the vegetative method of reproduction
To obtain kiwi seedlings it is necessary to use the method described above. True, there is one nuance. Seeds should be sown in January. After 2 years, a kiwi of any kind is implanted in a grown and strong seedling.
Vaccination can be done in such ways as:
- split by green cutting
- split by woody cutting.
After that, the plant is planted in a pre-prepared soil. In the case of growing at home, the container for planting should be large and deep. This is necessary for the full development of the root system.
In addition to the described method, saplings can be obtained from shortened cuttings. However, this option has one major drawback - when home grown very low germination rate. The rest of the care of the culture is similar when it is grown by seeds.
Increased yield of kiwi
In conclusion, the consideration of the topic of how to grow a culture of kiwi on your own, you need to add - so that the end result pleases with a bountiful harvest, first you should correctly position the kiwi indoors. Since the plant needs a large space, it is best to grow it on a warmed balcony. In addition, you need to mount props, which will allow the plant to rise.
In order to get at least some fruit, you need to take care of the process of pollination. Under natural conditions, this function is performed by insects. At home, this procedure falls on the shoulders of the grower.
In the autumn you need to prune old shoots, i.e. Fruiting branches are best removed. This will not only make room for new shoots, but also allow the culture to bear fruit for several years.
Kiwi at home
In nature, kiwi (the plant is known to botanists called Actinidia Chinese) is a tree-like liana, preferring a tropical or subtropical climate. On the tops of the shoots mature whole clusters of large fruits, similar in appearance to very large berries of the gooseberry. Depending on the species, they can be smooth or rough to the touch.
In nature, the kiwi liana reaches 7–10 m in length
In principle, there is nothing difficult in creating a microclimate for kiwi that is close to optimal. But the plant belongs to the category of dioecious. This means that for fruiting it is necessary to have at least two copies - male and female. You can distinguish them only during flowering. The first, acting as pollinators, lack a pestle, but there are many stamens. One male plant is enough for pollination of five or six women. The only self-pollinating of the existing varieties of kiwi is Jenny. But even in this species, the presence of a number of male plants has a positive effect on yield.
The presence of a male plant is useful even if the variety is self-pollinated
Video: How to determine the gender of the Kiwi plant
Amateur flower growers of kiwi is valued not only for fruit bearing, but also for flowering, long and abundant. Large five- or six-petal flowers gradually change color from snow-white to yellow-cream, lemon or lime.
Fruits at home, as a rule, ripen less than the promised description of a particular variety of kiwi. But in terms of the content of vitamins, macro- and microelements, taste, they are not inferior to those grown in the open air. Ripe fruits are easily separated from the vine. Store them in the refrigerator, the approximate "shelf life" - one and a half to two weeks.
"Homemade" kiwi small, but very tasty
With the receipt of kiwi seeds at home there are no problems. They can be taken from any berry bought in the store. But seedlings grown in this way rarely inherit the varietal traits of the "parent", and the taste of the fruit leaves much to be desired. Therefore, they are most often used as a stock, and any kind of seedling of a certain type, acquired in a specialized nursery, is used as a graft.
Viable seeds can be obtained from kiwi fruit, which can be bought at any grocery store.
The harvest from kiwi grown from seeds will have to wait long enough. As a rule, such plants bloom for the first time not earlier than six years after planting.
Planting material is desirable to obtain from mature and healthy-looking fruit.
For the proper development of kiwi vital heat and sunlight. Therefore, the pot is placed on the lightest place in the apartment, for example, on a southern or south-western window sill, periodically (every 2–2.5 weeks) turning it so that the heat is distributed evenly. Cold drafts are strictly contraindicated. No less important are regular fertilizing (preferably organic) and proper watering.
In nature, kiwi is a vine, so you need to take care of it in advance.
For some reason, actinidia juice has on cats (and, to a lesser extent, cats) an effect similar to that of valerian tincture. Therefore, it is necessary to remove the pot where the cats will not get to it, or to surround the plant with a grid.
Leaves and shoots of kiwi cats do not eat, but can severely damage the plant, trying to get to the juice, to which they are for some reason very indifferent
Kiwi variety for this does not matter. The main thing that the fruit was mature and healthy in appearance. Identify ripe berries can be a characteristic delicate aroma. Each kiwi contains over a thousand seeds.
Seeds are prepared for planting as follows:
- Kiwi carefully washed, cut into 4-6 parts. Peel the skin, gently knead the pulp with a fork, turning it into a puree
- The resulting slurry spread in a deep plate or bowl, pour water at room temperature. Constantly stirring, separate the seeds with your fingers. To completely get rid of the pulp, water will have to be changed 4–5 times. At the end of the procedure only seeds should remain in the tank. You can wrap the gruel in several layers of gauze or put in a sieve with small cells and rinse under running cold water.
It is very important to completely separate the seeds of kiwi from the pulp - its remnants can provoke the development of rot
Pre-germinated seeds of kiwi sprout faster
For convenience, you can use special bags with a clasp - it is easier to remove the "cover" from the gauze, without risking to scatter the seeds
Sometimes a different method is recommended - during the week day the kiwi seeds are kept warm, at night - in the cold.
Preparing for landing
Корневая система у киви довольно развитая, сильно разрастающаяся в ширину, но поверхностная, мочковатая. Поэтому смысла приобретать глубокий горшок, по форме напоминающий ведро, нет. Оптимальный вариант — ёмкость, похожая на плошку или салатник. Обязательное условие — наличие дренажных отверстий. From materials it is necessary to give preference to natural ceramics - it lets the air through better, not allowing moisture to stagnate.
A pot in the shape of a bucket can greatly inhibit the growth of the vine, so the best option is a wide and shallow pot, so that the roots have where to turn
Kiwi soil prefers light and loose, but nourishing. A mixture of peat chips, coarse river sand and chernozem in a ratio of 1: 2: 3 is well suited for it. You can add 8–10 g of sifted wood ash and powdered eggshell for each liter of the finished substrate. Another type of soil is vermiculite or perlite, peat and humus in approximately equal proportions. If you don’t want to cook the soil yourself, you can search in specialized stores for substrates intended for any tropical vines.
Peat - a necessary component of soil for kiwi
Planting seeds in the ground
There is nothing complicated about the procedure itself. But there are some nuances that need to be read in advance.
- At the bottom of a clean pot, claydite or other drainage material is poured, creating a layer at least 3-4 cm thick. On top is a disinfected substrate, filling approximately 2/3 of the capacity. To sterilize, it can be treated with steam, heat or cold.
- The soil is well moistened, sprinkling from the spray gun, and leveled. When water is absorbed, seeds are sown as evenly as possible. Some growers recommend leaving them on the surface, others are advised to fall asleep with a thin (1–1.5 mm) layer of fine sand.
- Planting once again moderately moisturize, cover the pot with glass or tighten with plastic film to create the effect of a greenhouse. To accommodate the tank, they choose the warmest place in the apartment (the temperature is not lower than 25–27ºС). A light day lasting at least 12–14 hours and lower heating is also desirable. To avoid condensation, the greenhouse is opened every day for 3-5 minutes for ventilation. As the soil dries, it is sprayed from the spray gun. It should always be slightly wet, but not wet.
- Shoots appear massively and quickly. 2-3 weeks after this landing, thin out the seedlings, getting rid of the weakest seedlings.
- When kiwi seedlings reach a height of 10–12 cm (in 4–6 weeks), they are seated in individual containers. Such plants already have 2-3 pairs of true leaves. A suitable soil is a mixture of peat, sod land and sand in approximately equal proportions. In the process of picking, you should try to injure the roots of the plant as little as possible. They seedlings are very delicate and fragile. At the same time you need to take care of support. If you stick it in the pot afterwards, again there is a risk of damaging the roots.
Kiwi seeds are distinguished by good germination, but then many shoots can die, it depends on their conditions
Since the kiwi vine is different in its growth rate, and the purchase of pots for growth is not recommended for any indoor plants, young specimens will have to be replanted quite often every 5–6 months. For the first few weeks after the procedure, it is recommended to rearrange the plant from the window sill, removing it to a place where direct sunlight will not fall on it. For adults, kiwi heat is quite comfortable, but young vines can slow down in growth.
Kiwi transplant is carried out as needed. As a rule, it is enough once every two years. The diameter of the pot is increased by 3-5 cm. It is carried out by the method of transshipment, trying to destroy the earthen clod as little as possible and injure the roots. They are very fragile plants.
Home-grown kiwis (especially young specimens) need frequent transplantation - the vine grows fast enough
How to plant a Kiwi stalk
Most often, kiwi plants grown from seeds at home are used not to get a harvest, but as a stock for “cultivated” varieties. Only seedlings aged three years and older are suitable for this. To instill kiwi can be any way. The results in each case are quite good.
The lignified kiwi stalk is a part of the annual runaway, cut from an adult vine of a particular variety in winter. For plants such pruning - a mandatory procedure. Green cuttings are obtained by cutting off the tops of the shoots formed this season in summer.
It is very important to securely fix the entire structure during the vaccination process.
The optimal length of the cutting is 8–12 cm (2–3 pairs of leaves), the thickness of the shoot from which it is taken is 7–10 mm. It must be completely healthy, the bark - smooth, monotonous, supple and intact. The best time of day to cut cuttings in the summer is early morning.
To obtain planting material, a sharply sharpened disinfected instrument is used - scissors, knife, pruner. The last option is most preferable, since it minimally injures the escape tissue, the crust does not crack and does not wrinkle. The lower cut is made at an angle of approximately 45º, the upper (straight) is 8–10 mm above the last kidney.
The easiest way is graft splitting. In this case, the cuttings are harvested in the fall and are buried in the snow for the winter. The procedure is carried out in the middle of spring.
- The bases of cut cuttings are placed for about a day in a container filled with water at room temperature. Their tops covered with a damp cloth or plastic film. In 24 hours, cuttings from water are transferred to a solution of any root stimulator prepared according to the instructions. After 18–20 hours, they are ready for vaccination.
Parts of shoots should be submerged in about half
It is necessary to ensure that the cleft is not too wide - the cutting must enter it with some effort.
The wedge shape is necessary for the most convenient entry of the scion into the stock
It is very important to do the procedure with clean hands, otherwise you can infect the cut
Insulating tape or food film will help protect the junction from the negative impact
Video: how to graft properly
Another common method is budding. In fact, this is the same vaccine. The difference is that in this case not a whole cutting is used, but only one growth bud removed from it along with a thin layer of wood. The simplest option is budding in the application. The kidney cut from the plant-graft is combined with the bark-free area on the vine-stock. Some flower growers argue that in order for the parts to grow together, a cross cut 2-4 mm deep is generally sufficient.
The budding procedure is essentially no different from vaccination.
Kiwi liana is different growth rate, so pruning for her - a mandatory procedure. Such plants look much more aesthetic and neater, more fruitful. If the growth of the vine is not limited in any way, it can stretch to 7–10 m in length. To keep such a plant in the apartment is absolutely impossible.
Seedlings grown to a height of 25-30 cm, pinch the tip, removing 2-3 last buds. This stimulates the plant to more intensive branching. But an overabundance of green mass is harmful to the plant - all its forces are spent on its nutrition, so the fruits are not tied up at all or fall off long before ripening.
An adult kiwi plant at home should consist of 5-7 shoots, starting at a distance of about 45-50 cm from the base of the stem. On them the dense growth is constantly formed, which will have to be shortened during the whole vegetative season. It is inexpedient to preserve it, since only the lower 5–6 “eyes” of each one-year-old fruit bear fruit.
There is no sense in keeping very long shoots on the kiwi vine: only the lower 5–6 buds bear fruit
Old branches are gradually removed, replacing them with replacement shoots. Usually rejuvenating pruning need kiwi once every 5-6 years. If you carry it out correctly, the productive life of the vine is stretched to 40-50 years.
Particularly important pruning in the presence of several plants located next to each other. If it is not carried out, one of them can simply “strangle” the neighbors. Also, the removal of excess foliage and weak shoots improves the air exchange of the crown, minimizing the risk of spreading diseases and pest attacks.
A different method of formation is more often used when growing vines in the open air, but at home, such plants look pretty.
- The one-year sapling is shortened to a height of 30 cm.
- A year later, up to the point of growth, all lateral shoots formed except for two (the so-called shoulders) are pruned.
- When they reach a length of 1 m, their tops pinch. 3–4 lateral branches, located at approximately equal distance from each other, are left from all the overgrowths formed on the “shoulders”. They are shortened, cutting after the fifth or sixth kidney.
- During the active growing season, all the shoots on these branches and the new side shoots on the “shoulders” are immediately removed.
- After harvesting, the fruitful shoots pinch so that 6-7 new leaves remain over the last berry. Branches on which there was no fruit, shorten to the fifth leaf bud.
- The branches at the age of three years are cut to the point of growth. Soon a new shoot will begin to form from it, which is pinned after five leaves form on it.
A pruner, like any other tool used for trimming kiwi, must be sharp and disinfected.
Strongly neglected or old kiwi vine can be rejuvenated by spending a radical pruning in the spring. Unlike most houseplants, kiwi normally respond to the loss of a significant part of the green mass, quickly recovering and starting to grow after such a "stress."
Growing Kiwi: Home Care - Choosing Planting Material
Selection of the fetus should be given special attention. The fruit must be ripened and without any flaws. The best time for planting planting material in the form of seeds is spring.
A well-washed fruit should be cut into several slices and knead the flesh containing the seeds with great care. Then you need to put all the pulp in a cup and pour some water on it. Next, the existing texture you need to stir and do not forget to change the water, constantly adding fresh liquid.
During the washing process with fingers, it is necessary to carefully separate the pulp from the seeds. As a result, only kiwi seeds should float on the surface of the water.
Next, the seeds for drying should be laid out on a dry towel. Then, when the seeds reach the friable state, they need to be put on a cloth in a saucer and covered over with a cloth. Further on the matter, under which the seeds are located, it is necessary to pour in water until it is completely wetted and cover the saucer from above with a plastic film.
Kiwi seeds will germinate in 10-14 days. Now the seeds will only be planted in the ground, but before this process it is necessary to carry out its disinfection by sterilization using the so-called water bath.
In order to properly land the seedlings, you need to use any shallow pot with a layer of drainage that has been previously poured into it, which may consist, for example, of expanded clay.
When the seeds germinate, they need to be planted in the holes 5 mm deep no more. After sowing, the seeds must be shed with water and covered with a film, setting the pot in a warm place. A few days after the appearance of the first shoots, the soil should be shed with water again, removing all weak borings.
When sprouts reach 10 centimeters in height, they will need to be seated in individual pots.
Saplings and cuttings - reproduction of kiwi
Saplings of seeds are germinated in the same way as described above, with the only difference that the seeds are sown in winter in January.
In a couple of years, any selected kiwi variety can be grafted onto a stronger seedling.
• In the split hardened handle.
• Splitting green cuttings.
At home, for kiwi it is necessary to pick up a large container in order for the root system to grow and develop freely.
You can also start growing saplings from rooted cuttings. This is especially suitable for hardened or green cuttings of this plant. Sapling or cuttings are well adapted to frost and cold, so they can be planted directly in open ground.
The matured kiwi is a powerful liana that grows well. This must be remembered when selecting a place for a pot with a plant. After a while, the kiwi will have to be removed from the window sill and installed in a more spacious place. And for the kiwi will need to make a strong backup.
Closer to winter, the vine will begin to drop the leaves. In the winter, the plant should be in a bright room where the air temperature reaches at least + 10 degrees. Water the plant at this time less often than ever. With the onset of spring, the plant again begins to overgrow with leaves. At this time, you need to start cutting the vine and remove from it the sick and weak shoots.
It is better to replant the liana every spring.
Liana needs to ensure constant watering, feeding with fertilizers in a warm and bright room.
Growing kiwi: home care - soil, lighting, flowering conditions
The soil for a fruit called kiwi should consist of peat, chernozem and sand. And peat should be present here in a smaller amount. The soil should be hydrated, drying for kiwi is simply unacceptable and loose.
In addition, after disinfecting the soil with boiling water, and perhaps bleach, and also pouring soil into the pot, it is recommended to add a spoon of eggshell and wood resin to the soil.
Kiwi is a southern and tropical plant, as a result of which this plant is demanding for good and necessary illumination. It is recommended to install a pot of kiwi on the southern part of the balcony or window sill.
You can also use additional lighting with artificial light bulbs. You can arrange for vines special vertical lighting.
For Kiwi, it is important to prevent direct sunlight, as the plant can get burned. Light should fall on the plant from the side or from the window of curtains with gauze or some other matter.
Conditions for flowering
Blossom, and after kiwi fruit begins to the third or even fourth year of life. Flowering in vines begins in maturity. Flowers should be large with 5-6 petals starting from white and gradually turning yellow.
Male plants in the flower have many stamens, female representatives of kiwi have both a pistil and stamens. And due to the fact that the pistil in the flower of the female plant is located above the stamens, it can be cross-pollinated with pollen from another plant. Here insects come to the rescue and carry pollen from one flower to another.
In order to continue to receive fruits from this tree, kiwi need to learn to pollinate independently, as in natural conditions this process involves bees and bumblebees.
If more male plants have grown, then they can easily be planted with female plants for normal flowering and fruiting.
Growing kiwi: home care - feeding and watering
In the spring during the cultivation of kiwi, you can begin to feed. To carry out this process should be as follows - feeding is made twice a month from spring to autumn.
Top dressing itself consists of alternation of mineral fertilizers and organic.
Minimum fertilizer should be applied three times:
• During the growing season in March.
• After frosts - in May.
• At the end of the formation of the fruit.
It is best to use a top dressing consisting of biohumus or compost, but not more than once a year. You can also make a small trench around the plant and lay fertilizer there. When watering, gradually, the substances necessary for nourishing the kiwi will reach the root system of the plant.
Kiwi watering should be plentiful. And in order that the root system does not rot the excess water from the pallet it is necessary to drain it in time.
On very hot days during the summer period, besides watering, the vine must be regularly sprayed. In the summer, the temperature of the water should reach 25 degrees, and in winter it can be assumed that the temperature will drop to + 10 degrees, due to which irrigation at this time of the year should be reduced.
During the growth period, the plant should be watered more often at least 2-3 times a week.
Growing a kiwi: home care - why does it die?
The leaves on the plant should be inspected from time to time for the presence of a fungus or for the possible appearance of pests.
The plant may die:
• If time does not detect the appeared fungus and do not clean the leaves.
• Kiwi can, infected by other plants, catch insect pests. In connection with what it is considered more expedient to keep the vine far from other indoor plants and flowers.
• In the fall, it is necessary to remove old shoots from the plant - if the sprigs of the vines are already bearing fruit, then it will be better to remove them. Such a method will enable the vine to overgrow with new branches and abundantly bear fruit for many years.
• If the kiwi does not provide sufficient watering, necessary feeding, as well as poor lighting, it will die.
Если киви произрастает на балконе или веранде, растение лучше укутать, и тем самым обезопасить его от холодов и морозов.
Important!Домашние питомцы, а именно кошки, по многим наблюдениям любят листочки и веточки этого растения. Поэтому для того чтобы растение и плоды киви не погибли за всё время от сломанных веточек и съеденных листочков, его необходимо огораживать к примеру сеткой.
But by and large, kiwi rarely get sick and become infected with pests, even at home. But regular inspections of plants still need to be carried out. For faithful and good care, the plant will thank their households and give them tasty and juicy fruits grown on their own.
Creating a suitable microclimate
The most important requirement of vines - sufficient lighting. The pot is placed on a windowsill facing south or southwest. In winter, natural light is not enough, so you have to use fluorescent or special fitolamps, extending the light day to 12-14 hours. It is better to arrange them so that the light falls on the plant in a horizontal plane.
Kiwi is vital a lot of light, with this in mind, and pick up a place for a pot
In this case, the kiwi in the hottest hours should be protected from direct sunlight. They cause severe burns, especially if the vine was watered shortly before. Pretend kiwi can be tulle, paper screen, several layers of gauze.
When there is a shortage of light, the stems of the vines become ugly thinner, the leaves turn pale and shallow, the gaps between them increase. Flowering and, especially, fruiting in such conditions can not wait.
To any changes in the conditions of the content of kiwi, is likely to react negatively. Especially the plant does not like sudden changes in temperature and cold drafts. Therefore, the place for him is chosen once and for all, approaching this procedure with full responsibility.
Care for kiwi at home is simple. Basically it comes down to regular watering and feeding. This is quite enough for the vine to feel well and bear fruit.
From fertilizers, kiwi prefers natural organics. It is best to alternate it with mineral fertilizers. Forces on the growth and the formation of the fruit of the vine is spending quite a lot, so feeding is made every 12-15 days, starting in mid-March and until October.
Biohumus is an absolutely natural fertilizer.
The very first top dressing is biohumus, humus or rotted compost (nitrogen source). In the pot around the plant they make an annular groove and apply fertilizer there. During the season, nutrients with water will gradually flow to the roots. Then you can alternately use the complex mineral fertilizer and infusions of nettle leaves, dandelion, wood ash, bird droppings.
Kiwi needs frequent and abundant watering, but at the same time it does not tolerate the stagnation of moisture in the pot categorically. To avoid this, after 30-40 minutes after the procedure, it will be necessary to drain excess liquid from the pallet. Conduct watering at least once every 3-4 days. At the same time moisten earthen room evenly as possible. It is best to use for this watering with a nozzle-divider.
A watering can with a spreader helps to evenly soak an earthen ball in a pot of kiwi
In strong heat, in addition to watering, it is advisable to spray the vine from a fine atomizer. Water in both cases is used heated to room temperature. You can also use a special humidifier. Or simply place the pots with cool water next to kiwi, organize a “company” liana from other houseplants, place a wet clay, sphagnum moss in the pot.
Sphagnum moss retains moisture well, which is very useful for indoor plants in the heat
In winter, the vine drops leaves; this is a natural process for it. As soon as this has happened, the feeding is stopped completely, and the number of waterings is reduced to once per 10–12 days. For the time of “hibernation”, it is desirable to transfer the plant to a cool, bright room, where the temperature is maintained at 12–16ºС.
Kiwi, like most fruiting tropical plants (lemons, pomegranates, pineapples) sheds leaves in the winter
Kiwi-threatening diseases and pests
Like any actinidia, kiwi rarely suffers from diseases and pests. This also applies to home-grown specimens. But you should not neglect the regular inspection of vines. The earlier the problem is noticed, the easier it is to deal with it.
Often, the florist himself is to blame for the deterioration of the appearance and condition of the kiwi. His mistakes in care provoke problems with the plant.
Independent cultivation of kiwi
Kiwi (Chinese gooseberry, or Chinese actinidia) is a tree-like liana growing in the subtropics. Ripe fruits ripening on top of the shoots are clustered, have a thin skin and have a pleasant sweet taste.
The skin of the kiwi is greenish, covered with a small thick fuzz. The emerald green pulp, sweet and sour, with small black splashes - seeds. The average fruit weight is 80–90 grams. Fruits are rich in vitamins and are very useful, they can both be consumed fresh or used to prepare various dishes.
The plant propagates in three ways:
- adventitious buds of the roots.
Each of these methods has its advantages and disadvantages, however, there are several general rules that must be followed when growing fruit at home.
The culture is very light-loving, but does not tolerate direct sunlight, so the Kiwi should be placed so that the light falls from the side. As an option - you can install artificial lighting for the plant. Keep in mind that Kiwi does not like drafts.
In the process of growth, it is necessary to periodically turn the pots clockwise - this will ensure uniform development of the crown.
The important point is that the kiwi is a dioecious culture, and in order for the home plant to bear fruit, it needs the presence of pollinators. As a rule, one male plant and at least two female plants are grown in the same room. Please note that approximately 80% of seedlings grown from seeds are male.
The process of growing is started in early spring - it is during this period that the highest germination of seeds is observed. For a start, prepare everything you need, namely:
- well ripened kiwi fruit,
- ready mix for citrus crops (it can be purchased at any specialty store),
- fine expanded clay (as a drainage),
- purified river sand,
- mini greenhouse or small pots and plastic wrap.
Care for young plants
When you see the first shoots, start gradually to teach the seedlings to fresh air. To do this, remove the film from the greenhouse and air the plants, gradually increasing the duration of their stay in the open air.
About a month later, homemade kiwi, which by that time will already have acquired several true leaves, will need to dive into separate pots. This procedure must be carried out very carefully, because the root system of seedlings is fragile and superficial.
After picking, the plants are provided with standard care:
- Kiwi are very fond of light, so give them the brightest place, but without direct sunlight. You can put the plants on the southern windowsill, but be sure to prune them from the hot sun. In autumn and winter, kiwis need phyto-lamps for additional illumination.
- Make sure that the soil in the pots does not dry out, otherwise the plants will quickly die. Regularly water the kiwi and spray their leaves with a spray bottle.
- From time to time, pinch the shoots so that the plant is stronger and better branched.
- Organic fertilizers annually - rotted compost or biohumus. To fertilize evenly digested when watering, make around each plant a small trench and apply fertilizer to it. During the period of active growth (spring - summer), the bushes need mineral supplements, which should be added weekly.
Consider that the cultivation of kiwi requires a lot of space - lianas can reach seven meters in height. Therefore, think in advance where you will place such a dimensional plant.
Alternative breeding methods of kiwi
In addition to seeds, you can propagate kiwi vegetatively, that is, seedlings. The advantage of this method is that when it is used, all the varietal characteristics of the plant are fully preserved (kiwi grown from seeds do not retain the characteristics of the variety).
Growing seedlings occurs according to the same technology that was described above, but the seeds are sown not in spring, but in early January. The young plant is grown for two years, providing him with proper care, and then a varietal seedling is planted on the kiwi. This manipulation can be performed in two ways:
- split lignified or green cuttings,
In addition, you can try to propagate the kiwi cuttings cut from an adult plant. A significant drawback of the method is that the cuttings take root very poorly, although you can try to stimulate them with hormonal drugs like Epin or cytokinin paste. If the stalk can be rooted, it will quickly grow and easily adapt to the conditions of detention.